clonazepam

Summary

Summary: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.

Top Publications

  1. Meeus O, De Ridder D, Van de Heyning P. Administration of the combination clonazepam-Deanxit as treatment for tinnitus. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32:701-9 pubmed publisher
    Present study investigates the combination of Deanxit and clonazepam (Rivotril) intake for relief of tinnitus complaints, respecting a double-blind placebo-controlled approach for Deanxit in a crossover setup...
  2. dos Santos F, Gonçalves J, Caminha R, da Silveira G, Neves C, Gram K, et al. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of psychomotor impairment induced by oral clonazepam in healthy volunteers. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31:566-74 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to model the relationship between clonazepam plasma concentrations and a central nervous system adverse effect (impairment of the psychomotor performance) following the oral administration of immediate-release ..
  3. Vyas T, Babbar A, Sharma R, Singh S, Misra A. Intranasal mucoadhesive microemulsions of clonazepam: preliminary studies on brain targeting. J Pharm Sci. 2006;95:570-80 pubmed
    The aim of this investigation was to prepare clonazepam microemulsions (CME) for rapid drug delivery to the brain to treat acute status epileptic patients and to characterize and evaluate the performance of CME in vitro and in vivo in ..
  4. Nardi A, Valenca A, Nascimento I, Lopes F, Mezzasalma M, Freire R, et al. A three-year follow-up study of patients with the respiratory subtype of panic disorder after treatment with clonazepam. Psychiatry Res. 2005;137:61-70 pubmed
    ..been categorized into respiratory (n=35) and non-respiratory (n=32) subgroups, were openly treated with clonazepam for a 3-year period...
  5. Pollack M, Simon N, Worthington J, Doyle A, Peters P, Toshkov F, et al. Combined paroxetine and clonazepam treatment strategies compared to paroxetine monotherapy for panic disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2003;17:276-82 pubmed
    ..n = 60), comparing the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and placebo (PP), paroxetine coadministered with clonazepam followed by a tapered benzodiazepine discontinuation phase (PC-D), and ongoing combination treatment (PC-M)...
  6. Allcroft P, Margitanovic V, Greene A, Agar M, Clark K, Abernethy A, et al. The role of benzodiazepines in breathlessness: a single site, open label pilot of sustained release morphine together with clonazepam. J Palliat Med. 2013;16:741-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a single site, open label phase II study of the addition of regular clonazepam 0...
  7. Heckmann S, Kirchner E, Grushka M, Wichmann M, Hummel T. A double-blind study on clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:813-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present randomized clinical trial was to determine the efficacy of clonazepam, a GABA agonist designed as an antiepileptic drug that exerts the typical effects of benzodiazepines...
  8. Luszczki J, Andres Mach M, Barcicka Klosowska B, Florek Luszczki M, Haratym Maj A, Czuczwar S. Effects of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (a synthetic cannabinoid) on the protective action of clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate against pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1870-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: clonazepam [CZP], ethosuximide [ETS], phenobarbital [PB], and valproate [VPA]) in the mouse pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-..
  9. Amos K, Yeoh S, Farah C. Combined topical and systemic clonazepam therapy for the management of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective pilot study. J Orofac Pain. 2011;25:125-30 pubmed
    To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of administering an anticonvulsant medication, clonazepam, by dissolving tablets slowly orally before swallowing, for the management of burning mouth syndrome (BMS)...

More Information

Publications63

  1. Neumann J, Diaz Sylvester P, Fleischer S, Copello J. CGP-37157 inhibits the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ ATPase and activates ryanodine receptor channels in striated muscle. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;79:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CGP-37157 (CGP)], a benzothiazepine derivative of clonazepam, is commonly used as a blocker of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca²+ exchanger...
  2. Knijnik D, Blanco C, Salum G, Moraes C, Mombach C, Almeida E, et al. A pilot study of clonazepam versus psychodynamic group therapy plus clonazepam in the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23:567-74 pubmed publisher
    Both psychodynamic group therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are used as treatment strategies in reducing symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). However, many individuals remain symptomatic after treatment with PGT or clonazepam...
  3. Luszczki J, Zuchora M, Sawicka K, Kozinska J, Czuczwar S. Acute exposure to caffeine decreases the anticonvulsant action of ethosuximide, but not that of clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate against pentetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58:652-9 pubmed
    ..of caffeine sodium benzoate (CAF) on the anticonvulsant action of four conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: clonazepam - CZP, ethosuximide - ETS, phenobarbital - PB and valproate - VPA) against pentetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic ..
  4. Saletu A, Parapatics S, Saletu B, Anderer P, Prause W, Putz H, et al. On the pharmacotherapy of sleep bruxism: placebo-controlled polysomnographic and psychometric studies with clonazepam. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;51:214-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of clonazepam (Rivotril) as compared with placebo, utilizing polysomnography and psychometry...
  5. Crockett B, Churchill E, Davidson J. A double-blind combination study of clonazepam with sertraline in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2004;16:127-32 pubmed
    This double blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study investigates whether clonazepam accelerates and/ or increases the overall response in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) who are treated with sertraline...
  6. Cates M, Bishop M, Davis L, Lowe J, Woolley T. Clonazepam for treatment of sleep disturbances associated with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:1395-9 pubmed
    b>Clonazepam is widely used for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related sleep disturbances despite very limited published data supporting its use for this indication...
  7. Hugel H, Ellershaw J, Dickman A. Clonazepam as an adjuvant analgesic in patients with cancer-related neuropathic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003;26:1073-4 pubmed
  8. Nakamura M, Fukawa K, Sugiyama T, Katagiri Y. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of clonazepam in human plasma using a non-porous silica column. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:893-5 pubmed
    A new HPLC method has been developed for measuring clonazepam (CZP) in plasma, using a reversed-phase non-porous silica column packed with 2 microm particles...
  9. Thu L, Ahn J, Woo S. Inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channel by mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchange inhibitor CGP-37157 in rat atrial myocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;552:15-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that CGP-37157 directly suppresses the L-type Ca(2+) channel in intact adult cardiomyocytes. ..
  10. Albertino S, Assunção A, Souza J. Pulsatile tinnitus: treatment with clonazepam and propranolol. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;71:111-3 pubmed
    ..Magnetic angioresonance makes the vascular identification possible and precise. We report a case of arterial anatomical variation in which the treatment was propranolol and clonazepam, showing tinnitus improvement.
  11. Araujo N, Mattos A, Coelho P, Katz N. Association of oxamniquine praziquantel and clonazepam in experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:781-5 pubmed
    The antischistosomal activity of clonazepam, when administered alone or in association with oxamniquine and praziquantel, was experimentally evaluated in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni...
  12. Morishita S. Clonazepam as a therapeutic adjunct to improve the management of depression: a brief review. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:191-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Clonazepam, first used for seizure disorders, is now increasingly used to treat affective disorders. We summarize the use of clonazepam to improve the management of depression...
  13. Dashti Khavidaki S, Chamani N, Khalili H, Hajhossein Talasaz A, Ahmadi F, Lessan Pezeshki M, et al. Comparing effects of clonazepam and zolpidem on sleep quality of patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2011;5:404-9 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to compare the effect of zolpidem and clonazepam on sleep quality of hemodialysis patients...
  14. Palty R, Silverman W, Hershfinkel M, Caporale T, Sensi S, Parnis J, et al. NCLX is an essential component of mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results converge to the conclusion that NCLX is the long-sought mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. ..
  15. Nardi A, Freire R, Valenca A, Amrein R, de Cerqueira A, Lopes F, et al. Tapering clonazepam in patients with panic disorder after at least 3 years of treatment. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:290-3 pubmed publisher
    High-potency benzodiazepines, such as clonazepam, are frequently used in the treatment of panic disorder (PD) because of their rapid onset of action and good tolerability...
  16. Rosenbaum J. The development of clonazepam as a psychotropic: the massachusetts general hospital experience. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65 Suppl 5:3-6 pubmed
    ..of the MGH psychiatry department pursued investigation that ultimately established the antipanic efficacy of clonazepam as well as examined its effectiveness in the treatment of other disorders, such as bipolar disorder and social ..
  17. Ganança M, Caovilla H, Ganança F, Ganança C, Munhoz M, da Silva M, et al. Clonazepam in the pharmacological treatment of vertigo and tinnitus. Int Tinnitus J. 2002;8:50-3 pubmed
    We carried out a retrospective survey of 25 years of clinical experience with the use of clonazepam as a vestibular and tinnitus suppressant in the pharmacological treatment of vestibular or cochleovestibular disorders due to different ..
  18. Nin M, Couto Pereira N, Souza M, Azeredo L, Ferri M, Dalprá W, et al. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;684:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and ..
  19. Bautista Quach M, Liao Y, Hsueh C. Pancytopenia associated with clonazepam. J Hematol Oncol. 2010;3:24 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of a 48-year-old Chinese female with end-stage renal disease and chronic anemia on hemodialysis. Clonazepam was prescribed for myoclonus disorder two weeks prior to her hospitalization...
  20. Wayhs C, Manfredini V, Sitta A, Deon M, Ribas G, Vanzin C, et al. Protein and lipid oxidative damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats submitted to forced swimming test: the insulin and clonazepam effect. Metab Brain Dis. 2010;25:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of depression in diabetic patients is higher than in the general population, and clonazepam is being used to treat this complication...
  21. Rodríguez M, Campos J, Forcato C, Leiguarda R, Maldonado H, Molina V, et al. Enhancing a declarative memory in humans: the effect of clonazepam on reconsolidation. Neuropharmacology. 2013;64:432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..25 mg or 0.03 mg of clonazepam was administered to the subjects. The verbal memory was evaluated on Day 3...
  22. Hashitani H, Hashiatni H, Lang R, Suzuki H. Role of perinuclear mitochondria in the spatiotemporal dynamics of spontaneous Ca2+ waves in interstitial cells of Cajal-like cells of the rabbit urethra. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:680-94 pubmed publisher
  23. Liu T, Brown D, O ROURKE B. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac glycoside toxicity. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:728-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a novel strategy for the treatment of heart failure. ..
  24. Anderson K, Shneerson J. Drug treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder: the use of drug therapies other than clonazepam. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5:235-9 pubmed
    ..There is frequently injury to the patient or bed partner, and treatment is usually required. Clonazepam has been the first-line therapy for many years, with 2 large case series reporting efficacy with few side ..
  25. Dudra Jastrzebska M, Andres Mach M, Ratnaraj N, Patsalos P, Czuczwar S, Luszczki J. Isobolographic characterization of the anticonvulsant interaction profiles of levetiracetam in combination with clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model. Seizure. 2009;18:607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..as to characterize the interactions between levetiracetam (LEV) and the conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in suppressing pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-..
  26. da Silva Haeser A, Sitta A, Barschak A, Deon M, Barden A, Schmitt G, et al. Oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats submitted to forced swimming test: the clonazepam effect. Brain Res. 2007;1154:137-43 pubmed
    ..the oxidative stress from diabetic animals submitted to an experimental model of depression and the effects of clonazepam. Male Wistar rats were induced to diabetes with streptozotocin and submitted to forced swimming test...
  27. Nardi A, Valenca A, Freire R, Mochcovitch M, Amrein R, Sardinha A, et al. Psychopharmacotherapy of panic disorder: 8-week randomized trial with clonazepam and paroxetine. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44:366-73 pubmed
    ..randomized, open-label, naturalistic 8-week study was to compare the efficacy and safety of treatment with clonazepam (N = 63) and paroxetine (N = 57) in patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia...
  28. Kimiagar I, Dobronevsky E, Prokhorov T, Miniovitz A, Rabey J. Rapid improvement of tardive dyskinesia with tetrabenazine, clonazepam and clozapine combined: a naturalistic long-term follow-up study. J Neurol. 2012;259:660-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to retrospectively analyze a combination of tetrabenazine (TBZ), clonazepam (CLONAZ) and clozapine (CLOZ) used simultaneously for TD in psychotic patients...
  29. Lin A, Peller A, Westgate M, Houde K, Franz A, Holmes L. Clonazepam use in pregnancy and the risk of malformations. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70:534-6 pubmed
    b>Clonazepam (Klonopin) is a benzodiazepine that has been used widely to treat seizures and conditions such as panic attacks and anxiety disorder...
  30. Menezes C, Rivera G, Alves M, do Amaral D, Thibaut J, Noël F, et al. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship of clonazepam, meclonazepam, and 1,4-benzodiazepine compounds with schistosomicidal activity. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012;79:943-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In search for new schistosomicidal drugs, meclonazepam, the 3-methyl-derivative of clonazepam, is still considered an interesting lead-candidate because it has a proven schistosomicidal effect in humans but ..
  31. Gremeau Richard C, Woda A, Navez M, Attal N, Bouhassira D, Gagnieu M, et al. Topical clonazepam in stomatodynia: a randomised placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2004;108:51-7 pubmed
    ..double-blind, randomised, multicentre parallel group study was to evaluate the efficacy of the topical use of clonazepam. Forty-eight patients (4 men and 44 women, aged 65+/-2.1 years) were included, of whom 41 completed the study...
  32. Seedat S, Stein M. Double-blind, placebo-controlled assessment of combined clonazepam with paroxetine compared with paroxetine monotherapy for generalized social anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:244-8 pubmed
    ..Monotherapy with the benzodiazepine clonazepam is also efficacious for GSAD, but the adjunctive use of clonazepam with an SSRI to potentially improve outcomes ..
  33. Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo E, Lopez Lopez J, Chimenos Kustner E. Response to topical clonazepam in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a clinical study. Bull Group Int Rech Sci Stomatol Odontol. 2010;49:19-29 pubmed
    ..The main objective of this paper is to evaluate BMS patients' response to topical clonazepam treatment. A double blind study was performed...
  34. Goddard A, Brouette T, Almai A, Jetty P, Woods S, Charney D. Early coadministration of clonazepam with sertraline for panic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:681-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of early coadministration of clonazepam with sertraline in the treatment of panic disorder...
  35. Allen L, Erickson M. Stability of acetazolamide, allopurinol, azathioprine, clonazepam, and flucytosine in extemporaneously compounded oral liquids. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1996;53:1944-9 pubmed
    ..Acetazolamide 25 mg/mL, allopurinol 20 mg/mL, azathioprine 50 mg/mL, clonazepam 0...
  36. Nardi A, Valenca A, Nascimento I, Mezzasalma M, Zin W. Double-blind acute clonazepam vs. placebo in carbon dioxide-induced panic attacks. Psychiatry Res. 2000;94:179-84 pubmed
    ..We aim to determine if an acute dose of clonazepam (2 mg) attenuates the panic attacks induced by an inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide in panic disorder...
  37. Negrusz A, Bowen A, Moore C, Dowd S, Strong M, Janicak P. Elimination of 7-aminoclonazepam in urine after a single dose of clonazepam. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003;376:1198-204 pubmed
    The objective of this paper was to determine how long after administration of benzodiazepine clonazepam (CLO), its major metabolite 7-aminoclonazepam (7-ACLO) could be detected in urine collected from 10 healthy volunteers who received a ..
  38. Griffiths E, Wei S, Haigney M, Ocampo C, Stern M, Silverman H. Inhibition of mitochondrial calcium efflux by clonazepam in intact single rat cardiomyocytes and effects on NADH production. Cell Calcium. 1997;21:321-9 pubmed
    The aims of this study were to determine: (i) whether clonazepam and CGP37157, which inhibit the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger of isolated mitochondria, could inhibit mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux in intact cells; and (ii) whether any sustained increase ..
  39. Mura P, Faucci M, Bramanti G, Corti P. Evaluation of transcutol as a clonazepam transdermal permeation enhancer from hydrophilic gel formulations. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2000;9:365-72 pubmed
    The influence of diethyleneglycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), alone or in combination with propylene glycol, on clonazepam permeation through an artificial membrane and excised rabbit ear skin from Carbopol hydrogels was investigated...
  40. Ryan S, Sherman S, Terry J, Sparkes R, Torres M, Mackey R. Startle disease, or hyperekplexia: response to clonazepam and assignment of the gene (STHE) to chromosome 5q by linkage analysis. Ann Neurol. 1992;31:663-8 pubmed
    ..a large, five-generation family with startle disease, and treated 16 patients (including 1 neonate) with clonazepam; all experienced dramatic and sustained improvement...
  41. Otto M, Pollack M, Gould R, Worthington J, McArdle E, Rosenbaum J. A comparison of the efficacy of clonazepam and cognitive-behavioral group therapy for the treatment of social phobia. J Anxiety Disord. 2000;14:345-58 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the relative efficacy of pharmacotherapy with clonazepam and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for treating social phobia...
  42. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu Zyhlarz G, Prause W, Semler B, Zoghlami A, et al. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD): acute placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies with clonazepam. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;11:153-61 pubmed
    ..the aim of the present placebo-controlled sleep laboratory study was to measure the acute effects of 1 mg clonazepam on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality in ten RLS and 16 PLMD patients, utilizing ..
  43. Eros E, Czeizel A, Rockenbauer M, Sorensen H, Olsen J. A population-based case-control teratologic study of nitrazepam, medazepam, tofisopam, alprazolum and clonazepam treatment during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;101:147-54 pubmed
    To study the association between nitrazepam, medazepam, tofisopam, alprazolum and clonazepam treatments during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities (CAs)...
  44. Herman C, Schiffman E, Look J, Rindal D. The effectiveness of adding pharmacologic treatment with clonazepam or cyclobenzaprine to patient education and self-care for the treatment of jaw pain upon awakening: a randomized clinical trial. J Orofac Pain. 2002;16:64-70 pubmed
    To compare the relative effectiveness of a benzodiazepine (clonazepam), a muscle relaxant (cyclobenzaprine), and a placebo for the treatment of jaw pain upon awakening, when each is combined with the recommended nonpharmacological ..
  45. Miura Y, Amano S, Torii R, Ihara N. Clobazam shows a different antiepileptic action profile from clonazepam and zonisamide in Ihara epileptic rats. Epilepsy Res. 2002;49:189-202 pubmed
    ..epileptic mutant, were examined in comparison with conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a 1,4-BZP, clonazepam (CZP) and a non-BZP, zonisamide (ZNS)...
  46. Elian A. ELISA detection of clonazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam in whole blood and urine. Forensic Sci Int. 2003;134:54-6 pubmed
    The ability of five commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) benzodiazepines to detect clonazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam in blood and urine was investigated...
  47. Valenca A, Nardi A, Nascimento I, Mezzasalma M, Lopes F, Zin W. Double-blind clonazepam vs placebo in panic disorder treatment. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2000;58:1025-9 pubmed
    To assess the effectiveness of clonazepam, in a fixed dose (2 mg/day), compared with placebo in the treatment of panic disorder patients. 24 panic disorder patients with agoraphobia were randomly selected...
  48. Smith W, Londborg P, Glaudin V, Painter J. Short-term augmentation of fluoxetine with clonazepam in the treatment of depression: a double-blind study. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1339-45 pubmed
    ..serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) require 2-4 weeks to reach efficacy, the authors determined whether clonazepam augmentation of fluoxetine is superior to fluoxetine alone at the beginning of treatment for major depression...
  49. Young Y, Huang T. Role of clonazepam in the treatment of idiopathic downbeat nystagmus. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1490-3 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of clonazepam in treating idiopathic downbeat nystagmus...
  50. Randez Gil F, Daros J, Salvador A, de la Guardia M. Direct derivative spectrophotometric determination of nitrazepam and clonazepam in biological fluids. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1991;9:539-45 pubmed
    ..5 micrograms ml-1. Clonazepam can be determined directly in urine samples at 384 nm by using sixth order derivative spectra with a limit of ..
  51. Smith W, Londborg P, Glaudin V, Painter J. Is extended clonazepam cotherapy of fluoxetine effective for outpatients with major depression?. J Affect Disord. 2002;70:251-9 pubmed
    b>Clonazepam cotherapy of fluoxetine was previously demonstrated to accelerate efficacy over the first 3 weeks of treatment...
  52. Crevoisier C, Delisle M, Joseph I, Foletti G. Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of clonazepam following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration to healthy volunteers. Eur Neurol. 2003;49:173-7 pubmed
    The objective was to assess the single-dose pharmacokinetics of clonazepam following i.m., p.o. and i.v. administration...
  53. Mogami Y, Takahashi Y, Fukuyama T, Takayama R, Ohtani H, Ikeda H, et al. [Sleepiness:a frequent adverse reaction of antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy after encephalitis/encephalopathy]. No To Hattatsu. 2012;44:472-6 pubmed
    ..Comparing the AEDs used by more than 20 patients, the incidence of sleepiness was high for clonazepam (30.4%) and phenytoin (25.8%)...
  54. Kecskemeti V, Rusznák Z, Riba P, Pál B, Wagner R, Harasztosi C, et al. Norfluoxetine and fluoxetine have similar anticonvulsant and Ca2+ channel blocking potencies. Brain Res Bull. 2005;67:126-32 pubmed
    ..the anticonvulsant actions of norfluoxetine and fluoxetine were studied and compared to those of phenytoin and clonazepam in pentylenetetrazol-induced mouse epilepsy models. Pretreatment with fluoxetine or norfluoxetine (20mg/kg s.c...