vascular remodeling


Summary: The active alterations of vascular wall structures, often leading to elevated VASCULAR RESISTANCE. It is associated with AGING; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPERTENSION; PREGNANCY; PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; and STROKE, but is also a normal part of EMBRYOGENESIS.

Top Publications

  1. Manrique Acevedo C, Ramirez Perez F, Padilla J, Vieira Potter V, Aroor A, Barron B, et al. Absence of Endothelial ER? Results in Arterial Remodeling and Decreased Stiffness in Western Diet-Fed Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1875-1885 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, loss of endothelial ER? reduces vascular stiffness in male mice fed a WD with an associated outward hypertrophic remodeling of resistance arteries. ..
  2. Jackson A, Zhang J, Jiang Z, Yin K. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition: A novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2017;27:383-393 pubmed publisher
  3. Angelov S, Hu J, Wei H, Airhart N, Shi M, Dichek D. TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor-β) Signaling Protects the Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta From Angiotensin II-Induced Pathology by Distinct Mechanisms. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2102-2113 pubmed publisher
    ..Smooth muscle extrinsic signaling protects the abdominal aorta and smooth muscle intrinsic signaling protects the thoracic aorta. ..
  4. Yamamoto M, Yamashita K, Matsumura M, Fujino A, Ishida M, Ebara S, et al. Serial 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography and Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis of Changing Morphologies Associated With Lesion Progression in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..6; 95% confidence interval, 3.7-50.6; P<0.001). Lesion progression was categorized to distinct OCT morphologies that were related to changes in plaque mass or vessel remodeling. ..
  5. Avouac J, Konstantinova I, Guignabert C, Pezet S, Sadoine J, Guilbert T, et al. Pan-PPAR agonist IVA337 is effective in experimental lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1931-1940 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirm that the pan-PPAR agonist IVA337 is an appealing therapeutic candidate for these cardiopulmonary involvements. ..
  6. Nakao T, Horie T, Baba O, Nishiga M, Nishino T, Izuhara M, et al. Genetic Ablation of MicroRNA-33 Attenuates Inflammation and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation via Several Anti-Inflammatory Pathways. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2161-2170 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-33 deficiency in recipient mice was also shown to contribute the inhibition of AAA formation. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of miR-33 will be effective as a novel strategy for treating AAA. ..
  7. Xu H, Cao Y, Yang X, Cai P, Kang L, Zhu X, et al. ADAMTS13 controls vascular remodeling by modifying VWF reactivity during stroke recovery. Blood. 2017;130:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that ADAMTS13 controls key steps of ischemic vascular remodeling and that recombinant ADAMTS13 is a putative therapeutic avenue for promoting stroke recovery.
  8. Chen Y, Peng W, Raffetto J, Khalil R. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Remodeling of Lower Extremity Veins and Chronic Venous Disease. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2017;147:267-299 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and exogenous synthetic MMP inhibitors may provide new approaches in the management of VVs. ..
  9. Sugawara M, Condon K, Liang E, Desjardins C, Schuck E, Kusano K, et al. Eribulin shows high concentration and long retention in xenograft tumor tissues. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017;80:377-384 pubmed publisher
    ..These results might be caused by eribulin's mechanism of action including increased perfusion in tumor by vascular remodeling effect.

More Information


  1. Haase N, Rüder C, Haase H, Kamann S, Kouno M, Morano I, et al. Protective Function of Ahnak1 in Vascular Healing after Wire Injury. J Vasc Res. 2017;54:131-142 pubmed publisher
    b>Vascular remodeling following injury substantially accounts for restenosis and adverse clinical outcomes...
  2. Kitani M, Ogawa A, Sarashina T, Yamadori I, Matsubara H. Histological changes of pulmonary arteries treated by balloon pulmonary angioplasty in a patient with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;7:857-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Perez M, Lee K, Cardona H, Taylor J, Robbins M, Waypa G, et al. Aberrant cGMP signaling persists during recovery in mice with oxygen-induced pulmonary hypertension. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180957 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with clinical studies suggesting inconsistent effects of sildenafil treatment in infants with BPD-associated PH. ..
  4. Liang S, Yu H, Chen X, Shen T, Cui Z, Si G, et al. PDGF-BB/KLF4/VEGF Signaling Axis in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:2333-2349 pubmed publisher
    ..that hypoxia-induced angiogenesis of PAECs is associated with increased levels of PDGF-BB/KLF4/VEGF, which contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling. Overall, our study contributes to a better understanding of PAH pathogenesis.
  5. Reventun P, Alique M, Cuadrado I, Marquez S, Toro R, Zaragoza C, et al. iNOS-Derived Nitric Oxide Induces Integrin-Linked Kinase Endocytic Lysosome-Mediated Degradation in the Vascular Endothelium. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1272-1281 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study is to test whether nitric oxide (NO) regulates ILK in vascular remodeling. We found a striking correlation between increased levels of inducible nitric oxide and decreased ILK ..
  6. Serruys P, Katagiri Y, Sotomi Y, Zeng Y, Chevalier B, van der Schaaf R, et al. Arterial Remodeling After Bioresorbable Scaffolds and Metallic Stents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70:60-74 pubmed publisher
    ..ABSORB II Randomized Controlled Trial; NCT01425281). ..
  7. Li W, Cui N, Mazzuca M, Mata K, Khalil R. Increased vascular and uteroplacental matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -7 levels and collagen type I deposition in hypertension in pregnancy: role of TNF-?. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H491-H507 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP)-1 and MMP-7, which could alter collagen deposition and cause inadequate uteroplacental and vascular remodeling in hypertension in pregnancy...
  8. Krueger F, Kappert K, Foryst Ludwig A, Kramer F, Clemenz M, Grzesiak A, et al. AT1-receptor blockade attenuates outward aortic remodeling associated with diet-induced obesity in mice. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:1989-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..The HFD-induced vascular pathology was reduced by AT1-receptor antagonist telmisartan. ..
  9. Kammertoens T, Friese C, Arina A, Idel C, Briesemeister D, Rothe M, et al. Tumour ischaemia by interferon-? resembles physiological blood vessel regression. Nature. 2017;545:98-102 pubmed publisher
    ..A better mechanistic understanding of how solid tumours are rejected may aid the design of more effective protocols for adoptive T-cell therapy. ..
  10. Meloche J, Lampron M, Nadeau V, Maltais M, Potus F, Lambert C, et al. Implication of Inflammation and Epigenetic Readers in Coronary Artery Remodeling in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1513-1523 pubmed publisher
    ..Many signaling pathways described in PAH are also of importance in other vascular remodeling diseases, such as coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  11. Tojais N, Cao A, Lai Y, Wang L, Chen P, Alcazar M, et al. Codependence of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Elastic Fiber Assembly and Its Perturbation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1559-1569 pubmed publisher
    ..Disrupting BMPR2 impairs TGFβ1- and BMP4-mediated elastic fiber assembly and is of pathophysiologic significance in PAH. ..
  12. Hashimoto R, Joshi S, Jiang H, Capdevila J, McMurtry I, Laniado Schwartzman M, et al. Cyp2c44 gene disruption is associated with increased hematopoietic stem cells: implication in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H293-H303 pubmed publisher
    ..These stem cells give rise to increased circulating monocytes and macrophages and contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery remodeling and hypertension. ..
  13. Jourd heuil F, Xu H, Reilly T, McKellar K, El Alaoui C, Steppich J, et al. The Hemoglobin Homolog Cytoglobin in Smooth Muscle Inhibits Apoptosis and Regulates Vascular Remodeling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1944-1955 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CYGB is expressed in vessels primarily in differentiated medial VSM cells where it regulates neointima formation and inhibits apoptosis after injury. ..
  14. Hubert A, Bochenek M, Schütz E, Gogiraju R, Munzel T, Schafer K. Selective Deletion of Leptin Signaling in Endothelial Cells Enhances Neointima Formation and Phenocopies the Vascular Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1683-1697 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to examine the importance of endothelial LepR (End.LepR) signaling during vascular remodeling and to determine whether the cardiovascular consequences of obesity are because of hyperleptinemia or ..
  15. Wang M, Kim S, Monticone R, Lakatta E. Matrix metalloproteinases promote arterial remodeling in aging, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Hypertension. 2015;65:698-703 pubmed publisher
  16. Wilkins M, Ghofrani H, Weissmann N, Aldashev A, Zhao L. Pathophysiology and treatment of high-altitude pulmonary vascular disease. Circulation. 2015;131:582-90 pubmed publisher
  17. Guignabert C, Tu L, Girerd B, Ricard N, Huertas A, Montani D, et al. New molecular targets of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension: importance of endothelial communication. Chest. 2015;147:529-537 pubmed publisher
    ..Several predisposing or promoting mechanisms that contribute to excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH have emerged, such as altered crosstalk between cells within the vascular wall, sustained ..
  18. Sun Z. Aging, arterial stiffness, and hypertension. Hypertension. 2015;65:252-6 pubmed publisher
  19. Tanahashi K, Kosaki K, Sawano Y, Yoshikawa T, Tagawa K, Kumagai H, et al. Impact of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness: Role of the Shear Pattern. J Vasc Res. 2017;54:272-279 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study indicate that changes in brachial artery shear rate patterns may contribute to age- and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in brachial artery wall thickness. ..
  20. Li L, Kim I, Chiasson V, Chatterjee P, Gupta S. NF-?B mediated miR-130a modulation in lung microvascular cell remodeling: Implication in pulmonary hypertension. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:235-242 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a new class of post-transcriptional regulators in vascular remodeling; but, NF-?B regulated miRNA modulation in EC dysfunction is unknown...
  21. Hood K, Mair K, Harvey A, Montezano A, Touyz R, MacLean M. Serotonin Signaling Through the 5-HT1B Receptor and NADPH Oxidase 1 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1361-1370 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that 5-HT1B receptor-dependent cellular Src-related kinase-Nox1-pathways contribute to vascular remodeling in PAH.
  22. Ribeiro Junior R, Marques V, Nunes D, Stefanon I, dos Santos L. Chronic iron overload induces functional and structural vascular changes in small resistance arteries via NADPH oxidase-dependent O2- production. Toxicol Lett. 2017;279:43-52 pubmed publisher
  23. Silpanisong J, Kim D, Williams J, Adeoye O, Thorpe R, Pearce W. Chronic hypoxia alters fetal cerebrovascular responses to endothelin-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;313:C207-C218 pubmed publisher
  24. Ibrahim Y, Shults N, Rybka V, Suzuki Y. Docetaxel Reverses Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling by Decreasing Autophagy and Resolves Right Ventricular Fibrosis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;363:20-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Since vascular remodeling contributes to increased pulmonary arterial pressure, new agents that reduce the thickness of pulmonary ..
  25. Lareyre F, Clement M, Raffort J, Pohlod S, Patel M, Esposito B, et al. TGF? (Transforming Growth Factor-?) Blockade Induces a Human-Like Disease in a Nondissecting Mouse Model of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2171-2181 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that the new models will improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAA and will be useful in the identification of new therapeutic targets. ..
  26. Wang Y, Cui X, Chuang Y, Chen S. Janus Kinase 3, a Novel Regulator for Smooth Muscle Proliferation and Vascular Remodeling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1352-1360 pubmed publisher
    b>Vascular remodeling because of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a common process occurring in several vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, post-transplant vasculopathy, restenosis after angioplasty, etc...
  27. Pries A, Badimon L, Bugiardini R, Camici P, Dorobantu M, Duncker D, et al. Coronary vascular regulation, remodelling, and collateralization: mechanisms and clinical implications on behalf of the working group on coronary pathophysiology and microcirculation. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:3134-46 pubmed publisher
  28. Tan C, Wang A, Liu C, Li Y, Shi Y, Zhou M. Puerarin Improves Vascular Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Remodeling in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45:1169-1184 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that puerarin could be used as a new antihypertensive agent to expand our armamentarium for the prevention and treatment of end-organ damage in individuals with hypertension and metabolic diseases. ..
  29. Majesky M. Adventitia and perivascular cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:e31-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Muñoz Esquerre M, Aliagas E, López Sánchez M, Escobar I, Huertas D, Penin R, et al. Vascular disease in COPD: Systemic and pulmonary expression of PARC (Pulmonary and Activation-Regulated Chemokine). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177218 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of the present study is to analyze the expression of PARC in lung tissue and its relationship with the vascular remodeling of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of COPD subjects...
  31. Rodriguez A, Jin D, Wolfe A, Mikedis M, Wierenga L, Hashmi M, et al. Brachyury drives formation of a distinct vascular branchpoint critical for fetal-placental arterial union in the mouse gastrula. Dev Biol. 2017;425:208-222 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these genetic, molecular and structural elements safeguard the fetus against adverse outcomes that can result from vascular mispatterning of the fetal-placental arterial connection. ..
  32. Mukhopadhyay S, Antalis T, Nguyen K, Hoofnagle M, Sarkar R. Myeloid p53 regulates macrophage polarization and venous thrombus resolution by inflammatory vascular remodeling in mice. Blood. 2017;129:3245-3255 pubmed publisher
    ..that a complex and interrelated array of molecular signaling processes are involved in the inflammatory vascular remodeling associated with the resolution of DVT...
  33. Plekhanova O, Parfenova E, Tkachuk V. [Mechanisms of Vascular Remodeling Following Arterial Injury]. Kardiologiia. 2015;55:63-77 pubmed
  34. Singh N, Janjanam J, Rao G. p115 RhoGEF activates the Rac1 GTPase signaling cascade in MCP1 chemokine-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14080-14091 pubmed publisher
  35. Rajagopalan S. HLA-G-mediated NK cell senescence promotes vascular remodeling: implications for reproduction. Cell Mol Immunol. 2014;11:460-6 pubmed publisher which KIR2DL4-HLA-G interactions induce the cellular senescence of NK cells and the role of the resulting senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in vascular remodeling will be discussed in the context of reproduction.
  36. Ramachandra A, Sankaran S, Humphrey J, Marsden A. Computational simulation of the adaptive capacity of vein grafts in response to increased pressure. J Biomech Eng. 2015;137: pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we test the hypothesis that a gradual, rather than a step, change in pressure will reduce maladaptation. Optimization is used to accelerate parameter identification and numerically evaluate hypotheses of vein remodeling. ..
  37. Ly K, Régent A, Molina E, Saada S, Sindou P, Le Jeunne C, et al. Neurotrophins are expressed in giant cell arteritis lesions and may contribute to vascular remodeling. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:487 pubmed publisher
    ..In GCA-derived temporal artery VSMC, NGF promoted proliferation and BDNF enhanced migration by binding to TrkB and p75NTR receptors. Further experiments are needed on a larger number of VSMC samples to confirm these results. ..
  38. Li N, Chen H, Zhou X, Liang L. [Clinicopathological analysis of pulmonary vascular disease in 38 neonates died of respiratory failure]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016;37:528-532 pubmed
    ..Five cases were identified to have PVDs, including pulmonary hypertensive vascular remodeling in 3 cases and alveolar capillary dysplasia in 2 cases...
  39. Planas Rigol E, Terrades García N, Corbera Bellalta M, Lozano E, Alba M, Segarra M, et al. Endothelin-1 promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration across the artery wall: a mechanism contributing to vascular remodelling and intimal hyperplasia in giant-cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1624-1634 pubmed publisher
    ..ET-1 is upregulated in GCA lesions and, by promoting VSMC migration towards the intimal layer, may contribute to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA. ..
  40. Yu L, Tu Y, Jia X, Fang K, Liu L, Wan L, et al. Resveratrol Protects Against Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats via Activation of Silent Information Regulator 1. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..SIRT1 activation increased PASMC apoptosis by inducing mPT dysfunction, which might be a novel future strategy for the treatment of PAH. ..
  41. Avouac J, Guignabert C, Hoffmann Vold A, Ruiz B, Dorfmuller P, Pezet S, et al. Role of Stromelysin 2 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 10) as a Novel Mediator of Vascular Remodeling Underlying Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Systemic Sclerosis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:2209-2221 pubmed publisher
    ..Fra-2-Tg) mice that spontaneously develop SSc-like features associated with an intense pulmonary vascular remodeling. Microarray experiments revealed that the matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10) gene was the top up-..
  42. Chen J, Ren Z, Zhu M, Khalil R. Decreased homodimerization and increased TIMP-1 complexation of uteroplacental and uterine arterial matrix metalloproteinase-9 during hypertension-in-pregnancy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;138:81-95 pubmed publisher
    ..uterine artery, which together would cause a net decrease in MMP-9 activity and reduce uteroplacental and vascular remodeling in the setting of HTN-Preg and IUGR...
  43. Lu S, Liu S, Wietelmann A, Kojonazarov B, Atzberger A, Tang C, et al. Developmental vascular remodeling defects and postnatal kidney failure in mice lacking Gpr116 (Adgrf5) and Eltd1 (Adgrl4). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183166 pubmed publisher
  44. Wang D, Wu F, Yuan H, Wang A, Kang G, Truong T, et al. Sox10+ Cells Contribute to Vascular Development in Multiple Organs-Brief Report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1727-1731 pubmed publisher pericytes and smooth muscle cells in most parts of the body, including those from neural crest and non-neural crest, which has significant implications in vascular remodeling under physiological and pathological conditions.
  45. Li Y, Run L, Shi T, Zhang Y. CTRP9 regulates hypoxia-mediated human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration via TGF-?1/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1319-1325 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced PAH is driven by excessive proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth ..
  46. Ge L, Zhang G, You B, Cheng G, Chen L, Shi R. The role of losartan in preventing vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats by inhibition of the H2O2/VPO1/HOCl/MMPs pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:855-861 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the contribution of VPO1 to the development of vascular remodeling (VR) remains to be fully characterized...
  47. Salt I, Hardie D. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase: An Ubiquitous Signaling Pathway With Key Roles in the Cardiovascular System. Circ Res. 2017;120:1825-1841 pubmed publisher
  48. Morvan E, Lima N, Machi J, Mostarda C, de Angelis K, Irigoyen M, et al. Metabolic, hemodynamic and structural adjustments to low intensity exercise training in a metabolic syndrome model. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that LET, a widely recommended practice, seems to be particularly effective for preventing metabolic, hemodynamic and morphological disorders triggered by MS. ..
  49. Wang X, Shults N, Suzuki Y. Oxidative profiling of the failing right heart in rats with pulmonary hypertension. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176887 pubmed publisher
    ..factor receptor) plus the ovalbumin immunization had increased pulmonary arterial pressure and severe vascular remodeling. RVs of these rats were hypertrophied and had severe cardiac fibrosis. No apoptosis was, however, detected...
  50. Zhu C, Huang B, Zhao J, Ma Y, Yuan D, Yang Y, et al. Influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. J Vasc Surg. 2017;66:375-385 pubmed publisher
    ..Repairing all entry tears to restore single-lumen blood flow and enhance false lumen thrombosis might benefit selected patients. ..
  51. Leopold J. Neoatherosclerosis: another consequence of endothelial dysfunction?. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;7:635-7 pubmed publisher
  52. Morin C, Hiram R, Rousseau E, Blier P, Fortin S. Docosapentaenoic acid monoacylglyceride reduces inflammation and vascular remodeling in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014;307:H574-86 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data provide new evidence regarding the mode of action of MAG-DPA in the prevention of pulmonary hypertension induced by MCT. ..
  53. Sok M, Tria M, Olingy C, San Emeterio C, Botchwey E. Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D1-modified materials promote the accumulation of pro-regenerative immune cell subsets and enhance vascular remodeling. Acta Biomater. 2017;53:109-122 pubmed publisher
    ..the ability of locally-delivered AT-RvD1 to increase pro-regenerative immune subpopulations and promote vascular remodeling. This work is motivated by our efforts to explore the underlying mechanisms of inflammation resolution ..