thrombin time


Summary: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.

Top Publications

  1. Kemkes Matthes B, Fischer R, Peetz D. Influence of 8 and 24-h storage of whole blood at ambient temperature on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thrombin time, antithrombin and D-dimer. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011;22:215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer...
  2. van Ryn J, Stangier J, Haertter S, Liesenfeld K, Wienen W, Feuring M, et al. Dabigatran etexilate--a novel, reversible, oral direct thrombin inhibitor: interpretation of coagulation assays and reversal of anticoagulant activity. Thromb Haemost. 2010;103:1116-27 pubmed publisher
  3. Douxfils J, Dogne J, Mullier F, Chatelain B, Rönquist Nii Y, Malmstrom R, et al. Comparison of calibrated dilute thrombin time and aPTT tests with LC-MS/MS for the therapeutic monitoring of patients treated with dabigatran etexilate. Thromb Haemost. 2013;110:543-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantification of lower dabigatran levels in DE-treated patients requires the "reference" LC-MS/MS method. ..
  4. Hawes E, Deal A, Funk Adcock D, Gosselin R, Jeanneret C, Cook A, et al. Performance of coagulation tests in patients on therapeutic doses of dabigatran: a cross-sectional pharmacodynamic study based on peak and trough plasma levels. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:1493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The dilute thrombin time, ecarin clotting time and ecarin chromogenic assay showed linear correlations with dabigatran levels over a ..
  5. Curvers J, van de Kerkhof D, Stroobants A, van den Dool E, Scharnhorst V. Measuring direct thrombin inhibitors with routine and dedicated coagulation assays: which assay is helpful?. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138:551-8 pubmed
    ..on routine coagulation assays (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]) and dedicated DTI assays (Hemoclot, HemosIL, the ecarin clotting time, and a chromogenic ecarin clotting ..
  6. Eerenberg E, Kamphuisen P, Sijpkens M, Meijers J, Buller H, Levi M. Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects. Circulation. 2011;124:1573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dabigatran increased the activated partial thromboplastin time, ecarin clotting time (ECT), and thrombin time. Administration of PCC did not restore these coagulation tests...
  7. Mira A, Alkhiary W, Shimizu K. Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Activities of Angelica shikokiana Extract and Its Isolated Compounds. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2017;23:91-99 pubmed
    ..screen for such activities (anticoagulant by prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time assays and antiplatelet activities against adenosine 5'-diphosphate [ADP] and arachidonic acid-induced ..
  8. Uchikova E, Ledjev I. Changes in haemostasis during normal pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;119:185-8 pubmed
    ..The pregnant women had statistically significantly higher values for: prothrombin time (PT) (P < 0.0001), thrombin time (TT) (P < 0.0001), fibrinogen (P < 0.0001), activity of factor VII (P < 0.0001), factor X (P < 0...
  9. Triplett D. Coagulation and bleeding disorders: review and update. Clin Chem. 2000;46:1260-9 pubmed
    ..tests used to evaluate coagulation, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and platelet count...

More Information


  1. Saif M, Allegra C, Greenberg B. Bleeding diathesis in multiple myeloma. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2001;10:657-60 pubmed
    ..diagnosed with multiple myeloma (type IgG kappa, 59 g/L) whose coagulation profile showed an increase in thrombin time and prothrombin time...
  2. Meyer M, Kutscher G, Stürzebecher J, Riesener G, Lutze G. Fibrinogen Magdeburg I: a novel variant of human fibrinogen with an amino acid exchange in the fibrinopeptide A (Aalpha 9, Leu-->Pro). Thromb Res. 2003;109:145-51 pubmed
    ..asymptomatic dysfibrinogenemic patients with low functional plasma fibrinogen (Fg) levels and prolonged thrombin time but normal or slightly prolonged batroxobin (reptilase) time, mutation analysis was carried out by direct ..
  3. de Morais K, Vieira C, Hirata I, Tanaka Azevedo A. Bothrops jararaca antithrombin: isolation, characterization and comparison with other animal antithrombins. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;152:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..jararaca antithrombins. B. jararaca antithrombin showed inhibitory activity upon human and B. jararaca coagulation and amidolytic substrate S-2238. ..
  4. Han G, Ren H, Lu Y, Li Y, Xiao S, Ye H, et al. Pharmacokinetic study with N-Ile1-Thr2-63-desulfato-r-hirudin in rabbits by means of bioassay. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006;7:241-4 pubmed
    ..The excretion of rH by kidneys played a very important role in the elimination of rH. The PK of rH could be described by the two- and one-compartment model after iv and sc dosing, respectively, and followed linear kinetics. ..
  5. Zhu H, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Chen D. Isolation and characterization of an anti-complementary protein-bound polysaccharide from the stem barks of Eucommia ulmoides. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:1222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that EWDS-1 could be of promising benefits in treatment of the complement associated diseases. ..
  6. Lu Q, Zhang S, Hu K, Feng Q, Cao C, Cui F. Cytocompatibility and blood compatibility of multifunctional fibroin/collagen/heparin scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2007;28:2306-13 pubmed
  7. Jayathissa S, Gommans J, Harper P. Stroke thrombolysis in patients taking dabigatran. Intern Med J. 2013;43:826-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For safest outcomes, we suggest incorporating thrombin time assay for acute stroke patients suspected to be taking dabigatran.
  8. Shenkman B, Livnat T, Misgav M, Budnik I, Einav Y, Martinowitz U. The in vivo effect of fibrinogen and factor XIII on clot formation and fibrinolysis in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Platelets. 2012;23:604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, fibrinogen and FXIII exerted stimulation of blood clotting and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Treating normal blood with eptifibatide mimics the changes of coagulopathy in GT blood. ..
  9. Ren Y, Yang Y, Wu W, Zhang M, Wu H, Li X. Identification and characterization of novel anticoagulant peptide with thrombolytic effect and nutrient oligopeptides with high branched chain amino acid from Whitmania pigra protein. Amino Acids. 2016;48:2657-2670 pubmed
    ..with prolonging significantly plasma clotting time on activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin time (p < 0.01) and powerful thrombolytic activity...
  10. Boudreaux M, Weiss R, Cox N, Spano J. Evaluation of antithrombin-III activity as a coindicator of disseminated intravascular coagulation in cats with induced feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. Am J Vet Res. 1989;50:1910-3 pubmed
    ..On PID 4 and 16 or 21, results of coagulation screening tests indicated that all cats had disseminated intravascular coagulation. Histologically, cats also had severe fibrinonecrotizing thrombovasculitis. ..
  11. Dropinski J, Musial J, Sanak M, Wegrzyn W, Nizankowski R, Szczeklik A. Antithrombotic effects of aspirin based on PLA1/A2 glycoprotein IIIa polymorphism in patients with coronary artery disease. Thromb Res. 2007;119:301-3 pubmed
    ..02). Genotyping for glycoprotein IIIa polymorphism might be helpful in predicting antithrombotic action of aspirin in secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. ..
  12. Du Z, Shi F, Liu D, Ye H, Surhio M, Li J, et al. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated Lachnum polysaccharide in mice with a state of hypercoagulability. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:5550-5556 pubmed publisher
    ..that both of LEP-1 and SLEP-1 could effectively prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) of the normal mice plasma, in which SLEP-1 was more effectively than those of LEP-1, and dose-effect ..
  13. van Geffen M, Mathijssen N, Holme P, Laros van Gorkom B, van Kraaij M, Masereeuw R, et al. Pharmacodynamics of recombinant activated factor VII and plasma-derived factor VII in a cohort of severe FVII deficient patients. Thromb Res. 2013;132:116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may suggest a potential value for measurement of TG-LT in the monitoring of FVII(a) therapy. ..
  14. Mitrophanov A, Rosendaal F, Reifman J. Therapeutic correction of thrombin generation in dilution-induced coagulopathy: computational analysis based on a data set of healthy subjects. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:S95-S102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our computational results suggest that PCC-AT may demonstrate a superior ability to restore normal thrombin generation compared with FVIIa and PCC-FVII. ..
  15. Malinowska J, Kołodziejczyk Czepas J, Moniuszko Szajwaj B, Kowalska I, Oleszek W, Stochmal A, et al. Phenolic fractions from Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum aerial parts in human plasma protect against changes induced by hyperhomocysteinemia in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4023-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems that antioxidative activities of the phenolic fractions from T. pallidum and T. scabrum aerial parts may be responsible for their medicinal properties during hyperhomocysteinemia. ..
  16. Zhong B, Zhang W, Liu W, Pang Z, Cui J. [Study on the hemostatic effects in raw and charred Mongolian drug Agi and its mechanism]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:872-6 pubmed
    ..The rabbit prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thormboplastia time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), plasma recalcification time (PRT), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), max platelet ..
  17. Zhang P, Liu J, Tan B, Zhu F, Fang L. [Hypercoagulable state is associated with NF-kappa B activation and increased inflammatory factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016;32:364-8 pubmed
    ..The levels of D-dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FBG), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were detected using Sysmex CA-1500 ..
  18. Ogedegbe H, St Hill H. Specialized tests for hemostasis. MLO Med Lab Obs. 2003;35:10-3; quiz 14-5 pubmed
  19. Ding C, Shen Y, Li G, Wei Z, Wei F. [Study of a glycoprotein from Gastrodia elata: its effects of anticoagulation and antithrombosis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1060-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of polysaccharide 2-1 from Gastrodia elata (PGE2-1) on blood coagulation and thrombosis...
  20. Bao J, Wu Q, Sun J, Zhou Y, Wang Y, Jiang X, et al. Hemocompatibility improvement of perfusion-decellularized clinical-scale liver scaffold through heparin immobilization. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10756 pubmed publisher
    ..Then, systematic in vitro investigation of prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet adhesion and human platelet factor 4 (PF4, ..
  21. Zhang Y, Zhang X, Liu D, Wang H, Pan S, Wang D, et al. Elevated fibrinogen levels in neuromyelitis optica is associated with severity of disease. Neurol Sci. 2016;37:1823-1829 pubmed
    ..Plasma prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen, were measured among 189 patients with MS/NMO and 80 non-inflammatory ..
  22. Atanasov V, Danchev D, Mitewa M, Petrova S. Hemolytic and anticoagulant study of the neurotoxin vipoxin and its components--basic phospholipase A2 and an acidic inhibitor. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:276-80 pubmed
    ..The whole complex--vipoxin--does not affect the coagulation system. ..
  23. Zhao L, Uhr E, Kershaw G, Dunkley S. Effects of FEIBA on platelet and leucocyte activation in severe haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Platelets. 2012;23:633-7 pubmed publisher
  24. Silva T, Alves L, de Queiroz K, Santos M, Marques C, Chavante S, et al. Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnospora. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:523-33 pubmed
  25. Ortel T, Mercer M, Thames E, Moore K, Lawson J. Immunologic impact and clinical outcomes after surgical exposure to bovine thrombin. Ann Surg. 2001;233:88-96 pubmed
    ..The clinical safety of these commonly used preparations needs to be reassessed, and reexposure to these agents should likely be avoided. ..
  26. Nair S, Dargaud Y, Chitlur M, Srivastava A. Tests of global haemostasis and their applications in bleeding disorders. Haemophilia. 2010;16 Suppl 5:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these tests need to be standardized with regard to their reagents, methodology and interpretation, and finally, much more data need to be collected regarding clinical correlations with the parameters measured. ..
  27. Dolente B, Wilkins P, Boston R. Clinicopathologic evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in horses with acute colitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;220:1034-8 pubmed
    ..Clinicopathologic evidence of DIC is common and is significantly associated with a poor outcome in horses with acute colitis. Treatment of subclinical DIC may influence outcome in horses with acute colitis. ..
  28. Xiang Q, Ji S, Zhang Z, Zhao X, Cui Y. Identification of ITGA2B and ITGB3 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Their Influences on the Platelet Function. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:5675084 pubmed
    ..were related with the activated partial thromboplastin time, and ITGB3 rs4642 was correlated with the thrombin time and fibrinogen...
  29. Jaffer I, Chan N, Roberts R, Fredenburgh J, Eikelboom J, Weitz J. Comparison of the ecarin chromogenic assay and diluted thrombin time for quantification of dabigatran concentrations. J Thromb Haemost. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We compared ecarin chromogenic assay (STA-ECA-II) and dilute thrombin time (dTT) in patient samples...
  30. Kuntić V, Filipovic I, Vujić Z. Effects of rutin and hesperidin and their Al(III) and Cu(II) complexes on in vitro plasma coagulation assays. Molecules. 2011;16:1378-88 pubmed publisher
    ..activity through coagulation tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT)...
  31. Kumar A, Pulicherla K, Mayuren C, Kotra S, Rao K. Evaluation of a multifunctional staphylokinase variant with thrombin inhibition and antiplatelet aggregation activities produced from salt-inducible E. coli GJ1158. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;91:839-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time were significantly prolonged (p < 0...
  32. Junge H, Ringer S, Mayer N, Schwarzwald C. Assessment of method reliability and determination of reference intervals for rotational thromboelastometry in horses. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2016;26:691-703 pubmed publisher
    ..fibrinogen concentration, platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time. ROTEM is a feasible method to evaluate coagulation in horses...
  33. Pozmogova G, Zaitseva M, Smirnov I, Shvachko A, Murina M, Sergeenko V. Anticoagulant effects of thioanalogs of thrombin-binding DNA-aptamer and their stability in the plasma. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2010;150:180-4 pubmed
    ..A promising modified oligonucleotide (LL11) was found with the structure modified only in TT loops. It retains antithrombin properties of thrombin-binding aptamer, but is more resistant to biodegradation. ..
  34. Cuker A. Laboratory measurement of the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: selecting the optimal assay based on drug, assay availability, and clinical indication. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016;41:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The dilute thrombin time (TT) and ecarin-based assays are able to quantify dabigatran across a broad range of concentrations, but are ..
  35. Shao Y, Xu Q, Li C, Wu M, Huang X. Effect of thrombin receptor expression on microvessel endothelial cells, and survival by coagulation state in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Pathol. 2012;65:740-5 pubmed publisher
    ..5 s. TRMVD had the second highest HR. TR positivity in VECs may be an adverse prognostic factor for patients with ESCC and increased coagulation state. TR expression in VECs might be related to angiogenesis in ESCC. ..
  36. Yao D, Wang Z, Miao L, Wang L. Effects of extracts and isolated compounds from safflower on some index of promoting blood circulation and regulating menstruation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;191:264-272 pubmed publisher
    ..Anticoagulation activity was measured by clotting assay of thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) according to the methods provided ..
  37. Bershad E, Suarez J. Prothrombin complex concentrates for oral anticoagulant therapy-related intracranial hemorrhage: a review of the literature. Neurocrit Care. 2010;12:403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..PCC has features which make it a promising therapy for patients with warfarin-related intracranial hemorrhage, and deserves more rigorous study in prospective-randomized controlled trials. ..
  38. Mischke R, Junker J, Deegen E. Sensitivity of commercial prothrombin time reagents to detect coagulation factor deficiencies in equine plasma. Vet J. 2006;171:114-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that adequate sensitivity of PT measurements in equine plasma can be achieved using a standard test procedure as long as a suitable reagent is used. ..
  39. Ivaškevičius V, Thomas A, Biswas A, Ensikat H, Schmitt U, Horneff S, et al. A novel fibrinogen γ chain frameshift deletion (c.637delT) in a patient with hypodysfibrinogenemia associated with thrombosis. Hamostaseologie. 2015;35 Suppl 1:S27-31 pubmed
    ..The thrombin time was slightly prolonged, while aPTT and reptilase time were within the normal range...
  40. Al Otair H, Abdel Gader A, Khurshid S, Alzeer A, Al Momen A, Al Shaikh M, et al. The Levels of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in Sepsis Patients Receiving Prophylactic Enoxaparin. Turk J Haematol. 2016;33:112-8 pubmed publisher
    ..assays were undertaken using commercial kits: activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin time, total and free TFPI, protein C and protein S, antithrombin, fibrinogen, and anti-factor Xa...
  41. Muller M, Büchi L, Woodtli K, Haeberli A, Beer J. Preparation and characterization of 'heparinocytes': erythrocytes with covalently bound low molecular weight heparin. FEBS Lett. 2000;468:115-9 pubmed
    ..The system appears applicable as a potential autologous, long-term anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis. ..
  42. Huang M, Yang M. Evaluation of glucan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend wound dressing using rat models. Int J Pharm. 2008;346:38-46 pubmed
    ..of hemocompatibility test showed no significant effect on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) and minor adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA)...
  43. Sumitra M, Manikandan P, Kumar D, Arutselvan N, Balakrishna K, Manohar B, et al. Experimental myocardial necrosis in rats: role of arjunolic acid on platelet aggregation, coagulation and antioxidant status. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;224:135-42 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the cardioprotection of arjunolic acid pre and post treatment could possibly be due to the protective effect against the damage caused by myocardial necrosis. ..
  44. Saliba W, Awad K, Ron G, Elias M. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Thrombin Generation Assessed by the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2016;22:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..001), respectively. Treatment with vitamin D supplementation seems to have prothrombotic effect in patients with vitamin D insufficiency. These findings should be interpreted with caution and need to be replicated in future studies. ..
  45. Sangha N, El Khoury R, Misra V, Lopez G. Acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in a patient taking dabigatran with radiographic evidence of recanalization. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;21:917.e5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..patient had a normal international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and an elevated thrombin time of 26.4 seconds...
  46. Nadal Wollbold F, Bocquet A, Bourbon T, Letienne R, Le Grand B. Protease-activated receptor 1 antagonists prevent platelet aggregation and adhesion without affecting thrombin time. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;644:188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..PAR1 antagonists, ER121958 and SCH203099 on both SFLLR-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation and on the thrombin time in human and guinea-pig platelets...
  47. Rugeri L, Beguin S, Hemker C, Bordet J, Fleury R, Chatard B, et al. Thrombin-generating capacity in patients with von Willebrand's disease. Haematologica. 2007;92:1639-46 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the thrombin generation test, in combination with routine FVIII and VWF measurements, could be of interest in the assessment of the individual bleeding risk in patients with VWD. ..
  48. Froquet R, Arnold F, Batina P, Parent Massin D. Do trichothecenes reduce viability of circulating blood cells and modify haemostasis parameters?. Mycopathologia. 2003;156:349-56 pubmed
    ..Due to the differences in sensitivities between mature blood cells and haematopoietic progenitors, haematological problems associated with trichothecene intoxication could be attributed to haematopoiesis inhibition. ..
  49. Wang C, Yang F, Xu Z, Shi D, Chen D, Dai J, et al. Intravenous release of NO from lipidic microbubbles accelerates deep vein thrombosis resolution in a rat model. Thromb Res. 2013;131:e31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The coagulation functions including prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) were tested as well...
  50. Kim S, Koo Y, Koo J, Ngoc T, Kang S, Bae K, et al. Platelet anti-aggregation activities of compounds from Cinnamomum cassia. J Med Food. 2010;13:1069-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Eugenol (2) and coniferaldehyde (9) were the two of the most active anti-platelet constituents of C. cassia...
  51. Qiu Y, Chen C, Sun G, Zhong M, Li Y, Wang C, et al. [Lower limb deep vein ultrasonography and blood biochemistry in women after full-term delivery]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:933-5 pubmed
    ..The hematological indexes including the D-dimers (D-D), platelet (PLT), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (Fbg) were also ..
  52. Puckett L, Lewis J, Urbas A, Cui X, Gao D, Bachas L. Magnetoelastic transducers for monitoring coagulation, clot inhibition, and fibrinolysis. Biosens Bioelectron. 2005;20:1737-43 pubmed
    ..This method is a viable option for the monitoring of processes that are paramount to maintaining hemostasis. ..
  53. Wen L, Wu W, Li L, Gan L, Ou S. [Analysis on clinical features and risk factors of death in 210 patients with acute mushroom poisoning]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2018;30:72-77 pubmed publisher
    ..AST) ≥ 200 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ≥ 500 U/L, prothrombin time (PT) ≥ 20 s, activated partial thrombin time (APTT) ≥ 40 s, prothrombin activity (PTA) ≤ 60%, Na+ ≤ 135 mmol/L, MB isoenzyme of creatine ..