prothrombin time


Summary: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.

Top Publications

  1. Hall D, Lone N, Watson D, Stanworth S, Walsh T. Factors associated with prophylactic plasma transfusion before vascular catheterization in non-bleeding critically ill adults with prolonged prothrombin time: a case-control study. Br J Anaesth. 2012;109:919-27 pubmed publisher
    ..probability of pre-procedural FFP administration before vascular catheterization, whereas the severity of prothrombin time prolongation alone was not...
  2. Dickneite G, Pragst I. Prothrombin complex concentrate vs fresh frozen plasma for reversal of dilutional coagulopathy in a porcine trauma model. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemodilution markedly prolonged prothrombin time and reduced peak thrombin generation. PCC, but not FFP, fully reversed those effects...
  3. Lawrie A, Hills J, Longair I, Green L, Gardiner C, Machin S, et al. The clinical significance of differences between point-of-care and laboratory INR methods in over-anticoagulated patients. Thromb Res. 2012;130:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5. We assessed: the relationship between different prothrombin time systems for INRs >4...
  4. Urwyler N, Staub E, Staub L, Daetwyler K, Fluri S, Sollberger T, et al. Point-of-care prothrombin time testing in paediatric intensive care: an observational study of the ease of use of two devices. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2012;29:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the value of point-of-care prothrombin time testing in paediatric intensive care patients...
  5. Tang W, Schwienbacher C, Lopez L, Ben Shlomo Y, Oudot Mellakh T, Johnson A, et al. Genetic associations for activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, their gene expression profiles, and risk of coronary artery disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;91:152-62 pubmed publisher
    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) are clinical tests commonly used to screen for coagulation-factor deficiencies...
  6. Samama M, Contant G, Spiro T, Perzborn E, Flem L, Guinet C, et al. Evaluation of the prothrombin time for measuring rivaroxaban plasma concentrations using calibrators and controls: results of a multicenter field trial. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2012;18:150-8 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the prothrombin time (PT) assay for the measurement of plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban using calibrators and controls...
  7. Poller L, Keown M, Ibrahim S, van Der Meer F, van den Besselaar A, Tripodi A, et al. Quality assessment of CoaguChek point-of-care prothrombin time monitors: comparison of the European community-approved procedure and conventional external quality assessment. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1843-7 pubmed
    There is a need for dependable quality assessment (QA) of the widely used CoaguChek point-of-care testing prothrombin time monitor...
  8. Spahr J, Maul J, Rodgers G. Superwarfarin poisoning: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Am J Hematol. 2007;82:656-60 pubmed
    ..Finally, the significance of "lacing" drugs of abuse with superwarfarin to potentiate their effect is discussed, as well as the complications that could develop from such a habit. ..
  9. Müller L, Sinn S, Drechsel H, Ziegler C, Wendel H, Northoff H, et al. Investigation of prothrombin time in human whole-blood samples with a quartz crystal biosensor. Anal Chem. 2010;82:658-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work a new method for measuring the coagulation time (prothrombin time, PT) of human whole-blood samples based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor is presented...

More Information


  1. Dickneite G, Dörr B, Kaspereit F, Tanaka K. Prothrombin complex concentrate versus recombinant factor VIIa for reversal of hemodilutional coagulopathy in a porcine trauma model. J Trauma. 2010;68:1151-7 pubmed publisher PCC, or 180 microg x kg rFVIIa. Immediately afterward, a standardized spleen injury was inflicted, and prothrombin time (PT) and hemostasis were assessed. Thrombin generation was also determined...
  2. Li Z, Seeram N, Carpenter C, Thames G, Minutti C, Bowerman S. Cranberry does not affect prothrombin time in male subjects on warfarin. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:2057-61 pubmed
    ..randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study to investigate the effect of cranberry juice on prothrombin time as assessed by the international normalized ratio (INR)...
  3. Hood J, Eby C. Evaluation of a prolonged prothrombin time. Clin Chem. 2008;54:765-8; discussion 768-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Olson J, Brandt J, Chandler W, Van Cott E, Cunningham M, Hayes T, et al. Laboratory reporting of the international normalized ratio: progress and problems. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:1641-7 pubmed
    ..Participants provided the international sensitivity index and the mean normal prothrombin time used to calculate the INR...
  5. Tripodi A. How to implement the modified international normalized ratio for cirrhosis (INR(liver)) for model for end-stage liver disease calculation. Hepatology. 2008;47:1423-4; author reply 1424 pubmed publisher
  6. Rizzo F, Papasouliotis K, Crawford E, Dodkin S, Cue S. Measurement of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) on canine citrated plasma samples following different storage conditions. Res Vet Sci. 2008;85:166-70 pubmed
  7. Scheckenbach K, Bier H, Hoffmann T, Windfuhr J, Bas M, Laws H, et al. [Risk of hemorrhage after adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy. Value of the preoperative determination of partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and platelet count]. HNO. 2008;56:312-20 pubmed
    ..routine preoperative coagulation screening, including activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and platelet count (PLC), are regularly performed, also for medicolegal reasons...
  8. Maegele M, Lefering R, Yucel N, Tjardes T, Rixen D, Paffrath T, et al. Early coagulopathy in multiple injury: an analysis from the German Trauma Registry on 8724 patients. Injury. 2007;38:298-304 pubmed
    ..Coagulopathy upon ER admission as defined by prothrombin time test (Quick's value) <70% and/or platelets <100,000 microl(-1), was present in 34.2% of all patients...
  9. Kamal A, Tefferi A, Pruthi R. How to interpret and pursue an abnormal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time in adults. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:864-73 pubmed
    The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) are among the most commonly ordered coagulation tests. In 2005, more than 140,000 PT and more than 95,000 APTT tests were performed at Mayo Clinic...
  10. Kummeling A, Teske E, Rothuizen J, van Sluijs F. Coagulation profiles in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts before and after surgical attenuation. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:1319-26 pubmed
    ..with CPS had decreased platelet counts and activity of factors I, II, V, VII, IX, X, and XI and a prolonged prothrombin time (PT). Ovariectomy resulted in decreased activity of factors VII and X...
  11. Keeling D. International Normalized Ratio in patients not on vitamin K antagonists. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:188-9 pubmed
  12. Kim S, Cho S, Lee H, Suh J, Oh S, Lee W, et al. Superwarfarin intoxication of unknown etiology accompanying hemoperitoneum in a patient on fluconazole therapy. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2010;40:300-3 pubmed
    ..The initial prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were markedly prolonged, although a mixing study with normal ..
  13. Matevosyan K, Madden C, Barnett S, Beshay J, Rutherford C, Sarode R. Coagulation factor levels in neurosurgical patients with mild prolongation of prothrombin time: effect on plasma transfusion therapy. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:3-7 pubmed publisher
    Neurosurgical patients often have mildly prolonged prothrombin time (PT) or international normalized ratio (INR). In the absence of liver disease this mild prolongation appears to be due to the use of very sensitive PT reagents...
  14. Holland L, Brooks J. Toward rational fresh frozen plasma transfusion: The effect of plasma transfusion on coagulation test results. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;126:133-9 pubmed
    ..6 (prothrombin time < 1.6 times normal)...
  15. Walsh T, Stanworth S, Prescott R, Lee R, Watson D, Wyncoll D. Prevalence, management, and outcomes of critically ill patients with prothrombin time prolongation in United Kingdom intensive care units. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:1939-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We described the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of prolongation of the prothrombin time in critically ill patients using the international normalized ratio to standardize data and explored its ..
  16. Arjal R, Trotter J. International normalized ratio of prothrombin time in the model for end-stage liver disease score: an unreliable measure. Clin Liver Dis. 2009;13:67-71 pubmed publisher
  17. Favaloro E, Adcock D. Standardization of the INR: how good is your laboratory's INR and can it be improved?. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2008;34:593-603 pubmed publisher
    The prothrombin time (PT) assay is the most clinically ordered coagulation test and is most often used for monitoring of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy (e.g...
  18. Barrett Y, Wang Z, Frost C, Shenker A. Clinical laboratory measurement of direct factor Xa inhibitors: anti-Xa assay is preferable to prothrombin time assay. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:1263-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the suitability of commercially available prothrombin time/international normalised ratio (PT/INR) and anti-FXa activity assays to measure FXa inhibitors in plasma...
  19. Karlsson M, Ternstrom L, Hyllner M, Baghaei F, Nilsson S, Jeppsson A. Plasma fibrinogen level, bleeding, and transfusion after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a prospective observational study. Transfusion. 2008;48:2152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..therapy), preoperative laboratory variables (platelet [PLT] count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen), postoperative bleeding volume, and transfusions during hospital stay were registered...
  20. Casella S, Giannetto C, Fazio F, Giudice E, Piccione G. Assessment of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen concentration on equine plasma samples following different storage conditions. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:674-8 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of different storage conditions on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen concentration in clinical samples from healthy horses...
  21. Ji S, Jun J, Xiaohan Y, Xia H, Xiaolei W, Xiaoqing Y, et al. Study on construction of nano tPA plasmid to prevent thrombosis after mechanical valve replacement in dogs. J Surg Res. 2011;168:e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of this gene on the survival of dogs, anticoagulation (prothrombin time, INR and D-dimer contents, thrombosis in heart), and the expressions of tPA were observed...
  22. Alesci S, Borggrefe M, Dempfle C. Effect of freezing method and storage at -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C on prothrombin time, aPTT and plasma fibrinogen levels. Thromb Res. 2009;124:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen using a kinetic fibrinogen assay, PT-..
  23. Holland L, Sarode R. Should plasma be transfused prophylactically before invasive procedures?. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006;13:447-51 pubmed
    ..The use of sensitive reagents (especially for prothrombin time) has resulted in increased incidence of abnormal preprocedure coagulation screening test results - tests that ..
  24. Stanworth S, Walsh T, Prescott R, Lee R, Watson D, Wyncoll D. A national study of plasma use in critical care: clinical indications, dose and effect on prothrombin time. Crit Care. 2011;15:R108 pubmed publisher
    ..5, or equivalent prothrombin time (PT)), FFP and cryoprecipitate use and indications for transfusion. Of 1,923 admissions, 12...
  25. Park M, Martini W, Dubick M, Salinas J, Butenas S, Kheirabadi B, et al. Thromboelastography as a better indicator of hypercoagulable state after injury than prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time. J Trauma. 2009;67:266-75; discussion 275-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood samples were drawn on days 0 through 7. Laboratory tests included prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), levels of activated factor XI, D-dimer, protein C percent ..
  26. Abdel Wahab O, Healy B, Dzik W. Effect of fresh-frozen plasma transfusion on prothrombin time and bleeding in patients with mild coagulation abnormalities. Transfusion. 2006;46:1279-85 pubmed
    ..All patients transfused with FFP for a pretransfusion prothrombin time (PT) between 13.1 and 17 seconds (international normalized ratio [INR], 1.1-1...
  27. Samama M, Martinoli J, LeFlem L, Guinet C, Plu Bureau G, Depasse F, et al. Assessment of laboratory assays to measure rivaroxaban--an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor. Thromb Haemost. 2010;103:815-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time (PT), dilute PT, and activated partial thromboplastin time was observed with rivaroxaban...
  28. Dunbar N, Chandler W. Thrombin generation in trauma patients. Transfusion. 2009;49:2652-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged prothrombin time (PT), more than 18 seconds, or an international normalized ratio of greater than 1...
  29. Mueck W, Borris L, Dahl O, Haas S, Huisman M, Kakkar A, et al. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once- and twice-daily rivaroxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing total hip replacement. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:453-61 pubmed
    ..The area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 18-30% higher in the od than in the bid study. Prothrombin time in seconds (samples from 1181 patients) correlated with rivaroxaban plasma concentrations in a linear fashion ..
  30. Johansson P, Stensballe J, Rosenberg I, Hilsløv T, Jørgensen L, Secher N. Proactive administration of platelets and plasma for patients with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: evaluating a change in transfusion practice. Transfusion. 2007;47:593-8 pubmed massively transfused patients and those who survive have a higher platelet (PLT) count and a shorter prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) than nonsurvivors...
  31. Yuan S, Ferrell C, Chandler W. Comparing the prothrombin time INR versus the APTT to evaluate the coagulopathy of acute trauma. Thromb Res. 2007;120:29-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, in the acute trauma setting, the PT/INR cutoff is a more reliable indicator of reduced coagulation factor levels. ..
  32. Frieser M, Lindner A, Meyer S, Westerteicher M, Hansler J, Haendl T, et al. [Spectrum and bleeding complications of sonographically guided interventions of the liver and pancreas]. Ultraschall Med. 2009;30:168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Interventions with needles with a larger diameter seem to cause more complications. In search of potential complications, we examined 1923 sonographically guided interventions of the liver and pancreas in a retrospective analysis...
  33. de Azevedo T, Bezerra M, Santos M, Souza L, Marques C, Benevides N, et al. Heparinoids algal and their anticoagulant, hemorrhagic activities and platelet aggregation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2009;63:477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the activity of anticoagulant in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) tests was assessed in the fucoidan (TF), from seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, partially desulfated fucoidans (..
  34. Schols S, van der Meijden P, van Oerle R, Curvers J, Heemskerk J, Van Pampus E. Increased thrombin generation and fibrinogen level after therapeutic plasma transfusion: relation to bleeding. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the data suggest that thrombin generation and fibrinogen are independent determinants of the risk of perioperative bleeding in this patient group. ..
  35. Pragst I, Kaspereit F, Dörr B, Dickneite G. Prothrombin complex concentrate (Beriplex P/N) for control of bleeding after kidney trauma in a rabbit dilutional coagulopathy model. Thromb Res. 2010;125:272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In an animal model of dilutional coagulopathy and kidney trauma, PCC accelerated hemostasis and diminished blood loss compared with rFVIIa monotherapy. ..
  36. Toulon P, Ozier Y, Ankri A, Fléron M, Leroux G, Samama C. Point-of-care versus central laboratory coagulation testing during haemorrhagic surgery. A multicenter study. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:394-401 pubmed
    ..When expressed in activity percentage, POC-based prothrombin time (PT) was in good agreement with central laboratory test result with coefficient of correlation in the range ..
  37. Tripodi A, Chantarangkul V, Guinet C, Samama M. The International Normalized Ratio calibrated for rivaroxaban has the potential to normalize prothrombin time results for rivaroxaban-treated patients: results of an in vitro study. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:226-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Kubitza D, Becka M, Zuehlsdorf M, Mueck W. Body weight has limited influence on the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, or pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;47:218-26 pubmed
    ..increased by 24% in subjects weighing < or = 50 kg, resulting in a small (15%) increase in prolongation of prothrombin time, which was not considered clinically relevant...
  39. Halpern C, Reilly P, Turtz A, Stein S. Traumatic coagulopathy: the effect of brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2008;25:997-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral hematologic studies may not reflect persistent coagulopathy in cerebral circulation. ..
  40. Urwyler N, Staub L, Beran D, Deplazes M, Lord S, Alberio L, et al. Is perioperative point-of-care prothrombin time testing accurate compared to the standard laboratory test?. Thromb Haemost. 2009;102:779-86 pubmed publisher
    There is no accepted way of measuring prothrombin time without time loss for patients undergoing major surgery who are at risk of intraoperative dilution and consumption coagulopathy due to bleeding and volume replacement with ..
  41. Kemkes Matthes B, Fischer R, Peetz D. Influence of 8 and 24-h storage of whole blood at ambient temperature on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thrombin time, antithrombin and D-dimer. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011;22:215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Aliquots were centrifuged and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), thrombin time (TT) ..
  42. Warkentin T, Greinacher A, Craven S, Dewar L, Sheppard J, Ofosu F. Differences in the clinically effective molar concentrations of four direct thrombin inhibitors explain their variable prothrombin time prolongation. Thromb Haemost. 2005;94:958-64 pubmed
    ..inhibitors (DTIs), lepirudin, bivalirudin, argatroban, and melagatran, differ in their ability to prolong the prothrombin time (PT)...
  43. Than H, Loh J, Sum C, Ng H. Clinical utility of anti-Xa monitoring and differential sensitivity of prothrombin time assays: an illustrated case report. J Clin Pathol. 2015;68:318-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Kaczynski J, Wilczynska M, Fligelstone L, Hilton J. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of the acute coagulopathy of trauma and shock: a literature review. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2015;41:259-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Review of the literature. The standard laboratory tests, including prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, are unreliable and describe only an isolated fragment of the ..
  45. Lakomkin N, Sathiyakumar V, Dodd A, Jahangir A, Whiting P, Obremskey W, et al. Pre-operative labs: Wasted dollars or predictors of post-operative cardiac and septic events in orthopaedic trauma patients?. Injury. 2016;47:1217-21 pubmed publisher
    ..BUN, creatinine, albumin, bilirubin, SGOT, alkaline phosphatase, white count, hematocrit, platelet count, prothrombin time, INR, and partial thromboplastin time...
  46. Montagnana M, Danese E, Salvagno G, Lippi G. Short-term effect of dark chocolate consumption on routine haemostasis testing. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017;68:613-616 pubmed publisher
    ..chocolate ingestion and 4?h afterwards, for assessment of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen. A significant increase of triglycerides (1.4?±?0.6 versus 1.0?±?0.5?mmol/L; p?<?...
  47. Hendrickson J, Shaz B, Pereira G, Atkins E, Johnson K, Bao G, et al. Coagulopathy is prevalent and associated with adverse outcomes in transfused pediatric trauma patients. J Pediatr. 2012;160:204-209.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..An abnormal prothrombin time was found in 72%, partial thromboplastin time in 38%, fibrinogen in 52%, hemoglobin in 58%, and platelet ..
  48. Amanatullah D, Lopez M, Gosselin R, Gupta M. Case report: artificial elevation of prothrombin time by telavancin. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013;471:332-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of the patient's medication history and prescriber information revealed that telavancin may interfere with prothrombin time (PT/INR) testing...
  49. Mohamadnejad M, Alimoghaddam K, Bagheri M, Ashrafi M, Abdollahzadeh L, Akhlaghpoor S, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in decompensated cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2013;33:1490-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies with higher number of patients are warranted to better clarify the impact of MSC infusion through peripheral vein or portal vein in cirrhosis. ..
  50. Choi J, Kim D, Kim S, Kim S. Purification and partial characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme from the fruiting body of the medicinal and edible mushroom Pleurotus ferulae. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2017;47:539-546 pubmed publisher
    ..In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time assays, the enzyme strongly prolonged the APTT, which detects an activity of intrinsic and common pathways...
  51. Guo Y, Li F, Gong M, Zhang L, Wang J, Xiao X, et al. Short-term efficacy of treating hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure based on cold pattern differentiation with hot herbs: A randomized controlled trial. Chin J Integr Med. 2016;22:573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..differences in aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and prothrombin time between the two groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The complications of ascites (?(2)=9.033, P=0...
  52. Park K, Huh K, Hwang I, Kwon J, Kwon J, Kim G, et al. Multi-center study regarding the risk factors for bleeding in gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Hepatogastroenterology. 2013;60:235-9 pubmed
    ..4±13.1 years. In univariate analysis, location of jejunum, prolonged prothrombin time, presence of surface dimpling in CT, cellular pleomorphism and positivity of S100 was significantly dominant ..
  53. Fujiwara K, Toriyabe T, Fukuda Y, Yokosuka O. Clinical and histological recovery from "life-threatening" severe acute alcoholic hepatic failure with complete hepatofugal portal blood flow. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2011;4:39-42 pubmed publisher
    ..His liver function tests showed hyperbilirubinemia and prolonged prothrombin time, and a computed tomography scan and ultrasound showed liver atrophy and massive ascites...