erythrocyte indices


Summary: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).

Top Publications

  1. Karabulut A, Uyarel H, Uzunlar B, Cakmak M. Elevated red cell distribution width level predicts worse postinterventional thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow reflecting abnormal reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction treated with a primary coronary intervention. Coron Artery Dis. 2012;23:68-72 pubmed publisher
  2. Myojo M, Iwata H, Kohro T, Sato H, Kiyosue A, Ando J, et al. Prognostic implication of macrocytosis on adverse outcomes after coronary intervention. Atherosclerosis. 2012;221:148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..8% vs. 47.1%, P=0.005). The results of the study indicate that measuring mean corpuscular volume (MCV) as a qualitative index of erythrocytes might be helpful for a prognostic risk stratification of patients subjected to PCI. ..
  3. Tsuboi S, Miyauchi K, Kasai T, Ogita M, Dohi T, Miyazaki T, et al. Impact of red blood cell distribution width on long-term mortality in diabetic patients after percutaneous coronary intervention. Circ J. 2013;77:456-61 pubmed
    ..56; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-6.62; P=0.025). Increased RDW was significantly associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in diabetic patients after PCI. ..
  4. Hu Z, Sun Y, Wang Q, Han Z, Huang Y, Liu X, et al. Red blood cell distribution width is a potential prognostic index for liver disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013;51:1403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..29 (1.67-105.68). RDW is a potential prognostic index for liver disease. ..
  5. Afonso L, Zalawadiya S, Veeranna V, Panaich S, Niraj A, Jacob S. Relationship between red cell distribution width and microalbuminuria: a population-based study of multiethnic representative US adults. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;119:c277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..An interaction between chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, neurohumoral overactivity and endothelial dysfunction may explain this association and the attendant elevated CV/renal risk. ..
  6. Zalawadiya S, Veeranna V, Panaich S, Afonso L. Red cell distribution width and risk of peripheral artery disease: analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Vasc Med. 2012;17:155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). In conclusion, higher levels of RDW are independently associated with a higher risk of PAD and can significantly improve the risk prediction beyond that estimated by ACC/AHA-defined PAD screening criteria. ..
  7. Beyazit Y, Kekilli M, Ibis M, Kurt M, Sayilir A, Onal I, et al. Can red cell distribution width help to discriminate benign from malignant biliary obstruction? A retrospective single center analysis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59:1469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients in whom biliary obstruction is suspected, an elevated RDW value may be a reliable additional predictor for differentiating the underlying etiology of biliary obstruction. ..
  8. Celikbilek A, Zararsiz G, Atalay T, Tanik N. Red cell distribution width in migraine. Int J Lab Hematol. 2013;35:620-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). However, RDW was detected to positively correlate with attack duration in migraineurs (P < 0.05). Elevated RDW is associated with migraine requiring further efforts to clarify the actual underlying pathophysiology. ..
  9. Gul M, Uyarel H, Ergelen M, Karacimen D, Ugur M, Turer A, et al. The relationship between red blood cell distribution width and the clinical outcomes in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a 3-year follow-up. Coron Artery Dis. 2012;23:330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-7.78, P=0.01). RDW is a readily available clinical laboratory value associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality in NSTEMI and UAP. ..

More Information


  1. Patel K, Mohanty J, Kanapuru B, Hesdorffer C, Ershler W, Rifkind J. Association of the red cell distribution width with red blood cell deformability. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;765:211-216 pubmed publisher
    ..The resultant hypoxia may help to explain the previously reported increased risk for CVD events associated with elevated RDW. ..
  2. Dogdu O, Koc F, Kalay N, Yarlioglues M, Elcik D, Karayakali M, et al. Assessment of red cell distribution width (RDW) in patients with coronary artery ectasia. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2012;18:211-4 pubmed publisher
    ..001). This study demonstrates that RDW and hs-CRP were higher in the CAE group compared with the control group. These results show that RDW is a reliable, simple, and inexpensive marker for patients with CAE. ..
  3. Ma F, Li S, Li X, Liu J, Qing P, Guo Y, et al. Correlation of red cell distribution width with the severity of coronary artery disease: a large Chinese cohort study from a single center. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126:1053-7 pubmed
    ..0% and a specificity of 65.2%. RDW is associated with both presence of CAD and the severity of coronary stenosis, suggesting that it might be a readily available marker for the prediction of CAD and its severity. ..
  4. Ujszaszi A, Molnar M, Czira M, Novak M, Mucsi I. Renal function is independently associated with red cell distribution width in kidney transplant recipients: a potential new auxiliary parameter for the clinical evaluation of patients with chronic kidney disease. Br J Haematol. 2013;161:715-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower eGFR is associated with higher RDW, independent of comorbidity, iron deficiency, inflammation and nutritional status in kidney transplant recipients. ..
  5. Ren H, Hua Q, Quan M, Chen H, Hou H, Wang L, et al. Relationship between the red cell distribution width and the one-year outcomes in Chinese patients with stable angina pectoris. Intern Med. 2013;52:1769-74 pubmed
    ..001) during a one-year follow-up in patients with stable angina pectoris. The present study indicates that an elevated RDW value is associated with an increased risk of one-year adverse outcomes in patients with stable angina pectoris. ..
  6. Nathan S, Reffett T, Brown A, Fischer C, Shlobin O, Ahmad S, et al. The red cell distribution width as a prognostic indicator in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Chest. 2013;143:1692-1698 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are warranted to validate this as a biomarker for IPF outcomes, as well as to define the biologic basis for this association. ..
  7. Yu S, Cui H, Qin M, Liu T, Kong B, Zhao Q, et al. [Impact of red cell distribution width on outcome of 16 681 patients with chronic systolic heart failure]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2012;40:237-42 pubmed
    ..01) and heart rate (r = 0.379, P < 0.01). There is a J shape relationship between all-cause mortality and RDW. The elevation or decline of MCV with increased RDW is linked with increased all-cause mortality in CHF patients. ..
  8. Isik T, Kurt M, Ayhan E, Tanboga I, Ergelen M, Uyarel H. The impact of admission red cell distribution width on the development of poor myocardial perfusion after primary percutaneous intervention. Atherosclerosis. 2012;224:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01, <95% CI 1.00-1.02; p = 0.006) were independent predictors of mid-term mortality. A greater baseline RDW value was independently associated with the presence of electrocardiographic no-reflow. ..
  9. Veeranna V, Zalawadiya S, Panaich S, Patel K, Afonso L. Comparative analysis of red cell distribution width and high sensitivity C-reactive protein for coronary heart disease mortality prediction in multi-ethnic population: findings from the 1999-2004 NHANES. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:5156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..RDW may be considered a stronger biomarker for CHD death than hs-CRP and needs further prospective evaluation in CVD risk assessment. ..
  10. Seyhan E, Ozgül M, Tutar N, Ömür I, Uysal A, Altin S. Red blood cell distribution and survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD. 2013;10:416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24; p = 0.01), and presence of RVD (2.6; 95% CI, 1.19 to 5.8; p = 0.01) were independently related to mortality. Elevated RDW levels were associated with increased mortality risk in stable COPD patients. ..
  11. Emans M, Gaillard C, Pfister R, Tanck M, Boekholdt S, Wareham N, et al. Red cell distribution width is associated with physical inactivity and heart failure, independent of established risk factors, inflammation or iron metabolism; the EPIC-Norfolk study. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:3550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, RDW levels were associated with physical inactivity, but this did not influence the RDW-associated-risk of heart failure. ..
  12. Milić S, Mikolasević I, Radic M, Hauser G, Stimac D. Clinical utility of red cell distribution width in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Coll Antropol. 2011;35 Suppl 2:335-8 pubmed
    ..697). Our study showed that RDW had not any clinical value in differentiation of anemia neither in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis nor in severity of liver disease. ..
  13. Kim J, Kim K, Lee J, Jo Y, Rhee J, Kim T, et al. Red blood cell distribution width as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in out of hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2012;83:1248-52 pubmed publisher
    ..05-3.60; p=0.034) during 30-day post-resuscitation period. Other significant variables were age, initial rhythm and serum albumin. Initial RDW is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in post-resuscitation patients. ..
  14. Jo Y, Kim K, Lee J, Kang C, Kim T, Park H, et al. Red cell distribution width is a prognostic factor in severe sepsis and septic shock. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31:545-8 pubmed publisher
    ..57; 95% CI, 1.53-4.34). The area under the receiver operating curve of RDW was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.63-0.72). Red cell distribution width is associated with 28-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. ..
  15. Zorlu A, Bektasoglu G, Güven F, Dogan O, Gucuk E, Ege M, et al. Usefulness of admission red cell distribution width as a predictor of early mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, high RDW was associated with worse hemodynamic parameters, and RDW seems to aid in the risk stratification of patients with acute PE. ..
  16. Fujita B, Strodthoff D, Fritzenwanger M, Pfeil A, Ferrari M, Goebel B, et al. Altered red blood cell distribution width in overweight adolescents and its association with markers of inflammation. Pediatr Obes. 2013;8:385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..RDW potentially represents an additional and cost-effective tool to indicate inflammation. Future studies are needed to understand the differential influences of nutrition and overweight on RDW. ..
  17. Ding K, Shameer K, Jouni H, Masys D, Jarvik G, Kho A, et al. Genetic Loci implicated in erythroid differentiation and cell cycle regulation are associated with red blood cell traits. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87:461-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes in the erythroid differentiation and cell cycle regulation pathways influence interindividual variation in RBC indices. Our results provide insights into the molecular basis underlying variation in RBC traits. ..
  18. Tanindi A, Topal F, Topal F, Celik B. Red cell distribution width in patients with prehypertension and hypertension. Blood Press. 2012;21:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher RDW values are strongly correlated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. ..
  19. Aung N, Ling H, Cheng A, Aggarwal S, Flint J, Mendonca M, et al. Expansion of the red cell distribution width and evolving iron deficiency as predictors of poor outcome in chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:1997-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..An expanding RDW and evolving iron deficiency over time predict an amplified risk of death in CHF and should be utilised for risk stratification and/or therapeutically targeted to potentially improve outcomes. ..
  20. Annibale B, Capurso G, Chistolini A, D Ambra G, DiGiulio E, Monarca B, et al. Gastrointestinal causes of refractory iron deficiency anemia in patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Med. 2001;111:439-45 pubmed
    ..Gastrointestinal diseases that do not usually cause bleeding are frequently associated with iron deficiency anemia in patients without gastrointestinal symptom or other potential causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. ..
  21. Liangpunsakul S, Qi R, Crabb D, Witzmann F. Relationship between alcohol drinking and aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase (AST:ALT) ratio, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and apolipoprotein A1 and B in the U.S. population. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2010;71:249-52 pubmed
    ..More work is needed to find the novel marker(s) associated with risky alcohol drinking. ..
  22. Fukuta H, Ohte N, Mukai S, Saeki T, Asada K, Wakami K, et al. Elevated plasma levels of B-type natriuretic Peptide but not C-reactive protein are associated with higher red cell distribution width in patients with coronary artery disease. Int Heart J. 2009;50:301-12 pubmed
    ..001). In conclusion, elevated BNP levels are independently associated with higher RDW in patients with CAD. Neurohumoral activation may be a mechanistic link between increased RDW and adverse clinical outcomes in this population. ..
  23. Kotisaari S, Romppanen J, Penttilä I, Punnonen K. The Advia 120 red blood cells and reticulocyte indices are useful in diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia. Eur J Haematol. 2002;68:150-6 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the advanced RBC and reticulocyte indices may prove to be useful tools in the evaluation of iron status and diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia. ..
  24. Lippi G, Targher G, Montagnana M, Salvagno G, Zoppini G, Guidi G. Relation between red blood cell distribution width and inflammatory biomarkers in a large cohort of unselected outpatients. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133:628-32 pubmed publisher
    ..If confirmed in future follow-up studies, this association might provide a rationale to introduce the easy, inexpensive RDW in algorithms for cardiovascular risk prediction. ..
  25. Hock B, Schwarz M, Domke I, Grunert V, Wuertemberger M, Schiemann U, et al. Validity of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and mean corpuscular erythrocyte volume (MCV) as biomarkers for chronic alcohol abuse: a study in patients with alcohol dependence and liver disorders of non-. Addiction. 2005;100:1477-86 pubmed
    ..CDT is of high diagnostic value to support diagnosis of alcohol-use disorders. The specificity of this marker in patient groups with liver disorders is superior to the biomarkers gamma-GT and MCV. ..
  26. Viswanath D, Hegde R, Murthy V, Nagashree S, Shah R. Red cell distribution width in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Indian J Pediatr. 2001;68:1117-9 pubmed
    ..In the diagnosis of mild and moderate iron deficiency anemia, RDW had a higher sensitivity than PS. Red cell morphology, Hb, PCV and RDW showed significant improvement after iron-therapy. ..
  27. Wang F, Pan W, Pan S, Ge J, Wang S, Chen M. Red cell distribution width as a novel predictor of mortality in ICU patients. Ann Med. 2011;43:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). we found a graded independent relation between higher RDW and adverse outcomes in ICU patients. RDW has the potentially clinical utility to predict outcome in ICU patients. ..
  28. Bovy C, Gothot A, Krzesinski J, Beguin Y. Mature erythrocyte indices: new markers of iron availability. Haematologica. 2005;90:549-51 pubmed
    This study was aimed at evaluating mature erythrocyte indices as new markers of iron status...
  29. Ioannou G, Spector J, Rockey D. Predictors of endoscopic and laboratory evaluation of iron deficiency anemia in hospitalized patients. South Med J. 2007;100:976-84 pubmed
    ..Patients found to have iron deficiency anemia who are FOBT-positive undergo endoscopic evaluation more frequently than FOBT-negative patients. ..
  30. Bazick H, Chang D, Mahadevappa K, Gibbons F, CHRISTOPHER K. Red cell distribution width and all-cause mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2011;39:1913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Red cell distribution width is commonly measured, inexpensive, and widely available and may reflect overall inflammation, oxidative stress, or arterial underfilling in the critically ill. ..
  31. Hampole C, Mehrotra A, Thenappan T, Gomberg Maitland M, Shah S. Usefulness of red cell distribution width as a prognostic marker in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 2009;104:868-72 pubmed publisher
    ..39 for NT-pro-BNP). Adding NT-pro-BNP to RDW did not improve the prediction of mortality. In conclusion, RDW is independently associated with death in patients with PH and performs better as a prognostic indicator than NT-pro-BNP. ..
  32. Ani C, Ovbiagele B. Elevated red blood cell distribution width predicts mortality in persons with known stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2009;277:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..38 and CI=1.41-4.01) and all-cause deaths (HR=2.0, CI=1.25-3.20). Elevated RDW is associated with stroke occurrence and strongly predicts both cardiovascular and all-cause deaths in persons with known stroke. ..
  33. Hamidi M, Zarrin A, Foroozesh M, Zarei N, Mohammadi Samani S. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of carrier erythrocytes for RES-targeted delivery of interferon-alpha 2b. Int J Pharm. 2007;341:125-33 pubmed
    ..All the tested in vitro characteristics showed significant, sometimes notable changes upon drug loading procedure, both with and without the drug. ..
  34. Lo K, Wilson J, Lange L, Folsom A, Galarneau G, Ganesh S, et al. Genetic association analysis highlights new loci that modulate hematological trait variation in Caucasians and African Americans. Hum Genet. 2011;129:307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show similarities but also differences in the genetic regulation of hematological traits in European- and African-derived populations, and highlight the role of natural selection in shaping these differences. ..
  35. Dabbah S, Hammerman H, Markiewicz W, Aronson D. Relation between red cell distribution width and clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, there is a graded, independent association between increased RDW and mortality after AMI. An increase in RDW during hospitalization also portends adverse clinical outcome. ..
  36. Thomas C, Lowry P, Franklin C, Weaver A, Myhre G, Mays D, et al. Erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume as a surrogate marker for 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentration monitoring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2003;9:237-45 pubmed
    ..Measurement of mean corpuscular volume is a simple and inexpensive alternative to measurement of 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations in patients treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. ..
  37. Heilmann L, Rath W, Pollow K. Fetal hemorheology in normal pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2005;32:183-90 pubmed
    ..9%. An elevated red cell aggregation was found in 2.8% (stasis) and 4.8% (low flow state), respectively. We conclude that in fetal blood the higher hematocrit and the presence of larger red cells do not cause impaired fetal hemorheology. ..
  38. Gunnarsson B, Thorsdottir I, Palsson G, Gretarsson S. Iron status at 1 and 6 years versus developmental scores at 6 years in a well-nourished affluent population. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:391-5 pubmed
  39. Catarino C, Rebelo I, Belo L, Rocha Pereira P, Rocha S, Bayer Castro E, et al. Erythrocyte changes in preeclampsia: relationship between maternal and cord blood erythrocyte damage. J Perinat Med. 2009;37:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show similarities between UCB and maternal RBC changes, as suggested by the correlations of markers of RBC damage. ..
  40. Uyarel H, Ergelen M, Cicek G, Kaya M, Ayhan E, Turkkan C, et al. Red cell distribution width as a novel prognostic marker in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Coron Artery Dis. 2011;22:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..703, 95% confidence interval: 1.208-6.048, P=0.016). A high admission RDW level in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI was associated with increased risk for in-hospital and long-term cardiovascular mortality. ..
  41. Pusic M, Dawyduk B, Mitchell D. Opportunistic screening for iron-deficiency in 6-36 month old children presenting to the Paediatric Emergency Department. BMC Pediatr. 2005;5:42 pubmed
    ..6; 95%CI: 4.0, 39) and age < or = 18 months (OR 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4, 13). Children who have had a CBC in the PED can be screened for iron deficiency at no additional cost. Physicians may be under-utilizing this information. ..
  42. Akarsu S, Taskin E, Yilmaz E, Yilmaz H, Kilic M, Aygun A. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia with intravenous iron preparations. Acta Haematol. 2006;116:51-7 pubmed
    ..Venous blood samples were taken at diagnosis, and after 1 week and 1, 2 and 3 months. Hb, hematocrit, erythrocyte indices (mean erythrocyte volume, mean erythrocyte Hb and mean erythrocyte Hb concentration), serum iron (SI) ..
  43. Adetifa I, Hill P, Jeffries D, Jackson Sillah D, Ibanga H, Bah G, et al. Haematological values from a Gambian cohort--possible reference range for a West African population. Int J Lab Hematol. 2009;31:615-22 pubmed publisher
    ..006). The mean and median values of haematological parameters in The Gambia are similar to other standards but the 90% reference range for each parameter encompasses lower values when compared with Western standards. ..
  44. Oh J, Kang S, Hong N, Choi J, Lee S, Park S, et al. Relation between red cell distribution width with echocardiographic parameters in patients with acute heart failure. J Card Fail. 2009;15:517-22 pubmed publisher
    ..038). We found a novel relation between higher levels of RDW and elevated E/E' in patients with AHF. This novel finding raises the possibility that a simple marker, RDW may be associated with elevated LVFP in patients with AHF. ..
  45. Cavusoglu E, Chopra V, Gupta A, Battala V, Poludasu S, Eng C, et al. Relation between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and all-cause mortality at two years in an unselected population referred for coronary angiography. Int J Cardiol. 2010;141:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that elevated RDW is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in an unselected population of male patients across a broad spectrum of risk (including ACS) referred for coronary angiography. ..
  46. Ljung T, Bäck R, Hellstrom Lindberg E. Hypochromic red blood cells in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: effects of treatment with hemopoietic growth factors. Haematologica. 2004;89:1446-53 pubmed
    ..Hence, the finding of hypochromic red cells should not routinely be interpreted as a marker for Epo-induced functional iron deficiency in MDS. ..
  47. Capurso G, Baccini F, Osborn J, Panzuto F, Di Giulio E, Delle Fave G, et al. Can patient characteristics predict the outcome of endoscopic evaluation of iron deficiency anemia: a multiple logistic regression analysis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;59:766-71 pubmed
    ..EGD should be performed first in younger patients, particularly those with a mild decrease in Hb and a negative fecal occult blood test. ..
  48. Patel K, Semba R, Ferrucci L, Newman A, Fried L, Wallace R, et al. Red cell distribution width and mortality in older adults: a meta-analysis. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..21-1.44). RDW is a routinely reported test that is a powerful predictor of mortality in community-dwelling older adults with and without age-associated diseases. The biologic mechanisms underlying this association merit investigation. ..
  49. Domellöf M, Dewey K, Lonnerdal B, Cohen R, Hernell O. The diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency in infants should be reevaluated. J Nutr. 2002;132:3680-6 pubmed
    ..Hb, MCV and ZPP at 6 mo as well as growth variables predicted the Hb response at 6-9 mo, but ferritin and TfR at 6 mo did not. We conclude that there is need for a reevaluation of the definitions of ID and IDA in infants. ..
  50. Aulakh R, Sohi I, Singh T, Kakkar N. Red cell distribution width (RDW) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency with microcytic hypochromic anemia. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0% and 53.4% and a positive and negative predictive value of 63.0% and 72.2% respectively. RDW has a limited specificity for diagnosis of IDA among children with microcytic hypochromic anemia. ..
  51. Muncie H, Campbell J. Alpha and beta thalassemia. Am Fam Physician. 2009;80:339-44 pubmed
    ..Persons with the thalassemia trait have a normal life expectancy. Persons with beta thalassemia major often die from cardiac complications of iron overload by 30 years of age. ..
  52. Beutler E, West C. Hematologic differences between African-Americans and whites: the roles of iron deficiency and alpha-thalassemia on hemoglobin levels and mean corpuscular volume. Blood. 2005;106:740-5 pubmed
    ..1% and 2.77% and to 4.29% and 3.6%, respectively. Physicians need to take into account that the same reference standards for hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and TS and the white blood cell count do not apply to all ethnic groups. ..
  53. Patel K, Ferrucci L, Ershler W, Longo D, Guralnik J. Red blood cell distribution width and the risk of death in middle-aged and older adults. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Red blood cell distribution width is a widely available test that is a strong predictor of mortality in the general population of adults 45 years or older. ..