bleeding time


Summary: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.

Top Publications

  1. Fabre J, Nguyen M, LaTour A, Keifer J, Audoly L, Coffman T, et al. Decreased platelet aggregation, increased bleeding time and resistance to thromboembolism in P2Y1-deficient mice. Nat Med. 1999;5:1199-202 pubmed
    ..In vivo, the lack of P2Y1 expression increased bleeding time and protected from collagen- and ADP-induced thromboembolism...
  2. Alonso Martin S, Nowakowski A, Larrucea S, Fernández D, Vilar Egea M, Ayuso M, et al. Overexpression of podocalyxin in megakaryocytes and platelets decreases the bleeding time and enhances the agonist-induced aggregation of platelets. Thromb Res. 2010;125:e300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The transgenic mice showed a phenotype characterized by decreased bleeding time, mild rebleeding and enhanced platelets aggregation upon agonist stimulation...
  3. Teng R, Butler K. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, tolerability and safety of single ascending doses of ticagrelor, a reversibly binding oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Ticagrelor was well tolerated, with no serious or dose-related adverse events or notable changes in laboratory values observed. ..
  4. Philipp C, Miller C, Faiz A, Dilley A, Michaels L, Ayers C, et al. Screening women with menorrhagia for underlying bleeding disorders: the utility of the platelet function analyser and bleeding time. Haemophilia. 2005;11:497-503 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the utility of the platelet function analyser (PFA-100) and bleeding time (BT) as initial screening tests for underlying bleeding disorders in women with menorrhagia...
  5. Lockyer S, Okuyama K, Begum S, Le S, Sun B, Watanabe T, et al. GPVI-deficient mice lack collagen responses and are protected against experimentally induced pulmonary thromboembolism. Thromb Res. 2006;118:371-80 pubmed mice to result in complete protection against arterial thrombosis, without significant prolongation of bleeding time. GPVI may therefore represent a useful antithrombotic target...
  6. Dereska N, McLemore E, Tessier D, Bash D, Brophy C. Short-term, moderate dosage Vitamin E supplementation may have no effect on platelet aggregation, coagulation profile, and bleeding time in healthy individuals. J Surg Res. 2006;132:121-9 pubmed
    ..dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate supplementation on platelet aggregation, coagulation profile, and simulated bleeding time in healthy individuals...
  7. Wong P, Watson C, Crain E. Arterial antithrombotic and bleeding time effects of apixaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, in combination with antiplatelet therapy in rabbits. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:1736-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies were conducted in rabbit models of electrically induced carotid artery thrombosis and cuticle bleeding time (BT). Apixaban 0.04 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) h(-1) or aspirin 1 mg kg(-1) h(-1) was infused intravenous (i.v...
  8. Hougardy D, Egberts T, van der Graaf F, Brenninkmeijer V, Derijks L. Serotonin transporter polymorphism and bleeding time during SSRI therapy. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65:761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the association between SSRI therapy and prolonged bleeding time may not be related to the polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) investigated...
  9. Mihara K, Aoki T, Moriguchi A, Maeda M, Furuichi Y, Matsuoka N, et al. Prohemorrhagic and bleeding time activities of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, heparin, aspirin, and a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22:1362-73 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we compared the exacerbation of ICH and prolongation of bleeding time (BT) in guinea pigs with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), heparin, aspirin, and FK419, a ..

More Information


  1. Kirkeby A, Torup L, Bochsen L, Kjalke M, Abel K, Theilgaard Monch K, et al. High-dose erythropoietin alters platelet reactivity and bleeding time in rodents in contrast to the neuroprotective variant carbamyl-erythropoietin (CEPO). Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:720-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased platelet reactivity was paralleled by a decreased bleeding time after tail transection in rats...
  2. Quiroga T, Goycoolea M, Panes O, Aranda E, Martinez C, Belmont S, et al. High prevalence of bleeders of unknown cause among patients with inherited mucocutaneous bleeding. A prospective study of 280 patients and 299 controls. Haematologica. 2007;92:357-65 pubmed
    ..Thirteen (11.5%) patients had combined defects. The remaining 167(59.6%) patients had BUC, with prolonged bleeding time in 18.6% as their only abnormality. All these disorders, including BUC, were clinically undistinguishable...
  3. Wåhlander K, Eriksson Lepkowska M, Nyström P, Eriksson U, Sarich T, Badimon J, et al. Antithrombotic effects of ximelagatran plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel plus ASA in a human ex vivo arterial thrombosis model. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:447-53 pubmed
    ..0010). Both drug combinations were well tolerated. Oral ximelagatran plus ASA has a greater antithrombotic effect in this human ex vivo thrombosis model and a less pronounced prolongation of bleeding time than clopidogrel plus ASA.
  4. Guzin K, Goynumer G, Gokdagli F, Turkgeldi E, Gunduz G, Kayabasoglu F. The effect of magnesium sulfate treatment on blood biochemistry and bleeding time in patients with severe preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:399-402 pubmed publisher
    ..After magnesium sulfate therapy; creatinine levels are decreased (p < 0.05), bleeding time is increased and serum magnesium levels are increased (p < 0...
  5. Segura D, Monreal L. Poor reproducibility of template bleeding time in horses. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:238-41 pubmed publisher
    Template bleeding time (TBT) is considered to be a useful test for detecting platelet function disorders and the effect of platelet-activating drugs, but studies in human medicine have concluded that the test has poor reproducibility and ..
  6. Kamal A, Tefferi A, Pruthi R. How to interpret and pursue an abnormal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time in adults. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:864-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, the bleeding time (BT) test, which is infrequently performed, is still available in certain institutions...
  7. Matsushita K, Morrell C, Lowenstein C. A novel class of fusion polypeptides inhibits exocytosis. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:1137-44 pubmed
    ..Control peptides have no effect on exocytosis. TAT-NSF inhibitors administered to mice prolong the bleeding time. Blood concentrations of these TAT-NSF peptides rapidly decrease within 5 min after injection and then remain ..
  8. Marx I, Lenting P, Adler T, Pendu R, Christophe O, Denis C. Correction of bleeding symptoms in von Willebrand factor-deficient mice by liver-expressed von Willebrand factor mutants. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Factor VIII activity was normalized in Vwf-/- mice injected with mvWF cDNA and multimerization was achieved. Bleeding time was corrected after injection of WT mvWF cDNA in Vwf-/- mice whereas noninjected mice did not stop bleeding...
  9. Eberle N, Mischke R. Influence of a cyclic combination chemotherapeutic protocol on primary haemostasis in dogs suffering from malignant lymphoma. Vet J. 2010;183:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..At different time points during the first 4 weeks of induction, platelet count, capillary bleeding time, analysis of the platelet function using the platelet function analyser PFA-100, and platelet aggregation by ..
  10. Rayes J, Hollestelle M, Legendre P, Marx I, de Groot P, Christophe O, et al. Mutation and ADAMTS13-dependent modulation of disease severity in a mouse model for von Willebrand disease type 2B. Blood. 2010;115:4870-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, both mutants did not support correction of bleeding time or arterial vessel occlusion in a thrombosis model...
  11. Husted S, Emanuelsson H, Heptinstall S, Sandset P, Wickens M, Peters G. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the oral reversible P2Y12 antagonist AZD6140 with aspirin in patients with atherosclerosis: a double-blind comparison to clopidogrel with aspirin. Eur Heart J. 2006;27:1038-47 pubmed
    ..AZD6140 100 and 200 mg bid were well tolerated and were superior to AZD6140 50 mg bid and clopidogrel 75 mg qd with regard to antiplatelet efficacy. ..
  12. Romlin B, Petruson K, Nilsson K. Moderate superficial hypothermia prolongs bleeding time in humans. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:198-201 pubmed
    ..the hypothesis that mild local hypothermia in healthy volunteers with preserved core temperature increased bleeding time. A secondary aim was to evaluate if local cooling influenced whole blood coagulation measured by ..
  13. Shannon O, Uekötter A, Flock J. Extracellular fibrinogen binding protein, Efb, from Staphylococcus aureus as an antiplatelet agent in vivo. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:927-31 pubmed
    ..Pre-treatment with Efb resulted in a significant prolongation of bleeding time in a mouse model...
  14. Choudhri T, Hoh B, Zerwes H, Prestigiacomo C, Kim S, Connolly E, et al. Reduced microvascular thrombosis and improved outcome in acute murine stroke by inhibiting GP IIb/IIIa receptor-mediated platelet aggregation. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1301-10 pubmed
    ..GPI 562 caused a dose-dependent increase in tail vein bleeding time, but intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was not significantly increased at therapeutic doses; however, there was ..
  15. Thomas D, Mannon R, Mannon P, LaTour A, Oliver J, Hoffman M, et al. Coagulation defects and altered hemodynamic responses in mice lacking receptors for thromboxane A2. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1994-2001 pubmed
    ..In summary, Tp-/- mice have a mild bleeding disorder and altered vascular responses to TXA2 and arachidonic acid. Our studies suggest that most of the recognized functions of TXA2 are mediated by the single known Tp gene locus. ..
  16. Nobukata H, Katsuki Y, Ishikawa T, Inokuma M, Shibutani Y. Effect of dienogest on bleeding time, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation in female rats. Toxicol Lett. 1999;104:93-101 pubmed
    We investigated the effect of dienogest on bleeding time, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation in female rats compared with that of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and danazol, in order to elucidate the reason for ..
  17. Massberg S, Konrad I, Bültmann A, Schulz C, Münch G, Peluso M, et al. Soluble glycoprotein VI dimer inhibits platelet adhesion and aggregation to the injured vessel wall in vivo. FASEB J. 2004;18:397-9 pubmed
    ..These findings further substantiate the critical role of the collagen receptor GPVI in the initiation of thrombus formation at sites of vascular injury and identify soluble GPVI as a promising antithrombotic strategy. ..
  18. Nieswandt B, Brakebusch C, Bergmeier W, Schulte V, Bouvard D, Mokhtari Nejad R, et al. Glycoprotein VI but not alpha2beta1 integrin is essential for platelet interaction with collagen. EMBO J. 2001;20:2120-30 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Cre/loxP-mediated loss of beta1 integrin on platelets has no significant effect on the bleeding time in mice...
  19. Enjyoji K, Sevigny J, Lin Y, Frenette P, Christie P, Esch J, et al. Targeted disruption of cd39/ATP diphosphohydrolase results in disordered hemostasis and thromboregulation. Nat Med. 1999;5:1010-7 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate a dual role for adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase in modulating hemostasis and thrombotic reactions. ..
  20. Singer A, Mynster C, McMahon B. The effect of IM ketorolac tromethamine on bleeding time: a prospective, interventional, controlled study. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21:441-3 pubmed
    ..5. The subjects' mean age was 31.6 and 7 (35%) were females. Bleeding time was increased from a mean baseline time of 3 minutes 34 seconds (+/- 1 min 20 sec) to a mean 4-hour ..
  21. Law D, DeGuzman F, Heiser P, Ministri Madrid K, Killeen N, Phillips D. Integrin cytoplasmic tyrosine motif is required for outside-in alphaIIbbeta3 signalling and platelet function. Nature. 1999;401:808-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they identify the integrin cytoplasmic tyrosine motif as a key mediator of beta-integrin signals and a potential target for new therapeutic agents. ..
  22. Stewart D, Kong M, Novokhatny V, Jesmok G, Marder V. Distinct dose-dependent effects of plasmin and TPA on coagulation and hemorrhage. Blood. 2003;101:3002-7 pubmed
    ..Plasmin has a 6-fold margin of safety, in contrast with TPA, which causes hemorrhage at thrombolytic dosages. ..
  23. O Brien E, Novak E, Keller S, Poirier C, Guenet J, Swank R. Molecular map of chromosome 19 including three genes affecting bleeding time: ep, ru, and bm. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:356-60 pubmed
    ..Several markers were found to be closely linked to the three genes and should be useful as entry points in their eventual molecular identification. ..
  24. Nieswandt B, Schulte V, Bergmeier W, Mokhtari Nejad R, Rackebrandt K, Cazenave J, et al. Long-term antithrombotic protection by in vivo depletion of platelet glycoprotein VI in mice. J Exp Med. 2001;193:459-69 pubmed
  25. Quiroga T, Goycoolea M, Munoz B, Morales M, Aranda E, Panes O, et al. Template bleeding time and PFA-100 have low sensitivity to screen patients with hereditary mucocutaneous hemorrhages: comparative study in 148 patients. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:892-8 pubmed
    We compared the template bleeding time (BT) and closure time (CT) in the PFA-100 as screening tests in 148 consecutive patients with unequivocal mucocutaneous bleeding and positive family history...
  26. Leon C, Hechler B, Freund M, Eckly A, Vial C, Ohlmann P, et al. Defective platelet aggregation and increased resistance to thrombosis in purinergic P2Y(1) receptor-null mice. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:1731-7 pubmed
    ..Hence, the P2Y(1) receptor plays an essential role in thrombotic states and represents a potential target for antithrombotic drugs. ..
  27. Fuse I, Higuchi W, Mito M, Aizawa Y. DDAVP normalized the bleeding time in patients with congenital platelet TxA2 receptor abnormality. Transfusion. 2003;43:563-7 pubmed
    ..However, it has not been clarified whether DDAVP is effective in correcting the bleeding time (BT) in this PLT disorder.
  28. Woulfe D, Jiang H, Morgans A, Monks R, Birnbaum M, Brass L. Defects in secretion, aggregation, and thrombus formation in platelets from mice lacking Akt2. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:441-50 pubmed
    ..The contribution of Akt1 is less evident except in the setting in which Akt2 is absent. ..
  29. Crow A, Leytin V, Starkey A, Rand M, Lazarus A. CD154 (CD40 ligand)-deficient mice exhibit prolonged bleeding time and decreased shear-induced platelet aggregates. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:850-2 pubmed
  30. Jirouskova M, Chereshnev I, Vaananen H, Degen J, Coller B. Antibody blockade or mutation of the fibrinogen gamma-chain C-terminus is more effective in inhibiting murine arterial thrombus formation than complete absence of fibrinogen. Blood. 2004;103:1995-2002 pubmed
  31. Dorsam R, Kunapuli S. Central role of the P2Y12 receptor in platelet activation. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:340-5 pubmed
    ..The P2Y(12) receptor, activated by ADP, plays a central role in platelet activation and is the target of P2Y(12) receptor antagonists that have proven therapeutic value. ..
  32. Hodivala Dilke K, McHugh K, Tsakiris D, Rayburn H, Crowley D, Ullman Cullere M, et al. Beta3-integrin-deficient mice are a model for Glanzmann thrombasthenia showing placental defects and reduced survival. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:229-38 pubmed
  33. Wang H, Chen S, Chen Y, Wang H, Wu H, Tang H, et al. The role of Tyro 3 subfamily receptors in the regulation of hemostasis and megakaryocytopoiesis. Haematologica. 2007;92:643-50 pubmed
    ..Single, double, and triple knock-out mice for the three Tyro 3 RTK were used in the study. Bleeding time, platelet count, megakaryocyte count, megakaryocyte ploidy, rate of proplatelet formation, platelet ..
  34. Annie Jeyachristy S, Geetha A, Surendran R. Changes in the level of cytosolic calcium, nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase activity during platelet aggregation: an in vitro study in platelets from normal subjects and those with cirrhosis. J Biosci. 2008;33:45-53 pubmed
  35. Cheepala S, Pitre A, Fukuda Y, Takenaka K, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. The ABCC4 membrane transporter modulates platelet aggregation. Blood. 2015;126:2307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This was extended in vivo where EHNA dramatically prolonged the bleeding time, but only in Abcc4 KO mice...
  36. Allende M, Molina E, Guruceaga E, Tamayo I, González Porras J, Gonzalez López T, et al. Hsp70 protects from stroke in atrial fibrillation patients by preventing thrombosis without increased bleeding risk. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;110:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, the tail bleeding time was unchanged. Accordingly, both TRC051384 and tubastatin A, i.e...
  37. Liu Y, Hu M, Luo D, Yue M, Wang S, Chen X, et al. Class III PI3K Positively Regulates Platelet Activation and Thrombosis via PI(3)P-Directed Function of NADPH Oxidase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:2075-2086 pubmed publisher
    ..VPS34 deficiency in platelets did not influence tail bleeding time. In a ferric chloride-induced mesenteric arteriolar thrombosis model, VPS34-/- mice exhibited a ..
  38. Dallob A, Luo W, Luk J, Ratcliffe L, Johnson Levonas A, Schwartz J, et al. The effects of laropiprant, a selective prostaglandin D? receptor 1 antagonist, on the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel or aspirin. Platelets. 2011;22:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bleeding time at 24 h post-dose (trough) was pre-specified as the primary pharmacodynamic endpoint in both studies...
  39. Ito Y, Noguchi K, Morishima Y, Yamaguchi K. Generation and characterization of tissue-type plasminogen activator transgenic rats. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2018;45:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, there was no statistically significant prolongation of bleeding time in a rat model of bleeding between the two strains...
  40. Fontayne A, Meiring M, Lamprecht S, Roodt J, Demarsin E, Barbeaux P, et al. The humanized anti-glycoprotein Ib monoclonal antibody h6B4-Fab is a potent and safe antithrombotic in a high shear arterial thrombosis model in baboons. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:670-7 pubmed
    ..We here investigated the antithrombotic properties, the effect on bleeding time and blood loss and initial pharmacokinetics of h6B4-Fab in baboons...
  41. Manfredi E, van Zaane B, Gerdes V, Brandjes D, Squizzato A. Hypothyroidism and acquired von Willebrand's syndrome: a systematic review. Haemophilia. 2008;14:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Even if bleeding episodes are mainly mild and mucocutaneous, blood transfusion, drug administration or surgical procedure may be required. ..
  42. Pusch G, Feher G, Kotai K, Tibold A, Gasztonyi B, Feher A, et al. Aspirin resistance: focus on clinical endpoints. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;52:475-84 pubmed publisher
  43. Azzam H, Goneim H, El Saddik A, Azmy E, Hassan M, El Sharawy S. The condensed MCMDM-1 VWD bleeding questionnaire as a predictor of bleeding disorders in women with unexplained menorrhagia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012;23:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..5, 85, 90, 89 and 86%, respectively. Bleeding score was strongly correlated to bleeding time in women with possible Glanzmann's thrombasthenia...
  44. Wan S, Chen P, Chen C, Lai Y, Chu Y, Hung C, et al. Therapeutic Effects of Monoclonal Antibody against Dengue Virus NS1 in a STAT1 Knockout Mouse Model of Dengue Infection. J Immunol. 2017;199:2834-2844 pubmed publisher
    ..anti-DJ NS1 Abs reduced viral Ag expression at skin inoculation sites and shortened DENV-induced prolonged bleeding time. We also investigated the therapeutic effects of anti-NS1 mAb...
  45. Sugimoto K, Saito K, Kojima K, Tsutaya S, Yasujima M. [Current realities and problems in the clinical laboratory as a medical care support department at the Hirosaki University Hospital]. Rinsho Byori. 2011;59:870-8 pubmed
  46. Kozik T, Shah S, Bhattacharyya M, Franklin T, Connolly T, Chien W, et al. Cardiovascular responses to energy drinks in a healthy population: The C-energy study. Am J Emerg Med. 2016;34:1205-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if energy drinks alter; blood pressure, electrolytes, activated bleeding time (ACT), and/or cardiac responses measured with a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter...
  47. Honda Y, Kamisato C, Morishima Y. Prevention of arterial thrombosis by edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor in rats: monotherapy and in combination with antiplatelet agents. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;786:246-252 pubmed publisher
    ..Arterial thrombosis was induced by topical application of 15% ferric chloride to rat abdominal aortas. Bleeding time was measured by a tail incision method...
  48. Ding X, Liu T, Xie Z, Zhao Q, Cao Y, Liu X, et al. A Naphthalenic Derivative ND-1 Inhibits Thrombus Formation by Interfering the Binding of Fibrinogen to Integrin ?IIb?3. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:8587164 pubmed publisher
    ..decreased thrombus formation in an arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats and slightly prolonged bleeding time in a tail cutting model in mice...
  49. Supandji M, Ong B, Seow K. Total knee replacement in a patient taking clopidogrel. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2005;33:410-1 pubmed
  50. Krishnan B, Shenoy N, Alexander M. Exodontia and antiplatelet therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:2063-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Preoperative bleeding time and clotting time were determined in all patients...
  51. Szemraj J, Zakrzeska A, Brown G, Stankiewicz A, Gromotowicz A, Grędziński T, et al. New derivative of staphylokinase SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul exerts thrombolytic effects in the arterial thrombosis model in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:1169-79 pubmed
    ..The bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in the animals that ..
  52. Yang Y, Shi Z, Reheman A, Jin J, Li C, Wang Y, et al. Plant food delphinidin-3-glucoside significantly inhibits platelet activation and thrombosis: novel protective roles against cardiovascular diseases. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37323 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs. ..
  53. Arrieta Blanco J, Bartolomé Villar B, Juzgado A, Mourelle Martínez R. Assessment of PFA-100 system for the measurement of bleeding time in oral surgery. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11:E514-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, different systems have been proposed to assess bleeding time, one of them being the PFA-100 device, which we present in this paper...