chlorzoxazone

Summary

Summary: A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)

Top Publications

  1. Baek H, Bae S, Lee M, Sohn Y. Pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone in rats with diabetes: Induction of CYP2E1 on 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formation. J Pharm Sci. 2006;95:2452-62 pubmed
    Pharmacokinetic parameters of chlorzoxazone (CZX) and its main metabolite, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (OH-CZX), were compared after intravenous (20 mg/kg) and oral (50 mg/kg) administration of CZX in rat model of diabetes induced by alloxan (..
  2. Court M, von Moltke L, Shader R, Greenblatt D. Biotransformation of chlorzoxazone by hepatic microsomes from humans and ten other mammalian species. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1997;18:213-26 pubmed
    The 6-hydroxylation of chlorzoxazone (CLZ) is currently being used in both in vivo and in vitro studies to quantify cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in humans...
  3. Rosenfeld R, Garcin E, Panda K, Andersson G, Aberg A, Wallace A, et al. Conformational changes in nitric oxide synthases induced by chlorzoxazone and nitroindazoles: crystallographic and computational analyses of inhibitor potency. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13915-25 pubmed
    ..new X-ray crystallographic structures of inducible and endothelial NOS oxygenase domains cocrystallized with chlorzoxazone and four nitroindazoles: 5-nitroindazole, 6-nitroindazole, 7-nitroindazole, and 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole...
  4. Gao N, Zou D, Qiao H. Concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of Baicalin on the plasma protein binding and metabolism of chlorzoxazone, a CYP2E1 probe substrate, in rats in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53038 pubmed publisher
    ..concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding and metabolism of chlorzoxazone (CZN), a model CYP2E1 probe substrate, in rats in vitro and in vivo...
  5. Khemawoot P, Yokogawa K, Shimada T, Miyamoto K. Obesity-induced increase of CYP2E1 activity and its effect on disposition kinetics of chlorzoxazone in Zucker rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73:155-62 pubmed
    ..to investigate the induction of CYP2E1 in obese Zucker rats and its effect on the disposition kinetics of chlorzoxazone (CZX)...
  6. Chiu C, Chang Y, Chung W, Yang L, Ho H, Chen M, et al. Annular leucocytoclastic vasculitis induced by chlorzoxazone. Br J Dermatol. 2004;150:153 pubmed
  7. Ernstgård L, Gullstrand E, Johanson G, Lof A. Toxicokinetic interactions between orally ingested chlorzoxazone and inhaled acetone or toluene in male volunteers. Toxicol Sci. 1999;48:189-96 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to examine if the drug chlorzoxazone has any influence on the toxicokinetics of acetone and toluene...
  8. Rothman N, Smith M, Hayes R, Traver R, Hoener B, Campleman S, et al. Benzene poisoning, a risk factor for hematological malignancy, is associated with the NQO1 609C-->T mutation and rapid fractional excretion of chlorzoxazone. Cancer Res. 1997;57:2839-42 pubmed
    ..were determined by PCR-RFLP, and CYP2E1 enzymatic activity was estimated by the fractional excretion of chlorzoxazone (fe(6-OH)) for 50 cases of BP and 50 controls. Subjects with both a rapid fe(6-OH)...
  9. Shaik I, Mehvar R. Effects of normothermic hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury on the in vivo, isolated perfused liver, and microsomal disposition of chlorzoxazone, a cytochrome P450 2E1 probe, in rats. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:5281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..h of in vivo reperfusion, on the in vivo, isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL), and microsomal disposition of chlorzoxazone (CZX) and its cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated metabolite, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (HCZX), in rats...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Loizou G, Cocker J. The effects of alcohol and diallyl sulphide on CYP2E1 activity in humans: a phenotyping study using chlorzoxazone. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001;20:321-7 pubmed
    ..on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in volunteers were studied using the selective probe substrate, chlorzoxazone (CZX)...
  2. Shaikh K, Devkhile A. Simultaneous determination of aceclofenac, paracetamol, and chlorzoxazone by RP-HPLC in pharmaceutical dosage form. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:649-52 pubmed
    ..liquid chromatographic method is developed for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, aceclofenac, and chlorzoxazone in their ternary mixtures of commercial pharmaceutical preparation. This method uses a Zorbax SB C18, 250 x 4...
  3. Benowitz N, Peng M, Jacob P. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003;74:468-74 pubmed
    Our objectives were to examine the effects of cigarette smoking on the disposition kinetics of chlorzoxazone and caffeine as probes of cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2, xanthine oxidase, and N-acetyltransferase-2 activity and to test ..
  4. Moon Y, Lee A, Chung H, Kim E, Kim S, Lee D, et al. Effects of acute renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003;31:776-84 pubmed
    ..CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2C11, CYP3A23, and CYP3A2 expression and pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of chlorzoxazone (CZX) and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (OH-CZX) in rats with acute renal failure induced by uranyl nitrate (U-ARF), ..
  5. Tortorici M, Kochanek P, Bies R, Poloyac S. Therapeutic hypothermia-induced pharmacokinetic alterations on CYP2E1 chlorzoxazone-mediated metabolism in a cardiac arrest rat model. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:785-91 pubmed
    ..effect of hypothermia after cardiac arrest on the in vivo kinetics of a cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) probe drug, chlorzoxazone, and to investigate the mechanism of these alterations. Laboratory investigation...
  6. Li J, Wei D, Wang J, Yu Z, Chou K. Molecular dynamics simulations of CYP2E1. Med Chem. 2012;8:208-21 pubmed
    ..on the phenyl ring; (3) acetaminophen, a large monocyclic substrate with highly active reactivity; (4) chlorzoxazone, and (5) theophylline, the bicyclic substrates with low or high catalytic activities...
  7. Hopf F, Simms J, Chang S, Seif T, Bartlett S, Bonci A. Chlorzoxazone, an SK-type potassium channel activator used in humans, reduces excessive alcohol intake in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:618-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, positive SK modulators such as chlorzoxazone (CZX), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved centrally acting myorelaxant, might enhance SK function and ..
  8. Cao Y, Dreixler J, Roizen J, Roberts M, Houamed K. Modulation of recombinant small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels by the muscle relaxant chlorzoxazone and structurally related compounds. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;296:683-9 pubmed
    Using the patch clamp technique we investigated the effects of the centrally acting muscle relaxant chlorzoxazone and three structurally related compounds, 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), zoxazolamine, and 1,3-dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-..
  9. Howard L, Micu A, Sellers E, Tyndale R. Low doses of nicotine and ethanol induce CYP2E1 and chlorzoxazone metabolism in rat liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;299:542-50 pubmed
    ..In humans, cigarette smoking significantly enhances CYP2E1 activity, as measured by increased metabolism of chlorzoxazone in vivo. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and can generate toxic intermediates...
  10. Abdel Azeem A, Abdel Hafez A, El Karamany G, Farag H. Chlorzoxazone esters of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) carboxylic acids as mutual prodrugs: design, synthesis, pharmacological investigations and docking studies. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:3665-70 pubmed publisher
    ..New chlorzoxazone ester prodrugs (6-8) of some acidic NSAIDs (1-3) were designed, synthesized and evaluated as mutual prodrugs ..
  11. Ernstgård L, Johanson G, Karlsson A, Warholm M. Phenotyping of cytochrome P450 2E1 in vitro and in vivo. Curr Drug Metab. 2007;8:493-8 pubmed
    ..Further, the conventional chlorzoxazone method for in vivo phenotyping was studied by adjusting the dose to body weight in 10 healthy volunteers...
  12. Shimada T, Tsumura F, Yamazaki H. Prediction of human liver microsomal oxidations of 7-ethoxycoumarin and chlorzoxazone with kinetic parameters of recombinant cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999;27:1274-80 pubmed
    Different roles of individual forms of human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) in the oxidation of 7-ethoxycoumarin and chlorzoxazone were investigated in liver microsomes of different human samples, and the microsomal activities thus obtained were ..
  13. Roos P, Tschirbs S, Hack A, Welge P, Wilhelm M. Different mechanisms of handling ingested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mammalian species: organ-specific response patterns of CYP1A1-induction after oral intake of PAH-contaminated soils. Xenobiotica. 2004;34:781-95 pubmed
    ..Whereas in minipigs the duodenum appears as the first efficient barrier, rats respond by efficient metabolism in the liver. What is not known is which response profile is operative in man. ..
  14. Yokogawa K, Watanabe M, Takeshita H, Nomura M, Mano Y, Miyamoto K. Serum aminotransferase activity as a predictor of clearance of drugs metabolized by CYP isoforms in rats with acute hepatic failure induced by carbon tetrachloride. Int J Pharm. 2004;269:479-89 pubmed
    ..The values of total clearance (CL(tot)) after intravenous administration of caffeine, tolbutamide, chlorzoxazone or lidocaine (as probe drugs for various CYP isoforms) to CCl(4)-treated rats were decreased to about 1/8, 1/3,..
  15. Ali M, Rafiuddin S, Ghori M, Kahtri A. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, chlorzoxazone, and related impurities 4-aminophenol, 4'-chloroacetanilide, and p-chlorophenol in pharmaceutical preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2007;90:82-93 pubmed
    ..high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PCM), chlorzoxazone (CXZ), and their related impurities in bulk raw materials and solid dosage forms...
  16. Skaanild M, Friis C. Is bupropion a more specific substrate for porcine CYP2E than chlorzoxazone and p-nitrophenol?. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;101:159-62 pubmed
    Porcine microsomes are able to hydroxylate chlorzoxazone and p-nitrophenol, the most commonly used human test substrates for CYP2E1...
  17. Zhai X, Lu Y. Development and validation of a simple LC method for the determination of phenacetin, coumarin, tolbutamide, chlorzoxazone, testosterone and their metabolites as markers of cytochromes 1A2, 2A6, 2C11, 2E1 and 3A2 in rat microsomal medium. Pharmazie. 2013;68:19-26 pubmed
    ..Phenacetin, coumarin, tolbutamide, chlorzoxazone and testosterone are commonly used as probe substrates to evaluate cytochrome P450 function...
  18. Frye R, Branch R. Effect of chronic disulfiram administration on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and N-acetyltransferase in healthy human subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;53:155-62 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of disulfiram given for 11 days on selected drug metabolizing enzyme activities...
  19. Lipscomb J, Garrett C, Snawder J. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of trichloroethylene: interindividual differences in humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997;142:311-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that humans are not uniform in their capacity for CYP-dependent metabolism of TRI and increased CYP2E1 activity may increase susceptibility to TRI-induced toxicity in the human. ..
  20. Hou D, Wang S, He Z, Yang F, Chen Z. Expression of CYP2E1 in human nasopharynx and its metabolic effect in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;298:93-100 pubmed
    ..activity of CYP2E1 was assayed, the result showed that the generation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6-OH-CZ) from chlorzoxazone (CZ) was dose- and time-dependent on Dox addition to the medium...
  21. Naikmasur V, Bhargava P, Guttal K, Burde K. Soft occlusal splint therapy in the management of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome: a follow-up study. Indian J Dent Res. 2008;19:196-203 pubmed
    ..It has better patient compliance, fewer side effects, and is more cost-effective than pharmacotherapy; hence, it can be chosen for the treatment of patients with MPDS. ..
  22. Zhong Y, Dong G, Luo H, Cao J, Wang C, Wu J, et al. Induction of brain CYP2E1 by chronic ethanol treatment and related oxidative stress in hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. Toxicology. 2012;302:275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of CYP2E1 levels may attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress via ROS generation. ..
  23. Gogtay N, Kapileshwar S, Shah S, Bendkhale S, Ramakrishna S, Sridharan K, et al. Evaluation of cytochrome P4502E1 polymorphisms in healthy adult Western Indians and patients with antituberculous drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Indian J Pharmacol. 2016;48:42-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A 500 mg single dose of chlorzoxazone (CZX) was administered to 136 healthy adult Western Indian participants...
  24. Tanaka N, Shinkyo R, Sakaki T, Kasamastu M, Imaoka S, Funae Y, et al. Cytochrome P450 2E polymorphism in feline liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1726:194-205 pubmed
    ..spectrums about 450 nm wave length and similar values of Vmax and Km of 6-hydoxygenase activity toward chlorzoxazone were observed in all three isoforms expressed in AH22 yeast cells...
  25. Ernstgård L, Warholm M, Johanson G. Robustness of chlorzoxazone as an in vivo measure of cytochrome P450 2E1 activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;58:190-200 pubmed
    b>Chlorzoxazone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to a single oxidized metabolite, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone...
  26. Gandhimathi M, Ravi T, Abraham A, Thomas R. Simultaneous determination of aspirin and isosorbide 5-mononitrate in formulation by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003;32:1145-8 pubmed
    ..4 using dilute orthophosphoric acid) and detection was carried out at 215 nm using chlorzoxazone as internal standard...
  27. Diaz Gomez M, Fanelli S, Delgado de Layño A, Bietto F, Castro J, Castro G. Deleterious effects induced by oxidative stress in liver nuclei from rats receiving an alcohol-containing liquid diet. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of a chlorzoxazone hydroxylase activity inducible by the repetitive EtOH drinking further suggested the presence of CYP2E1 in the ..
  28. Lash L, Putt D, Huang P, Hueni S, Parker J. Modulation of hepatic and renal metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by alterations in status of cytochrome P450 and glutathione. Toxicology. 2007;235:11-26 pubmed
  29. Eap C, Schnyder C, Besson J, Savary L, Buclin T. Inhibition of CYP2E1 by chlormethiazole as measured by chlorzoxazone pharmacokinetics in patients with alcoholism and in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;64:52-7 pubmed
    ..The pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of 250 mg chlorzoxazone, a marker of the activity of CYP2E1, were measured in five healthy drug-free volunteers and in 16 patients ..
  30. Fairbrother K, Grove J, De Waziers I, Steimel D, Day C, Crespi C, et al. Detection and characterization of novel polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene. Pharmacogenetics. 1998;8:543-52 pubmed
    ..No significant difference in kinetic constants for chlorzoxazone hydroxylation between mutant and wild-type was observed...
  31. Khemawoot P, Nishino K, Ishizaki J, Yokogawa K, Miyamoto K. Circadian rhythm of cytochrome P4502E1 and its effect on disposition kinetics of chlorzoxazone in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;574:71-6 pubmed
    ..is to study the circadian rhythm of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) and its effect on the disposition kinetics of chlorzoxazone in male Wistar rats...
  32. Taavitsainen P, Juvonen R, Pelkonen O. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes by a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), and its nonamine analog, cyclopropylbenzene. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;29:217-22 pubmed
    ..42 +/- 0.07 microM and in chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1 model activity) 3.0 +/- 1.1 microM...
  33. Ahn C, Bae S, Jung Y, Lee I, Kim Y, Lee M, et al. Pharmacokinetic parameters of chlorzoxazone and its main metabolite, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone, after intravenous and oral administration of chlorzoxazone to liver cirrhotic rats with diabetes mellitus. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:1233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This enzyme is the primary metabolizer of chlorzoxazone (CZX) to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (OH-CZX)...
  34. Walubo A, Coetsee C, Arti D, du Plessis J. The effect of isoniazid containing regimen on CYP2E1 during antituberculosis therapy. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2005;117-118:137-51 pubmed
    ..CYP2E1 activity was measured using the plasma metabolic ratio (MR) of 6-hydroxy-chlorzoxazone to chlorzoxazone, while CYP2E1 quantity in the peripheral lymphocytes was measured using SDS-PAGE...
  35. Chen X, Han X, Jiang C, Huang S, Liu Z, Zhu B, et al. Phenotype distribution and gender-related differences of CYP2E1 activity in a Chinese population. Xenobiotica. 2002;32:1053-62 pubmed
    ..3. CYP2E1 activity was determined by plasma 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone-to-chlorzoxazone concentration ratio (CHZ-MR) 4h after chlorzoxazone dosing...
  36. Yi S, Cho J, Lim K, Kim K, Kim J, Kim B, et al. Effects of Angelicae tenuissima radix, Angelicae dahuricae radix and Scutellariae radix extracts on cytochrome P450 activities in healthy volunteers. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP activities were caffeine (CYP1A2), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and midazolam (CYP3A4)...
  37. Dilger K, Metzler J, Bode J, Klotz U. CYP2E1 activity in patients with alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol. 1997;27:1009-14 pubmed
    ..The concentration ratio of 6-hydroxy-chlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone in plasma 2 h after ingestion of 500 mg chlorzoxazone (so-called metabolic ratio) has been shown ..
  38. Tanaka E, Terada M, Misawa S. Cytochrome P450 2E1: its clinical and toxicological role. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2000;25:165-75 pubmed
    ..In addition, chlorzoxazone and trimethadione metabolism are good CYP2E1 probes for liver disease in vivo and in vitro...
  39. Schulz T, Thiel R, Davies D, Edwards R. Identification of CYP2E1 in marmoset monkey. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1382:287-94 pubmed
    CYP2E1 is the main enzyme responsible for chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activity in human liver...
  40. White J, Arancillo M, King A, Lin T, Miterko L, Gebre S, et al. Pathogenesis of severe ataxia and tremor without the typical signs of neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;86:86-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings in Car8(wdl) mutant mice unveil a pathophysiological mechanism that may operate broadly to impact motor and non-motor conditions that do not involve degeneration. ..
  41. Ellaithy M, El Ragehy N, El Ghobashy M. Kinetic study of alkaline induced hydrolysis of the skeletal muscle relaxant chlorzoxazone using ratio spectra first derivative spectrophotometry. Farmaco. 2003;58:337-42 pubmed
    2-Amino-4-chlorophenol was found to be the alkaline induced degradation product and the synthetic precursor of chlorzoxazone. The aim of this work is to study different factors affecting the degradation process due to the high toxicity ..
  42. Sommer D, Bogdan R, Berger J, Peters D, Morty R, Clauss W, et al. CFTR-dependent Cl- secretion in Xenopus laevis lung epithelium. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;158:97-106 pubmed
    ..Further, Xenopus pulmonary epithelia responded to apical chlorzoxazone exposure - a CFTR activator - and this activated current was inhibited by CFTR(inh)-172...
  43. Lee A, Yue J, Tyndale R. In vivo and in vitro characterization of chlorzoxazone metabolism and hepatic CYP2E1 levels in African Green monkeys: induction by chronic nicotine treatment. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:1508-15 pubmed
    CYP2E1 metabolizes compounds, including clinical drugs, organic solvents, and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Chlorzoxazone (CZN) is a probe drug used to phenotype for CYP2E1 activity...
  44. Yang L, Rybtke M, Jakobsen T, Hentzer M, Bjarnsholt T, Givskov M, et al. Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2432-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related phenotypes in a dose-..
  45. Kim H, Lee G, Cho E, Chae S, Ahn T, Chae H. Bax inhibitor 1 regulates ER-stress-induced ROS accumulation through the regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1126-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, BI1 reduces the accumulation of ROS and the resultant cell death through regulating P450 2E1. ..
  46. Kim Y, Cho M, Kwon J, Kim S, Chung S, Shim C, et al. Effects of cysteine on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous chlorzoxazone in rats with protein-calorie malnutrition. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2002;23:121-9 pubmed
    The effects of cysteine on the pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone (CZX) and one of its metabolites, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (OH-CZX), were investigated after intravenous administration of CZX, 25 mg/kg, to control rats (4-week fed on 23% ..
  47. Upadhya S, Tirumalai P, Boyd M, Mori T, Ravindranath V. Cytochrome P4502E (CYP2E) in brain: constitutive expression, induction by ethanol and localization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;373:23-34 pubmed
    ..In the present study, rats were administered ethanol chronically to evaluate its effect on chlorzoxazone hydroxylation in rat brain regions...
  48. Axelsson H, Granhall C, Floby E, Jaksch Y, Svedling M, Sohlenius Sternbeck A. Rates of metabolism of chlorzoxazone, dextromethorphan, 7-ethoxycoumarin, imipramine, quinidine, testosterone and verapamil by fresh and cryopreserved rat liver slices, and some comparisons with microsomes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003;17:481-8 pubmed
    In the present study we have investigated the disappearance of chlorzoxazone, dextromethorphan, 7-ethoxycoumarin, imipramine, quinidine, testosterone and verapamil from the medium in which fresh and cryopreserved rat liver slices were ..
  49. Zgheib N, Frye R, Tracy T, Romkes M, Branch R. Validation of incorporating flurbiprofen into the Pittsburgh cocktail. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;80:257-63 pubmed
    ..Pittsburgh 5-drug cocktail (100 mg caffeine, 100 mg mephenytoin, 10 mg debrisoquin [INN, debrisoquine], 250 mg chlorzoxazone, and 100 mg dapsone) separately and in combination on 3 occasions over a period of 5 weeks...
  50. Zhang J, Chen G, Tian M, Li R, Quan X, Jia Q. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column prepared in-situ in a microchip and its application for the determination of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol in chlorzoxazone tablets. Talanta. 2013;115:801-5 pubmed publisher
    ..solid phase microextraction system was used for the on-line determination of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol (ACP) in chlorzoxazone tablets coupled with an optical fiber spectrophotometer...
  51. Dong D, Luan Y, Feng T, Fan C, Yue P, Sun Z, et al. Chlorzoxazone inhibits contraction of rat thoracic aorta. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;545:161-6 pubmed
    b>Chlorzoxazone has been reported to activate the intermediate-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in aortic endothelial cells and to relax the artery...
  52. Brachtendorf L, Jetter A, Beckurts K, Holscher A, Fuhr U. Cytochrome P450 enzymes contributing to demethylation of maprotiline in man. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002;90:144-9 pubmed
    ..3-30 microM; CYP1A2), ketoconazole (0.2-20 microM; CYP3A4), mephenytoin (20-200 microM; CYP2C19), chlorzoxazone (1-100 microM; CYP2E1), sulphaphenazole (0.2-100 microM; CYP2C9) and coumarin (0...
  53. Alviña K, Khodakhah K. The therapeutic mode of action of 4-aminopyridine in cerebellar ataxia. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7258-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this mode of action, the therapeutic efficacy of 4-AP was comparable, and not additive, to chlorzoxazone, an activator of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels that also restores the precision of Purkinje cell pacemaking...