cortisone

Summary

Summary: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)

Top Publications

  1. pmc 11beta-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates metabolic syndrome and prevents progression of atherosclerosis in mice
    Anne Hermanowski-Vosatka
    Merck Research Laboratories, Merck and Company, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    J Exp Med 202:517-27. 2005
  2. pmc Recycling between cortisol and cortisone in human splanchnic, subcutaneous adipose, and skeletal muscle tissues in vivo
    Katherine A Hughes
    University of Edinburgh British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Diabetes 61:1357-64. 2012
  3. ncbi 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the pre-receptor regulation of corticosteroid hormone action
    Nicole Draper
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Endocrinol 186:251-71. 2005
  4. ncbi Diamonds are forever: the cortisone legacy
    Stephen G Hillier
    The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    J Endocrinol 195:1-6. 2007
  5. ncbi Human and rodent type 1 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are 7beta-hydroxycholesterol dehydrogenases involved in oxysterol metabolism
    M Hult
    Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Cell Mol Life Sci 61:992-9. 2004
  6. pmc Differential expression, function and response to inflammatory stimuli of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human fibroblasts: a mechanism for tissue-specific regulation of inflammation
    Rowan S Hardy
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, UK
    Arthritis Res Ther 8:R108. 2006
  7. ncbi Depot-specific regulation of the conversion of cortisone to cortisol in human adipose tissue
    Mi Jeong Lee
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:1178-85. 2008
  8. ncbi Cooperativity between 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum
    Gabor Banhegyi
    Endoplasmic Reticulum Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, Budapest
    J Biol Chem 279:27017-21. 2004
  9. ncbi Diurnal excretion of urinary cortisol, cortisone, and cortisol metabolites in chronic fatigue syndrome
    Walid K Jerjes
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Medicine, Bessemer Road, SE5 9RS London, UK
    J Psychosom Res 60:145-53. 2006
  10. ncbi Inter-conversion of 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone by the human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1
    Caroline Muller
    Laboratoire de Biologie, EA 3199, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue Conté, 75003 Paris, France
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 99:215-22. 2006

Detail Information

Publications214 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc 11beta-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates metabolic syndrome and prevents progression of atherosclerosis in mice
    Anne Hermanowski-Vosatka
    Merck Research Laboratories, Merck and Company, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    J Exp Med 202:517-27. 2005
    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 converts inactive cortisone into active cortisol in cells, thereby raising the effective glucocorticoid (GC) tone above serum levels...
  2. pmc Recycling between cortisol and cortisone in human splanchnic, subcutaneous adipose, and skeletal muscle tissues in vivo
    Katherine A Hughes
    University of Edinburgh British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Diabetes 61:1357-64. 2012
    ..is a therapeutic target in metabolic syndrome because it catalyses reductase regeneration of cortisol from cortisone in adipose and liver. 11βHSD1 can also catalyze the reverse dehydrogenase reaction in vitro (e.g...
  3. ncbi 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the pre-receptor regulation of corticosteroid hormone action
    Nicole Draper
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Endocrinol 186:251-71. 2005
    ..11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2) catalyse the interconversion of hormonally active cortisol and inactive cortisone. The enzyme evolved from a metabolic pathway to a novel mechanism underpinning human disease with the ..
  4. ncbi Diamonds are forever: the cortisone legacy
    Stephen G Hillier
    The Queen s Medical Research Institute, Centre for Reproductive Biology, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    J Endocrinol 195:1-6. 2007
    ..the year that the Society for Endocrinology was founded, but also the year that Edward Kendall's compound E (cortisone) was first synthesised by Louis Sarett...
  5. ncbi Human and rodent type 1 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are 7beta-hydroxycholesterol dehydrogenases involved in oxysterol metabolism
    M Hult
    Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Cell Mol Life Sci 61:992-9. 2004
    Interconversion between cortisone and the glucocorticoid receptor ligand cortisol is carried out by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD)isozymes and constitutes a medically important example of pre-receptor control of steroid ..
  6. pmc Differential expression, function and response to inflammatory stimuli of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human fibroblasts: a mechanism for tissue-specific regulation of inflammation
    Rowan S Hardy
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, UK
    Arthritis Res Ther 8:R108. 2006
    ..In the presence of 100 nmol/l cortisone, IL-6 production--a characteristic feature of synovial derived fibroblasts--was significantly reduced in ..
  7. ncbi Depot-specific regulation of the conversion of cortisone to cortisol in human adipose tissue
    Mi Jeong Lee
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:1178-85. 2008
    ..Our main objective was to compare the regulation of cortisol production within omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abd sc) human adipose tissue...
  8. ncbi Cooperativity between 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum
    Gabor Banhegyi
    Endoplasmic Reticulum Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, Budapest
    J Biol Chem 279:27017-21. 2004
    ..Glucose-6-phosphate, a substrate for hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, stimulated the cortisone reductase activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1...
  9. ncbi Diurnal excretion of urinary cortisol, cortisone, and cortisol metabolites in chronic fatigue syndrome
    Walid K Jerjes
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Medicine, Bessemer Road, SE5 9RS London, UK
    J Psychosom Res 60:145-53. 2006
    ....
  10. ncbi Inter-conversion of 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone by the human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1
    Caroline Muller
    Laboratoire de Biologie, EA 3199, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue Conté, 75003 Paris, France
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 99:215-22. 2006
    ..targets for the glucocorticoid hormones where 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) activates cortisone through its reduction into cortisol...
  11. ncbi Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 permits regulation of glucocorticoid bioavailability by human dendritic cells
    Lisa Freeman
    Department of Hematology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Blood 106:2042-9. 2005
    ..of GR signaling is achieved by prereceptor interconversion of cortisol that binds GRs with high affinity and cortisone that does not...
  12. ncbi Tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism in human obesity
    E Rask
    Departments of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, , Sweden
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1418-21. 2001
    ..For example, in liver and adipose tissue cortisol is regenerated from inactive cortisone by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1)...
  13. ncbi Eel (Anguilla japonica) testis 11beta-hydroxylase gene is expressed in interrenal tissue and its product lacks aldosterone synthesizing activity
    J Q Jiang
    Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 146:207-11. 1998
    ..Similarly, deoxycortisol was converted into cortisol and cortisone. These results show that eel P450(11beta) does not possess significant aldosterone synthesizing activity...
  14. ncbi Tissue-specific Cushing's syndrome, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and the redefinition of corticosteroid hormone action
    Paul M Stewart
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 149:163-8. 2003
    ..11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) interconvert the active glucocorticoid, cortisol, and inactive cortisone. 11beta-HSD1 acts predominantly as an oxo-reductase in vivo using NADP(H) as a cofactor to generate cortisol...
  15. ncbi Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase determines the reaction direction of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 as an oxoreductase
    Atanas G Atanasov
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Clinical Research, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse 15, 3010 Berne, Switzerland
    FEBS Lett 571:129-33. 2004
    ..Thus, H6PDH directly determines the reaction direction of 11beta-HSD1 in intact cells as an oxoreductase without changing intrinsic catalytic properties of 11beta-HSD1 by regenerating NADPH in the ER-lumen...
  16. ncbi The native anti-glucocorticoid paradigm
    Caroline Muller
    Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, EA 3199, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue Conté, 75003 Paris, France
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 100:95-105. 2006
    ..In the organs mentioned above, the circulating inactive cortisone was reduced into active cortisol by the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1)...
  17. ncbi Cortisol-cortisone ratios in small for gestational age (SGA) children without postnatal catch-up growth
    Christian Plank
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Loschgestrasse 15, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 67:304-9. 2007
    ..dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) and the consequent disequilibrium between cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) are thought to be a key mechanism for these effects...
  18. ncbi Metyrapone prevents cortisone-induced preadipocyte differentiation by depleting luminal NADPH of the endoplasmic reticulum
    Paola Marcolongo
    Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia, Medicina Sperimentale e Sanita Pubblica, Universita di Siena, Siena, Italy
    Biochem Pharmacol 76:382-90. 2008
    ..at low micromolar concentrations caused the prompt oxidation of the endogenous NADPH, inhibited the reduction of cortisone and enhanced the oxidation of cortisol in native rat liver microsomal vesicles...
  19. ncbi Validation and application of a highly specific and sensitive ELISA for the estimation of cortisone in saliva, urine and in vitro cell-culture media by using a novel antibody
    Emad A S Al-Dujaili
    Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK
    Steroids 77:703-9. 2012
    It is generally acknowledged that local tissue concentrations of cortisol and cortisone are modulated by site-specific actions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) isoenzymes 1 and 2...
  20. ncbi Reduced capacity for the reactivation of glucocorticoids in rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells: possible role of the sympathetic nervous system?
    Martin Schmidt
    Hospital of the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Arthritis Rheum 52:1711-20. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the local conversion of cortisol to biologically inactive cortisone and vice versa (the cortisol-cortisone shuttle) in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients.
  21. ncbi Simultaneous quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol and cortisone in Korean adults using LC-MS/MS
    Sanghoo Lee
    Department of Bioanalytical and Mass Spectrometry, Seoul Medical Science Institute and Seoul Clinical Laboratories, Korea
    BMB Rep 43:506-11. 2010
    The levels of salivary cortisol and cortisone in Korean adults were measured for the first time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The salivary cortisol and cortisone were separated within 10 min...
  22. ncbi Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and cortisone output in chronic fatigue syndrome
    W K Jerjes
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RX, United Kingdom
    J Affect Disord 87:299-304. 2005
    ..The aim of the present study was to obtain a naturalistic measure of diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis output in CFS patients unaffected by medication or comorbid psychiatric disorder likely to influence the axis...
  23. ncbi The 24-h urinary cortisol/cortisone ratio for monitoring training in elite swimmers
    Djamila Atlaoui
    Laboratory of Physiology, GIP Exercise Sport and Health, Faculty of Medicine Jean Monnet, Pav 12, St Jean Bonnefond Hospital, 42 055 Saint Etienne Cedex 2, France
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:218-24. 2004
    The effect of training variations on 24-h urinary cortisol/cortisone (C/Cn) ratio was investigated in highly trained swimmers to determine whether it could be a good marker of training stress and performance.
  24. ncbi Non-physiological levels of circulating cortisol in growth hormone-treated hypopituitary adults after conventional cortisone substitution
    J Blomgren
    Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine and Care, University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden
    Scand J Clin Lab Invest 64:132-9. 2004
    ..To assess the usefulness of measuring plasma cortisol profiles in growth hormone-treated hypopituitary adults and to compare these with cortisol levels in healthy controls...
  25. ncbi Sex-specific difference in the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone in men and women
    Heinrich Vierhapper
    Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090 Wien, Austria
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:820-4. 2007
    ..that the smaller oxoreductase activity of 11beta-HSD1 in women would shift the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone toward cortisone, resulting in a larger amount of generated labeled cortisone in healthy women than in healthy ..
  26. ncbi Asymmetric dimethylarginine, cortisol/cortisone ratio, and C-peptide: markers for diabetes and cardiovascular risk?
    Jeffrey L Anderson
    Cardiovascular Department, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT 84143, USA
    Am Heart J 153:67-73. 2007
    ..We tested whether the plasma levels of (1) asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), (2) cortisol/cortisone (Cl/Cn) ratio, and (3) C-peptide predicted glycemic status, coronary artery disease, and death or myocardial ..
  27. ncbi Comparative effect of intra-articular administration of hyaluronan and/or cortisone with evaluation of malondialdehyde on degenerative osteoarthritis of the rabbit's knee
    Gunhan Karakurum
    Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey
    Tohoku J Exp Med 199:127-34. 2003
    Hyaluronan and cortisone have controversial and an important role in the healing of degenerative osteoarthritis...
  28. ncbi Use of 11alpha-deuterium labeled cortisol as a tracer for assessing reduced 11beta-HSD2 activity in vivo following glycyrrhetinic acid ingestion in a human subject
    Yasuji Kasuya
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432 1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 0392, Japan
    Steroids 70:117-25. 2005
    ..The kinetic analysis associated with the loss of 11alpha-2H during the conversion of cortisol-13C4,2H1 to cortisone-13C4 by 11beta-HSD2 clearly indicated reduced 11beta-HSD2 activity with glycyrrhetinic acid ingestion, as ..
  29. ncbi Assessing systemic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with serum cortisone/cortisol ratios in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure
    M Homma
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Metabolism 50:801-4. 2001
    ..an enzyme regulating mineralocorticoid like action of glucocorticoid, oxidizes active cortisol to inactive cortisone. Impaired activity of this enzyme is associated with apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) syndrome and is ..
  30. ncbi Short-term cortisol infusion in the brachial artery, with and without inhibiting 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, does not alter forearm vascular resistance in normotensive and hypertensive subjects
    S H M van Uum
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Invest 32:874-81. 2002
    ..We studied the acute effect of cortisol on forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by infusing cortisol directly into the brachial artery, both with and without inhibition of 11 beta-HSD, in normotensive and hypertensive subjects...
  31. ncbi 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in hypothalamic obesity
    Dov Tiosano
    Departments of Pediatrics, Meyer Children s Hospital, Haifa 31096, Israel
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:379-84. 2003
    ..The ratios of free and conjugated cortisol (F) to cortisone (E) and their metabolites, [tetrahydrocortisol (THF)+5 alpha THF]/tetrahyrdocortisone (THE), dihydrocortisols/..
  32. ncbi The severe form of hypertension caused by the activating S810L mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor is cortisone related
    Marie Edith Rafestin-Oblin
    U 478, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, 75870 Paris, France
    Endocrinology 144:528-33. 2003
    ..Here we show that cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone, the main cortisol and corticosterone metabolites produced in the distal nephron, ..
  33. ncbi Effect of intra-articular administration of hyaluronan and cortisone on secondary osteoarthritis of the infected rabbit's knee
    M Karakok
    Department of Pathology, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Turkey
    Tohoku J Exp Med 195:35-42. 2001
    ..But there is no clear consensus how it effects on osteoarthritis compare to cortisone. The purpose of the research was to determine the comparative effects of hyaluronan and cortisone on the healing ..
  34. ncbi Overnight urinary cortisol and cortisone add new insights into adaptation to training
    Caroline Gouarne
    Laboratory Neurogenetic and Stress, INSERM INRA University of Bordeaux 2, Institute François Magendie, Bordeaux, France
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1157-67. 2005
    ..axis using two new noninvasive tools: salivary cortisol response to awakening and overnight urinary cortisol and cortisone excretion, and on the sympathoadrenal system using overnight catecholamines excretion...
  35. ncbi Congenital deficiency of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome): diagnostic value of urinary free cortisol and cortisone
    M Palermo
    University of Sassari, Italy
    J Endocrinol Invest 24:17-23. 2001
    ..from an inability of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-OHSD) to inactivate cortisol to cortisone. The diagnosis of AME is usually based on an elevated ratio of cortisol to cortisone reduced metabolites in the ..
  36. ncbi Salivary cortisone is a potential biomarker for serum free cortisol
    I Perogamvros
    Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital and Endocrine Sciences Research Group, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4951-8. 2010
    Salivary cortisol measurement is used as a practical surrogate for serum free cortisol. However, parotid tissue harbors 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD2) activity converting cortisol to cortisone.
  37. ncbi Efficacy of cortisone injection in treatment of trigger fingers and thumbs
    M R Marks
    Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington Hospital Center
    J Hand Surg Am 14:722-7. 1989
    ..All injections were done by one physician. There were no complications. We conclude that intrasynovial injection of a steroid compound is the appropriate initial treatment for trigger fingers and thumbs...
  38. ncbi Discovery of a novel enzyme mediating glucocorticoid catabolism in fish: 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2
    Janina Tokarz
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Genome Analysis Center, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:202-13. 2012
    ..The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to 20beta-hydroxycortisone identified by LC-MS/MS. We named the new enzyme 20beta-HSD type 2...
  39. pmc Genes in mice that affect susceptibility to cortisone-induced cleft palate are closely linked to Ir genes on chromosomes 2 and 17
    D L Gasser
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78:3147-50. 1981
    Inbred and congeneic strains of mice have been examined for susceptibility to cortisone-induced cleft palate, and the role of genes linked to H-2 on chromosome 17 has been confirmed...
  40. ncbi Glucocorticoids turn over slowly in human adipose tissue in vivo
    Katherine A Hughes
    Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4696-702. 2010
    ..In other organs, transport can be regulated in a steroid- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) generates additional cortisol within adipose...
  41. ncbi Anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of a novel selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344)
    Ji Seon Park
    Bio organic Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P O Box 107, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305 600, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Pharmacol 81:1028-35. 2011
    ..KR-66344), as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor; we also investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cortisone-induced 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model system and C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice...
  42. ncbi Obesity and type 2 diabetes do not alter splanchnic cortisol production in humans
    Rita Basu
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Room 5 194 Joseph, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3919-26. 2005
    ..Cortisol is a potent regulator of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism...
  43. ncbi Subcutaneous adipose 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity and messenger ribonucleic acid levels are associated with adiposity and insulinemia in Pima Indians and Caucasians
    Robert S Lindsay
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Phoenix, Arizona 85016, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2738-44. 2003
    ..Specifically, active cortisol is regenerated from inactive cortisone by the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11-HSD1) in adipose and liver...
  44. ncbi Piperazine sulfonamides as potent, selective, and orally available 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors with efficacy in the rat cortisone-induced hyperinsulinemia model
    Jason Xiang
    Chemical and Screening Sciences, Wyeth Research, 200 CambridgePark Drive, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA
    J Med Chem 51:4068-71. 2008
    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) is the enzyme that converts cortisone to cortisol. Evidence suggests that selective inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 could treat diabetes and metabolic syndrome...
  45. ncbi Comparative enzymology of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 from six species
    Spyridon Arampatzis
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Clinical Research, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse 15, 3010 Berne, Switzerland
    J Mol Endocrinol 35:89-101. 2005
    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), catalyzing the intracellular activation of cortisone to cortisol, is currently considered a promising target to treat patients with metabolic syndrome; hence, there is ..
  46. ncbi Cortisol metabolism in human obesity: impaired cortisone-->cortisol conversion in subjects with central adiposity
    P M Stewart
    Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:1022-7. 1999
    ..Our recent studies show enhanced conversion of inactive cortisone (E) to active cortisol (F) through the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in ..
  47. ncbi Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a key regulator of fetal glucocorticoid exposure
    R Benediktsson
    University Department of Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 46:161-6. 1997
    Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD), which converts active cortisol to inactive cortisone, has been proposed to be the mechanism guarding the fetus from the growth retarding effects of maternal glucocorticoids; ..
  48. ncbi Cortisol metabolism in depressed patients and healthy controls
    Benedikt Römer
    Central Institute of Mental Health, J5, Mannheim, Germany
    Neuroendocrinology 90:301-6. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi Quantification of unbound prednisolone, prednisone, cortisol and cortisone in human plasma by ultrafiltration and direct injection into liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry
    I A Ionita
    Department of Pharmacokinetics Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT, 06340, USA
    Ann Clin Biochem 47:350-7. 2010
    ..Development of ultrafiltration followed by the liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that requires 300 microL of plasma, does not entail any offline extraction and achieves good sensitivity was described...
  50. ncbi Conformational flexibility in crystal structures of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I provide insights into glucocorticoid interconversion and enzyme regulation
    David J Hosfield
    Syrrx Inc, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:4639-48. 2005
    ..dehydrogenase type I (11beta-HSD1) is an ER-localized membrane protein that catalyzes the interconversion of cortisone and cortisol...
  51. ncbi Glycyrrhetinic acid food supplementation lowers serum potassium concentration in chronic hemodialysis patients
    Stefan Farese
    Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Inselspital, University of Berne, Switzerland
    Kidney Int 76:877-84. 2009
    ..The ratio of plasma cortisol/cortisone was significantly increased in all patients on GA as compared to baseline or placebo, indicating appropriate ..
  52. ncbi Local and systemic impact of transcriptional up-regulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue in human obesity
    Deborah J Wake
    Endocrinology Unit, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland EH4 2XU
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3983-8. 2003
    ..11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol, thus amplifying glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation...
  53. ncbi Increased expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in type 2 diabetic myotubes
    B M Abdallah
    KMEB, Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark
    Eur J Clin Invest 35:627-34. 2005
    ..Circulating glucocorticoids consist of inactive cortisone and active cortisol interconverted in various tissues by the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD)...
  54. ncbi Altered activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in skeletal muscle confers metabolic protection in subjects with type 2 diabetes
    Christina Jang
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy 3065, Australia
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3314-20. 2007
    ..There is little information regarding the regulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) enzymes in skeletal muscle in the setting of type 2 diabetes...
  55. ncbi Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is reduced in pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth Restriction: evidence that this is associated with an attenuated ratio of cortisone to cortisol in the umbilical artery
    J Dy
    Department of Obstetrics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6C 6B5, Canada
    Placenta 29:193-200. 2008
    ..in the activity and expression of this important enzyme as well as its functional indicator, the ratio of cortisone to cortisol in umbilical cord blood, in a cohort of 12 term deliveries complicated with idiopathic IUGR and 12 ..
  56. ncbi 11Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is expressed and is biologically active in human skeletal muscle
    Christina Jang
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St Vincent s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 65:800-5. 2006
    ..We also examined the muscle fibre localization of 11beta HSD-1...
  57. ncbi Evolution of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 3
    Michael E Baker
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0693, USA
    FEBS Lett 584:2279-84. 2010
    ..action is 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 (11beta-HSD1), which catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol, the biologically active glucocorticoid...
  58. ncbi The serum cortisol:cortisone ratio in the postoperative acute-phase response
    M Vogeser
    Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Horm Res 59:293-6. 2003
    In a previous cross-sectional pilot investigation, an increase in the ratio of active cortisol to inactive cortisone in serum has been found as a general phenomenon during the acute-phase response...
  59. ncbi Distinguishing the activities of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in vivo using isotopically labeled cortisol
    Ruth Andrew
    Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland EH4 2XU, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:277-85. 2002
    The isozymes of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSDs) catalyze the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone. The type 2 dehydrogenase inactivates cortisol to cortisone, whereas the type 1 catalyzes predominantly the reverse ..
  60. ncbi Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for cortisol and cortisone determination
    Marco Frasconi
    Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
    Anal Bioanal Chem 394:2151-9. 2009
    ..paper, we present a surface-plasmon-resonance-based immunosensor for the real-time detection of cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva samples...
  61. ncbi Alterations in placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 betaHSD) activities and fetal cortisol:cortisone ratios induced by nutritional restriction prior to conception and at defined stages of gestation in ewes
    S McMullen
    Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK
    Reproduction 127:717-25. 2004
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate whether placental 11betaHSD activities and fetal plasma cortisol:cortisone ratios could be affected by nutritional restriction of ewes (70% maintenance diet) throughout gestation, for ..
  62. ncbi Role of ketoconazole treatment in urinary-free cortisol-to-cortisone and tetrahydrocortisol-to-tetrahydrocortisone ratios in nonectopic Cushing's syndrome
    Pablo Stiefel
    Unidad de Hipertension y Lipidos, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocio, Seville, Spain
    Endocrine 18:279-84. 2002
    ..We measured plasma ACTH and urinary-free cortisol (UFF), urinary-free cortisone (UFE), tetrahydrocortisol (UTHF), and tetrahydrocortisone (UTHE) in 24-h urine samples of 24 healthy subjects ..
  63. ncbi Prereceptor regulation of glucocorticoid action by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a novel determinant of cell proliferation
    Elizabeth H Rabbitt
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Clinical Research, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    FASEB J 16:36-44. 2002
    ..8beta1) or 11beta-HSD2 (ROS 17/2.8beta2). ROS 17/2.8beta1 showed net conversion of cortisone to cortisol whereas ROS 17/2.8beta2 showed only inactivation of cortisol to cortisone...
  64. ncbi The role of tyrosine 177 in human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in substrate and inhibitor binding: an unlikely hydrogen bond donor for the substrate
    Ki Won Kim
    Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen Inc, One Amgen Center Drive, Mail Stop 29 1 A, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1764:824-30. 2006
    ..of the hydroxyl group from its side chain by mutagenesis (Y177F) did not significantly change the Km value for cortisone. However, removal of the hydrophobic side chain by changing tyrosine to alanine (Y177A) or substitution with a ..
  65. ncbi Differential invasion by Sendai virus of abdominal parenchymal organs and brain tissues in cortisone- and cyclophosphamide-based immunosuppressed mice
    Takeo Miyamae
    School of Health Sciences, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 67:369-77. 2005
    ..This study analyzed the invasion by Sendai virus (SeV) of mouse organs in immunosuppressive states induced by cortisone (CO) and cyclophosphamide (CY)...
  66. ncbi Detection of physiological concentrations of cortisol and cortisone in human hair
    Jean Sebastien Raul
    Institut de Medecine Legale, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Clin Biochem 37:1105-11. 2004
    ..We have developed a new extraction, purification, and separation technique using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for the identification and quantification of two endogenous glucocorticoids: cortisol and cortisone.
  67. ncbi 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression and glucocorticoid synthesis are directed by a molecular switch during osteoblast differentiation
    M Eijken
    Department Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Room Ee526, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Endocrinol 19:621-31. 2005
    ..1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in the prereceptor regulation of corticosteroids by locally converting cortisone into active cortisol...
  68. ncbi 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: changing glucocorticoid action
    Jonathan R Seckl
    Endocrinology Unit, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 4:597-602. 2004
    11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) catalyse the interconversion of active cortisol and inert cortisone. Two isozymes have been discovered, each with unique properties and powerful biological roles...
  69. ncbi Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 and fetal cortisol/cortisone shuttle in small preterm infants
    Eero Kajantie
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:493-500. 2003
    ..enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11 beta-HSD2), which converts excess cortisol (F) to inactive cortisone (E)...
  70. ncbi Urinary free cortisone and the assessment of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in man
    M Palermo
    Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, CA 94609, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 45:605-11. 1996
    ..beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) catalyse the interconversion of cortisol to hormonally inactive cortisone; defects in the 11 beta-HSD2 isoform result in hypertension...
  71. ncbi Hypertension and the cortisol-cortisone shuttle
    Marcus Quinkler
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2384-92. 2003
    ..dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2) plays a crucial role in converting hormonally active cortisol to inactive cortisone, thereby conferring specificity on the mineralocorticoid receptor...
  72. ncbi Cortisol and cortisone analysis in serum and plasma by atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry
    Mark M Kushnir
    ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
    Clin Biochem 37:357-62. 2004
    ..is controlled by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) isoenzymes, which interconvert cortisol and cortisone. Accurate measurement of the cortisol and cortisone concentrations and their ratio provide useful information ..
  73. ncbi Evidence of altered cortisol metabolism in critically ill patients: a prospective study
    Bala Venkatesh
    Department of Intensive Care, Princess Alexandra and Wesley Hospitals, University of Queensland, 4102, Queensland, Australia
    Intensive Care Med 33:1746-53. 2007
    ..No published data exist on the activity of this enzyme in critical illness...
  74. ncbi Appropriate function of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen is dependent on its N-terminal region sharing similar topological determinants with 50-kDa esterase
    Christoph Frick
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Clinical Research, University of Berne, 3010 Berne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 279:31131-8. 2004
    ..11beta-HSD1 and E3 constructs with cytosolic orientation of their catalytic moiety should prove useful in future studies addressing the physiological function of these proteins...
  75. ncbi Body fat distribution and cortisol metabolism in healthy men: enhanced 5beta-reductase and lower cortisol/cortisone metabolite ratios in men with fatty liver
    Jukka Westerbacka
    Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Helsinki, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4924-31. 2003
    ..Increased regeneration of cortisol from cortisone within adipose by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 (11HSD1) has been proposed to cause visceral ..
  76. ncbi Adrenocortical response and cortisone replacement in systemic inflammatory response syndrome
    B U Ihle
    Intensive Care Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria
    Anaesth Intensive Care 29:155-62. 2001
    ..The reliance on, and misinterpretation of, the short synacthen test in diagnosing the possibility of this condition is emphasized...
  77. ncbi Splanchnic cortisol production occurs in humans: evidence for conversion of cortisone to cortisol via the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-hsd) type 1 pathway
    Rita Basu
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Diabetes 53:2051-9. 2004
    ..Because D4-cortisol loses a deuterium during conversion to [9,12,12-2H3] cortisone (D3-cortisone), which in turn generates [9,12,12(2)H3] cortisol (D3-cortisol) via 11-beta hydroxysteroid ..
  78. ncbi Cortisol and cortisone in human follicular fluid and serum and the outcome of IVF treatment
    Sabina Lewicka
    Departments of Pharmacology and Gynecology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Hum Reprod 18:1613-7. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to examine whether the concentrations of cortisone and cortisol and their calculated ratios in the follicular fluid and serum samples are predictive of IVF outcome.
  79. ncbi Ovarian modulators of type 1 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) activity and intra-follicular cortisol:cortisone ratios correlate with the clinical outcome of IVF
    L M Thurston
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Royal Free and University College Medical School Royal Free Campus, University College London, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK
    Hum Reprod 18:1603-12. 2003
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between levels of the ovarian modulators of type 1 11betaHSD, intra-follicular cortisol:cortisone ratios and the clinical outcome of IVF cycles.
  80. ncbi Demonstration of proof of mechanism and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic relationship with 4'-cyano-biphenyl-4-sulfonic acid (6-amino-pyridin-2-yl)-amide (PF-915275), an inhibitor of 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, in cynomolgus monkeys
    B Ganesh Bhat
    Diabetes and Metabolism Pharmacology, Genomics Institute of the Novartis Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Dr, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 324:299-305. 2008
    ..We characterized the ability of PF-915275 to inhibit the conversion of prednisone, a synthetic cortisone analog that can be distinguished from the endogenous substrate cortisone, enabling a direct measure of substrate ..
  81. pmc Intravitreal injection of crystalline cortisone as adjunctive treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy
    J B Jonas
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    Br J Ophthalmol 84:1064-7. 2000
    To report on clinical outcome and complications of intravitreal injection of crystalline cortisone in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
  82. ncbi Apparent cortisone reductase deficiency: a functional defect in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1
    A Jamieson
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3570-4. 1999
    ..In addition, 5beta- reduction of cortisol and cortisone was markedly enhanced...
  83. ncbi Cortisol metabolism in healthy young adults: sexual dimorphism in activities of A-ring reductases, but not 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases
    M J Finken
    University of Edinburgh, Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:3316-21. 1999
    Cortisol is metabolized irreversibly by A-ring reductases (5alpha- and 5beta-reductases) and reversibly (to cortisone) by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). In rats, estradiol down-regulates 11betaHSD1 expression...
  84. ncbi Human saliva cortisone and cortisol simultaneous analysis using reverse phase HPLC technique
    Elio F De Palo
    Section of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences and Special Therapies, University of Padua, 35100 Padua, Italy
    Clin Chim Acta 405:60-5. 2009
    ..The simultaneous analysis of human saliva F and cortisone (E), the inactive F metabolite, by solid phase extraction and RP-HPLC was studied.
  85. ncbi The effects of growth hormone deficiency and replacement on glucocorticoid exposure in hypopituitary patients on cortisone acetate and hydrocortisone replacement
    F M Swords
    Department of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew s Hospital, West Smithfield, London, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 59:613-20. 2003
    11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta HSD1) converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol. 11 beta HSD1 activity is increased in GH deficiency and inhibited by GH and IGF-I in acromegaly...
  86. ncbi Recent advances in the assessment of the ratios of cortisol to cortisone and of some of their metabolites in urine by LC-MS-MS
    Alessandro Saba
    Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    J Mass Spectrom 44:541-8. 2009
    ..The set of analytes was expanded, by introducing cortisol and cortisone, whose ratio supply additional diagnostic information...
  87. ncbi Circulating cortisone levels are associated with biochemical markers of bone formation and lumbar spine BMD: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study
    Mark S Cooper
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 62:692-7. 2005
    b>Cortisone is an endogenous corticosteroid that has negligible intrinsic glucocorticoid activity but can be converted to the active corticosteroid cortisol by the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1)...
  88. ncbi Validation of a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for urinary cortisol and cortisone
    Robert L Taylor
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Clin Chem 48:1511-9. 2002
    Urinary free cortisol and cortisone measurements are useful in evaluation of Cushing syndrome, apparent mineralocorticoid excess, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and adrenal insufficiency...
  89. ncbi Higher cortisol:cortisone ratios in the preovulatory follicle of completely unstimulated IVF cycles indicate oocytes with increased pregnancy potential
    S D Keay
    The Sir Quinton Hazell Molecular Medicine Research Centre, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Hum Reprod 17:2410-4. 2002
    ..gonadotrophin-stimulated IVF and embryo transfer has been associated with a higher intrafollicular cortisol:cortisone ratio and decreased metabolism of cortisol to cortisone...
  90. ncbi The effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on cortisol-cortisone interconversion in hypopituitary adults: evidence for growth hormone modulation of extrarenal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity
    S V Gelding
    Department of Endocrinology, Royal London Hospital, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 48:153-62. 1998
    ..hepatic or renal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD1 and 2), the enzymes responsible for cortisol-cortisone interconversion, or alternatively it might reflect decreased cortisol availability...
  91. ncbi Sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism is maintained in elderly subjects and is not oestrogen dependent
    A A Toogood
    Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 52:61-6. 2000
    The net interconversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) may determine hepatic and adipose tissue exposure to glucocorticoid action...
  92. ncbi The administration of cortisone to female B6A mice during their immune adaptive period causes anovulation and the formation of ovarian cysts
    John C Chapman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, NY 13902 6000, USA
    Am J Reprod Immunol 48:184-9. 2002
    ..determine whether the resultant infertility can be caused by steroids other than estrogens/ androgens, this study examined the effect of injecting cortisone, alone, and in combination with E2 and testosterone, on reproductive function.
  93. ncbi Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue is not increased in human obesity
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:5630-5. 2002
    ..hypothesized that the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), by converting inactive cortisone to active cortisol in adipose tissue, might be an important autocrine regulator of fat mass...
  94. ncbi Absence of Cushingoid phenotype in a patient with Cushing's disease due to defective cortisone to cortisol conversion
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:57-62. 2002
    ..Cushing's syndrome who was spared this classical phenotype because of a defect in the peripheral conversion of cortisone to cortisol. She presented to her general practitioner with secondary amenorrhea...
  95. ncbi Fifty years of experience with cortisone therapy in the study and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
    Gunther Neeck
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Rostock Clinic South, Rostock, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 966:28-38. 2002
    In 1948 the U.S. rheumatologist Phillip S. Hench administered cortisone for the first time to a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), thereby discovering the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids...
  96. ncbi The functional consequences of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in adipose tissue
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Horm Metab Res 34:746-51. 2002
    ..dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) inter-converts the active glucocorticoid, cortisol, and inactive cortisone. 11beta-HSD1, the only isoform expressed in adipose tissue, acts predominantly as an oxoreductase to generate ..
  97. ncbi Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and the cortisol-cortisone shuttle
    P M Stewart
    Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Horm Res 56:1-6. 2001
    ..dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD), two isozymes of which interconvert hormonally active cortisol (F) and inactive cortisone (E)...
  98. ncbi 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the testis and male reproductive tract of the boar (Sus scrofa domestica) indicate local roles for glucocorticoids in male reproductive physiology
    Victoria Sharp
    Endocrine Signalling Group, Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, United Kingdom
    Reproduction 134:473-82. 2007
    ..actions of corticosteroids by catalysing metabolism of the physiological glucocorticoid (GC), cortisol, to inert cortisone. Recent studies have implicated GCs in boar sperm apoptosis...
  99. ncbi Effect of immunosuppressive and other drugs on the cortisol-cortisone shuttle in human kidney and liver
    M Quinkler
    Clinical Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Gastroenterology, Heptology and Endocrinology, Campus Mitte, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Horm Metab Res 39:555-9. 2007
    ..We tested immunosuppressive drugs that cause hypertension, and substances that interfere with steroidogenesis or influence glucose homeostasis for their ability to influence the inhibition of 11beta-HSD isozymes...
  100. ncbi 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity is elevated in severe obesity and negatively associated with insulin sensitivity
    Karsten Müssig
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Angiology, Nephrology, and Clinical Chemistry, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:1256-60. 2008
    ..5 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)), but otherwise healthy patients urinary free cortisol (UFF), urinary free cortisone (UFE), tetrahydrocortisol (THF), 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF), and tetrahydrocortisone (THE) were ..
  101. ncbi In vivo activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    K Mai
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Charite Humanmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 63:442-9. 2005
    ....

Research Grants58

  1. The Role of H6PDH and 11beta-HSD1 in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity
    Yanjun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in intact cells and organs as a NADPH-dependent reductase to generate active cortisol from inert circulating cortisone. 112-HSD1 therefore plays a crucial role in local steroid reactivation...
  2. Registry Study of Parkinsons Disease in Denmark
    Beate R Ritz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. NSAIDS, aspirin, and cortisone use, or M...
  3. MECHANISMS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE IN MAN
    Robert A Rizza; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also established during the previous grant period that the splanchnic bed converts large amounts of cortisone to cortisol and provided evidence that virtually all of this conversion occurs within the liver...
  4. ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS COMPLEMENT INHIBITOR
    RONALD WASHBURN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..In vivo production of CI will be examined using labeled anti-CI IgG F(ab')2 in the cortisone-treated mouse model of invasive aspergillosis, and in available human tissues...
  5. EFFECT OF COLOSTRUM ON GUT MATURATION AND HOST DEFENSE
    W Walker; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..to assume biochemical and functional characteristics similar to the MVM from intestine of adults by giving cortisone or thyroxin to pregnant dams or to neonates...
  6. Phagocyte Contact Response in Aspergillosis Immunity
    JAMES BURRITT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..fumigatus conidia in normal and immune suppressed mice. Both cortisone-induced immune suppression and mice made susceptible to by knockout of the NADPH oxidase will be examined...
  7. ENDOGENOUS MECHANISMS REGULATING AIRWAY INFLAMMATION
    Robert Schleimer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Plasma cortisol, cortisone and corticotropin levels will be assayed and the influence of EG on the pulmonary early and late phase reactions ..
  8. CORTICOSTEROID METABOLISM IN JUVENILE HYPERTENSION
    CARL MONDER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..We plan to purify corticosteroid 11-oxoreductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol, and which cooperates with 11 beta DH in maintaining steroid homeostasis...
  9. MODEL FOR STUDYING THE CONTRACTILE PROCESS IN HEALING
    H Ehrlich; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Another approach to constrain this process is to limit connective tissue deposition. A combination of cortisone and oral heparin will be tried to modify neovascularization...
  10. Micromass Quattro API TSQ For LC-MS/MS Quantitation
    Walter Hubbard; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..of hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide (TAA), neuropeptides, endogenous levels of hydrocortisone and cortisone in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and plasma, sphingosine-l-phosphate (SIP) and peptidoleukotrienes in ..
  11. SYNGENEIC MIXED LYMPHOCYTE INTERACTIONS IN MICE
    JACKSON SMITH; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..two types of suppressor cells can be recovered from SMLR cultures; one is sensitive to pretreatment of mice with cortisone, the other is not, 4) the absence of SMLR and the presence of anti-thymocyte antibody in NZB mice are not ..
  12. GANGLIOSIDES IN MYELIN DEFICIENT MUTANT
    LISELOTTE HOF; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..and the frequent seizures shortly before the death of the md mutant are shown to be accompanied by high serum cortisone levels. Cortisone- resistant thymocytes have a different ganglioside pattern than- sensitive cells...
  13. Estradiol Regulation of In Vivo Adipose Tissue Glucocorticoid Metabolism
    WENDOLYN GOZANSKY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In animals, estrogen deficiency increases conversion of the inactive glucocorticoid, cortisone, to the active glucocorticoid, cortisol, thereby amplifying tissue exposure to cortisol; this action is mediated ..
  14. CLEFT PALATE: TERATOGENIC ROLE OF CORTISONE
    BERNARD JACOBSON; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The objectives of the research program deal with the possible mechanisms by which cortisone delays the movement of the palatal shelves, resulting in a decreased possibility for fusion...
  15. ISCHEMIC NECROSIS OF BONE: CLINICAL-LABORATORY STUDY
    DAVID HUNGERFORD; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..In the laboratory, factors affecting bone blood flow including cortisone and sympathetic stimulation are being assessed by the radioactive tracer microsphere technique...
  16. Regulation of Cortisol Metabolism and Fat Patterning
    Jonathan Purnell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Recent studies also suggest a role for enhanced conversion of cortisone to cortisol in the adipocyte by the enzyme 11 b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD 1) in the expression of ..
  17. CONTROL OF SOMATIC GROWTH IN THE FETUS AND NEONATE
    H Mosier; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..energy wasting modifies the catch-up growth response, e. Cortisone analogs have different potentials for producing short term and long term growth disturbances...
  18. PULMONARY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY IN THE COMPROMISED HOST
    James Pennington; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Guinea pigs will receive one week courses of parenteral cortisone acetate, 100 mg/Kg/day plus cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/Kg/day or 30 mg/Kg/day...
  19. BACTERIAL TOXIN INTERACTION WITH THE DEVELOPING INFANT
    W Walker; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Effects of hormones (cortisone and thyroxin) and nutrition (natural milk) on intestinal maturation and toxin interaction will be studied in ..
  20. Cortisol Metabolism & Central Adiposity After Menopause
    WENDOLYN GOZANSKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..studies centers on the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency after menopause increases peripheral conversion of cortisone to cortisol...
  21. MECHANISMS OF AIRWAY EPITHELIUM APOPTOSIS
    Steven White; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..will demonstrate roles for fas and related apoptosis receptors in epithelial shedding after allergen challenge in human airways and will study the ability of inhaled cortisone to decrease allergen-stimulated cell shedding and death.
  22. REGULATION OF HUMAN ALDOSTERONE SYNTHASE
    Perrin White; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies should provide insight into mechanisms underlying a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. ..
  23. Biochemical Basis of Cortisone Reductase Deficiency
    Perrin White; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Apparent cortisone reductase deficiency (ACRD) is a human disease in which the metabolic clearance of cortisol is increased, leading to over activity of the adrenal cortex, increased secretion of adrenal androgens, and a phenotype ..
  24. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF LOW RENIN HYPERTENSION
    Perrin White; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The investigators will determine the role of 11-HSD K in the development of essential hypertension, using both linkage and association studies. ..
  25. Functions of Very Large G-protein Coupled Receptor-1
    Perrin White; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We are specifically interested in the other proteins with very large ectodomains, protocadherin- 15 and cadherin-23. These studies should shed new light on mechanisms controlling development of the retina and inner ear. ..
  26. PERINATAL HYPOXIA: ADRENOCORTICAL-METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS
    Hershel Raff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Characterization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and metabolic adaptations to perinatal hypoxia can lead to new diagnostic approaches and therapies to minimize morbidity and mortality. ..
  27. Neurosteroids and Smith-Lemli-Optiz Syndrome
    Cedric Shackleton; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..All studies will require high sensitivity steroid analysis by chemical ionization (CI) GC/MS and HPLC/MS. ..
  28. SMITH-LEMLI-OPITZ SYNDROME STEROIDOGENESIS
    Cedric Shackleton; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, if ring B dehydrosteroids are produced, is the ratio of the individual dehydrometabolites to corresponding conventional metabolites related to the dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol ratio and clinical severity? ..
  29. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with EI and CI
    Cedric Shackleton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g., malondialdehyde) and markers of DNA damage (incorporation of uracil). Dr Kuypers has several projects on the red cell membrane, which require profiling of fatty acids using EI GC/MS. ..
  30. Steroid As Cytoprotectants against Oxidative Toxicity
    Qin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Adrenal decommissioning and hypertension
    Elise Gomez Sanchez; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Using similar protocols as those in Aim 1, we will study and compare the process of adrenal decommissioning between SHR-SP and regular SHR rats with emphasis of the ZG genes identified as important in Aim 1. ..
  32. Genesis & Control of Lyme Disease by Innate Immunity
    Linda Bockenstedt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For the field of Lyme disease, defining the key molecules expressed by host-adapted spirochetes will move us one step closer toward understanding how this pathogen persists in an immunologically responsive host. ..
  33. AN ANIMAL MODEL OF GLUCOCORTICOID RESISTANCE
    Jonathan Scammell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In summary, these studies will provide important insight into the physiological role of FKBP51 while at the same time adding substantial value to the Squirrel Monkey Resource at the University of South Alabama. ..
  34. Risk Burden of Lipoprotein Metabolic Gene Haplotypes
    Jeffrey Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We believe this thorough, novel approach will lead to a major advance in genetic CHD risk assessment, enabling the vision of gene-based medicine for CHD to be realized. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Placental 3B-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Isomerase
    James Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies may ultimately produce new treatments for the prevention of premature birth and the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer while leaving adrenal steroidogenesis intact. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. REGULATION OF PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 IN HUMAN AMNION
    Leslie Myatt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Treatment of Endometriosis with NA vs GnRH Agonist
    Ozgul Muneyyirci Delale; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The objectives will be compared between the group at 12, 24 and 52 weeks of treatment and at 6 month intervals during the follow-up period. ..
  38. Translational Control of Oxidative Stress in Myocardial Infarction
    Qin M Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This grant proposes to study the mechanism of Nrf2 protein translation in cardiomyocytes and in the myocardium following oxidative stress. ..
  39. In Vivo Gene Silencing with siRNA After Brain Trauma
    HELEN HELLMICH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. NIGHT SHIFT WORKERS AND HORMONE LEVELS IN WOMEN
    Scott Davis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Urine samples will be assayed for the primary urinary metabolite of melatonin, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, and levels of LH, FSH, and estradiol. ..
  41. Luminal Lipid Exposure, Genetics and Colon Cancer Risk
    Ikuko Kato; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition, accumulated dietary data and biological specimens will serve as an important resource for future research on other nutrient-gene interactions. ..
  42. PLACENTAL 3 BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE/ISOMERASE
    James Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The absence of detergent in the pure cytosolic enzyme preparation facilitates the growth of crystals for future structural studies. ..
  43. ALDOSTERONE, HYPERTENSION AND THE BRAIN
    Elise Gomez Sanchez; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..4) Study of the metabolism of aldosterone and corticosterone and the regulation of the synthesis of low polarity derivatives in the brain, including the identification of the sites of formation of aldosterone acyl esters. ..
  44. NOVEL USE OF ZEBRAFISH FOR APOPTOSIS ASSAY
    Chuenlei Parng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Complementary visual and flow cytometry based assays will also be developed to provide comprehensive analysis of apoptosis in zebrafish. ..
  45. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF OXIDANT TOXICITY
    Qin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We have a unique finding of premature senescence with oxidative stress and will combine in vitro and in vivo approaches to uncover the trigger of unwanted effects of aging. ..
  46. ASSAY FOR DETERMINING DRUG TOXICITY
    Chuenlei Parng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. Cardiotoxicity Drug Screening Using Zebrafish
    Chuenlei Parng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Zebrafish drug screens can serve as an intermediate step between cell-based and mammalian testing, streamlining the drug development timeline. ..
  48. Genetic Susceptibility to Infection Related Cancer
    Ikuko Kato; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Secondary aims include to examine histopathological correlates of these polymorphisms and to determine whether selected environmental factors modify the above associations. ..
  49. Zebrafish Screen for Neuroprotective Anti-oxidants
    Chuenlei Parng; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Assessment of drug effects in a convenient vertebrate model, prior to evaluation in a complex system, such as mouse, can potentially streamline the drug development process and dramatically reduce costs. ..
  50. CD1-Mediated Immunity Of Lyme Disease
    Linda Bockenstedt; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..For the field of Lyme disease, defining the key molecules expressed by tick-borne spirochetes will move us one step closer toward understanding how this pathogen invades, disseminates and persists in the mammalian host. ..
  51. OUTCOME OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS IN MINORITIES
    GRACIELA ALARCON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  52. Mouse model of oral infection with virulent Francisella
    Wangxue Chen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..tularensis infection so that future hypothesis-driven studies with more focused research objectives can be designed and developed. ..
  53. Regulators of Male Parental Care
    Toni Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..With the development of parenting behavioral assays, the marmoset has the potential to be an ideal model system for studying parental care in primates and providing insights into the human condition. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. REGULATION OF PROSTAGLANDIN RECEPTORS IN MYOMETRIUM
    Leslie Myatt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The confocal microscopy will provide information on cellular localization of receptors and the promoter analyses will reveal potential regulatory sites for control of expression of uterine receptors at parturition. ..
  55. STUDIES OF MATERNAL AND NEONATAL IMMUNITY
    Thomas Tomasi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This work may also have application to areas of clinical relevance, such as abortion, autoimmunity and cancer. ..
  56. Molecular Change and Thyroid Cancer Risk After Chernobyl
    Scott Davis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..g. recurrence) and individual thyroid radiation dose, patient characteristics, and molecular markers of genetic change. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. NITRIC OXIDE AND SUPEROXIDE INTERACTIONS IN THE PLACENTA
    Leslie Myatt; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..5. Expression of mRNA and protein for SOD isoforms, xanthine oxidase and the cytochrome b558 subunit of NADPH oxidase in normal and pathologic placental tissues using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. ..