ethinyl estradiol

Summary

Summary: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen disrupts mating dynamics in a pipefish
    Charlyn Partridge
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M Univ, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Horm Behav 58:800-7. 2010
  2. ncbi Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) males exposed to an endocrine disrupting chemical fail in nest and mate competition
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Horm Behav 56:315-21. 2009
  3. ncbi Exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol impairs courtship and aggressive behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus)
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P O Box 65, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Chemosphere 79:541-6. 2010
  4. ncbi Gestational and lactational exposure to ethinyl estradiol, but not bisphenol A, decreases androgen-dependent reproductive organ weights and epididymal sperm abundance in the male long evans hooded rat
    Kembra L Howdeshell
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 102:371-82. 2008
  5. ncbi Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish
    Karen L Thorpe
    School of Biological Sciences, The Hatherly Laboratory, Exeter University, The Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4PS, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 37:1142-9. 2003
  6. ncbi Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel
    Hans Joachim Ahrendt
    Gynekologická a Porodnická Ambulance, Prague, Czech Republic
    Contraception 80:436-44. 2009
  7. ncbi Uterine temporal response to acute exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol in the immature rat
    Jorge M Naciff
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Toxicol Sci 97:467-90. 2007
  8. ncbi Enhanced mitochondrial gene transcript, ATP, bcl-2 protein levels, and altered glutathione distribution in ethinyl estradiol-treated cultured female rat hepatocytes
    Jinqiang Chen
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Toxicological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2179, USA
    Toxicol Sci 75:271-8. 2003
  9. ncbi Endocrine disrupting chemicals and sexual behaviors in fish--a critical review on effects and possible consequences
    Marta Söffker
    School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
    Crit Rev Toxicol 42:653-68. 2012
  10. ncbi Ovarian stimulation by concomitant administration of cetrorelix acetate and HMG following Diane-35 pre-treatment for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized study
    Jiann Loung Hwang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hum Reprod 19:1993-2000. 2004

Detail Information

Publications270 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen disrupts mating dynamics in a pipefish
    Charlyn Partridge
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M Univ, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Horm Behav 58:800-7. 2010
    ..However, disrupting these processes could have profound effects on the viability of exposed populations...
  2. ncbi Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) males exposed to an endocrine disrupting chemical fail in nest and mate competition
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Horm Behav 56:315-21. 2009
    ..minutus) success in mating competition greatly decreases after an exposure for 7 to 24 days to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, measured concentration 4 ng L(-1))...
  3. ncbi Exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol impairs courtship and aggressive behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus)
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P O Box 65, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Chemosphere 79:541-6. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to test how 1-4weeks exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 11ngL(-1)) affects nest building, courtship and aggressive behaviour of male fish...
  4. ncbi Gestational and lactational exposure to ethinyl estradiol, but not bisphenol A, decreases androgen-dependent reproductive organ weights and epididymal sperm abundance in the male long evans hooded rat
    Kembra L Howdeshell
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 102:371-82. 2008
    ..into the environment are capable of disrupting normal sex steroid balance, including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA)...
  5. ncbi Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish
    Karen L Thorpe
    School of Biological Sciences, The Hatherly Laboratory, Exeter University, The Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4PS, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 37:1142-9. 2003
    ....
  6. ncbi Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel
    Hans Joachim Ahrendt
    Gynekologická a Porodnická Ambulance, Prague, Czech Republic
    Contraception 80:436-44. 2009
    ..valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; administered using a dynamic dosing regimen) with a monophasic OC containing ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg/levonorgestrel 100 mcg (EE/LNG)...
  7. ncbi Uterine temporal response to acute exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol in the immature rat
    Jorge M Naciff
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Toxicol Sci 97:467-90. 2007
    ..we evaluated the temporal gene expression in the uterus of the immature rat after a single dose of 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE) by microarray analysis, evaluating the expression of 15,923 genes...
  8. ncbi Enhanced mitochondrial gene transcript, ATP, bcl-2 protein levels, and altered glutathione distribution in ethinyl estradiol-treated cultured female rat hepatocytes
    Jinqiang Chen
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Toxicological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2179, USA
    Toxicol Sci 75:271-8. 2003
    b>Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter and weak hepatocarcinogen in rats...
  9. ncbi Endocrine disrupting chemicals and sexual behaviors in fish--a critical review on effects and possible consequences
    Marta Söffker
    School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
    Crit Rev Toxicol 42:653-68. 2012
    ....
  10. ncbi Ovarian stimulation by concomitant administration of cetrorelix acetate and HMG following Diane-35 pre-treatment for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized study
    Jiann Loung Hwang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hum Reprod 19:1993-2000. 2004
    ..We proposed a stimulation protocol incorporating Diane-35 and GnRH antagonist (Diane/cetrorelix protocol) and compared it with the GnRH agonist long protocol for PCOS patients...
  11. ncbi In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats
    Bryce C Ryan
    Reproductive Toxicology Branch, TA Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U S Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 114:133-48. 2010
    Many chemicals released into the environment display estrogenic activity including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA)...
  12. ncbi Effects of the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the life-cycle of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
    R Lange
    Experimental Toxikologie, Schering AG Research Laboratories, D 13342 Berlin, Germany
    Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1216-27. 2001
    ..A lack of sexual differentiation occurred in males at concentrations > or = 4.0 ng/L. Taking into account these data, the overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was considered to be 1.0 ng/L...
  13. ncbi Adsorption and hysteresis of bisphenol A and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol on carbon nanomaterials
    Bo Pan
    Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:5480-5. 2008
    Adsorption of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) was investigated...
  14. pmc Gene expression patterns in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to a suite of model toxicants
    Sharon E Hook
    Battelle, Marine Research Operations, Sequim, WA, USA
    Aquat Toxicol 77:372-85. 2006
    ....
  15. ncbi Serum folate and Vitamin B12 levels in women using modern oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol
    Marc W Sütterlin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 4, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 107:57-61. 2003
    ..The effects of modern oral contraceptives (OC) on serum concentrations of folate and cobalamin are controversial...
  16. ncbi Sexual reprogramming and estrogenic sensitization in wild fish exposed to ethinylestradiol
    Anke Lange
    School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4PS, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 43:1219-25. 2009
    ..In the wild, exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2 during early life has significantly wider implications for the sexual physiology in fish than has thus far been determined...
  17. ncbi Developmental estrogenic exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio): II. Histological evaluation of gametogenesis and organ toxicity
    Lynn P Weber
    Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, 430 Life Sciences West, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
    Aquat Toxicol 63:431-46. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi Estrogenic endpoints in fish early life-stage tests: luciferase and vitellogenin induction in estrogen-responsive transgenic zebrafish
    Rinus Bogers
    NOTOX Safety and Environmental Research, Hambakenwetering 7, 5231 DD s Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands
    Environ Toxicol Chem 25:241-7. 2006
    ..Additional value of using transgenic zebrafish lies in combining VTG measurement with the more mechanistic approach of luciferase induction in one experiment...
  19. ncbi Gene expression profiles in the testis associated with testis-ova in adult Japanese medaka (Oryziaslatipes) exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol
    Ikumi Hirakawa
    The United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753 8513, Japan
    Chemosphere 87:668-74. 2012
    ..Using quantitative RT-PCR we confirmed that Zpc5 gene can be used as a marker for the detection of testis-ova in male medaka...
  20. pmc A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation
    Jessica R Meendering
    Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Contraception 82:366-72. 2010
    b>Ethinyl estradiol (EE) increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women, but certain progestins paired with EE in combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been shown to antagonize the vasodilatory effects of EE...
  21. ncbi Suppression of ovarian activity with a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive in a 24/4 regimen
    Christine Klipping
    Dinox BV, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
    Contraception 78:16-25. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi Comparative study on the in vitro/in vivo estrogenic potencies of 17beta-estradiol, estrone, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol and nonylphenol
    K Van den Belt
    VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Expertisecenter Environmental Toxicology, Boeretang 200 B 2400 MOL, Belgium
    Aquat Toxicol 66:183-95. 2004
    ....
  23. ncbi Exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol impairs reproductive functions of both male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    Hui Xu
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Medical College and Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, PR China
    Aquat Toxicol 88:1-8. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that EE2 can adversely affect the fecundity, sex differentiation, gametes development, and other reproductive functions of both male and female zebrafish, and some of the toxic effects persist...
  24. ncbi Interaction of St. John's Wort with oral contraceptives: effects on the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleeding
    Patricia A Murphy
    College of Nursing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 841112 5880, USA
    Contraception 71:402-8. 2005
    This study evaluated the effect of the herbal remedy St. John's Wort on oral contraceptive (OC) therapy with respect to the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleeding.
  25. ncbi Investigating compensation and recovery of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol with metabolite profiling
    D R Ekman
    Ecosystems Research Division, U S EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:4188-94. 2008
    ..This revealed an apparent ability of the fish to compensate for the presence of EE2 later in the exposure, and to partially recover from its effects after the chemical was removed...
  26. ncbi Cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol for acne and hirsutism: time to revise prescribing policy
    Stephen Franks
    Reproductive Endocrinology, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
    Hum Reprod 23:231-2. 2008
    ..The combination of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (2 mg) and ethinyl estradiol (35 microg) (co-cypridiol) is of proven efficacy in management of symptoms of both hyperandrogenism and ..
  27. ncbi Altered sexual development in roach (Rutilus rutilus) exposed to environmental concentrations of the pharmaceutical 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and associated expression dynamics of aromatases and estrogen receptors
    Anke Lange
    School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS, UK
    Toxicol Sci 106:113-23. 2008
    ..Our findings show that both aromatase isoforms and both ER subtypes are associated with sexual differentiation in roach, and alterations in their expression can signal for disruptions in sexual development...
  28. ncbi A model to estimate influent and effluent concentrations of estradiol, estrone, and ethinylestradiol at sewage treatment works
    Andrew C Johnson
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon OXIO 8BB, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 38:3649-58. 2004
    ..The model may be used with river dilution ratios to predict which sewage treatment works are most likely to cause the greatest endocrine disruption due to steroid estrogens...
  29. doi Oral contraceptives and individual variability of circulating levels of ethinyl estradiol and progestins
    Joseph W Goldzieher
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 78212, USA
    Contraception 78:4-9. 2008
  30. ncbi Effects of the synthetic estrogen, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, on aggression and courtship behavior in male zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    Jamie R Colman
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA 98112, USA
    Aquat Toxicol 91:346-54. 2009
    ..Our results show that short-term exposure to EE(2) at environmentally relevant levels can alter aggression, and shift individual social status and reproductive success in male zebrafish...
  31. ncbi Genistein and ethinyl estradiol dietary exposure in multigenerational and chronic studies induce similar proliferative lesions in mammary gland of male Sprague-Dawley rats
    John R Latendresse
    Toxicologic Pathology Associates, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 28:342-53. 2009
    Genistein and ethinyl estradiol (EE(2)) were examined in multigenerational reproductive and 2-yr chronic toxicity studies with different exposure durations across generations F(0) through F(4)...
  32. ncbi A randomized, controlled trial of a low-dose contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel for acne treatment
    D Thiboutot
    Division of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, USA
    Fertil Steril 76:461-8. 2001
    ..of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) containing 100 microg of levonorgestrel (LNG) and 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol (EE) compared with placebo for the treatment of moderate acne...
  33. ncbi Continuous biodegradation of 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol by Trametes versicolor
    Paqui Blánquez
    Biotechnology Department, Lund University, PO Box 124, S 221 00 Lund, Sweden
    J Hazard Mater 150:459-62. 2008
    ..8 and 7.3 mg l(-1), respectively. Evidence was found that removal was caused by laccase. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of fungal treatment of estrogens using continuous bioreactor with suspended fungal biomass...
  34. ncbi Competitive sorption between 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol and naphthalene/phenanthrene by sediments
    Zhiqiang Yu
    Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, PR China
    Environ Sci Technol 39:4878-85. 2005
    Steroid hormones such as 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) have been frequently detected at various levels in surface waters downstream of many municipal wastewater treatment facilities...
  35. ncbi Regulation by estrogen of synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein A-I in the chicken hepatoma cell line, LMH-2A
    Marcela Hermann
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University and Biocenter Vienna, Dr Bohr Gasse 9 2, Vienna A 1030, Austria
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1641:25-33. 2003
    ..These interactions are more pronounced in estrogen-treated cells, most likely due to the dramatic estrogen-mediated induction of apoB synthesis and secretion...
  36. ncbi Disruption of sexual selection in sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus) by 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, an endocrine disruptor
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Horm Behav 55:530-7. 2009
    ..We exposed males for 1 to 4 weeks to two different concentrations (5 ng L(-1) and 24 ng L(-1)) of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2); a synthetic compound mimicking estrogen and a water control...
  37. ncbi Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and suppression of estrogenic activity by ligninolytic fungi
    Tomas Cajthaml
    Division of Ecology, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, CZ 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic
    Chemosphere 75:745-50. 2009
    ..Attention was paid also to the effects of EDCs on the ligninolytic enzyme activities of the different fungi strains to evaluate their possible stimulation or suppression of activities during the biodegradation processes...
  38. ncbi Prospective, open-label, noncomparative study to assess cycle control, safety and acceptability of a new oral contraceptive containing gestodene 60 microg and ethinylestradiol 15 microg (Minesse)
    Ione C Barbosa
    Maternidade Climerio de Oliveira, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40055 150 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    Contraception 73:30-3. 2006
    ..The objective of the study was to evaluate the acceptability, safety, bleeding patterns and premenstrual symptomatology in these women...
  39. ncbi Temporal- and dose-dependent hepatic gene expression changes in immature ovariectomized mice following exposure to ethynyl estradiol
    D R Boverhof
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Carcinogenesis 25:1277-91. 2004
    ..These data will further aid in the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of estrogens in the liver as well as in other classical and non-classical estrogen responsive tissues...
  40. ncbi Gonad development and vitellogenin production in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone
    Stefan Orn
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
    Aquat Toxicol 65:397-411. 2003
    ..The period of gonadal sex reversal in non-exposed zebrafish was also studied. The main morphological features of the transformation of ovaries into testis were observed 4-5 weeks after hatching...
  41. ncbi Clinical and metabolic aspects of the continuous use of a contraceptive association of ethinyl estradiol (30 microg) and gestodene (75 microg)
    Rogério Bonassi Machado
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, São Paulo 13201 789, Brazil
    Contraception 70:365-70. 2004
    ..noncomparative study evaluated clinical and metabolic aspects of the use of a contraceptive combination of ethinyl estradiol (30 microg) and gestodene (75 microg) continuously for 24 weeks in 45 women aged 25 +/- 3.7 years...
  42. ncbi Competitive sorption between 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol and bisphenol A/4-n-nonylphenol by soils
    Jianzhong Li
    School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    J Environ Sci (China) 25:1154-63. 2013
    The sorption of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in single systems and the sorption of EE2 with different initial aqueous concentrations of BPA or NP were examined using three soils...
  43. ncbi Field study using two immunoassays for the determination of estradiol and ethinylestradiol in the aquatic environment
    Therese Hinteman
    Department of Plant Nutrition, INRES Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, University of Bonn, Karlrobert Kreiten Str 13, D 53115 Bonn, Germany
    Water Res 40:2287-94. 2006
    ..8 ng L(-1), in surface water 4.0 and 0.7 ng L(-1), respectively. The highest estrogen concentrations were found in the effluent of the lagoon, equipped with very basic means of wastewater treatment...
  44. ncbi Advanced water treatment with manganese oxide for the removal of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2)
    J de Rudder
    Laboratory for Microbiological Ecology and Technology LabMET, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, 9000, Belgium
    Water Res 38:184-92. 2004
    ..These catalytic properties could make it a cost-efficient technique for the removal of EE2, but further research at more environmentally relevant concentrations is needed...
  45. ncbi Combined ethinylestradiol/gestodene contraceptive patch: two-center, open-label study of ovulation inhibition, acceptability and safety over two cycles in female volunteers
    D Heger-Mahn
    Dinox GmbH, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 9:173-81. 2004
    ..9 mg ethinylestradiol and 1.9 mg gestodene in an open-label study of healthy, female volunteers (aged 18-35 years)...
  46. ncbi Effects of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol in a partial life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio): effects on growth, gonads and female reproductive success
    K Van den Belt
    Environmental Toxicology, Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Boeretang 200, Mol B 2400, Belgium
    Sci Total Environ 309:127-37. 2003
    ....
  47. ncbi Drospirenone and non-fatal venous thromboembolism: is there a risk difference by dosage of ethinyl-estradiol?
    S T Bird
    Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy and Epidemiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 11:1059-68. 2013
    ..Previous studies concluded that there was an increased risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism (VTE) with drospirenone. It is unknown whether the risk is differential by ethinyl-estradiol dosage...
  48. ncbi Effects of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest on lipid metabolism during 1 year of conventional or extended-cycle use
    Inka Wiegratz
    Center of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, D 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
    Contraception 81:57-61. 2010
    ..The present study compared the effects of a COC containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest (EE/DNG) in conventional and extended-cycle regimen over 1 year.
  49. ncbi A randomized study of the effect of mifepristone alone or in conjunction with ethinyl estradiol on ovarian function in women using the etonogestrel-releasing subdermal implant, Implanon®
    Edith Weisberg
    Sydney Centre for Reproductive Health Research, Research Division of Family Planning NSW, Ashfield 2131, Australia
    Contraception 84:600-8. 2011
    Mifepristone alone or in combination with ethinyl estradiol (EE) can effectively stop an episode of uterine bleeding in women using the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant, Implanon® but could impair contraceptive efficacy.
  50. ncbi Natural and synthetic estrogens modulate the inflammatory response in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) through the activation of endothelial cells
    S Liarte
    Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
    Mol Immunol 48:1917-25. 2011
    ..Moreover, we found that leukocyte adhesion to ECs was enhanced by E(2) treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that estrogens modulate fish leukocyte trafficking during an inflammatory process by activating ECs...
  51. ncbi Modulation of steroidogenesis and estrogen signalling in the estuarine killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to ethinylestradiol
    Natacha S Hogan
    Department of Biology and Canadian Rivers Institute, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada, C1A 4P3
    Aquat Toxicol 98:148-56. 2010
    ....
  52. ncbi Minimal androgenic activity of a new oral contraceptive containing norethindrone acetate and graduated doses of ethinyl estradiol
    R A Boyd
    Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Ann Arbor Laboratories, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Contraception 63:71-6. 2001
    ..Women received 1 mg of norethindrone acetate daily combined with 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol daily for the first 5 days (1/20), 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol daily for the next 7 days (1/30), and 35 ..
  53. ncbi Treatment of hirsutism with ethinyl estradiol-desogestrel contraceptive pills has beneficial effects on the lipid profile and improves insulin sensitivity
    H F Escobar-Morreale
    Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Fertil Steril 74:816-9. 2000
    To evaluate the effects on the lipid pattern and insulin sensitivity of hirsute women of an oral contraceptive pill containing 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 microg of desogestrel.
  54. ncbi Metabolic and haemostatic effects of estradiol valerate/dienogest, a novel oral contraceptive: a randomized, open-label, single-centre study
    Wolfgang Junge
    Laboratorium fuer Klinische Forschung, Kiel, Germany
    Clin Drug Investig 31:573-84. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the metabolic and haemostatic effects of a novel COC comprising estradiol valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG) with ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (EE/LNG)...
  55. ncbi Developmental treatment with bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol causes few alterations on early preweaning measures
    Sherry A Ferguson
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Toxicol Sci 124:149-60. 2011
    ..5 or 25.0 μg/kg/day BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE₂). Offspring were orally treated on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21 with the same dose the dam received...
  56. ncbi The pharmacokinetic interaction between an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone and the HCV protease inhibitor telaprevir
    Varun Garg
    Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, Cambridge, MA 02139 4242, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 52:1574-83. 2012
    ..Telaprevir is a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor that is both a substrate and an inhibitor of CYP3A...
  57. ncbi Competitive and complementary adsorption of bisphenol A and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol on carbon nanomaterials
    Bo Pan
    Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China
    J Agric Food Chem 58:8338-43. 2010
    ..Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) are different with regard to their hydrophobicity and molecular structures, and they were selected as ..
  58. ncbi Sorption of 17α-ethinyl estradiol, bisphenol A and phenanthrene to different size fractions of soil and sediment
    Ke Sun
    State Key Laboratory of Water Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
    Chemosphere 88:577-83. 2012
    ..The sorption of bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and phenanthrene (Phen) by different size fractions of soil and sediment were investigated...
  59. ncbi Kinetics, equilibrium, and mechanisms of sorption and desorption of 17α-ethinyl estradiol in two natural soils and their organic fractions
    Jianzhong Li
    School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Sci Total Environ 452:404-10. 2013
    A study was conducted on the kinetics, equilibrium, and mechanisms of sorption and desorption of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in six sorbents, which were two natural soils (Bulk1 and Bulk2) and their fractions obtained by alkaline ..
  60. ncbi Microbial transformation of synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol
    Tomas Cajthaml
    Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, CZ 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic
    Environ Pollut 157:3325-35. 2009
    ....
  61. ncbi Impact of oral contraceptive use on APC-resistance: a prospective, randomized clinical trial with three low-dose preparations
    J Endrikat
    Schering AG, Müllerstr 178, D 13342, Berlin, Germany
    Contraception 64:217-22. 2001
    ..The results of APC screening tests should have, at present, no impact on contraceptive counseling because the predictive value for thromboembolic risk of the test results and even the mutant status is low...
  62. ncbi Dietary intake of 17α-ethinylestradiol promotes leukocytes infiltration in the gonad of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream
    Isabel Cabas
    Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
    Mol Immunol 48:2079-86. 2011
    ..Moreover, the dietary intake of EE(2) promoted a dose-dependent up-regulation of the expression of genes coding for cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules correlated with a leukocyte infiltration...
  63. ncbi Effect of oral contraceptives on haemostasis variables
    C Kluft
    Gaubius Laboratory, TNO PG, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Thromb Haemost 78:315-26. 1997
    ..We have summarised literature data on effects of COCs containing 30-35 micrograms ethinyl estradiol for the third generation of progestogens (PGs): desogestrel, gestodene and norgestimate...
  64. ncbi Removal of bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol from landfill leachate using single-walled carbon nanotubes
    Lesley Joseph
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
    Water Res 45:4056-68. 2011
    In this study, the adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) from landfill leachate onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was investigated...
  65. ncbi Ethinyl estradiol treatment for growth limitation in girls with Marfan's syndrome--experience from a single center
    Sema Kalkan Ucar
    Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir, Turkey
    Endocr Res 34:109-20. 2009
    ..We have evaluated our experience of estrogen treatment in girls with Marfan's syndrome attending the pediatric endocrine clinic in Glasgow between 1989 and 2005...
  66. ncbi Sorption of bisphenol A, 17α-ethinyl estradiol and phenanthrene on thermally and hydrothermally produced biochars
    Ke Sun
    State Key Laboratory of Water Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    Bioresour Technol 102:5757-63. 2011
    Thermal and hydrothermal biochars were characterized, and adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and phenanthrene (Phen) was determined to investigate the sorption characteristic difference between the two types of ..
  67. ncbi The effect of atazanavir/ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate in healthy women
    Jenny Zhang
    Research and Development, Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Antivir Ther 16:157-64. 2011
    ..Raritan, NJ, USA) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ethinyl estradiol (EE), norgestimate (NGM), ATV and RTV.
  68. ncbi Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone: a review of its use as an oral contraceptive
    Susan J Keam
    Adis International Inc, Langhorne, Pennsylvania 19047, USA
    Treat Endocrinol 2:49-70. 2003
    ..A similar improvement in skin condition (acne, seborrhea) was observed in women receiving EE/DRSP or ethinylestradiol 35microg/cyproterone acetate 2mg in a randomized, double-blind trial...
  69. ncbi Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish
    Linda M Samuelsson
    Department of Physiology Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Box 434, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Aquat Toxicol 78:341-9. 2006
    ..This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants...
  70. pmc Gene expression responses in male fathead minnows exposed to binary mixtures of an estrogen and antiestrogen
    Natalia Garcia-Reyero
    Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:308. 2009
    ..We analyzed gene expression changes in the gonad, as well as hormone and vitellogenin plasma levels...
  71. ncbi An endocrine disrupter increases growth and risky behavior in threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
    Alison M Bell
    Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Horm Behav 45:108-14. 2004
    ..Exposure to 100 ng/l ethinyl estradiol accelerated growth rate and increased levels of behavior that makes individuals more susceptible to ..
  72. ncbi Subchronic 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol differentially affects subtypes of sleep and wakefulness in ovariectomized rats
    Aaron C Pawlyk
    Women s Health and Musculoskeletal Biology, Wyeth Research N3129, 500 Arcola Rd, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
    Horm Behav 53:217-24. 2008
    ..Therefore, we examined the effects of daily injections of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE) for 6 days on sleep and wakefulness in the OVX rat...
  73. ncbi Comparison of effects of 3 mg drospirenone plus 20 μg ethinyl estradiol alone or combined with metformin or cyproterone acetate on classic metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    Franca Fruzzetti
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ospedale S Chiara, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Fertil Steril 94:1793-8. 2010
    ....
  74. ncbi Alterations to gonadal development and reproductive success in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol
    Gordon C Balch
    Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada
    Environ Toxicol Chem 23:782-91. 2004
    ..However, it is clear that concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that cause gonadal intersex are sufficient to reduce reproductive performance...
  75. ncbi Trace analysis of technical nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in wastewater using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    P Braun
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig Halle, Permoserstrasse 15, D 04318 Leipzig, Germany
    J Chromatogr A 988:41-51. 2003
    ..The method was tested for determining the analytes in influents and effluents of constructed wetland plants and in model wastewater used in laboratory experiments...
  76. ncbi Effects of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone on bone turnover and bone mineral density
    Carmine Nappi
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Pathophysiology of Human Reproduction, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
    Obstet Gynecol 105:53-60. 2005
    ....
  77. ncbi An endocrine disrupting chemical changes courtship and parental care in the sand goby
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P O Box 65, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Aquat Toxicol 97:285-92. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to examine how exposure from 10 to 31 days to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 41 ng L(-1)) affects the courtship and parental care behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus ..
  78. ncbi The effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and either 2 mg of chlormadinone acetate or 0.15 mg of desogestrel on lipid, hormone and metabolic parameters
    Ulrich H Winkler
    Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Clinic of Wetzlar Braunfels, 35578 Wetzlar, Germany
    Contraception 79:15-23. 2009
    This study was conducted to compare the effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives (OCs) containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) 30 mcg+either chlormadinone acetate (CMA) 2 mg (Belara) or 0...
  79. ncbi Effects of ethinylestradiol on medaka (Oryzias latipes) as measured by sperm motility and fertilization success
    Shinya Hashimoto
    Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52 1 Yada, Suruga ku, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:253-9. 2009
    ..The results offer toxicological data for the assessment of EE(2 )exposure in medaka and suggest that short-term exposure to EE(2) might reduce sperm function and fertility in adult male medaka...
  80. ncbi Effects of two combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol 30 microg combined with either gestodene or drospirenone on hemostatic parameters, lipid profiles and blood pressure
    Recep Yildizhan
    Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 280:255-61. 2009
    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg/gestodene 0.075 mg (EE/GSD) with ethinylestradiol 0...
  81. ncbi Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and bone metabolism during low-dose oral contraceptive use in young women
    Bojana Pinter
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center, Slajmerjeva 3, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Contraception 67:33-7. 2003
    ..In conclusion, our study shows that in young women VDR gene polymorphism could influence bone metabolism during low-dose oral contraceptive use...
  82. ncbi The effect of food on the bioavailability of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol from norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estradiol tablets intended for continuous hormone replacement therapy
    Rebecca A Boyd
    Departments of Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 43:52-8. 2003
    As part of the development of a combination product containing norethindrone acetate and low-dose ethinyl estradiol for continuous hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, a study was conducted to determine the effect of a ..
  83. pmc Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior
    Frauke Hoffmann
    Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e32097. 2012
    ..The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline...
  84. ncbi Comparison of vitellogenin responses in zebrafish and rainbow trout following exposure to environmental estrogens
    K Van den Belt
    Environmental Toxicology, Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Mol B 2400, Belgium
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56:271-81. 2003
    ....
  85. ncbi Serum Nestorone and ethinyl estradiol levels, and ovulation inhibition in women using three different dosage combinations of a Nestorone progestogen-ethinyl estradiol contraceptive vaginal ring on a bleeding-signaled regimen
    Ian S Fraser
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
    Contraception 72:40-5. 2005
    ..signaled use of contraceptive vaginal rings ("rings") releasing low-dose combinations of Nestorone (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) would reliably suppress luteal activity and ovulation, and prevent unintended pregnancy, while ..
  86. pmc Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women: a prospective study of age, hormone dose, and discontinuation
    Delia Scholes
    Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, 1730 Minor Avenue, 16th Floor, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E1380-7. 2011
    ..Oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, but bone changes associated with use of contemporary OC remain unclear...
  87. ncbi Pharmacokinetics of three bioequivalent norethindrone/mestranol-50 micrograms and three norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol-35 micrograms OC formulations: are "low-dose" pills really lower?
    S A Brody
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas
    Contraception 40:269-84. 1989
    We have examined the pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the analysis of plasma ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norethindrone levels after administration of a single dose of three bioequivalent norethindrone-1mg/mestranol (ME)-50 ..
  88. ncbi Psychological effect of the oral contraceptive formulation containing 3 mg of drospirenone plus 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol
    Anna Maria Paoletti
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
    Fertil Steril 81:645-51. 2004
    ..healthy eumenorrheic young women whether an oral contraceptive (OC) containing drospirenone (DRSP) (3 mg) + ethinyl estradiol (EE) (30 microg) (DRSP + EE) could modify psychological symptoms and whether it could modify steroids ..
  89. ncbi The effect of efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate in healthy HIV-negative women
    Heather Sevinsky
    Research and Development, Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Antivir Ther 16:149-56. 2011
    ..Women of childbearing age represent a growing proportion of people living with HIV. Preventing pregnancy is important in HIV-infected women receiving efavirenz as part of their antiretroviral therapy...
  90. ncbi Transgenerational and developmental exposure of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to ethinylestradiol results in endocrine and reproductive differences in the response to ethinylestradiol as adults
    Christy M Foran
    Environmental Toxicology Research Program and Department of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:389-402. 2002
    ..Our results indicate that the relationship between biomarkers and estrogen exposure will be altered by the timing and frequency of exposure...
  91. pmc GPR30, but not estrogen receptor-alpha, is crucial in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by oral ethinyl estradiol
    Melissa A Yates
    Neuroimmunology Research, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA
    BMC Immunol 11:20. 2010
    ..that 17beta-estradiol can inhibit onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), while ethinyl estradiol (EE) can reduce the severity of established disease...
  92. ncbi The genomic response of a human uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line to 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol
    Jorge M Naciff
    Miami Valley Innovation Center, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253, USA
    Toxicol Sci 107:40-55. 2009
    ....
  93. ncbi 17alpha-ethinylestradiol induces an imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation to sex steroid disruption in a testis culture of gudgeon, Gobio gobio
    Stéphanie Nadzialek
    Unité de Recherche en Biologie des Organismes URBO, University of Namur FUNDP, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium
    Environ Toxicol Chem 29:881-6. 2010
    ..The results of the present study could be the basis conditions for oocyte development within the testis of a common teleost fish under xenoestrogen exposure...
  94. ncbi Epididymal sperm motion as a parameter of male reproductive toxicity: sperm motion, fertility, and histopathology in ethinylestradiol-treated rats
    M Kaneto
    Developmental Research Laboratories, Shionogi and Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan
    Reprod Toxicol 13:279-89. 1999
    ..Sperm motion analysis could be particularly useful for detecting the toxic effects of chemicals that act through the endocrinologic system on the epididymis...
  95. ncbi Novel ethinyl estradiol-beta-cyclodextrin clathrate formulation does not influence the relative bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol or coadministered drospirenone
    Hartmut Blode
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 172 178, 13342 Berlin, Germany
    Contraception 77:171-6. 2008
    ..formulation has been developed consisting of a beta-cyclodextrin (betadex) clathrate formulation of ethinyl estradiol in combination with drospirenone (EE-betadex clathrate/drsp)...
  96. ncbi Transfer of drospirenone to breast milk after a single oral administration of 3 mg drospirenone + 30 microg ethinylestradiol to healthy lactating women
    H Blode
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism and Bioanalysis, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 6:167-71. 2001
    ..The subjective and objective tolerances of 3 mg DRSP + 30 microg EE were good, with no adverse events reported...
  97. pmc Long-term exposure to environmental concentrations of the pharmaceutical ethynylestradiol causes reproductive failure in fish
    Jon P Nash
    Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 112:1725-33. 2004
    ..Our findings raise major concerns about the population-level impacts for wildlife of long-term exposure to low concentrations of estrogenic endocrine disruptors...
  98. ncbi A prospective follow-up of two 21/7 cycles followed by two extended regimen 84/7 cycles with contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone
    Daniel S Seidman
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 12:400-5. 2010
    ..Continuous use of combined oral contraceptives is currently attracting growing interest as a means of improving menstrual related symptoms and reducing the number of bleeding days...
  99. ncbi Relationship between ethinylestradiol-mediated changes in endocrine function and reproductive impairment in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)
    Susan C Tilton
    Environmental Toxicology Research Program, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA
    Environ Toxicol Chem 24:352-9. 2005
    ..Overall, most biochemical endpoints were more sensitive than reproduction or development to exposure, indicating that reproductive function may be relatively protected...
  100. ncbi Postmarketing study of ORTHO EVRA and levonorgestrel oral contraceptives containing hormonal contraceptives with 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol in relation to nonfatal venous thromboembolism
    Susan S Jick
    Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 11 Muzzey Street, Lexington, MA 02421, USA
    Contraception 81:16-21. 2010
    ..Concern has been raised that the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in users of the ORTHO EVRA patch is higher compared to users of oral contraceptives (OCs)...
  101. ncbi An open label, comparative study of the effects of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg levonorgestrel on hemostatic, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism variables
    Jan Endrikat
    Schering AG, Mullerstrasse 178, D 13342 Berlin, Germany
    Contraception 65:215-21. 2002
    ..label, randomized study we compared the influence of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100 microg levonorgestrel (20 EE) with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 ..

Research Grants62

  1. Effect of Continuous vs. Sequential Oral Contraception
    RICHARD LEGRO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..hypothesis that a long-term (6 month) continuous combined oral contraceptive pill (CCOCP) regimen (20 mug ethinyl estradiol/1 mg norethindrone acetate) will result in more profound endometrial and ovarian suppression than a ..
  2. Transgenerational effects of maternal high fat diet during pregnancy on breast ca
    Leena A Hilakivi-Clarke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..not be limited to F1 generation daughters: we found that an exposure during pregnancy to a diet containing ethinyl estradiol (EE2) increased mammary cancer risk also in granddaughters (F2 generation) and great granddaughters (F3 ..
  3. CHEMISTRY SUPPORT SERVICES TO THE ENVIRONMENAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM
    Reshan Fernando; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In support of a soy isoflavone study, formulations of the positive control, ethinyl estradiol, were prepared and analyzed for use in a uterotropic assay.
  4. Continuous OC Treatment in PMDD: Steroid Hormone Mechanisms
    David R Rubinow; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and complete one of three, 13 week treatment arms: Treatment #1) continuous administration of 20 ug ethinyl estradiol/3mg drospirenone [EE/P];Treatment #2) interrupted EE/P, substituting placebo for EE/DRP during weeks 4, 8, &..
  5. A novel vaginal ring to prevent HIV and HSV-2 infection, as well as pregnancy
    THOMAS MICHAEL ZYDOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in vivo;and LNG is the most widely used progestin in approved oral contraceptives (in combination with ethinyl estradiol or alone in low dose progestin only contraceptives)...
  6. TDM & Drug Interactions in HIVinfected Substance Abusers
    Gene Morse; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and commonly prescribed medications including methadone, ethinyl estradiol, fluconazole, pravastatin, and fluoxetine in HIV-infected, substance abusers The proposed methodology ..
  7. MENSTRUALLY RELATED CHANGES IN COGNITIVE FUNCTION
    Uriel Halbreich; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..at elimination of ovulation and hormonal fluctuation by creating different hormonal environments (Danocrine, ethinyl estradiol and triphasil)...
  8. Combination metformin and oral contraceptive for PCOS
    PAULINA ESSAH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..we will conduct a double-blind, randomized study that will determine if combination therapy of Metformin and ethinyl estradiol 35 mcg norgestimate, 0...
  9. MDR1 IN HUMAN INTESTINE
    Kenneth Lown; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..intestinal mdr1 expression correlates with the variable oral pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus, midazolam, and ethinyl estradiol (collaboration with Paul Watkins and Alan Leichtman)...
  10. Developmental Programming of Endometriosis Genes
    Susan C Nagel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Three specific aims are proposed. Specific Aim 1. Does developmental exposure to bisphenol A, genistein and ethinyl estradiol at current human exposure levels exacerbate endometriosis in adulthood...
  11. COGNITIVE AGING: EFFECTS OF ESTRADIOL AND RALOXIFENE
    AGNES LACREUSE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This project will determine in the same OVX monkeys whether ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is able to reverse this pattern of cognitive performance and whether the SERM raloxifene has similar ..
  12. MECHANISM OF ESTROGEN EFFECTS ON BILIARY CHOLESTEROL
    FRED KERN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..This hypothesis will be tested by in postmenopausal women by measuring: 1) effects of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on plasma clearance of chylomicron remnants, using retinyl palmitate as remnant marker, and on LDL ..
  13. ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS
    JAMES YAGER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Prolonged use by women of oral contraceptives containing the synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with a modest increased risk of developing liver tumors...
  14. PHASE II CLINICAL TRAIL - AN EXPLORATORY STUDY TO IDENTI
    Karen Lu; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..modulated by DepoMedroxyprogesterone Acetate (DepoMPA) versus a combination oral contraceptive pill (OCP, ethinyl estradiol/norgestrel) in women at high-risk for endometiral cancer...
  15. HEPATIC MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
    Richard Moseley; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..used to study specific effects of choleretic and cholestatic agents, including bile acids glucocorticoids, ethinyl estradiol, and thyroid hormone, on ion transport and permeability as well as the time course of these effects...
  16. DOXYCYCLINE FOR BLEEDING IN PROGESTIN ONLY CONTRACEPTORS
    David Archer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..If successful, DOX treatment could become an important adjuvant for treatment of this and possibly other inflammatory disorders effecting reproductive tract tissues. ..
  17. RCT of a Novel Oral Contraceptive Initiation Method
    Carolyn Westhoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will also assess dual method use for STD prevention in the study to adoption of and adherence to oral contraceptives. We will also assess dual method use for STD prevention in the study population. ..
  18. Obesity, Oral Contraception and Ovarian Suppression
    Carolyn Westhoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This study will have very good power to detect clinically important differences. Results could directly and immediately affect contraceptive practice. ..
  19. Improving Contraceptive Effectiveness in Obese Women
    Alison B Edelman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Contraceptive efficacy and body weight: Does obesity affect the risk of failure?
    Alison Edelman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..e., ethinyl estradiol [EE] = 20 mcg]). Studies have not established what mechanisms might lead to this reduced efficacy...
  21. Effect of hormonal contraception on bone mineral density
    Abbey Berenson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Ultimately, this study will determine which women, if any, are placed at increased risk of osteopenia or osteoporosis as a result of using these hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. ..
  22. MECHANISMS AND STRATEGIES FOR INSULIN RESISTANCE IN AIDS
    Steven Grinspoon; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed studies represent a significant collaborative effort between clinical researchers, adipocyte biologists, epidemiologists and nutritional biochemists in satisfaction of the mandate of the RFA. ..
  23. Consequences and Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in the Metabolic Syndrome
    STEVEN KYLE GRINSPOON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Lay Description: This grant will study how commonly low GH level are seen and contribute to increased cardiac risk in patients with abdominal fat and whether increasing low GH levels will improve cardiac risk in this population. ..
  24. Androgen Effects in HIV-Infected Women
    Steven Grinspoon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies outlined in this renewal constitute an important investigative initiative of a targeted, gender-specific therapy in this largely understudied population. ..
  25. PDE3 Inhibitors: Selective Blockers of Oocyte Maturation
    Jeffrey Jensen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This approach is expected to provide a foundation for future Phase 1 trials of PDE3 inhibitors in humans. ..
  26. DEPO PROVERA AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN ADOLESCENTS
    Barbara Cromer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The statistical analysis will estimate the effect of DMPA on bone density while taking account of constant treatment discontinuation throughout the study period. ..
  27. St. John's Wort Effects on Levonorgestrel
    Patricia Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The study protocol will be refined for use in future studies of levonorgestrel and other emergency contraceptive regimens. ..
  28. Oral contraceptives and cytochrome p450 inducers
    Anne Davis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Effects of Hypericum Perforatum on Oral Contraceptives
    Patricia Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Eligible women will take low dose oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone for two months, followed by two months taking the same oral contraceptive and St...
  30. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES FOR DYSMENORRHEA IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS
    Anne Davis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..150 girls will be randomized to receive either a COC containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 0.1 milligrams levonorgestrel or a placebo...
  31. Serotonin-1A receptors in postpartum depression
    Eydie Moses Kolko; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Results of this study will inform future studies of novel hormonal and behavioral treatments for postpartum depression. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. ANXIETY, DISINHIBITION, AND RISK FOR DRUG ABUSE
    Kimberly Yonkers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..phenotypic indices of vulnerability using combinations of clinical and psychophysiological measures. ..
  33. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ESTROGEN INDUCED CARCINOGENESIS
    HARI BHAT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  34. Effects of Perinatal Depression on PTD and LBW
    Kimberly Yonkers; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Further, if we determine antidepressants increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, treatment with psychotherapy rather than antidepressants should be considered when recommending therapeutic options. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions
    Zeruesenay Desta; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The in vitro parameter estimates will be incorporated into our physiological pharmacokinetic models to test the predictive power and build a universal platform for complex interactions between chemicals. ..
  36. Psychosocial Res. to Improve Drug Treatment in Pregnancy
    Kimberly Yonkers; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Biological Rhythms in Postpartum Depression
    Barbara Parry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This study would serve as the basis of future studies in which treatments designed to correct these underlying abnormalities in circadian rhythms, and restore them to those of NC women, thereby would improve mood in DP. ..
  38. PROGESTERONE THERAPY FOR WOMEN WITH EPILEPSY
    Andrew Herzog; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..30 x .35) 100,000 women with catamenial epilepsy and perhaps many more women with no a priori demonstrated hormonal sensitivity to seizure occurrence. ..
  39. GENDER INFLUENCES IMMUNOREGULATION IN R EAE
    Halina Offner; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  40. HORMONE REPLACEMENT IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH EPILEPSY
    Cynthia Harden; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The outcome of this study will be determined by comparing seizure frequency in the baseline phase with the treated phase between placebo and hormone treated groups. ..
  41. RISK FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
    Kurt T Barnhart; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  42. VISUAL ADAPTATION LIMITS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASE
    Alvin Eisner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  43. ESTIMATING EFFICACY OF A MEDICAL INTERVENTION
    James Trussell; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  44. Ectopic Pregnancy: Assessing Long-Term Trends in Rates and Risk Factors
    Delia Scholes; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. Nutritional and Hormonal Determinants of Peak Bone Mass
    Madhusmita Misra; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The effects of estrogen in weight recovered vs. non-weight recovered AN will also be studied. ..
  46. CLONOTYPIC REGULATION OF ENCEPHALITOGENIC T LYMPHOCYTES
    Halina Offner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These proposed studies will provide new and definitive insights into the biological importance and function of TCR-reactive T ceils in preventing and treating spontaneous and induced EAE, and will guide further human studies. ..
  47. ROLE OF INTESTINAL UGT IN DRUG DISPOSITION
    Philip Smith; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Translational studies to patients receiving these drugs will also be conducted to evaluate intestinal glucuronidation in humans and examine the hypothesis that local tissue specific UGTs may modulate intestinal toxicity in humans. ..
  48. BOTANICAL/DRUG INTERACTIONS IN HIV: GLUCURONIDATION
    Philip Smith; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Piperine will also be examined in vitro for potential inhibition of oxidative metabolism of anti-HIV drugs such as the protease inhibitors. ..
  49. Effect of Cirrhosis and Shunts on Drug Disposition
    Stephen Hall; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  50. CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN WOMEN'S HEALTH RESEARCH AND GENDE*
    Ellen Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The BIRCWH program will track the career trajectories of Scholars and will continue to serve as a resource in terms of career counseling and research advice. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Probing Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder with Light
    Barbara Parry; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These investigations will provide further insight into the pathophysiology of PMDD and other depressive disorders in women, and serve as a basis for refining light treatment interventions in the future. ..
  52. 4th International Symposium on Hormonal Carcinogenesis
    Jonathan Li; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. 5th International Symposium on Hormonal Carcinogenesis
    Jonathan Li; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Area 4: Hormone Dependency and Independency. e) In prostate, breast and uterine cancer, Session 6. As in the past, a book will be published of the presentations. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Genomic Instability and Etiology of Estrogen Oncogenesis
    Jonathan Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  55. Treating PMS/PMDD--Research versus Clinical Reality
    Kimberly Yonkers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  56. DETECTION AND TREATMENT OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION
    Kimberly Yonkers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. Improving contraceptive use/practices among young women
    Melissa Gilliam; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Assessing Fertility Potential in Pediatric Cancer Survivors
    Clarisa Gracia; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..