Genomes and Genes
Summary: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Publications187 found, 100 shown here
- Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrelHans Joachim Ahrendt
Gynekologická a Porodnická Ambulance, Prague, Czech Republic
Contraception 80:436-44. 2009..valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; administered using a dynamic dosing regimen) with a monophasic OC containing ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg/levonorgestrel 100 mcg (EE/LNG)...
- Investigating compensation and recovery of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol with metabolite profilingD R Ekman
Ecosystems Research Division, U S EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
Environ Sci Technol 42:4188-94. 2008..This revealed an apparent ability of the fish to compensate for the presence of EE2 later in the exposure, and to partially recover from its effects after the chemical was removed...
- Cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol for acne and hirsutism: time to revise prescribing policyStephen Franks
Reproductive Endocrinology, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
Hum Reprod 23:231-2. 2008..The combination of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (2 mg) and ethinyl estradiol (35 microg) (co-cypridiol) is of proven efficacy in management of symptoms of both hyperandrogenism and ..
- A randomized, controlled trial of a low-dose contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel for acne treatmentD Thiboutot
Division of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, USA
Fertil Steril 76:461-8. 2001..of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) containing 100 microg of levonorgestrel (LNG) and 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol (EE) compared with placebo for the treatment of moderate acne...
- Genistein and ethinyl estradiol dietary exposure in multigenerational and chronic studies induce similar proliferative lesions in mammary gland of male Sprague-Dawley ratsJohn R Latendresse
Toxicologic Pathology Associates, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
Reprod Toxicol 28:342-53. 2009Genistein and ethinyl estradiol (EE(2)) were examined in multigenerational reproductive and 2-yr chronic toxicity studies with different exposure durations across generations F(0) through F(4)...
- An open label, comparative study of the effects of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg levonorgestrel on hemostatic, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism variablesJan Endrikat
Schering AG, Mullerstrasse 178, D 13342 Berlin, Germany
Contraception 65:215-21. 2002..label, randomized study we compared the influence of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100 microg levonorgestrel (20 EE) with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 ..
- Interaction of St. John's Wort with oral contraceptives: effects on the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleedingPatricia A Murphy
College of Nursing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 841112 5880, USA
Contraception 71:402-8. 2005This study evaluated the effect of the herbal remedy St. John's Wort on oral contraceptive (OC) therapy with respect to the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleeding.
- Fate of estrogens and xenoestrogens in four sewage treatment plants with different technologiesGuang Guo Ying
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute for Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People s Republic of China
Environ Toxicol Chem 27:87-94. 2008..Comparatively, the removal of estrogens was lower, with rates ranging between 47 and 68% for E(2) at the four plants. Both E(1) and EE(2) were more persistent during treatment, especially in plants C and D...
- Quality of life issues. Potential role for an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenoneVivian Dickerson
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Irvine Medical Center, 101 The City Drive, Building 53, Room 215, Orange, CA 92868, USA
J Reprod Med 47:985-93. 2002The new combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone has the potential for improving a woman's quality of life...
- Effects of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest on thyroid hormones and androgen parameters: conventional vs. extended-cycle useNicole Sänger
Center of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Germany
Contraception 77:420-5. 2008This study was conducted to investigate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest on thyroid hormones and androgen parameters.
- Effects of metformin and ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate on lipid levels in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndromeK Rautio
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Oulu, PO Box 5000, FIN-90 014, Finland
Eur J Endocrinol 152:269-75. 2005..women with PCOS (18 obese and 17 non-obese) were randomized to 6-month treatments with metformin or ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate oral contraceptive pills...
- A 1-year randomized study to evaluate the effects of a dose reduction in oral contraceptives on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism: 20 microg ethinyl estradiol combined with 100 microg levonorgestrelSven O Skouby
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK 2000 Copenhagen F, Denmark
Contraception 71:111-7. 2005To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
- Combined use of metformin and ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate in polycystic ovary syndromeM Mitkov
Department of Endocrinology, Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 118:209-13. 2005..applied independently to the effect of metformin used in combination with oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) and cyproterone acetate (CA)...
- Comparison of ELISAs for detecting vitellogenin in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)Eve Mylchreest
DuPont Haskell Laboratory for Health and Environmental Sciences, Elkton Road, PO Box 50, Newark, DE 19714, USA
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 134:251-7. 2003..The homologous fVTG assay is recommended to achieve accurate quantification of VTG levels in fathead minnows...
- A model to estimate influent and effluent concentrations of estradiol, estrone, and ethinylestradiol at sewage treatment worksAndrew C Johnson
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon OXIO 8BB, United Kingdom
Environ Sci Technol 38:3649-58. 2004..The model may be used with river dilution ratios to predict which sewage treatment works are most likely to cause the greatest endocrine disruption due to steroid estrogens...
- Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors alpha and beta and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)William L Gale
US Geological Survey, Western Fishery Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, 5501A Cook Underwood Road, Cook, WA 98605, USA
Gen Comp Endocrinol 136:338-45. 2004....
- Hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1 and antioxidant response element-mediated genes following administration of ethinyl estradiol to ratsLisa A Morio
Mechanistic Toxicology, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C, 1000 Route 202 South, Raritan, NJ 08869, USA
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 216:416-25. 2006..A single dose of ethinyl estradiol (500 mg/kg, po) resulted in mild liver injury...
- Cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne. A comparative dose-response study of the estrogen componentP Fugere
Hopital Saint Luc, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Contraception 42:225-34. 1990The investigators compared 2 mg cyproterone acetate (CPA) in combination with either 0.035 mg or 0.050 mg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) (Diane -35 versus Diane -50) in the treatment of acne...
- Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised studyPascale Gaussem
Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
Thromb Haemost 105:560-7. 2011Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism...
- Bleeding pattern with drospirenone 3 mg+ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg 24/4 combined oral contraceptive compared with desogestrel 150 mcg+ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg 21/7 combined oral contraceptiveLeena Anttila
The Family Federation of Finland, Turku Clinic, Turku FIN 20100, Finland
Contraception 80:445-51. 2009..The study was conducted to compare cycle control, bleeding pattern and efficacy of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives...
- Postmarketing study of ORTHO EVRA and levonorgestrel oral contraceptives containing hormonal contraceptives with 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol in relation to nonfatal venous thromboembolismSusan S Jick
Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 11 Muzzey Street, Lexington, MA 02421, USA
Contraception 81:16-21. 2010..Concern has been raised that the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in users of the ORTHO EVRA patch is higher compared to users of oral contraceptives (OCs)...
- Impaired reproduction in three-spined sticklebacks exposed to ethinyl estradiol as juvenilesRichard J Maunder
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, United Kingdom
Biol Reprod 77:999-1006. 2007..Juvenile sticklebacks were exposed to ethinyl estradiol (EE(2)) at measured concentrations of (mean +/- SEM) 1.75 +/- 0.37 ng L(-1) and 27.7 +/- 1...
- Treatment of acne using a 3-milligram drospirenone/20-microgram ethinyl estradiol oral contraceptive administered in a 24/4 regimen: a randomized controlled trialJ Michael Maloney
Cherry Creek Research, Inc, 3773 Cherry Creek North Drive, Suite 970, Denver, CO 80209, USA
Obstet Gynecol 112:773-81. 2008To assess the efficacy of the combined oral contraceptive containing 3-mg drospirenone/20-microgram ethinyl estradiol (3-mg drospirenone/20-microgram ethinyl estradiol) administered as 24 consecutive days of active treatment after a 4-..
- Gestational and lactational exposure to ethinyl estradiol, but not bisphenol A, decreases androgen-dependent reproductive organ weights and epididymal sperm abundance in the male long evans hooded ratKembra L Howdeshell
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
Toxicol Sci 102:371-82. 2008..into the environment are capable of disrupting normal sex steroid balance, including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA)...
- Effects of the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the life-cycle of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)R Lange
Experimental Toxikologie, Schering AG Research Laboratories, D 13342 Berlin, Germany
Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1216-27. 2001..A lack of sexual differentiation occurred in males at concentrations > or = 4.0 ng/L. Taking into account these data, the overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was considered to be 1.0 ng/L...
- Effect of ethinylestradiol on the reproduction and induction of vitellogenin and testis-ova in medaka (Oryzias latipes)Masanori Seki
Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, Kurume shi, Fukuoka
Environ Toxicol Chem 21:1692-8. 2002..This suggests that the elevated VTG levels and testis-ova may not be definitely responsible for reproductive impairment of the fish...
- A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study that assessed the endometrial effects of norethindrone acetate plus ethinyl estradiol versus ethinyl estradiol aloneDavid J Portman
Columbus Center for Women s Health Research, OH 43213, USA
Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:334-42. 2003The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in subjects who receive continuous norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol combinations versus unopposed ethinyl estradiol.
- Comparative study on the in vitro/in vivo estrogenic potencies of 17beta-estradiol, estrone, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol and nonylphenolK Van den Belt
VITO-Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Expertisecenter Environmental Toxicology, Boeretang 200 B-2400 MOL, Belgium
Aquat Toxicol 66:183-95. 2004....
- Myelotoxicity in genistein-, nonylphenol-, methoxychlor-, vinclozolin- or ethinyl estradiol-exposed F1 generations of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposuresT L Guo
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, P O Box 980613, Richmond, VA 23298 0613, USA
Toxicology 211:207-19. 2005..25, 500 and 2000 ppm), methoxychlor (MXC: 10, 100 and 1000 ppm), vinclozolin (VCZ: 10, 150 and 750 ppm) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2: 5, 25 and 200 ppb) gestationally and lactationally through dams from day 7 of gestation and through ..
- Effect of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone on premenstrual symptomatology and health-related quality of lifeJeff Borenstein
Departments of Internal Medicine and Health Services Research (Zynx Health, Cedars-Sinai Health System, 9100 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 655E, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, USA
J Reprod Med 48:79-85. 2003OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the oral contraceptive Yasmin (drospirenone, 3 mg, and ethinyl estradiol, 30 micrograms) (Berlex Laboratories, Wayne, New Jersey) on premenstrual symptomatology and health-related quality of life (..
- Increased kidney, liver, and testicular cell death after chronic exposure to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in medaka (Oryzias latipes)Lynn P Weber
Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada
Environ Toxicol Chem 23:792-7. 2004..These results suggest that chronic exposure to EE2 in medaka is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in both sexes, whereas gonadal toxicity is specific to males...
- Extended use of transdermal norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol: a randomized trialFelicia H Stewart
University of California San Francisco, Center for Reproductive Health Research and Policy, San Francisco, California, USA
Obstet Gynecol 105:1389-96. 2005OBJECTIVE: To compare bleeding profiles and satisfaction among women using a norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol (E2) transdermal contraceptive patch in an extended regimen to those among women using a traditional 28-day patch regimen...
- Suppression of ovarian activity with a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive in a 24/4 regimenChristine Klipping
Dinox BV, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
Contraception 78:16-25. 2008....
- Efficacy of a low-dose oral contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel for the treatment of moderate acne: A randomized, placebo-controlled trialJames Leyden
Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, USA
J Am Acad Dermatol 47:399-409. 2002..A low-dose oral contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel (EE/LNG) has been shown to improve biochemical markers of androgenicity...
- Effect of zonisamide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone oral contraceptive in healthy womenSue G Griffith
Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc, 7475 Lusk Boulevard, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Clin Ther 26:2056-65. 2004..Several antiepileptic drugs have clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with oral contraceptives (OCs) that may result in contraceptive failure...
- Uterine temporal response to acute exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol in the immature ratJorge M Naciff
The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
Toxicol Sci 97:467-90. 2007..we evaluated the temporal gene expression in the uterus of the immature rat after a single dose of 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE) by microarray analysis, evaluating the expression of 15,923 genes...
- Oral feeding with ethinyl estradiol suppresses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice and inhibits the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous systemSandhya Subramanian
Neuroimmunology Research, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR 97201, USA
J Immunol 170:1548-55. 2003..In the current study we investigated the effectiveness of oral treatment with ethinyl estradiol (EE) on EAE and the mechanisms involved...
- Clinical evidence of the endocrinological influence of a triphasic oral contraceptive containing norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol in treating women with acne vulgaris. A pilot studyP G Sator
Department of Special and Environmental Dermatology, University of Vienna, General Hospital, Vienna, Austria
Dermatology 206:241-8. 2003The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a triphasic combination oral contraceptive (OC) containing norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of women with acne vulgaris.
- Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas)Craig D Robinson
Fisheries Research Services, Marine Laboratory, PO Box 101, Victoria Road, AB11 9DB, Aberdeen, UK
Aquat Toxicol 62:119-34. 2003....
- The oral contraceptive containing 30 microg of ethinylestradiol plus 3 mg of drospirenone is able to antagonize the increase of extracellular water occurring in healthy young women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle: an observational studyFranca Fruzzetti
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
Contraception 75:199-203. 2007..This nonrandomized study aimed to evaluate body weight and composition during the menstrual cycle and during oral contraception with 30 microg of ethinylestradiol plus 3 mg of drospirenone (EE+DRSP)...
- Gene expression profile induced by 17 alpha-ethynyl estradiol in the prepubertal female reproductive system of the ratJorge M Naciff
Miami Valley Laboratories, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253, USA
Toxicol Sci 72:314-30. 2003..Moreover, those genes could be used as biomarkers to identify chemicals with estrogenic activity...
- The risk of venous thromboembolism in women prescribed cyproterone acetate in combination with ethinyl estradiol: a nested cohort analysis and case-control studyH E Seaman
Pharmacoepidemiology Unit, Postgraduate Medical School University of Surrey, Stirling House, Stirling Road, Surrey Research Park, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7DJ, UK
Hum Reprod 18:522-6. 2003Cyproterone acetate combined with ethinyl estradiol (CPA/EE) is licensed in the UK for the treatment of women with acne and hirsutism and is also a treatment option for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
- Life-cycle exposure of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an ethinylestradiol concentration below 1 ng/L reduces egg fertilization success and demasculinizes malesJoanne L Parrott
Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Branch, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6
Environ Toxicol 20:131-41. 2005..In conclusion, life-cycle exposure of fathead minnows proved to be a very sensitive bioassay, and responses were seen at concentrations of less than 1 ng/L, which are environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2...
- Pharmacokinetic interaction between nevirapine and ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone when administered concurrently to HIV-infected womenDonna Mildvan
Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Medical Center, First Avenue at 16th Street, New York City, NY 10003, U S A
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29:471-7. 2002..a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1 and P450 inducer, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ethinyl estradiol (EE)/norethindrone (NET), a widely used oral contraceptive, and to assess the effects of EE/NET on the ..
- Endometrial histology following 1 year of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel 90 micro g/ethinyl estradiol 20 micro gJulia V Johnson
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
Contraception 75:23-6. 2007The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 micro g/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 micro g on endometrial histology.
- Analysis and occurrence of estrogenic hormones and their glucuronides in surface water and waste water in The NetherlandsA C Belfroid
Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Sci Total Environ 225:101-8. 1999..Concentrations of 17 alpha-estradiol and the contraceptive 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol were in most of these samples below the limit of detection. Hormone glucuronides were not detected in most surface water and effluents...
- Evaluation of a continuous regimen of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol: phase 3 study resultsDavid F Archer
CONRAD Clinical Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA
Contraception 74:439-45. 2006This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 microg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 microg (continuous LNG/EE).
- Effects on cycle control and bodyweight of the combined contraceptive ring, NuvaRing, versus an oral contraceptive containing 30 microg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenoneI Milsom
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
Hum Reprod 21:2304-11. 2006..objective of this study was to compare cycle control, cycle-related characteristics and bodyweight effects of NuvaRing with those of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone.
- Gene expression profiles revealing the mechanisms of anti-androgen- and estrogen-induced feminization in fishAmy L Filby
Environmental and Molecular Fish Biology Group, School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS, United Kingdom
Aquat Toxicol 81:219-31. 2007....
- Long-term exposure of male rats to low-dose ethinylestradiol (EE2) in drinking water: effects on ponderal growth and on litter size of their progenyMélanie Vosges
INRA CNRS University of Tours, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, 37380 Nouzilly, France
Reprod Toxicol 25:161-8. 2008..When exposed to 1 microg/mL EE2 but only from PND 22 to PND 43, the males produced an intermediate proportion (15%) of small litters in their progeny but this might be consecutive to the observed retardation in weight gain...
- A combined oral contraceptive containing 3-mg drospirenone/ 20-microg ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating lesion counts and participant self-assessmentAnne W Lucky
Dermatology Research Associates, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Cutis 82:143-50. 2008..the efficacy of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 3-mg drospirenone and 20-microg ethinyl estradiol (3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE) administered in a 24-day active pill/4-day inert pill (24/4) regimen and placebo in ..
- Pharmacokinetic interaction between bosentan and the oral contraceptives norethisterone and ethinyl estradiolP L M van Giersbergen
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 44:113-8. 2006..Bosentan has been shown in vitro and in vivo to induce the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of bosentan on the pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive...
- Follicular development in a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval with an oral contraceptive containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetateRadhika D Rible
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Contraception 79:182-8. 2009Combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations with 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) have a greater incidence of ovarian hormone production and follicular development, which can be managed by shortening the number of hormone-free days per ..
- Effects on body weight and body composition of a low-dose oral estroprogestin containing ethinyl estradiol 20 microg plus levonorgestrel 100 microgStefano Lello
Department of Gynecology, IRCCS IDI San Carlo, Rome, Italy
Gynecol Endocrinol 23:632-7. 2007..We studied the impact of a EP containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 microg plus levonorgestrel (LNG) 100 microg on body weight (BW) and body composition in 47 treated ..
- Gonad development and vitellogenin production in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to ethinylestradiol and methyltestosteroneStefan Orn
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Aquat Toxicol 65:397-411. 2003..The period of gonadal sex reversal in non-exposed zebrafish was also studied. The main morphological features of the transformation of ovaries into testis were observed 4-5 weeks after hatching...
- Unscheduled bleeding during initiation of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy: a direct comparison of two combinations of norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol to medroxyprogesterone acetate and conjugated equine estrogensJ A Simon
Women's Health Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA
Menopause 8:321-7. 2001..25 mg norethindrone acetate (NA)/5 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE), 1 mg NA/5 microg EE, 0...
- Continuous, daily levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol vs. 21-day, cyclic levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol: efficacy, safety and bleeding in a randomized, open-label trialAlexander Teichmann
Frauenklinik, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, 63739 Aschaffenburg, Germany
Contraception 80:504-11. 2009..multicenter study conducted at 44 sites in Europe evaluated the safety and efficacy of a continuous, daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 mcg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 mcg compared with a 21-day, cyclic LNG 100 mcg/EE 20 mcg regimen.
- Comparison of vitellogenin responses in zebrafish and rainbow trout following exposure to environmental estrogensK Van den Belt
Environmental Toxicology, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol B-2400, Belgium
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56:271-81. 2003....
- Gene expression patterns in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to a suite of model toxicantsSharon E Hook
Battelle, Marine Research Operations, Sequim, WA, USA
Aquat Toxicol 77:372-85. 2006....
- A cross-species analysis of the rodent uterotrophic program: elucidation of conserved responses and targets of estrogen signalingJoshua C Kwekel
Department of Biochemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
Physiol Genomics 23:327-42. 2005....
- Comparison of uterine concentrations of ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel after use of a contraceptive vaginal ring and an oral contraceptiveFrans J M E Roumen
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Atrium Medisch Centrum, Heerlen, The Netherlands
Fertil Steril 85:57-62. 2006OBJECTIVE: To compare uterine tissue concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and etonogestrel (ENG) after one cycle of use of a contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing; NV Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) or a combined oral contraceptive (..
- Pharmacokinetics of norelgestromin and ethinyl estradiol delivered by a contraceptive patch (Ortho Evra/Evra) under conditions of heat, humidity, and exerciseL S Abrams
The R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Raritan, New Jersey 08869, USA
J Clin Pharmacol 41:1301-9. 2001..incomplete block design study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of norelgestromin (NGMN) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) delivered by the contraceptive patch, Ortho Evra/Evra, and to evaluate patch adhesion under conditions ..
- Fluctuations in brain concentrations of neurosteroids are not associated to changes in gephyrin levelsMarco Sassoè-Pognetto
Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, University of Turin, and Istituto Nazionale di Neuroscienze, Corso Massimo d Azeglio 52, I 10126 Torino, Italy
Brain Res 1169:1-8. 2007..These findings indicate that the expression of gephyrin and the density of cortical inhibitory synapses are not influenced by endogenous neurosteroids...
- New hormonal contraceptives: a comprehensive review of the literatureAlicia B Forinash
Division of Pharmacy Practice, St. Louis College of Pharmacy, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Pharmacotherapy 23:1573-91. 2003..New hormonal contraceptive agents, norelgestromin-ethinyl estradiol patch, etonogestrel-ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, and medroxyprogesterone-estradiol cypionate injection, ..
- Ovarian follicular development is initiated during the hormone-free interval of oral contraceptive useA R Baerwald
Women's Health Imaging Research Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W8, Canada
Contraception 70:371-7. 2004..Thirty-six healthy women received: [35 microg ethinyl estradiol (21)/180 microg norgestimate (7), 215 microg norgestimate (7), 250 microg norgestimate (7)]; [30 microg ..
- Double-blind, randomized study comparing the effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (20 microg or 30 microg) and levonorgestrel (100 microg or 150 microg) on lipoprotein metabolismHubert Scharnagl
Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, University and General Hospital Graz, Auenbrugger Platz 15, A 8036 Graz, Austria
Contraception 69:105-13. 2004..It is not likely that the changes in lipoprotein metabolism brought about by the two preparations will alter the risk of future cardiovascular disease in a clinically relevant fashion...
- Mixtures of estrogenic chemicals enhance vitellogenic response in sea bassAna D Correia
CIIMAR Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Porto, Portugal
Environ Health Perspect 115:115-21. 2007..Although it is well-known that they occur as mixtures in the marine environment, there is little information about the combined effects of estrogenic chemicals on marine biota...
- Ovarian function with the contraceptive vaginal ring or an oral contraceptive: a randomized studyIngrid J M Duijkers
Dinox Medical Investigations, Groenewoudseweg 317, 6524 TX Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Hum Reprod 19:2668-73. 2004..Due to the different starting procedures, lower ovarian activity was observed in the COC group in the first treatment cycle. In the second cycle, ovarian suppression was comparable with NuvaRing and COC treatment...
- Endometrial effects of a 91-day extended-regimen oral contraceptive with low-dose estrogen in place of placeboFreedolph D Anderson
Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507 1627, USA
Contraception 77:91-6. 2008The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a 91-day extended-regimen oral contraceptive (OC) containing levonorgestrel (LNG) with low-dose ethinyl estradiol (EE) in place of placebo on endometrial histology.
- Effects of some endocrine disruptors on the proliferation and viability of human endometrial endothelial cells in vitroCarolina Bredhult
Department of Women s and Children s Health, Uppsala University, SE 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
Reprod Toxicol 23:550-9. 2007..In light of these results, it is possible that the EDCs could have effects in vivo as well as in vitro, and influence processes involving for example endometrial angiogenesis...
- The combined contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) and lipid metabolism: a comparative studyM Tuppurainen
Laboratorio Gyne Oy, Kuopio, Finland
Contraception 69:389-94. 2004..These changes reflect the lower androgenicity of etonogestrel versus levonorgestrel and show that NuvaRing has a minimal effect on lipid profile...
- Effects of low-dose oral contraceptives on body weight: results of a randomized study of up to 13 cycles of useRonald T Burkman
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA 01199, USA
J Reprod Med 52:1030-4. 2007..To compare the effect of 2 oral contraceptives (OCs) on body weight...
- Effects of environmental and natural estrogens on vitellogenin production in hepatocytes of the brown frog (Rana temporaria)T Rouhani Rankouhi
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
Aquat Toxicol 71:97-101. 2005..Exposure to bisphenol A and methoxychlor concentrations up to 100 microM did not have any effect on in vitro vitellogenesis...
- The effects of estrogen administration on bone mineral density in adolescents with anorexia nervosaM T Muñoz
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Universidad Autonoma, Hospital Universitario Nino Jesus, Avda Menéndez Pelayo, 65, 28009 Madrid, Spain
Eur J Endocrinol 146:45-50. 2002..The aim of this work was to study the effect of prolonged AN on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and to determine whether oral estrogen administration prevents bone loss in women with this disorder...
- Comparison profiles of cycle control, side effects and sexual satisfaction of three hormonal contraceptivesRosa Sabatini
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital Policlinico, University of Bari, 11, 70121 Bari, Italy
Contraception 74:220-3. 2006..The objective of this study was to compare cycle control, tolerability and sexual well-being with the use of three hormonal contraceptives...
- Preliminary report of treatment with oral contraceptive pills for intermenstrual vaginal bleeding secondary to a cesarean section scarMasahiro Tahara
Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Fertil Steril 86:477-9. 2006..Several cycles of the hormonal therapy eliminated the problem of abnormal vaginal bleeding, and the patients were satisfied with the treatment...
- Lack of aromatisation of the 3-keto-4-ene metabolite of tibolone to an estrogenic derivativeBindumalini Raobaikady
Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, St. Mary's Hospital, London W2 1NY, UK
Steroids 71:639-46. 2006..From these investigations, it is concluded that 7alpha-methyl norethisterone does not undergo aromatisation to an estrogenic derivative...
- Endocrine disrupters with (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic modes of action affecting reproductive biology of Xenopus laevis: I. Effects on sex steroid levels and biomarker expressionRalph Urbatzka
Department of Inland Fisheries, Leibniz Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 144:310-8. 2007..The other treatments did not affect the mRNA expression of the examined genes...
- Continuous oral contraceptives: are bleeding patterns dependent on the hormones given?Alison B Edelman
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
Obstet Gynecol 107:657-65. 2006..To estimate whether progestin type or estrogen dose influences bleeding patterns, adverse effects, or satisfaction with combined oral contraceptives dosed continuously...
- Measured and reported weight change for women using a vaginal contraceptive ring vs. a low-dose oral contraceptiveKatharine J O'Connell
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Contraception 72:323-7. 2005..We examined the difference between women's reported and measured baseline weights and looked at factors affecting perceived weight change...
- Estradiol supplementation modulates neuroendocrine response to M-chlorophenylpiperazine in menstrual status migrainosus triggered by oral contraception-free intervalR E Nappi
Research Centre for Reproductive Medicine, University of Pavia, Italy
Hum Reprod 20:3423-8. 2005....
- The combined contraceptive vaginal ring and bone mineral density in healthy pre-menopausal womenR Massai
Instituto Chileno de Medicina Reproductiva, Santiago, Chile
Hum Reprod 20:2764-8. 2005..CONCLUSIONS: In healthy pre-menopausal women, 2 years of contraceptive ring use produced no changes in BMD...
- Accurate prediction of the response of freshwater fish to a mixture of estrogenic chemicalsJayne V Brian
Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom
Environ Health Perspect 113:721-8. 2005....
- Mixtures of estrogenic contaminants in bile of fish exposed to wastewater treatment works effluentsR Gibson
Centre for Environmental Research, Chichester Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ, UK
Environ Sci Technol 39:2461-71. 2005..K. rivers. The composition of the mixture of estrogenic contaminants in the bile is species dependent and may determine the susceptibility of fish to the effects of exposure to estrogenic effluents...
- Decreased plasma sensitivity to activated protein C by oral contraceptives is associated with decreases in plasma glucosylceramideH Deguchi
The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Thromb Haemost 3:935-8. 2005..017, r = 0.51, n = 21 plasma samples). Thus, both second and third generation OC usage decreased plasma GlcCer which could cause a reduction in the plasma sensitivity to APC/protein S, thereby potentially increasing VTE risk...
- Bleeding patterns of women using extended regimens of the contraceptive vaginal ringFernando Augusto Barreiros
Family Planning Clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of São Paulo Federal University UNIFESP, CEP 09090 050 São Paulo, Brazil
Contraception 75:204-8. 2007..observational study evaluated the bleeding patterns of women using a vaginal ring releasing 120 microg of etonogestrel and 15 microg of ethinyl estradiol daily, over a continuous period of 84 days followed by 7 ring-free days.
- Biological assessments of a mixture of endocrine disruptors at environmentally relevant concentrations in water following UV/H2O2 oxidationPei Jen Chen
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, USA
Sci Total Environ 376:18-26. 2007..Four EDCs including estradiol (E(2)), ethinyl estradiol (EE(2)), bisphenol-A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) were spiked individually or as a mixture at mug L(-1)-ng L(-..
- The administration of estrogens, combined with anti-androgens, has beneficial effects on the hormonal features and asymmetric dimethyl-arginine levels, in women with the polycystic ovary syndromeChristina Charitidou
Division of Endocrinology and Human Reproduction, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippocration General Hospital, Thessaloniki 54642, Greece
Atherosclerosis 196:958-65. 2008..Conclusively, PCOS is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is ameliorated by the administration of estrogens and anti-androgens, independent of IR...
- Effects of transdermal and oral contraceptives on estrogen-sensitive hepatic proteinsTerry White
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Contraception 74:293-6. 2006The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the contraceptive patch and an oral contraceptive (OC) on serum concentrations of estrogen-sensitive hepatic proteins, ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG).
- Prevention of mammary carcinogenesis by short-term estrogen and progestin treatmentsLakshmanaswamy Rajkumar
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and The Cancer Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
Breast Cancer Res 6:R31-7. 2004..This protective effect is observed universally among women of all ethnic groups. Parity in rats and mice also protects them against chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis...
- Treatment of premenstrual worsening of depression with adjunctive oral contraceptive pills: a preliminary reportHadine Joffe
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
J Clin Psychiatry 68:1954-62. 2007..Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) stabilize reproductive hormones and treat premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Management of depression that breaks through premenstrually has not been studied...
- Bleeding problems and progestogen-only contraceptionCharlotte Porter
Victoria Clinic, Nottingham, UK
J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 28:178-81. 2002
- Effects of prochloraz and ethinylestradiol on sexual development in Rana temporariaNanna Brande-Lavridsen
Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 309:389-98. 2008..The study shows that ethinylestradiol may induce vitellogenesis and prochloraz may affect the sexual development in Common frogs...
- The effect of extending the pill-free interval on follicular activity: triphasic norgestimate/35 micro g ethinyl estradiol versus monophasic levonorgestrel/20 micro g ethinyl estradiolMitchell D Creinin
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Contraception 66:147-52. 2002..Significantly greater follicular activity was observed after an extended pill-free interval in women taking LNG/EE compared to those taking triphasic NGM/EE. The clinical implications of these findings require further study...
- Determination of steroid hormones in oral contraceptives by high-performance liquid chromatographyMaria Inês
Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66083, CEP 05315 970, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Drug Dev Ind Pharm 28:741-7. 2002..For samples with ETE-GEST they were 0.39% and 0.44%, respectively. The average recovery for samples with ETE-LEVO was 103.46% and 100.78%, respectively. For samples containing ETE-GEST it was 100.89% and 101.03%, respectively...
- Determination of estrogens in sludge and sediments by liquid extraction and GC/MS/MSThomas A Temes
ESWE Institute for Water Research and Water Technology, Wiesbaden, Germany
Anal Chem 74:3498-504. 2002..9 ng/g. Mestranol, a prodrug for 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, was not detected either in sludge or in sediments...
- Using a low-dose contraceptive in women 35 years of age and over: 20 microg estradiol/100 microg levonorgestrelBruce R Carr
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
Contraception 65:397-402. 2002The efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100 microg levonorgestrel (LNG) has been demonstrated in a large trial with 1708 women (>or=15 years old with ..
- A randomised study comparing a low dose of mifepristone and the Yuzpe regimen for emergency contraceptionPremila W Ashok
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, UK
BJOG 109:553-60. 2002..Delay in the onset of menstruation did not decrease patient acceptability...
- Biphasic versus triphasic oral contraceptives for contraceptionHubertus A A M van Vliet
Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
Contraception 65:321-4. 2002..Larranaga compared two biphasic and one triphasic pills, each containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol. No important differences emerged, and the frequency of discontinuation because of medical problems was ..
- Comparison of cycle control with a combined contraceptive vaginal ring and oral levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiolRagnheidur I Bjarnadottir
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Landspitalinn, Rekjavik, Iceland
Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:389-95. 2002..The purpose of this study was to compare cycle control and tolerability of the NuvaRing (NV Organon, Oss, The Netherlands), a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring, with a standard combined oral contraceptive pill...
- Different effects of oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel or desogestrel on plasma lipoproteins and coagulation factor VIIMarianne van Rooijen
Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Gustaf V Research Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:44-8. 2002..Thirty-five women were treated with combined oral contraceptives containing the same amount of ethinyl estradiol and either levonorgestrel or desogestrel...
- Effect of Continuous vs. Sequential Oral ContraceptionRICHARD LEGRO; Fiscal Year: 2004..hypothesis that a long-term (6 month) continuous combined oral contraceptive pill (CCOCP) regimen (20 mug ethinyl estradiol/1 mg norethindrone acetate) will result in more profound endometrial and ovarian suppression than a ..
- TDM & Drug Interactions in HIVinfected Substance AbusersGene Morse; Fiscal Year: 2006..reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and commonly prescribed medications including methadone, ethinyl estradiol, fluconazole, pravastatin, and fluoxetine in HIV-infected, substance abusers The proposed methodology ..
- TDM & Drug Interactions in HIVinfected Substance AbusersGene Morse; Fiscal Year: 2007..reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and commonly prescribed medications including methadone, ethinyl estradiol, fluconazole, pravastatin, and fluoxetine in HIV-infected, substance abusers The proposed methodology ..
- PROGESTIN EFFECTS ON UTERINE HEMOSTASIS AND ANGIOGENESISCharles Lockwood; Fiscal Year: 1999..Aim 2 will evaluate the effects of various synthetic progestins used in a variety of concentrations +/- ethinyl estradiol in both sustained and pulsed exposure regimens, on the expression of TF, PAI-1, PR and ER isoforms in ..
- Combination metformin and oral contraceptive for PCOSPAULINA ESSAH; Fiscal Year: 2006..we will conduct a double-blind, randomized study that will determine if combination therapy of Metformin and ethinyl estradiol 35 mcg norgestimate, 0...
- Regulation of Epididymal Luminal AcidificationNuria Pastor Soler; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will also evaluate the effects of steroid hormone agonists and antagonists (DES, ethinyl estradiol, GnRH antagonist and flutamide) and toxic compounds (Cadmium and Lead) have on the epididymal cellular ..
- Continuous OC Treatment in PMDD: Steroid Hormone MechanismsSUSAN GIRDLER; Fiscal Year: 2009..and complete one of three, 13 week treatment arms: Treatment #1) continuous administration of 20 ug ethinyl estradiol/3mg drospirenone [EE/P]; Treatment #2) interrupted EE/P, substituting placebo for EE/DRP during weeks 4, 8, &..
- Continuous OC Treatment in PMDD: Steroid Hormone MechanismsDavid R Rubinow; Fiscal Year: 2010..and complete one of three, 13 week treatment arms: Treatment #1) continuous administration of 20 ug ethinyl estradiol/3mg drospirenone [EE/P];Treatment #2) interrupted EE/P, substituting placebo for EE/DRP during weeks 4, 8, &..
- Effects of Hypericum Perforatum on Oral ContraceptivesPatricia Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2002..Eligible women will take low dose oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone for two months, followed by two months taking the same oral contraceptive and St...
- ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND HEPATOCARCINOGENESISJAMES YAGER; Fiscal Year: 2003Prolonged use by women of oral contraceptives containing the synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with a modest increased risk of developing liver tumors...
- ROLE OF GONADAL STEROIDS IN HEPATOCARCINOGENESISJAMES YAGER; Fiscal Year: 1993Our previous findings have shown that ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter of hepato-carcinogenesis...