ethinyl estradiol

Summary

Summary: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.

Top Publications

  1. doi Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) males exposed to an endocrine disrupting chemical fail in nest and mate competition
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Horm Behav 56:315-21. 2009
  2. doi Short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen disrupts mating dynamics in a pipefish
    Charlyn Partridge
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M Univ, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Horm Behav 58:800-7. 2010
  3. doi Exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol impairs courtship and aggressive behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus)
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P O Box 65, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Chemosphere 79:541-6. 2010
  4. doi Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel
    Hans Joachim Ahrendt
    Gynekologická a Porodnická Ambulance, Prague, Czech Republic
    Contraception 80:436-44. 2009
  5. doi Oral contraceptives and individual variability of circulating levels of ethinyl estradiol and progestins
    Joseph W Goldzieher
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 78212, USA
    Contraception 78:4-9. 2008
  6. ncbi Ovarian stimulation by concomitant administration of cetrorelix acetate and HMG following Diane-35 pre-treatment for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized study
    Jiann Loung Hwang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hum Reprod 19:1993-2000. 2004
  7. ncbi Estrogenic endpoints in fish early life-stage tests: luciferase and vitellogenin induction in estrogen-responsive transgenic zebrafish
    Rinus Bogers
    NOTOX Safety and Environmental Research, Hambakenwetering 7, 5231 DD s Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands
    Environ Toxicol Chem 25:241-7. 2006
  8. doi Gene expression profiles in the testis associated with testis-ova in adult Japanese medaka (Oryziaslatipes) exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol
    Ikumi Hirakawa
    The United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753 8513, Japan
    Chemosphere 87:668-74. 2012
  9. pmc A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation
    Jessica R Meendering
    Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Contraception 82:366-72. 2010
  10. doi Disruption of sexual selection in sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus) by 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, an endocrine disruptor
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Horm Behav 55:530-7. 2009

Detail Information

Publications234 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) males exposed to an endocrine disrupting chemical fail in nest and mate competition
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Horm Behav 56:315-21. 2009
    ..minutus) success in mating competition greatly decreases after an exposure for 7 to 24 days to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, measured concentration 4 ng L(-1))...
  2. doi Short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen disrupts mating dynamics in a pipefish
    Charlyn Partridge
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M Univ, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Horm Behav 58:800-7. 2010
    ..However, disrupting these processes could have profound effects on the viability of exposed populations...
  3. doi Exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol impairs courtship and aggressive behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus)
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P O Box 65, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Chemosphere 79:541-6. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to test how 1-4weeks exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 11ngL(-1)) affects nest building, courtship and aggressive behaviour of male fish...
  4. doi Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel
    Hans Joachim Ahrendt
    Gynekologická a Porodnická Ambulance, Prague, Czech Republic
    Contraception 80:436-44. 2009
    ..valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; administered using a dynamic dosing regimen) with a monophasic OC containing ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg/levonorgestrel 100 mcg (EE/LNG)...
  5. doi Oral contraceptives and individual variability of circulating levels of ethinyl estradiol and progestins
    Joseph W Goldzieher
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 78212, USA
    Contraception 78:4-9. 2008
  6. ncbi Ovarian stimulation by concomitant administration of cetrorelix acetate and HMG following Diane-35 pre-treatment for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized study
    Jiann Loung Hwang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hum Reprod 19:1993-2000. 2004
    ..We proposed a stimulation protocol incorporating Diane-35 and GnRH antagonist (Diane/cetrorelix protocol) and compared it with the GnRH agonist long protocol for PCOS patients...
  7. ncbi Estrogenic endpoints in fish early life-stage tests: luciferase and vitellogenin induction in estrogen-responsive transgenic zebrafish
    Rinus Bogers
    NOTOX Safety and Environmental Research, Hambakenwetering 7, 5231 DD s Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands
    Environ Toxicol Chem 25:241-7. 2006
    ..Additional value of using transgenic zebrafish lies in combining VTG measurement with the more mechanistic approach of luciferase induction in one experiment...
  8. doi Gene expression profiles in the testis associated with testis-ova in adult Japanese medaka (Oryziaslatipes) exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol
    Ikumi Hirakawa
    The United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753 8513, Japan
    Chemosphere 87:668-74. 2012
    ..Using quantitative RT-PCR we confirmed that Zpc5 gene can be used as a marker for the detection of testis-ova in male medaka...
  9. pmc A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation
    Jessica R Meendering
    Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Contraception 82:366-72. 2010
    b>Ethinyl estradiol (EE) increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women, but certain progestins paired with EE in combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been shown to antagonize the vasodilatory effects of EE...
  10. doi Disruption of sexual selection in sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus) by 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, an endocrine disruptor
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Horm Behav 55:530-7. 2009
    ..We exposed males for 1 to 4 weeks to two different concentrations (5 ng L(-1) and 24 ng L(-1)) of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2); a synthetic compound mimicking estrogen and a water control...
  11. doi Exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol impairs reproductive functions of both male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    Hui Xu
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Medical College and Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, PR China
    Aquat Toxicol 88:1-8. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that EE2 can adversely affect the fecundity, sex differentiation, gametes development, and other reproductive functions of both male and female zebrafish, and some of the toxic effects persist...
  12. doi Suppression of ovarian activity with a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive in a 24/4 regimen
    Christine Klipping
    Dinox BV, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
    Contraception 78:16-25. 2008
    ....
  13. ncbi Interaction of St. John's Wort with oral contraceptives: effects on the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleeding
    Patricia A Murphy
    College of Nursing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 841112 5880, USA
    Contraception 71:402-8. 2005
    This study evaluated the effect of the herbal remedy St. John's Wort on oral contraceptive (OC) therapy with respect to the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleeding.
  14. ncbi Enhanced mitochondrial gene transcript, ATP, bcl-2 protein levels, and altered glutathione distribution in ethinyl estradiol-treated cultured female rat hepatocytes
    Jinqiang Chen
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Toxicological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2179, USA
    Toxicol Sci 75:271-8. 2003
    b>Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter and weak hepatocarcinogen in rats...
  15. ncbi Comparative study on the in vitro/in vivo estrogenic potencies of 17beta-estradiol, estrone, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol and nonylphenol
    K Van den Belt
    VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Expertisecenter Environmental Toxicology, Boeretang 200 B 2400 MOL, Belgium
    Aquat Toxicol 66:183-95. 2004
    ....
  16. ncbi Investigating compensation and recovery of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol with metabolite profiling
    D R Ekman
    Ecosystems Research Division, U S EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:4188-94. 2008
    ..This revealed an apparent ability of the fish to compensate for the presence of EE2 later in the exposure, and to partially recover from its effects after the chemical was removed...
  17. ncbi Cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol for acne and hirsutism: time to revise prescribing policy
    Stephen Franks
    Reproductive Endocrinology, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
    Hum Reprod 23:231-2. 2008
    ..The combination of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (2 mg) and ethinyl estradiol (35 microg) (co-cypridiol) is of proven efficacy in management of symptoms of both hyperandrogenism and ..
  18. ncbi Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish
    Karen L Thorpe
    School of Biological Sciences, The Hatherly Laboratory, Exeter University, The Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4PS, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 37:1142-9. 2003
    ....
  19. ncbi Sexual reprogramming and estrogenic sensitization in wild fish exposed to ethinylestradiol
    Anke Lange
    School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4PS, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 43:1219-25. 2009
    ..In the wild, exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2 during early life has significantly wider implications for the sexual physiology in fish than has thus far been determined...
  20. doi Effects of the synthetic estrogen, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, on aggression and courtship behavior in male zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    Jamie R Colman
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA 98112, USA
    Aquat Toxicol 91:346-54. 2009
    ..Our results show that short-term exposure to EE(2) at environmentally relevant levels can alter aggression, and shift individual social status and reproductive success in male zebrafish...
  21. ncbi A randomized, controlled trial of a low-dose contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel for acne treatment
    D Thiboutot
    Division of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, USA
    Fertil Steril 76:461-8. 2001
    ..of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) containing 100 microg of levonorgestrel (LNG) and 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol (EE) compared with placebo for the treatment of moderate acne...
  22. doi Genistein and ethinyl estradiol dietary exposure in multigenerational and chronic studies induce similar proliferative lesions in mammary gland of male Sprague-Dawley rats
    John R Latendresse
    Toxicologic Pathology Associates, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 28:342-53. 2009
    Genistein and ethinyl estradiol (EE(2)) were examined in multigenerational reproductive and 2-yr chronic toxicity studies with different exposure durations across generations F(0) through F(4)...
  23. ncbi Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish
    Linda M Samuelsson
    Department of Physiology Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Box 434, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Aquat Toxicol 78:341-9. 2006
    ..This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants...
  24. ncbi Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone: a review of its use as an oral contraceptive
    Susan J Keam
    Adis International Inc, Langhorne, Pennsylvania 19047, USA
    Treat Endocrinol 2:49-70. 2003
    ..A similar improvement in skin condition (acne, seborrhea) was observed in women receiving EE/DRSP or ethinylestradiol 35microg/cyproterone acetate 2mg in a randomized, double-blind trial...
  25. pmc Gene expression responses in male fathead minnows exposed to binary mixtures of an estrogen and antiestrogen
    Natalia Garcia-Reyero
    Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:308. 2009
    ..We analyzed gene expression changes in the gonad, as well as hormone and vitellogenin plasma levels...
  26. ncbi An endocrine disrupter increases growth and risky behavior in threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
    Alison M Bell
    Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Horm Behav 45:108-14. 2004
    ..Exposure to 100 ng/l ethinyl estradiol accelerated growth rate and increased levels of behavior that makes individuals more susceptible to ..
  27. ncbi Developmental estrogenic exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio): II. Histological evaluation of gametogenesis and organ toxicity
    Lynn P Weber
    Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, 430 Life Sciences West, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
    Aquat Toxicol 63:431-46. 2003
    ....
  28. ncbi Subchronic 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol differentially affects subtypes of sleep and wakefulness in ovariectomized rats
    Aaron C Pawlyk
    Women s Health and Musculoskeletal Biology, Wyeth Research N3129, 500 Arcola Rd, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
    Horm Behav 53:217-24. 2008
    ..Therefore, we examined the effects of daily injections of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE) for 6 days on sleep and wakefulness in the OVX rat...
  29. doi In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats
    Bryce C Ryan
    Reproductive Toxicology Branch, TA Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U S Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 114:133-48. 2010
    Many chemicals released into the environment display estrogenic activity including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA)...
  30. doi Comparison of effects of 3 mg drospirenone plus 20 μg ethinyl estradiol alone or combined with metformin or cyproterone acetate on classic metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    Franca Fruzzetti
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ospedale S Chiara, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Fertil Steril 94:1793-8. 2010
    ....
  31. ncbi Alterations to gonadal development and reproductive success in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol
    Gordon C Balch
    Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada
    Environ Toxicol Chem 23:782-91. 2004
    ..However, it is clear that concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that cause gonadal intersex are sufficient to reduce reproductive performance...
  32. ncbi Effects of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone on bone turnover and bone mineral density
    Carmine Nappi
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Pathophysiology of Human Reproduction, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
    Obstet Gynecol 105:53-60. 2005
    ....
  33. doi Effects of ethinylestradiol on medaka (Oryzias latipes) as measured by sperm motility and fertilization success
    Shinya Hashimoto
    Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52 1 Yada, Suruga ku, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:253-9. 2009
    ..The results offer toxicological data for the assessment of EE(2 )exposure in medaka and suggest that short-term exposure to EE(2) might reduce sperm function and fertility in adult male medaka...
  34. doi Effects of two combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol 30 microg combined with either gestodene or drospirenone on hemostatic parameters, lipid profiles and blood pressure
    Recep Yildizhan
    Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 280:255-61. 2009
    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg/gestodene 0.075 mg (EE/GSD) with ethinylestradiol 0...
  35. pmc Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior
    Frauke Hoffmann
    Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e32097. 2012
    ..The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline...
  36. ncbi The effect of food on the bioavailability of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol from norethindrone acetate/ethinyl estradiol tablets intended for continuous hormone replacement therapy
    Rebecca A Boyd
    Departments of Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 43:52-8. 2003
    As part of the development of a combination product containing norethindrone acetate and low-dose ethinyl estradiol for continuous hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, a study was conducted to determine the effect of a ..
  37. ncbi Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and bone metabolism during low-dose oral contraceptive use in young women
    Bojana Pinter
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center, Slajmerjeva 3, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Contraception 67:33-7. 2003
    ..In conclusion, our study shows that in young women VDR gene polymorphism could influence bone metabolism during low-dose oral contraceptive use...
  38. ncbi Trace analysis of technical nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in wastewater using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    P Braun
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig Halle, Permoserstrasse 15, D 04318 Leipzig, Germany
    J Chromatogr A 988:41-51. 2003
    ..The method was tested for determining the analytes in influents and effluents of constructed wetland plants and in model wastewater used in laboratory experiments...
  39. doi An endocrine disrupting chemical changes courtship and parental care in the sand goby
    Minna Saaristo
    Department of Bio and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P O Box 65, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Aquat Toxicol 97:285-92. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to examine how exposure from 10 to 31 days to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 41 ng L(-1)) affects the courtship and parental care behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus ..
  40. doi The effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and either 2 mg of chlormadinone acetate or 0.15 mg of desogestrel on lipid, hormone and metabolic parameters
    Ulrich H Winkler
    Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Clinic of Wetzlar Braunfels, 35578 Wetzlar, Germany
    Contraception 79:15-23. 2009
    This study was conducted to compare the effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives (OCs) containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) 30 mcg+either chlormadinone acetate (CMA) 2 mg (Belara) or 0...
  41. ncbi Transgenerational and developmental exposure of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to ethinylestradiol results in endocrine and reproductive differences in the response to ethinylestradiol as adults
    Christy M Foran
    Environmental Toxicology Research Program and Department of Pharmacology, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:389-402. 2002
    ..Our results indicate that the relationship between biomarkers and estrogen exposure will be altered by the timing and frequency of exposure...
  42. ncbi Psychological effect of the oral contraceptive formulation containing 3 mg of drospirenone plus 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol
    Anna Maria Paoletti
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
    Fertil Steril 81:645-51. 2004
    ..healthy eumenorrheic young women whether an oral contraceptive (OC) containing drospirenone (DRSP) (3 mg) + ethinyl estradiol (EE) (30 microg) (DRSP + EE) could modify psychological symptoms and whether it could modify steroids ..
  43. doi Novel ethinyl estradiol-beta-cyclodextrin clathrate formulation does not influence the relative bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol or coadministered drospirenone
    Hartmut Blode
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 172 178, 13342 Berlin, Germany
    Contraception 77:171-6. 2008
    ..formulation has been developed consisting of a beta-cyclodextrin (betadex) clathrate formulation of ethinyl estradiol in combination with drospirenone (EE-betadex clathrate/drsp)...
  44. ncbi Comparison of vitellogenin responses in zebrafish and rainbow trout following exposure to environmental estrogens
    K Van den Belt
    Environmental Toxicology, Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Mol B 2400, Belgium
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56:271-81. 2003
    ....
  45. doi The genomic response of a human uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line to 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol
    Jorge M Naciff
    Miami Valley Innovation Center, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253, USA
    Toxicol Sci 107:40-55. 2009
    ....
  46. ncbi Epididymal sperm motion as a parameter of male reproductive toxicity: sperm motion, fertility, and histopathology in ethinylestradiol-treated rats
    M Kaneto
    Developmental Research Laboratories, Shionogi and Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan
    Reprod Toxicol 13:279-89. 1999
    ..Sperm motion analysis could be particularly useful for detecting the toxic effects of chemicals that act through the endocrinologic system on the epididymis...
  47. pmc Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women: a prospective study of age, hormone dose, and discontinuation
    Delia Scholes
    Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, 1730 Minor Avenue, 16th Floor, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E1380-7. 2011
    ..Oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, but bone changes associated with use of contemporary OC remain unclear...
  48. ncbi Serum Nestorone and ethinyl estradiol levels, and ovulation inhibition in women using three different dosage combinations of a Nestorone progestogen-ethinyl estradiol contraceptive vaginal ring on a bleeding-signaled regimen
    Ian S Fraser
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
    Contraception 72:40-5. 2005
    ..signaled use of contraceptive vaginal rings ("rings") releasing low-dose combinations of Nestorone (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) would reliably suppress luteal activity and ovulation, and prevent unintended pregnancy, while ..
  49. pmc GPR30, but not estrogen receptor-alpha, is crucial in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by oral ethinyl estradiol
    Melissa A Yates
    Neuroimmunology Research, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA
    BMC Immunol 11:20. 2010
    ..that 17beta-estradiol can inhibit onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), while ethinyl estradiol (EE) can reduce the severity of established disease...
  50. ncbi Pharmacokinetics of three bioequivalent norethindrone/mestranol-50 micrograms and three norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol-35 micrograms OC formulations: are "low-dose" pills really lower?
    S A Brody
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas
    Contraception 40:269-84. 1989
    We have examined the pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the analysis of plasma ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norethindrone levels after administration of a single dose of three bioequivalent norethindrone-1mg/mestranol (ME)-50 ..
  51. ncbi Effects of the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the life-cycle of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
    R Lange
    Experimental Toxikologie, Schering AG Research Laboratories, D 13342 Berlin, Germany
    Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1216-27. 2001
    ..A lack of sexual differentiation occurred in males at concentrations > or = 4.0 ng/L. Taking into account these data, the overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was considered to be 1.0 ng/L...
  52. doi 17alpha-ethinylestradiol induces an imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation to sex steroid disruption in a testis culture of gudgeon, Gobio gobio
    Stéphanie Nadzialek
    Unité de Recherche en Biologie des Organismes URBO, University of Namur FUNDP, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium
    Environ Toxicol Chem 29:881-6. 2010
    ..The results of the present study could be the basis conditions for oocyte development within the testis of a common teleost fish under xenoestrogen exposure...
  53. ncbi Transfer of drospirenone to breast milk after a single oral administration of 3 mg drospirenone + 30 microg ethinylestradiol to healthy lactating women
    H Blode
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism and Bioanalysis, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 6:167-71. 2001
    ..The subjective and objective tolerances of 3 mg DRSP + 30 microg EE were good, with no adverse events reported...
  54. doi The effect of efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate in healthy HIV-negative women
    Heather Sevinsky
    Research and Development, Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Antivir Ther 16:149-56. 2011
    ..Women of childbearing age represent a growing proportion of people living with HIV. Preventing pregnancy is important in HIV-infected women receiving efavirenz as part of their antiretroviral therapy...
  55. ncbi A prospective follow-up of two 21/7 cycles followed by two extended regimen 84/7 cycles with contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone
    Daniel S Seidman
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 12:400-5. 2010
    ..Continuous use of combined oral contraceptives is currently attracting growing interest as a means of improving menstrual related symptoms and reducing the number of bleeding days...
  56. pmc Long-term exposure to environmental concentrations of the pharmaceutical ethynylestradiol causes reproductive failure in fish
    Jon P Nash
    Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 112:1725-33. 2004
    ..Our findings raise major concerns about the population-level impacts for wildlife of long-term exposure to low concentrations of estrogenic endocrine disruptors...
  57. ncbi Relationship between ethinylestradiol-mediated changes in endocrine function and reproductive impairment in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)
    Susan C Tilton
    Environmental Toxicology Research Program, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA
    Environ Toxicol Chem 24:352-9. 2005
    ..Overall, most biochemical endpoints were more sensitive than reproduction or development to exposure, indicating that reproductive function may be relatively protected...
  58. pmc Gene expression patterns in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to a suite of model toxicants
    Sharon E Hook
    Battelle, Marine Research Operations, Sequim, WA, USA
    Aquat Toxicol 77:372-85. 2006
    ....
  59. doi Bleeding pattern with drospirenone 3 mg+ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg 24/4 combined oral contraceptive compared with desogestrel 150 mcg+ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg 21/7 combined oral contraceptive
    Leena Anttila
    The Family Federation of Finland, Turku Clinic, Turku FIN 20100, Finland
    Contraception 80:445-51. 2009
    ..The study was conducted to compare cycle control, bleeding pattern and efficacy of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives...
  60. ncbi Cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne. A comparative dose-response study of the estrogen component
    P Fugere
    Hopital Saint Luc, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Contraception 42:225-34. 1990
    The investigators compared 2 mg cyproterone acetate (CPA) in combination with either 0.035 mg or 0.050 mg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) (Diane -35 versus Diane -50) in the treatment of acne...
  61. doi Postmarketing study of ORTHO EVRA and levonorgestrel oral contraceptives containing hormonal contraceptives with 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol in relation to nonfatal venous thromboembolism
    Susan S Jick
    Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 11 Muzzey Street, Lexington, MA 02421, USA
    Contraception 81:16-21. 2010
    ..Concern has been raised that the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in users of the ORTHO EVRA patch is higher compared to users of oral contraceptives (OCs)...
  62. ncbi Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors alpha and beta and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
    William L Gale
    US Geological Survey, Western Fishery Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, 5501A Cook Underwood Road, Cook, WA 98605, USA
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 136:338-45. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi Fate of estrogens and xenoestrogens in four sewage treatment plants with different technologies
    Guang Guo Ying
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute for Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People s Republic of China
    Environ Toxicol Chem 27:87-94. 2008
    ..Comparatively, the removal of estrogens was lower, with rates ranging between 47 and 68% for E(2) at the four plants. Both E(1) and EE(2) were more persistent during treatment, especially in plants C and D...
  64. doi Effects of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest on thyroid hormones and androgen parameters: conventional vs. extended-cycle use
    Nicole Sänger
    Center of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Germany
    Contraception 77:420-5. 2008
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest on thyroid hormones and androgen parameters.
  65. ncbi An open label, comparative study of the effects of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg levonorgestrel on hemostatic, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism variables
    Jan Endrikat
    Schering AG, Mullerstrasse 178, D 13342 Berlin, Germany
    Contraception 65:215-21. 2002
    ..label, randomized study we compared the influence of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100 microg levonorgestrel (20 EE) with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 ..
  66. ncbi Effects of metformin and ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate on lipid levels in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    K Rautio
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Oulu, PO Box 5000, FIN 90 014, Finland
    Eur J Endocrinol 152:269-75. 2005
    ..Insulin sensitizers, especially metformin, have been shown to improve these metabolic disturbances, but there are only a few studies on their effects on serum lipids in polycystic ovary syndrome...
  67. ncbi A 1-year randomized study to evaluate the effects of a dose reduction in oral contraceptives on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism: 20 microg ethinyl estradiol combined with 100 microg levonorgestrel
    Sven O Skouby
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK 2000 Copenhagen F, Denmark
    Contraception 71:111-7. 2005
    To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
  68. ncbi Combined use of metformin and ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate in polycystic ovary syndrome
    M Mitkov
    Department of Endocrinology, Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 118:209-13. 2005
    The aim of our study was to compare the effect of metformin applied independently to the effect of metformin used in combination with oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) and cyproterone acetate (CA).
  69. ncbi A model to estimate influent and effluent concentrations of estradiol, estrone, and ethinylestradiol at sewage treatment works
    Andrew C Johnson
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon OXIO 8BB, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 38:3649-58. 2004
    ..The model may be used with river dilution ratios to predict which sewage treatment works are most likely to cause the greatest endocrine disruption due to steroid estrogens...
  70. ncbi Impaired reproduction in three-spined sticklebacks exposed to ethinyl estradiol as juveniles
    Richard J Maunder
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 77:999-1006. 2007
    ..Juvenile sticklebacks were exposed to ethinyl estradiol (EE(2)) at measured concentrations of (mean +/- SEM) 1.75 +/- 0.37 ng L(-1) and 27.7 +/- 1...
  71. ncbi Comparison of ELISAs for detecting vitellogenin in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
    Eve Mylchreest
    DuPont Haskell Laboratory for Health and Environmental Sciences, Elkton Road, PO Box 50, Newark, DE 19714, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 134:251-7. 2003
    ..The homologous fVTG assay is recommended to achieve accurate quantification of VTG levels in fathead minnows...
  72. doi Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study
    Pascale Gaussem
    Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Thromb Haemost 105:560-7. 2011
    Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism...
  73. ncbi Pharmacokinetic interaction between nevirapine and ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone when administered concurrently to HIV-infected women
    Donna Mildvan
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Medical Center, First Avenue at 16th Street, New York City, NY 10003, U S A
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29:471-7. 2002
    ..a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1 and P450 inducer, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ethinyl estradiol (EE)/norethindrone (NET), a widely used oral contraceptive, and to assess the effects of EE/NET on the ..
  74. ncbi Gestational and lactational exposure to ethinyl estradiol, but not bisphenol A, decreases androgen-dependent reproductive organ weights and epididymal sperm abundance in the male long evans hooded rat
    Kembra L Howdeshell
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 102:371-82. 2008
    ..into the environment are capable of disrupting normal sex steroid balance, including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA)...
  75. doi Treatment of acne using a 3-milligram drospirenone/20-microgram ethinyl estradiol oral contraceptive administered in a 24/4 regimen: a randomized controlled trial
    J Michael Maloney
    Cherry Creek Research, Inc, 3773 Cherry Creek North Drive, Suite 970, Denver, CO 80209, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 112:773-81. 2008
    To assess the efficacy of the combined oral contraceptive containing 3-mg drospirenone/20-microgram ethinyl estradiol (3-mg drospirenone/20-microgram ethinyl estradiol) administered as 24 consecutive days of active treatment after a 4-..
  76. ncbi Hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1 and antioxidant response element-mediated genes following administration of ethinyl estradiol to rats
    Lisa A Morio
    Mechanistic Toxicology, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L L C, 1000 Route 202 South, Raritan, NJ 08869, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 216:416-25. 2006
    ..A single dose of ethinyl estradiol (500 mg/kg, po) resulted in mild liver injury...
  77. ncbi Quality of life issues. Potential role for an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone
    Vivian Dickerson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Irvine Medical Center, 101 The City Drive, Building 53, Room 215, Orange, CA 92868, USA
    J Reprod Med 47:985-93. 2002
    The new combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone has the potential for improving a woman's quality of life...
  78. ncbi Oral contraceptives and the risk of myocardial infarction
    B C Tanis
    Thrombosis and Hemostasis Research Center, Department of Hematology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 345:1787-93. 2001
    ..The risk of myocardial infarction was similar among women who used oral contraceptives whether or not they had a prothrombotic mutation...
  79. ncbi Life-cycle exposure of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an ethinylestradiol concentration below 1 ng/L reduces egg fertilization success and demasculinizes males
    Joanne L Parrott
    Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Branch, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6
    Environ Toxicol 20:131-41. 2005
    ..In conclusion, life-cycle exposure of fathead minnows proved to be a very sensitive bioassay, and responses were seen at concentrations of less than 1 ng/L, which are environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2...
  80. ncbi Gene expression profiles revealing the mechanisms of anti-androgen- and estrogen-induced feminization in fish
    Amy L Filby
    Environmental and Molecular Fish Biology Group, School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS, United Kingdom
    Aquat Toxicol 81:219-31. 2007
    ....
  81. ncbi A cross-species analysis of the rodent uterotrophic program: elucidation of conserved responses and targets of estrogen signaling
    Joshua C Kwekel
    Department of Biochemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Physiol Genomics 23:327-42. 2005
    ....
  82. ncbi Endometrial histology following 1 year of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel 90 micro g/ethinyl estradiol 20 micro g
    Julia V Johnson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Contraception 75:23-6. 2007
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 micro g/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 micro g on endometrial histology.
  83. ncbi Evaluation of a continuous regimen of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol: phase 3 study results
    David F Archer
    CONRAD Clinical Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA
    Contraception 74:439-45. 2006
    This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 microg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 microg (continuous LNG/EE).
  84. ncbi Comparison of uterine concentrations of ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel after use of a contraceptive vaginal ring and an oral contraceptive
    Frans J M E Roumen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Atrium Medisch Centrum, Heerlen, The Netherlands
    Fertil Steril 85:57-62. 2006
    To compare uterine tissue concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and etonogestrel (ENG) after one cycle of use of a contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing; NV Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) or a combined oral contraceptive (COC).
  85. ncbi Effect of zonisamide on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone oral contraceptive in healthy women
    Sue G Griffith
    Elan Pharmaceuticals Inc, 7475 Lusk Boulevard, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Clin Ther 26:2056-65. 2004
    ..Several antiepileptic drugs have clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with oral contraceptives (OCs) that may result in contraceptive failure...
  86. ncbi Gonad development and vitellogenin production in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone
    Stefan Orn
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
    Aquat Toxicol 65:397-411. 2003
    ..The period of gonadal sex reversal in non-exposed zebrafish was also studied. The main morphological features of the transformation of ovaries into testis were observed 4-5 weeks after hatching...
  87. ncbi Increased kidney, liver, and testicular cell death after chronic exposure to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in medaka (Oryzias latipes)
    Lynn P Weber
    Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada
    Environ Toxicol Chem 23:792-7. 2004
    ..These results suggest that chronic exposure to EE2 in medaka is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in both sexes, whereas gonadal toxicity is specific to males...
  88. ncbi Extended use of transdermal norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol: a randomized trial
    Felicia H Stewart
    University of California San Francisco, Center for Reproductive Health Research and Policy, San Francisco, California, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:1389-96. 2005
    To compare bleeding profiles and satisfaction among women using a norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol (E2) transdermal contraceptive patch in an extended regimen to those among women using a traditional 28-day patch regimen.
  89. ncbi Myelotoxicity in genistein-, nonylphenol-, methoxychlor-, vinclozolin- or ethinyl estradiol-exposed F1 generations of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures
    T L Guo
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, P O Box 980613, Richmond, VA 23298 0613, USA
    Toxicology 211:207-19. 2005
    ..25, 500 and 2000 ppm), methoxychlor (MXC: 10, 100 and 1000 ppm), vinclozolin (VCZ: 10, 150 and 750 ppm) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2: 5, 25 and 200 ppb) gestationally and lactationally through dams from day 7 of gestation and through ..
  90. ncbi Pharmacokinetic interaction between bosentan and the oral contraceptives norethisterone and ethinyl estradiol
    P L M van Giersbergen
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 44:113-8. 2006
    ..Bosentan has been shown in vitro and in vivo to induce the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of bosentan on the pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive...
  91. ncbi Effects on cycle control and bodyweight of the combined contraceptive ring, NuvaRing, versus an oral contraceptive containing 30 microg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone
    I Milsom
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Hum Reprod 21:2304-11. 2006
    ..objective of this study was to compare cycle control, cycle-related characteristics and bodyweight effects of NuvaRing with those of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone.
  92. doi Follicular development in a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval with an oral contraceptive containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate
    Radhika D Rible
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Contraception 79:182-8. 2009
    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations with 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) have a greater incidence of ovarian hormone production and follicular development, which can be managed by shortening the number of hormone-free days per ..
  93. ncbi A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study that assessed the endometrial effects of norethindrone acetate plus ethinyl estradiol versus ethinyl estradiol alone
    David J Portman
    Columbus Center for Women s Health Research, OH 43213, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:334-42. 2003
    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in subjects who receive continuous norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol combinations versus unopposed ethinyl estradiol.
  94. ncbi Effects on body weight and body composition of a low-dose oral estroprogestin containing ethinyl estradiol 20 microg plus levonorgestrel 100 microg
    Stefano Lello
    Department of Gynecology, IRCCS IDI San Carlo, Rome, Italy
    Gynecol Endocrinol 23:632-7. 2007
    ..We studied the impact of a EP containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 microg plus levonorgestrel (LNG) 100 microg on body weight (BW) and body composition in 47 treated ..
  95. ncbi Oral feeding with ethinyl estradiol suppresses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice and inhibits the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system
    Sandhya Subramanian
    Neuroimmunology Research, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    J Immunol 170:1548-55. 2003
    ..In the current study we investigated the effectiveness of oral treatment with ethinyl estradiol (EE) on EAE and the mechanisms involved...
  96. doi Continuous, daily levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol vs. 21-day, cyclic levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol: efficacy, safety and bleeding in a randomized, open-label trial
    Alexander Teichmann
    Frauenklinik, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, 63739 Aschaffenburg, Germany
    Contraception 80:504-11. 2009
    ..multicenter study conducted at 44 sites in Europe evaluated the safety and efficacy of a continuous, daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 mcg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 mcg compared with a 21-day, cyclic LNG 100 mcg/EE 20 mcg regimen.
  97. ncbi A combined oral contraceptive containing 3-mg drospirenone/ 20-microg ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating lesion counts and participant self-assessment
    Anne W Lucky
    Dermatology Research Associates, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Cutis 82:143-50. 2008
    ..the efficacy of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 3-mg drospirenone and 20-microg ethinyl estradiol (3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE) administered in a 24-day active pill/4-day inert pill (24/4) regimen and placebo in ..
  98. ncbi Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas)
    Craig D Robinson
    Fisheries Research Services, Marine Laboratory, PO Box 101, Victoria Road, AB11 9DB, Aberdeen, UK
    Aquat Toxicol 62:119-34. 2003
    ....
  99. ncbi Efficacy of a low-dose oral contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel for the treatment of moderate acne: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    James Leyden
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 47:399-409. 2002
    ..A low-dose oral contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel (EE/LNG) has been shown to improve biochemical markers of androgenicity...
  100. doi Long-term exposure of male rats to low-dose ethinylestradiol (EE2) in drinking water: effects on ponderal growth and on litter size of their progeny
    Mélanie Vosges
    INRA CNRS University of Tours, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, 37380 Nouzilly, France
    Reprod Toxicol 25:161-8. 2008
    ..When exposed to 1 microg/mL EE2 but only from PND 22 to PND 43, the males produced an intermediate proportion (15%) of small litters in their progeny but this might be consecutive to the observed retardation in weight gain...
  101. ncbi Analysis and occurrence of estrogenic hormones and their glucuronides in surface water and waste water in The Netherlands
    A C Belfroid
    Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Sci Total Environ 225:101-8. 1999
    ..Concentrations of 17 alpha-estradiol and the contraceptive 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol were in most of these samples below the limit of detection. Hormone glucuronides were not detected in most surface water and effluents...

Research Grants66

  1. Effect of Continuous vs. Sequential Oral Contraception
    RICHARD LEGRO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..hypothesis that a long-term (6 month) continuous combined oral contraceptive pill (CCOCP) regimen (20 mug ethinyl estradiol/1 mg norethindrone acetate) will result in more profound endometrial and ovarian suppression than a ..
  2. TDM & Drug Interactions in HIVinfected Substance Abusers
    Gene Morse; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and commonly prescribed medications including methadone, ethinyl estradiol, fluconazole, pravastatin, and fluoxetine in HIV-infected, substance abusers The proposed methodology ..
  3. PROGESTIN EFFECTS ON UTERINE HEMOSTASIS AND ANGIOGENESIS
    Charles Lockwood; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Aim 2 will evaluate the effects of various synthetic progestins used in a variety of concentrations +/- ethinyl estradiol in both sustained and pulsed exposure regimens, on the expression of TF, PAI-1, PR and ER isoforms in ..
  4. TDM & Drug Interactions in HIVinfected Substance Abusers
    Gene Morse; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and commonly prescribed medications including methadone, ethinyl estradiol, fluconazole, pravastatin, and fluoxetine in HIV-infected, substance abusers The proposed methodology ..
  5. Combination metformin and oral contraceptive for PCOS
    PAULINA ESSAH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..we will conduct a double-blind, randomized study that will determine if combination therapy of Metformin and ethinyl estradiol 35 mcg norgestimate, 0...
  6. Regulation of Epididymal Luminal Acidification
    Nuria Pastor Soler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will also evaluate the effects of steroid hormone agonists and antagonists (DES, ethinyl estradiol, GnRH antagonist and flutamide) and toxic compounds (Cadmium and Lead) have on the epididymal cellular ..
  7. Continuous OC Treatment in PMDD: Steroid Hormone Mechanisms
    David R Rubinow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and complete one of three, 13 week treatment arms: Treatment #1) continuous administration of 20 ug ethinyl estradiol/3mg drospirenone [EE/P];Treatment #2) interrupted EE/P, substituting placebo for EE/DRP during weeks 4, 8, &..
  8. Continuous OC Treatment in PMDD: Steroid Hormone Mechanisms
    SUSAN GIRDLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and complete one of three, 13 week treatment arms: Treatment #1) continuous administration of 20 ug ethinyl estradiol/3mg drospirenone [EE/P]; Treatment #2) interrupted EE/P, substituting placebo for EE/DRP during weeks 4, 8, &..
  9. Effects of Hypericum Perforatum on Oral Contraceptives
    Patricia Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Eligible women will take low dose oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone for two months, followed by two months taking the same oral contraceptive and St...
  10. ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS
    JAMES YAGER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Prolonged use by women of oral contraceptives containing the synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with a modest increased risk of developing liver tumors...
  11. ROLE OF GONADAL STEROIDS IN HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS
    JAMES YAGER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Our previous findings have shown that ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter of hepato-carcinogenesis...