Summary: Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the PLACENTA. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (RECEPTORS, ESTROGEN) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys: relation to age, stage of puberty, and follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels
    A M Andersson
    Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:3976-81. 1997
  2. pmc ChIP-Seq of ERalpha and RNA polymerase II defines genes differentially responding to ligands
    Willem Jan Welboren
    Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    EMBO J 28:1418-28. 2009
  3. ncbi Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta
    G G Kuiper
    Center for Biotechnology and Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden
    Endocrinology 139:4252-63. 1998
  4. ncbi A transmembrane intracellular estrogen receptor mediates rapid cell signaling
    Chetana M Revankar
    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Science 307:1625-30. 2005
  5. ncbi Molecular basis of agonism and antagonism in the oestrogen receptor
    A M Brzozowski
    Protein Structure Group, Chemistry Department, University of York, UK
    Nature 389:753-8. 1997
  6. ncbi Profiling of estrogen up- and down-regulated gene expression in human breast cancer cells: insights into gene networks and pathways underlying estrogenic control of proliferation and cell phenotype
    Jonna Frasor
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Endocrinology 144:4562-74. 2003
  7. ncbi Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women
    T J Key
    Cancer Research U K Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Bldg, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1218-26. 2003
  8. ncbi Estrogen receptor beta inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor formation by causing a G2 cell cycle arrest
    Sreenivasan Paruthiyil
    Department of Obstetrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0556, USA
    Cancer Res 64:423-8. 2004
  9. ncbi Positive cross-regulatory loop ties GATA-3 to estrogen receptor alpha expression in breast cancer
    Jerome Eeckhoute
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Res 67:6477-83. 2007
  10. ncbi Nuclear alternate estrogen receptor GPR30 mediates 17beta-estradiol-induced gene expression and migration in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts
    Antonio Madeo
    Department of Pharmaco Biology, University of Calabria, Rende, Cosenza, Italy
    Cancer Res 70:6036-46. 2010

Detail Information

Publications393 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys: relation to age, stage of puberty, and follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels
    A M Andersson
    Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:3976-81. 1997
    ..In addition, serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured...
  2. pmc ChIP-Seq of ERalpha and RNA polymerase II defines genes differentially responding to ligands
    Willem Jan Welboren
    Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    EMBO J 28:1418-28. 2009
    ..sites and to profile changes in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) occupancy in MCF-7 cells in response to estradiol (E2), tamoxifen or fulvestrant...
  3. ncbi Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta
    G G Kuiper
    Center for Biotechnology and Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden
    Endocrinology 139:4252-63. 1998
    ..analysis of human ER alpha and ER beta protein revealed a single binding component for [3H]-17beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.05 - 0.1 nM]...
  4. ncbi A transmembrane intracellular estrogen receptor mediates rapid cell signaling
    Chetana M Revankar
    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Science 307:1625-30. 2005
    ..Thus, GPR30 represents an intracellular transmembrane estrogen receptor that may contribute to normal estrogen physiology as well as pathophysiology...
  5. ncbi Molecular basis of agonism and antagonism in the oestrogen receptor
    A M Brzozowski
    Protein Structure Group, Chemistry Department, University of York, UK
    Nature 389:753-8. 1997
    ..In addition, each class of ligand induces a distinct conformation in the transactivation domain of the LBD, providing structural evidence of the mechanism of antagonism...
  6. ncbi Profiling of estrogen up- and down-regulated gene expression in human breast cancer cells: insights into gene networks and pathways underlying estrogenic control of proliferation and cell phenotype
    Jonna Frasor
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Endocrinology 144:4562-74. 2003 many cases, to identify patterns and time courses of genes that are either stimulated or inhibited by estradiol (E2) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells...
  7. ncbi Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women
    T J Key
    Cancer Research U K Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Gibson Bldg, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
    J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1218-26. 2003
    ..Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We examined whether this association could be explained by the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with serum sex hormone concentrations...
  8. ncbi Estrogen receptor beta inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor formation by causing a G2 cell cycle arrest
    Sreenivasan Paruthiyil
    Department of Obstetrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0556, USA
    Cancer Res 64:423-8. 2004
    ..We show that adenovirus-mediated expression of ERbeta changes the phenotype of ERalpha-positive MCF-7 cells. Estradiol increases cell proliferation and causes tumor formation of MCF-7 cells expressing only ERalpha...
  9. ncbi Positive cross-regulatory loop ties GATA-3 to estrogen receptor alpha expression in breast cancer
    Jerome Eeckhoute
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Res 67:6477-83. 2007
    ..Here, we show that GATA-3 is required for estradiol stimulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells...
  10. ncbi Nuclear alternate estrogen receptor GPR30 mediates 17beta-estradiol-induced gene expression and migration in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts
    Antonio Madeo
    Department of Pharmaco Biology, University of Calabria, Rende, Cosenza, Italy
    Cancer Res 70:6036-46. 2010
    ..In this report, we show that CAFs respond to physiologic concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) by rapidly inducing extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and immediate early gene ..
  11. pmc MicroRNA-221/222 confers breast cancer fulvestrant resistance by regulating multiple signaling pathways
    X Rao
    Interdisciplinary Biochemistry Graduate Program, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
    Oncogene 30:1082-97. 2011
    ..Fulvestrant treatment of estradiol (E2)- and fulvestrant-sensitive MCF7 cells resulted in increased expression of endogenous miR-221/222...
  12. ncbi The expression profile of micro-RNA in endometrium and endometriosis and the influence of ovarian steroids on their expression
    Qun Pan
    Department of Obstetrics Gynecology, University of Florida, Box 100294, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Mol Hum Reprod 13:797-806. 2007
    ..Treatment of ESC and GEC with 17beta-estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate (10(-8) M) differentially regulated the expression of hsa-miR20a, hsa-miR21 and ..
  13. ncbi Comparison of serum testosterone and estradiol measurements in 3174 European men using platform immunoassay and mass spectrometry; relevance for the diagnostics in aging men
    Ilpo T Huhtaniemi
    Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 166:983-91. 2012
    The limitations of serum testosterone and estradiol (E(2)) measurements using non-extraction platform immunoassays (IAs) are widely recognized...
  14. ncbi Estrogen-induced activation of Erk-1 and Erk-2 requires the G protein-coupled receptor homolog, GPR30, and occurs via trans-activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor through release of HB-EGF
    E J Filardo
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University, Providence 02903, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 14:1649-60. 2000
    ..We show that 17beta-estradiol activates Erk-1/-2 not only in MCF-7 cells, which express both estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and ER beta, ..
  15. ncbi Is brain estradiol a hormone or a neurotransmitter?
    Jacques Balthazart
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Trends Neurosci 29:241-9. 2006
    ..indicates that, besides their well-known hormonal mode of action at the genetic level, estrogens such as 17beta-estradiol also influence brain function by direct effects on neuronal membranes...
  16. ncbi Estrogen receptors and the metabolic network
    Rodrigo P A Barros
    Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004, USA
    Cell Metab 14:289-99. 2011
    The metabolic syndrome has reached pandemic level worldwide, and evidence is that estradiol plays a key role in its development...
  17. pmc Estrogen receptor (ER) beta, a modulator of ERalpha in the uterus
    Z Weihua
    Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, S 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:5936-41. 2000
    ..immature uterus, ERalpha and ERbeta are expressed at comparable levels in the epithelium and stroma, and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) treatment decreases ERbeta in the stroma...
  18. pmc Bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol promote arrhythmia in the female heart via alteration of calcium handling
    Sujuan Yan
    Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e25455. 2011
    ..Higher urine BPA concentrations have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, neither the nature nor the mechanism(s) of BPA action on the heart are understood...
  19. ncbi Reference ranges and determinants of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol levels measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a population-based cohort of older men
    Bu B Yeap
    School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Level 2, T Block, Fremantle Hospital, Alma Street, Fremantle, Western Australia 6160, Australia
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:4030-9. 2012
    Testosterone (T) levels decline with increasing age. Controversy exists over the threshold for classifying T as low vs. normal in older men. The relevance of assessing dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2) remains unclear.
  20. ncbi Serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol concentrations in older men self-reporting very good health: the healthy man study
    Gideon Sartorius
    Andrology Department, Concord Hospital, Clayton, Vic, Australia
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 77:755-63. 2012
    To determine serum concentrations, intra-individual variability and impact of age-related co-morbidities on serum testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E(2)) and estrone (E(1)) in older men.
  21. pmc Rapid estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms determine the sexually dimorphic sensitivity of ventricular myocytes to 17β-estradiol and the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A
    Scott M Belcher
    Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0575, USA
    Endocrinology 153:712-20. 2012
    Previously we showed that 17β-estradiol (E(2)) and/or the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) alter ventricular myocyte Ca(2+) handing, resulting in increased cardiac arrhythmias in a female-specific manner...
  22. pmc Brain-generated estradiol drives long-term optimization of auditory coding to enhance the discrimination of communication signals
    Liisa A Tremere
    Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    J Neurosci 31:3271-89. 2011
    ..The hormone estradiol has been recently shown to directly modulate the gain of central auditory neurons, in real time, by controlling ..
  23. pmc Non-classical genomic estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein and ER/activating protein-1 signaling pathways
    Stephen Safe
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 4466, USA
    J Mol Endocrinol 41:263-75. 2008
    17beta-estradiol binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) to activate gene expression or repression and this involves both genomic (nuclear) and non-genomic (extranuclear) pathways...
  24. pmc Mechanisms of antidiabetogenic and body weight-lowering effects of estrogen in high-fat diet-fed mice
    Galyna Bryzgalova
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E904-12. 2008
    ..was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidiabetogenic and weight-lowering effects of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in this mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (8 wk old) were fed on a HFD for 10 mo...
  25. pmc Estrogen receptor beta inhibits 17beta-estradiol-stimulated proliferation of the breast cancer cell line T47D
    Anders Strom
    Department of Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, S 14157 Huddinge, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1566-71. 2004
    ..this, we show in this study that induced expression of ERbeta in the breast cancer cell line T47D reduces 17beta-estradiol-stimulated proliferation when expression of ERbeta mRNA equals that of ERalpha...
  26. pmc Estradiol-regulated microRNAs control estradiol response in breast cancer cells
    Poornima Bhat-Nakshatri
    Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:4850-61. 2009
    b>Estradiol (E2) regulates gene expression at the transcriptional level by functioning as a ligand for estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta)...
  27. ncbi Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs
    Yongfeng Shang
    Department of Adult Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 295:2465-8. 2002
    ..Thus cell type- and promoter-specific differences in coregulator recruitment determine the cellular response to SERMs...
  28. pmc A cell-type-specific transcriptional network required for estrogen regulation of cyclin D1 and cell cycle progression in breast cancer
    Jerome Eeckhoute
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 20:2513-26. 2006
    ..Here, we show that estradiol (E2) stimulation of CCND1 expression in BCC depends on a novel cell-type-specific enhancer downstream from the ..
  29. pmc Estrogen and xenoestrogens in breast cancer
    S V Fernandez
    Breast Cancer Research Laboratory, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 38:110-22. 2010
    ..This concern is further fueled by evidence indicating that natural estrogens, specifically 17beta-estradiol, are important factors in the initiation and progression of breast cancer...
  30. ncbi Rapid actions of plasma membrane estrogen receptors
    M J Kelly
    Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 12:152-6. 2001
    ..Many of these functions originate from rapid signaling events, transduced in response to 17beta-estradiol (E(2))...
  31. ncbi Older men with low serum estradiol and high serum SHBG have an increased risk of fractures
    Dan Mellstrom
    Center for Bone Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    J Bone Miner Res 23:1552-60. 2008
    ..3 yr). The incidence for having at least one validated fracture after baseline was 20.9/1000 person-years. Estradiol (E2; hazard ratio [HR] per SD decrease, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.22-1.49), free estradiol (fE2; HR per SD decrease, 1...
  32. pmc Paracrine signaling through the epithelial estrogen receptor alpha is required for proliferation and morphogenesis in the mammary gland
    Sonia Mallepell
    National Center of Competence in Research Molecular Oncology, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, 155 Chemin des Boveresses, CH 1066 Epalinges s Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:2196-201. 2006
    b>Estradiol is a major regulator of postnatal mammary gland development and thought to exert its effects through estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) expressed in the mammary gland stroma and epithelium...
  33. pmc Distinct hypothalamic neurons mediate estrogenic effects on energy homeostasis and reproduction
    Yong Xu
    Children s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cell Metab 14:453-65. 2011
    ..These results indicate that estrogens act on distinct hypothalamic ERα neurons to regulate different aspects of energy homeostasis and reproduction...
  34. pmc Adult male rat hippocampus synthesizes estradiol from pregnenolone by cytochromes P45017alpha and P450 aromatase localized in neurons
    Yasushi Hojo
    Department of Biophysics and Life Sciences and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Project of Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo at Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:865-70. 2004
    In adult mammalian brain, occurrence of the synthesis of estradiol from endogenous cholesterol has been doubted because of the inability to detect dehydroepiandrosterone synthase, P45017alpha...
  35. pmc 17β-Estradiol, aging, inflammation, and the stress response in the female heart
    James P Stice
    Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Genomics and Biomedical Sciences Facility, Room 6317, University of California, Davis, 451 Health Sciences Way, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Endocrinology 152:1589-98. 2011
    ..17β-estradiol (E(2)) indirectly regulates HSP expression through rapid activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and HSF-1 and ..
  36. ncbi DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment abrogates 17 beta-estradiol-induced cell growth and restores expression of DNA repair genes in human breast cancer cells
    Kamaleshwar P Singh
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health TIEHH, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
    Cancer Lett 316:62-9. 2012
    ..cells either pretreated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) or untreated (as control) were exposed to 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and its effect on cell growth and expression of DNA repair genes were measured...
  37. pmc Bisphenol A impairs follicle growth, inhibits steroidogenesis, and downregulates rate-limiting enzymes in the estradiol biosynthesis pathway
    Jackye Peretz
    Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA
    Toxicol Sci 119:209-17. 2011
    ..After the culture, media was subjected to ELISA for hormones in the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, and follicles were processed for quantitative real-time PCR of steroidogenic enzymes...
  38. pmc Micro-RNA378 (miR-378) regulates ovarian estradiol production by targeting aromatase
    Shengyu Xu
    Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    Endocrinology 152:3941-51. 2011
    b>Estradiol is a steroid hormone that not only plays an important role in ovarian follicular development but also is associated with many reproductive disorders...
  39. ncbi Palmitoylation regulates 17β-estradiol-induced estrogen receptor-α degradation and transcriptional activity
    Piergiorgio La Rosa
    Department of Biology, University Roma Tre, I 00146, Rome, Italy
    Mol Endocrinol 26:762-74. 2012
    ..ERα) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression through the binding to its cognate hormone 17β-estradiol (E2)...
  40. pmc Bisphenol A exposure reduces the estradiol response to gonadotropin stimulation during in vitro fertilization
    Michael S Bloom
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
    Fertil Steril 96:672-677.e2. 2011
    ..To investigate associations between serum bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations and follicular response to exogenous ovary stimulation...
  41. pmc Estradiol and the developing brain
    Margaret M McCarthy
    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland Baltimore School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Physiol Rev 88:91-124. 2008
    b>Estradiol is the most potent and ubiquitous member of a class of steroid hormones called estrogens. Fetuses and newborns are exposed to estradiol derived from their mother, their own gonads, and synthesized locally in their brains...
  42. ncbi Antidepressant-like effect of different estrogenic compounds in the forced swimming test
    Erika Estrada-Camarena
    Depto de Farmacobiología CINVESTAV IPN, Calzada de los Tenorios 235, Col Granjas Coapa, Deleg Tlalpan, CP 14330 México DF, Mexico
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:830-8. 2003
    The present study evaluated the possible antidepressant-like action of the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E(2), 2.5-10 microg/rat), the synthetic steroidal estrogen ethinyl-estradiol (EE(2), 1.25-10...
  43. pmc The organophosphate Chlorpyrifos interferes with the responses to 17β-estradiol in the digestive gland of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis
    Laura Canesi
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Genova, Genova, Italy
    PLoS ONE 6:e19803. 2011
    ..In the digestive gland of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis, a target tissue of both estrogens and pesticides, the possible effects of CHP on the responses to the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol (E(2)) were investigated.
  44. pmc Lower-dose vs high-dose oral estradiol therapy of hormone receptor-positive, aromatase inhibitor-resistant advanced breast cancer: a phase 2 randomized study
    Matthew J Ellis
    Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    JAMA 302:774-80. 2009
    Estrogen deprivation therapy with aromatase inhibitors has been hypothesized to paradoxically sensitize hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer tumor cells to low-dose estradiol therapy.
  45. ncbi Efficacy and safety of a novel oral contraceptive based on oestradiol (oestradiol valerate/dienogest): a Phase III trial
    Santiago Palacios
    Instituto Palacios de Salud y Medicina de la Mujer, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 149:57-62. 2010
    ..76 mg of 17beta-oestradiol) and dienogest (DNG) has been developed. The efficacy and safety of this formulation was assessed in the current study...
  46. ncbi G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) mediates gene expression changes and growth response to 17beta-estradiol and selective GPR30 ligand G-1 in ovarian cancer cells
    Lidia Albanito
    Departments of Pharmaco Biology and Cell Biology, University of Calabria, 87030 Rende Cosenza, Italy
    Cancer Res 67:1859-66. 2007
    ..The orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) mediates the nongenomic signaling of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in a variety of estrogen-sensitive cancer cells through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (..
  47. ncbi Developmental and hormonally regulated messenger ribonucleic acid expression of KiSS-1 and its putative receptor, GPR54, in rat hypothalamus and potent luteinizing hormone-releasing activity of KiSS-1 peptide
    V M Navarro
    Physiology Section, Department of Cell Biology, Physiology, and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cordoba, Avda Menendez Pidal s n, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
    Endocrinology 145:4565-74. 2004
    ..Our current data support the contention that the hypothalamic KiSS-1/GPR54 system is a pivotal factor in central regulation of the gonadotropic axis at puberty and in adulthood...
  48. ncbi Studies on prostatic cancer: I. The effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. 1941
    Charles Huggins
    J Urol 168:9-12. 2002
  49. ncbi Estrogen action via the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR30: stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-mediated attenuation of the epidermal growth factor receptor-to-MAPK signaling axis
    Edward J Filardo
    Department of Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital, and Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 16:70-84. 2002
  50. ncbi GREB 1 is a critical regulator of hormone dependent breast cancer growth
    James M Rae
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1150 W Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0612, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 92:141-9. 2005
  51. ncbi High feed intake increases liver blood flow and metabolism of progesterone and estradiol-17beta in dairy cattle
    S Sangsritavong
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:2831-42. 2002
    ..Similarly, progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17beta (E2) were administered by continuous infusion...
  52. ncbi 2ME2 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis by disrupting microtubules and dysregulating HIF
    Nicola J Mabjeesh
    Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Cancer Cell 3:363-75. 2003
    ..These data establish 2ME2 as a small molecule inhibitor of HIF-1 and provide a mechanistic link between the disruption of the MT cytoskeleton and inhibition of angiogenesis...
  53. ncbi Characteristics of secondary, primary, and compensated hypogonadism in aging men: evidence from the European Male Ageing Study
    Abdelouahid Tajar
    The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Department of Endocrinology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1810-8. 2010
    ..The diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in older men with age-related declines in testosterone (T) is currently not well characterized...
  54. ncbi 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol
    S Lutchmaya
    Developmental Psychiatry Section, University of Cambridge, Douglas House, 18b Trumpington Road, Cambridge CB2 2AH, UK
    Early Hum Dev 77:23-8. 2004
    ..2D:4D is established in utero and is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively with prenatal estradiol. However, there are no studies which show direct relationships between fetal testosterone (FT), fetal estradiol (..
  55. pmc Association of sex hormones and C-reactive protein levels in men
    Varant Kupelian
    New England Research Institutes, Watertown, MA 02472, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 72:527-33. 2010
    ..The objective of this analysis was to investigate the association between sex hormone levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a population-based sample of men...
  56. ncbi Identification of novel ER-alpha target genes in breast cancer cells: gene- and cell-selective co-regulator recruitment at target promoters determines the response to 17beta-estradiol and tamoxifen
    Andrea Romano
    GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 314:90-100. 2010
    Tamoxifen and 17beta-estradiol are capable of up-regulating the expression of some genes and down-regulate the expression of others simultaneously in the same cell...
  57. ncbi Dysmetabolic syndrome in a man with a novel mutation of the aromatase gene: effects of testosterone, alendronate, and estradiol treatment
    Laura Maffei
    Consultorios Asociados de Endocrinologia, 1425 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:61-70. 2004
    ..analysis of the effects induced by the successive treatment with high doses of testosterone, alendronate, and estradiol allows further insight into the roles of androgens and estrogens on several metabolic functions...
  58. pmc Developmental time course of estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone levels in discrete regions of male and female rat brain
    Anne T M Konkle
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5
    Endocrinology 152:223-35. 2011
    ..and neonatal testis and aromatized centrally during a perinatal sensitive period is the sole source of brain estradiol and the primary determinant of sex differences...
  59. ncbi Cross-talk between IGF-I and estradiol in the brain: focus on neuroprotection
    Luis M Garcia-Segura
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Neuroendocrinology 84:275-9. 2006
    The actions of estradiol in the brain involve the interaction with growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)...
  60. ncbi Estrogens protect against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice
    Elodie Riant
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 858, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, Boite Postale 84225, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
    Endocrinology 150:2109-17. 2009
    ..To this end, we first evaluated the influence of chronic 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration in wild-type ovariectomized mice submitted to either a normal chow diet or a HFD...
  61. ncbi Coordinate regulation of transcription and splicing by steroid receptor coregulators
    Didier Auboeuf
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 298:416-9. 2002
  62. ncbi Gonadal hormones determine sensitivity to central leptin and insulin
    Deborah J Clegg
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 670559, Cincinatti, OH 45267 0559, USA
    Diabetes 55:978-87. 2006
    ..To understand the underlying mechanism, we manipulated estrogen through ovariectomy (OVX) and estradiol administration...
  63. pmc A variant of estrogen receptor-{alpha}, hER-{alpha}36: transduction of estrogen- and antiestrogen-dependent membrane-initiated mitogenic signaling
    Zhaoyi Wang
    Cancer Center, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9063-8. 2006
  64. pmc Involvement of estrogen receptor variant ER-alpha36, not GPR30, in nongenomic estrogen signaling
    Lianguo Kang
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University Medical School, Omaha, Nebraska 68178, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 24:709-21. 2010
    ..Both 17beta-estradiol (E2) and G1, a compound reported to be a selective GPR30 agonist, increased the phosphorylation levels of the ..
  65. ncbi Activities of estrogen receptor alpha- and beta-selective ligands at diverse estrogen responsive gene sites mediating transactivation or transrepression
    William R Harrington
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois, 407 S Goodwin Avenue, 524 Burrill Hall, Urbana, IL 61801 3704, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 206:13-22. 2003
    ..MPP antagonized estradiol actions on gene transactivation and transrepression through ERalpha, with little or no effect on transcription ..
  66. pmc Cytokine receptor CXCR4 mediates estrogen-independent tumorigenesis, metastasis, and resistance to endocrine therapy in human breast cancer
    Lyndsay V Rhodes
    Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Cancer Res 71:603-13. 2011
    ..Our findings highlight CXCR4 signaling as a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of ER-positive, estrogen-independent breast carcinomas needing improved clinical management...
  67. ncbi The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates c-fos up-regulation by 17beta-estradiol and phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells
    Marcello Maggiolini
    Department of Pharmaco Biology, University of Calabria, 87030 Rende CS, Italy
    J Biol Chem 279:27008-16. 2004
    ..action in ERalpha-positive MCF7 and ER-negative SKBR3 breast cancer cells, we have discovered that 17beta-estradiol (E2), and the two major phytoestrogens, genistein and quercetin, stimulate c-fos expression through ERalpha as ..
  68. pmc The neurotoxic effects of estrogen on ischemic stroke in older female rats is associated with age-dependent loss of insulin-like growth factor-1
    Amutha Selvamani
    Women s Health in Neuroscience Program, Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
    J Neurosci 30:6852-61. 2010
    ..These data support the hypothesis that stroke severity in older females is associated with decreased IGF-1 and further indicate that short-term postischemic IGF-1 therapy may be beneficial for stroke...
  69. ncbi Deletion of estrogen receptors reveals a regulatory role for estrogen receptors-beta in bone remodeling in females but not in males
    N A Sims
    Department of Orthopaedics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8044, USA
    Bone 30:18-25. 2002
    ..Although suppression of the ligand to the ERs (i.e., estradiol) after menopause or gonadectomy in females led to a catastrophic increase in bone turnover and concomitant bone ..
  70. ncbi Results of the CONFIRM phase III trial comparing fulvestrant 250 mg with fulvestrant 500 mg in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer
    Angelo Di Leo
    Sandro Pitigliani Medical Oncology Unit, Hospital of Prato, Prato, Italy
    J Clin Oncol 28:4594-600. 2010
  71. ncbi Regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by the female sex hormones oestradiol and progesterone
    Kenneth W Beagley
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Royal Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 38:13-22. 2003
    ..Data from both human and animal studies will be reviewed...
  72. pmc Differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids
    Qun Pan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Cell Mol Med 12:227-40. 2008
    ..05). Treatments of MSMC and LSMC with 17beta estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate (10(-8)M), or ICI-182780 and RU-486 (10(-6)M) resulted in differential ..
  73. ncbi Strategies and methods for research on sex differences in brain and behavior
    Jill B Becker
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 East University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Endocrinology 146:1650-73. 2005
    ..This article describes methods and procedures to assist scientists new to the field in designing and conducting experiments to investigate sex differences in research involving both laboratory animals and humans...
  74. pmc Estradiol downregulates miR-21 expression and increases miR-21 target gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
    Nalinie S Wickramasinghe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:2584-95. 2009
    ..miR-21 is higher in ER alpha positive than negative tumors, but no one has examined how estradiol (E(2)) regulates miR-21 in breast cancer cells...
  75. pmc Experimental gonococcal genital tract infection and opacity protein expression in estradiol-treated mice
    A E Jerse
    Department of Microbiology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 4799, USA
    Infect Immun 67:5699-708. 1999
    ..Female BALB/c mice were treated with 17-beta-estradiol and inoculated intravaginally with wild-type gonococcal strain FA1090 or MS11. N...
  76. ncbi Women's attractiveness changes with estradiol and progesterone across the ovulatory cycle
    David A Puts
    Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Horm Behav 63:13-9. 2013
    ..attractiveness changed over the cycle as a function of two likely candidates for mediating these changes: estradiol and progesterone...
  77. ncbi Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomised trial
    Louise Lind Schierbeck
    Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegard Alle 30, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark
    BMJ 345:e6409. 2012
    ..To investigate the long term effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in recently postmenopausal women...
  78. pmc Rapid activation of nuclear factor κB by 17β-estradiol and selective estrogen receptor modulators: pathways mediating cellular protection
    James P Stice
    Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Shock 38:128-36. 2012
    17β-Estradiol (E2) treatment activates a set of protective response that has been found to protect cells from injury and more importantly to significantly abate the injuries associated with trauma-hemorrhage in vivo...
  79. pmc Steroid-induced androgen receptor-oestradiol receptor beta-Src complex triggers prostate cancer cell proliferation
    A Migliaccio
    Istituto di Patologia Generale e Oncologia, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, II Universita di Napoli, Largo S Aniello a Caponapoli 2, 80138 Napoli, Italy
    EMBO J 19:5406-17. 2000
    ..The role of this phosphotyrosine is stressed by its requirement for association of oestradiol receptor alpha with Src and consequent activation of Src in intact Cos cells...
  80. ncbi Aptamer-based optical biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of 17β-estradiol in water samples
    Nimet Yildirim
    Bioengineering Program, Northeastern University, Boston, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 46:3288-94. 2012
    ..a reusable evanescent wave aptamer-based biosensor for rapid, sensitive and highly selective detection of 17β-estradiol, an EDC that is frequently detected in environmental water samples...
  81. pmc Estradiol regulates expression of estrogen receptor ERalpha46 in human macrophages
    Amy J Murphy
    Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e5539. 2009
    ..We and others have shown that 17beta-estradiol (E2) has a direct role in the modulation of monocyte and macrophage immune function...
  82. ncbi 4-Hydroxy estradiol but not 2-hydroxy estradiol induces expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/FRAP pathway in OVCAR-3 and A2780-CP70 human ovarian carcinoma cells
    Ning Gao
    Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 0533, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 196:124-35. 2004
    ..Estrogen exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for ovarian cancer. Estradiol (E2) is usually metabolized by CYP1A1/1A2 and CYP3A4 to the 2-hydroxy estradiol (2-OHE2) and 4-hydroxy estradiol ..
  83. pmc Neonatal exposure to estradiol/bisphenol A alters promoter methylation and expression of Nsbp1 and Hpcal1 genes and transcriptional programs of Dnmt3a/b and Mbd2/4 in the rat prostate gland throughout life
    Wan Yee Tang
    Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Endocrinology 153:42-55. 2012
    ..We demonstrated previously that brief exposure of neonatal rats to estradiol or bisphenol A elevated their risk of developing precancerous lesions in the prostate upon androgen-supported ..
  84. ncbi Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly men
    A W van den Beld
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:3276-82. 2000
    ..Total T (TT), free T (FT), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined by RIA...
  85. ncbi Synergistic activation of functional estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha by DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibition in human ER-alpha-negative breast cancer cells
    X Yang
    The Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    Cancer Res 61:7025-9. 2001
    ..These data suggest that the activities of both DNMT1 and HDAC are key regulators of methylation-mediated ER gene silencing...
  86. ncbi Reproductive status influences cell proliferation and cell survival in the dentate gyrus of adult female meadow voles: a possible regulatory role for estradiol
    B K Ormerod
    Department of Psychology and Graduate Neuroscience Program, The University of British Columbia, BC, V6T 1Z4, Vancouver, Canada
    Neuroscience 102:369-79. 2001
    ..We investigated the effect of reproductive status and estradiol level on cell proliferation and cell survival in adult laboratory-reared female meadow voles to control for the ..
  87. pmc Exposure to ionizing radiation causes long-term increase in serum estradiol and activation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in mouse mammary gland
    Shubhankar Suman
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 1468, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 84:500-7. 2012
    ..In this study, we investigated the long-term pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation at a dose (2 Gy) relevant to fractionated radiotherapy...
  88. ncbi Effective treatment of heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding with an oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest: a randomized, double-blind Phase III trial
    I S Fraser
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Central Clinical School, D02 QEII Research Institute for Mothers and Infants, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Hum Reprod 26:2698-708. 2011
    This double-blind trial investigated the efficacy and safety of estradiol valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG) for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding without recognizable organic pathology.
  89. pmc The two faces of estradiol: effects on the developing brain
    Margaret M McCarthy
    Departments of Physiology and Psychiatry, Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Neuroscientist 15:599-610. 2009
    b>Estradiol is a potent steroid of both gonadal and neuronal origin that exerts profound and enduring effects on the brain as it develops...
  90. pmc Estradiol induces export of sphingosine 1-phosphate from breast cancer cells via ABCC1 and ABCG2
    Kazuaki Takabe
    From the Division of Surgical Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University School ofMedicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:10477-86. 2010
    ..Here we show that SphK1, but not SphK2, increased S1P export from MCF-7 cells. Whereas for both estradiol (E(2)) and epidermal growth factor-activated SphK1 and production of S1P, only E(2) stimulated rapid release of ..
  91. ncbi Estradiol synthesis within the human brain
    I Azcoitia
    Biologia Celular, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Neuroscience 191:139-47. 2011
    b>Estradiol biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, the product of the CYP19A1 gene...
  92. pmc The neurobiology of preovulatory and estradiol-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone surges
    Catherine A Christian
    Departments of Medicine and Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 22908, USA
    Endocr Rev 31:544-77. 2010
    ..During sustained exposure to elevated estradiol in the late follicular phase of the reproductive cycle, however, the feedback action of estradiol switches to ..
  93. pmc 17-beta estradiol promotion of herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation is estrogen receptor dependent
    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel
    Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA corrected
    J Virol 84:565-72. 2010
    ..In a murine HSV-1 corneal infection model, we establish 17-beta estradiol (17-betaE) treatment of latently infected ovariectomized mice induces viral reactivation, as demonstrated by ..
  94. pmc Estradiol acutely potentiates hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission through a presynaptic mechanism
    Tereza Smejkalova
    Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    J Neurosci 30:16137-48. 2010
    Although recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus is a source of 17β-estradiol (E2), the physiological role of this neurosteroid E2, as distinct from ovarian E2, is unknown...
  95. ncbi Rapid regulation of K(ATP) channel activity by 17{beta}-estradiol in pancreatic {beta}-cells involves the estrogen receptor {beta} and the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor
    Sergi Soriano
    Institute of Bioengineering and CIBERDEM, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante, Spain
    Mol Endocrinol 23:1973-82. 2009
    ..In this study, the rapid effect of physiological concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on K(ATP) channel activity was studied in intact beta-cells by use of the patch-clamp technique...
  96. ncbi Estradiol enhances recovery after myocardial infarction by augmenting incorporation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells into sites of ischemia-induced neovascularization via endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated activation of matrix m
    Atsushi Iwakura
    Division of Cardiovascular Research, St Elizabeth s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    Circulation 113:1605-14. 2006
    Recent data have indicated that estradiol can modulate the kinetics of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent mechanisms...
  97. ncbi Formation of an IKKalpha-dependent transcription complex is required for estrogen receptor-mediated gene activation
    Kyu Jin Park
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    Mol Cell 18:71-82. 2005
    ..These results suggest that IKKalpha plays a major role in regulating the biological effects of estrogen via its promoter association and modification of components of the transcription complex...
  98. ncbi Fulvestrant (ICI 182,780) down-regulates androgen receptor expression and diminishes androgenic responses in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells
    Rumi S Bhattacharyya
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5103, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:1539-49. 2006
    ..Our study suggests that AR down-regulation by ICI would be an effective strategy for the treatment of all prostate cancer, especially AR-dependent androgen-independent prostate cancer...
  99. ncbi Estradiol supplementation helps overcome central leptin resistance of ovariectomized mice on a high fat diet
    R Matysková
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    Horm Metab Res 42:182-6. 2010
    ..For the last 4 weeks, 17beta-estradiol-3-benzoate or its vehicle was administered subcutaneously in a 4-day cyclic regimen...
  100. ncbi Up-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling by 17beta-estradiol through activation of estrogen receptor-alpha, but not estrogen receptor-beta, and stimulates cell growth in breast cancer cells
    Young Rae Lee
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:1221-6. 2005
    ..The present study demonstrates that 17beta-estradiol (E2) up-regulates PI3K in an ERalpha-dependent manner, but not ERbeta, and stimulates cell growth in breast ..
  101. ncbi Cellular turnover in the mammary gland is correlated with systemic levels of progesterone and not 17beta-estradiol during the estrous cycle
    J E Fata
    Department of Medical Biophysics, Ontario Cancer Institute, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2M9
    Biol Reprod 65:680-8. 2001
    ..and apoptosis exhibited a positive relationship with serum levels of progesterone, but not with 17beta-estradiol. Compared with other estrous stages, diestrus was unique in that the morphological grade, epithelial ..

Research Grants67

  1. The Primate Corpus Luteum: Functional Regression and Cardiovascular Impacts
    Randy L Bogan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Serum levels of estradiol (E2) and P4, as well as the first day of menstruation, will be used as markers of luteal lifespan...
  2. Development of VN/14-1 and Related Analogs for Breast Cancer Therapy
    ..MNU)-induced estrogen receptor (ER) positive rat mammary model and antagonizes the stimulatory effect of estradiol on the uterus...
  3. A Soft Topical Antiandrogenic Drug
    Wei Chu Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Circulating T and DHT also serve as precursors of estrogens through their conversion to estradiol and estrone by aromatase...
  4. 5-HT transporter function: Interaction of hormones and antidepressants
    Alan Frazer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It was found, using the technique of in vivo chronoamperometry, that acute administration of ovarian hormones (estradiol benzoate (EB) or progesterone (P)), either given systemically or locally into the CA3 region of the hippocampus, ..
  5. Physiology of Hypothalamic Neurosteroidal Progesterone
    Paul E Micevych; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have previously shown that peripheral estradiol (E2) increases hypothalamic neuroprogesterone (neuroP) synthesis, which initiates the luteinizing hormone (LH) ..
  6. Vitamin D and Estrogen Action in Bone: Concerted Role for hnRNPs in the C Family
    John S Adams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..translation technologies, explore the impact of hnRNPs on the cells responsible for 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D and estradiol-driven bone growth;2) employ new RNA immunoprecipitation and micro- RNA methodology to study the versatility of ..
  7. Epigenetics of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior
    BRIDGET NUGENT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The preoptic area (POA) of the laboratory rat is sexually differentiated by estradiol during a perinatal critical period and thereby provides an ideal model system to explore these unknown ..
  8. Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation of Drug Reinforcement
    Diane Lebesgue; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed research plan tests the hypothesis that estradiol ( E2) enhances cocaine reinforcement by elevating synaptic dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, and that ..
  9. Gonadal Steroid Receptors and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
    Robert J Handa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, we hypothesize that this action is distinct from that found in females where estradiol is the ligand acting through ERalpha. Five specific aims are proposed...
  10. Understanding Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin in Women that Serve in OEF/OIF
    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the luteal phase being associated with visceral hypersensitivity and that elevated levels of progesterone and/or estradiol on the amygdala lead to heightened responsiveness to colorectal distension...
  11. Plant-Derived Estrogens and Cell Proliferation
    Emma Shtivelman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We found that two plants had ERa activity using a luciferase reporter gene. Similar to estradiol, both plant extracts produced a reduction in body weight and abdominal fat in mice fed a high fat diet...
  12. Estrogen Modulation of Auditory Processing
    Raphael Pinaud; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent evidence suggests that estradiol (E2) also impacts auditory processing and perception...
  13. Bioflavonoid Effects on EGF Signaling and Cell Cycle Pathways in Prostate Cancer
    ..plant bioflavonoid, luteolin (L or LUT), and two synthetic ligands (BMHPC and ZN-2) interact with type II [3H]estradiol binding sites with high affinity (Kd" 5nM) and inhibit normal and malignant prostate cell proliferation in vivo ..
  14. Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program
    Catherine Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..from the baseline data collection and 2 years after randomization, we propose to examine ESH (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in a subset of DPP women without exogenous ..
  15. Role of leptin-mediated PI3 Kinase signaling on reproductive control
    Carol Fuzeti Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Following leptin treatment, a gradual increase in gonadotropins and estradiol levels, enlargement of the gonads and pubertal development were observed...
  16. Runx Proteins and Sex Steroid Signaling in Bone
    Baruch Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Like estradiol, SERMs promote a physical interaction between ER[unreadable] and Runx2...
    ROBERT STAFFORD BRIDGES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..period, using a rat animal model, we demonstrated that reproductive experience alters circulating prolactin and estradiol levels, estradiol-stimulated prolactin secretion, neural prolactin receptor expression, and prolactin receptor ..
  18. Mechanism of Age-Related Change in Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Rat Brain
    ..In humans, the primary biologically active form of estrogen is 172-estradiol (E2)...
  19. Dopamine's Role in the Rapid Estradiol Enhancement of Excitatory Synapses
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): I have spent 10 years studying the mechanisms by which estradiol (E2) increases hippocampal dependent learning and memory...
  20. Epistasis in Steroidogenic Genes in the Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease
    CRAIG STEPHEN ATWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..improvements in cognitive performance of cognitively healthy postmenopausal women taking 17[unreadable]-estradiol (E2), the major female estrogen, 2) improvements in cognition in subjects treated with physiologically relevant ..
  21. Transgenerational effects of maternal high fat diet during pregnancy on breast ca
    Leena A Hilakivi-Clarke; Fiscal Year: 2013 limited to F1 generation daughters: we found that an exposure during pregnancy to a diet containing ethinyl estradiol (EE2) increased mammary cancer risk also in granddaughters (F2 generation) and great granddaughters (F3 ..
  22. Effects of brain-selective estradiol on gene expression and female sex behavior
    Kim Wallen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Estradiol by itself can reinstate sexual desire if given at dosages that produce midfollicular serum estradiol levels (100-..
  23. Environmental regulation of estrogen dependent aggression
    Brian C Trainor; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This suggests that estrogens may decrease aggression by driving transcription. In short day's estradiol injections increase aggression within 15 minutes, suggesting these effects are mediated by nongenomic pathways...
  24. Interacting Impact of Adrenal and Ovarian Aging on the CNS
    Henryk F Urbanski; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..feature of the menopause is a marked attenuation in the production and release of ovarian steroids, such as estradiol and progesterone...
  25. Novel treatment of menopausal hot flushes with an estradiol prodrug
    Laszlo Prokai; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose in this application that para-quinol of 17b-estradiol (Q-E1) has the potential to be considered as the optimal ERT...
  26. The Mechanism of Cryptorchidism in LH Receptor Knockout Animals
    Zhenmin Lei; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Surprisingly, serum estradiol levels were significantly increased...
  27. Green Tea and Reduction of Breast Cancer Risk
    MINDY SUSAN KURZER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cancer risk: mammographic density;plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein 3, estrone, estradiol, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin...
  28. Sex Steroids and Runx Signaling in Bone
    Baruch Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Like estradiol, SERMs promote a physical interaction between ERa and Runx2...
  29. Estrogens, androgens, aging, and bone loss in males
    Stavros C Manolagas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In full agreement with such a mechanism, an estradiol dendrimer conjugate (EDC) that is not capable of stimulating the nuclear- initiated actions of ER1 reproduces ..
  30. Estradiol-Induced Sialyation Of NCAM Prevents Leucocyte:Endothelial Adhesion
    Frederick Naftolin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In previous studies we have shown that estradiol induces PST and STX in rat brain tissue and increases PSA- NCAM at the expense of NCAM in human umbilical vein ..
  31. Optic Nerve Aging and Glaucoma
    Thasarat Vajaranant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Clinical, epidemiological, and basic science studies indicate that estradiol has neuroprotective effects on the optic nerve...
  32. Developmental Regulation of Brain and Behavior
    JULI S WADE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Experiments in this proposal will test a novel hypothesis, that estradiol (E2) interacts with male-typical levels of sex chromosome gene expression to masculinize structure and function ..
  33. Primate Fetal Adrenal Development: Impact on Physiological Processes After Birth
    Eugene D Albrecht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..baboons and near term in baboons treated throughout the second half of gestation with letrozole [unreadable] estradiol to suppress/restore estrogen...
  34. The Role of Estradiol and Sex in the Effects of Ghrelin on Meal Patterns and Fos-
    PETER BUTERA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The actions of estradiol on neural systems that regulate eating may also account in part for sex differences in food intake and eating ..
    Irshad H Chaudry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our findings that 17p-estradiol (E2) has the unique ability to protect immune cell responses following T-H, and that flutamide [androgen ..
  36. Sex Differences and Estrogen Receptors Regulate Dendritic Cells in Inflammation
    Susan Kovats; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..My laboratory and others have identified estradiol and ER1 signaling as critical regulators of differentiation and activation of dendritic cells (DC), antigen ..
  37. Delayed pubertal development on the mechanism of bone loss at maturity
    Vanessa R Yingling; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Serum estradiol and IGF-1 will also be assayed to confirm the 25 hormonal response to the protocol...
  38. Inhibiting EGFR and ER pathways in NSCLC
    Edward B Garon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) I will evaluate blood samples collected as part of the clinical trial for biologic markers, including estradiol and investigational biomarkers NGAL and MMP-9, and 3) I will evaluate tissue collected as part of the clinical ..
  39. Interaction of Estrogen and AMPK in the Hypothalamus
    Jessica Healy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to determine the mechanism by which estradiol affects the food intake pathway in the mammalian hypothalamus...
  40. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Pregnant Women with Depressive Disorder
    Deborah Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we will measure maternal serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and correlate it with levels of estradiol, progesterone, allopregnanolone, oxytocin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels pre and post-rTMS...
  41. Neuroprotective strategies in seizure-induced damage
    JANA VELISKOVA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    2-Estradiol (EB) has neuroprotective effects in several neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, EB protects against status epilepticus (SE)-induced neuronal damage in the hilus of the hippocampal dentate gyrus...
  42. CYP19A1 gene and Pharmacogenetics of Response
    REINA C VILLAREAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Estrogen in males is mainly derived from the conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase...
  43. Bisphenol A: Urine flow disorder and prostate pathology
    FREDERICK S contact VOM SAAL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There has long been speculation that the age-related increase in estradiol in men plays a role in prostate disease and urethral abnormalities...
  44. Mechanisms of vascular-specific gene regulation by estrogen
    Gavin R Schnitzler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ERs are transcription factors, that, when bound by an agonist such as 17[unreadable] estradiol (E2), bind to specific chromatin locations to activate or repress transcription...
  45. WNT and gonadotropin mediated regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis
    ..reduction of [unreadable]-catenin in granulosa cells compromises FSH stimulation of aromatase mRNA and resultant estradiol production...
  46. Estrogen and TMJ Pain
    Phillip R Kramer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..High proestrus versus low diestrus levels of 17[unreadable]-estradiol resulted in a 16 to 34 fold increase in the GABAA receptor subunit [unreadable]6 (Gabr[unreadable]6), the ..
  47. Role of the Sex Hormones and Insulin/IGF-Axes in Endometrial Cancer Recurrence
    Howard D Strickler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..33;1.13-4.82), after controlling for estradiol. We also studied insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)...
  48. Aromatase Inhibitors in Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease
    Steven M Kawut; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with the occurrence of HPS , and 3) genetic variation in aromatase was associated with both higher plasma estradiol (E2) levels and a higher risk of PPHTN...
  49. A twin study of ovarian hormones and disordered eating
    Kelly L Klump; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Radioimmunoassay will be used to analyze estradiol, and enzymeimmunoassay will be used to analyze progesterone...
  50. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor As a Mediator of Primate Ovulation &Oocyte Maturation
    Jon D Hennebold; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., the ability to synthesize progesterone and estradiol). Isolated rhesus macaque cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from non-luteinized follicles (i.e...
  51. Population-Based Reference Ranges for Estradiol and Estrone in Men
    VASAN S RAMACHANDRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The role of estradiol 17[unreadable] (E2) and estrone (E1) - the two most abundant estrogens in humans - in men's health and disease remains poorly understood...
  52. Role of Fetal Steroids in Formation and Activation of Bovine Ovarian Follicles
    Joanne E Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..steroid hormones, especially in the period before and, to a lesser extent, during follicle formation and estradiol receptors have been localized to both somatic and gametogenic cells...
  53. Estrogen-T cell Interactions
    Prakash S Nagarkatti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies from our lab demonstrated for the first time that prenatal and postnatal exposure to estradiol (E2) and DES can induce apoptosis in thymocytes, alter the expression of T cell receptor and CD molecules, and ..
  54. The Kiss1 system in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction
    VICTOR MANUEL NAVARRO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..periventricular nucleus (AVPV), and are direct targets for the negative and positive feedback action of estradiol E2 on GnRH secretion, respectively...
  55. Endothelial Aromatase in Sex-Specific Cerebrovascular Dysfunction After Ischemia
    KRISTEN LEANNE ZULOAGA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In post- menopausal women, the major source of estrogen becomes local (extra-gonadal) synthesis of estradiol by the enzyme aromatase...
  56. Sex-specific gene regulation of neuronal chloride co-transporter, kcc2
    WOLFGANG B LIEDTKE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..female neurons to 17-[unreadable]-estradiol and xenobiotic estrogen-mimetics...
  57. The baroreflex in pregnancy: effects of adrenal and placental steroids
    Maureen Keller-Wood; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We further hypothesize that these effects are modulated by progesterone and estradiol, and that the vulnerability of the late gestation pregnant ewe to decreases in plasma cortisol is caused by ..
  58. Impact of Estrogens and Menopause on Interacting Monoamine Neurotransmitters in t
    Jeffrey K Yao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Estrogen treatments will include 17ss-estradiol (E2), G-1 (a selective GPR30 agonist), PPT (a selective ER[unreadable] agonist) and DPN (a selective ERss ..
  59. Estrogen signaling in portopulmonary hypertension
    Steven M Kawut; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that variation in genes linked to estrogen signaling (aromatase and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1)) and higher estradiol levels significantly increased the risk of PPHTN in patients with advanced liver disease...
  60. The Effects of Estradiol on Genetic Risk for Disordered Eating During Puberty
    Kelly L Klump; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To date, no studies have examined factors underlying pubertal "activation" of genetic effects. Increases in estradiol during puberty may account for these effects, as estradiol drives pubertal changes in girls and is a potent ..
  61. Steroid regulation of glucose utilization during early pregnancy.
    ANTONINA I FROLOVA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose that prolonged exposure to pathologic levels of estradiol interferes with glucose metabolism in the uterine endometrial stroma and preimplantation embryo, by two ..
    Jill C Fehrenbacher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Numerous studies have investigated the genomic effects of estradiol on nociceptive responses;however, the discovery that estradiol can activate intracellular signaling pathways ..
  63. Restoration of Estradiol Effects on Learning by Cholinergic Enhancement
    Robert Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to provide proof of principle that estradiol-mediated enhancement of cognitive function can be restored (a) in young rats with cholinergic lesions, and (b) in aged rats ..
  64. Role of 5-alpha Reductase in Testosterone Actions
    Shalendar Bhasin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..androgen in men, also serves as a prohormone that is converted in the body to two active metabolites, estradiol 17beta and 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone (DHT)...
  65. Do estrogen receptors in B cells and DC mediate sex bias in murine lupus?
    Susan Kovats; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..affects women (9:1) in their reproductive years, indicating that sex specific factors including the sex hormone estradiol play an important role in lupus pathogenesis...
    Warren Nothnick; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..expression in uterine tissue during the reproductive cycle, that these patterns of expression are modulated by estradiol and/or progesterone, and that the steroid-induced expression of TIMP-3 is mediated at least in part through TIMP-..
    Darrell Brann; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Central to this proposed mechanism, is the hypothesis that 17beta-estradiol exerts regulatory control over astrocytes to stimulate release of TGFbeta...