betaine

Summary

Summary: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Alternating-access mechanism in conformationally asymmetric trimers of the betaine transporter BetP
    Camilo Perez
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, D 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Nature 490:126-30. 2012
  2. ncbi Improved salt tolerance in tobacco plants by co-transformation of a betaine synthesis gene BADH and a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene SeNHX1
    Shufeng Zhou
    Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Molecular Environmental Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nan XinCun XiangShan, Beijing 100093, China
    Biotechnol Lett 30:369-76. 2008
  3. pmc Protection of Bacillus subtilis against cold stress via compatible-solute acquisition
    Tamara Hoffmann
    Philipps University Marburg, Department of Biology, Microbiology, Karl von Frisch Str 8, D 35032 Marburg, Germany
    J Bacteriol 193:1552-62. 2011
  4. ncbi Choline and betaine in health and disease
    Per Magne Ueland
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    J Inherit Metab Dis 34:3-15. 2011
  5. ncbi OpuA, an osmotically regulated binding protein-dependent transport system for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis
    B Kempf
    Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 270:16701-13. 1995
  6. ncbi The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong specificity for distinct quaternary ammonium compounds
    Chiliang Chen
    Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Mol Microbiol 75:29-45. 2010
  7. pmc Osmotic control of opuA expression in Bacillus subtilis and its modulation in response to intracellular glycine betaine and proline pools
    Tamara Hoffmann
    Philipps University Marburg, Department of Biology, Laboratory for Microbiology, Marburg, Germany
    J Bacteriol 195:510-22. 2013
  8. pmc Identification of two gene clusters and a transcriptional regulator required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycine betaine catabolism
    Matthew J Wargo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:2690-9. 2008
  9. ncbi Betaine in human nutrition
    Stuart A S Craig
    Danisco USA Inc, 440 Saw Mill River Road, Ardsley, NY 10502, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:539-49. 2004
  10. ncbi Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism?
    M A Pajares
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM, Arturo Duperier 4, 28029, Madrid, Spain
    Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2792-803. 2006

Detail Information

Publications348 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Alternating-access mechanism in conformationally asymmetric trimers of the betaine transporter BetP
    Camilo Perez
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, D 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Nature 490:126-30. 2012
    b>Betaine and Na(+) symport has been extensively studied in the osmotically regulated transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a member of the betaine/choline/carnitine transporter family, which shares the conserved LeuT-like fold ..
  2. ncbi Improved salt tolerance in tobacco plants by co-transformation of a betaine synthesis gene BADH and a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene SeNHX1
    Shufeng Zhou
    Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Molecular Environmental Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nan XinCun XiangShan, Beijing 100093, China
    Biotechnol Lett 30:369-76. 2008
    ..acquired by separate transformation or co-transformation of a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene, SeNHX1, and a betaine synthesis gene, BADH...
  3. pmc Protection of Bacillus subtilis against cold stress via compatible-solute acquisition
    Tamara Hoffmann
    Philipps University Marburg, Department of Biology, Microbiology, Karl von Frisch Str 8, D 35032 Marburg, Germany
    J Bacteriol 193:1552-62. 2011
    ..We found that Bacillus subtilis uses the compatible solute glycine betaine as an effective cold stress protectant...
  4. ncbi Choline and betaine in health and disease
    Per Magne Ueland
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    J Inherit Metab Dis 34:3-15. 2011
    ..Pre-and postnatal choline availability is important for neurodevelopment in rodents. Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, which ..
  5. ncbi OpuA, an osmotically regulated binding protein-dependent transport system for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis
    B Kempf
    Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 270:16701-13. 1995
    Exogenously provided glycine betaine can efficiently protect Bacillus subtilis from the detrimental effects of high osmolarity environments...
  6. ncbi The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong specificity for distinct quaternary ammonium compounds
    Chiliang Chen
    Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Mol Microbiol 75:29-45. 2010
    We identified a choline, betaine and carnitine transporter, designated Cbc, from Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that is unusual among members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family in its use of multiple ..
  7. pmc Osmotic control of opuA expression in Bacillus subtilis and its modulation in response to intracellular glycine betaine and proline pools
    Tamara Hoffmann
    Philipps University Marburg, Department of Biology, Laboratory for Microbiology, Marburg, Germany
    J Bacteriol 195:510-22. 2013
    Glycine betaine is an effective osmoprotectant for Bacillus subtilis. Its import into osmotically stressed cells led to the buildup of large pools, whose size was sensitively determined by the degree of the osmotic stress imposed...
  8. pmc Identification of two gene clusters and a transcriptional regulator required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycine betaine catabolism
    Matthew J Wargo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:2690-9. 2008
    Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  9. ncbi Betaine in human nutrition
    Stuart A S Craig
    Danisco USA Inc, 440 Saw Mill River Road, Ardsley, NY 10502, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:539-49. 2004
    b>Betaine is distributed widely in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and rich dietary sources include seafood, especially marine invertebrates ( approximately 1%); wheat germ or bran ( approximately 1%); and spinach ( approximately 0...
  10. ncbi Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism?
    M A Pajares
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM, Arturo Duperier 4, 28029, Madrid, Spain
    Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2792-803. 2006
    b>Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), a Zn(2+)-dependent thiolmethyltransferase, contributes to the regulation of homocysteine levels, increases in which are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases...
  11. pmc Plasma lipids and betaine are related in an acute coronary syndrome cohort
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    PLoS ONE 6:e21666. 2011
    Low plasma betaine has been associated with unfavorable plasma lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk. In some studies raised plasma betaine after supplementation is associated with elevations in plasma lipids...
  12. pmc Smoking, dietary betaine, methionine, and vitamin D in monozygotic twins with discordant macular degeneration: epigenetic implications
    Johanna M Seddon
    New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Ophthalmology 118:1386-94. 2011
    ..We evaluated monozygotic twin pairs with discordant age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes to assess differences in behavioral and nutritional factors...
  13. ncbi Separation of cationic aracyl derivatives of betaines and related compounds
    Malina K Storer
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P O Box 151, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Chromatogr A 1104:263-71. 2006
    ..Retention is reduced by increasing the water content and the buffer concentration. Capillary electrophoresis migration times are affected by the choice of buffer anion, with low pH citrate buffers favoured...
  14. pmc Annotation of genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: discovery of the betaine lipid synthase BTA1Cr
    Wayne R Riekhof
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:242-52. 2005
    ..the bifunctional protein that it encodes; we predicted this protein to be sufficient for the synthesis of the betaine lipid diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS), a major membrane component in Chlamydomonas...
  15. ncbi Molecular basis of transport and regulation in the Na(+)/betaine symporter BetP
    Susanne Ressl
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Nature 458:47-52. 2009
    ..Here we report the determination of the X-ray structure of a member of the family of betaine/choline/carnitine transporters, the Na(+)-coupled symporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a ..
  16. pmc Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in beneficial effects of betaine on high-sucrose diet-induced hepatic steatosis
    Zhenyuan Song
    Dept of Medicine, Univ of Louisville Medical Center, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293:G894-902. 2007
    ..Promising beneficial effects of betaine supplementation on human NAFLD have been reported in some pilot clinical studies; however, data related to ..
  17. ncbi Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods
    Steven H Zeisel
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7461, USA
    J Nutr 133:1302-7. 2003
    ..b>Betaine, a choline derivative, is important because of its role in the donation of methyl groups to homocysteine to form ..
  18. ncbi Homocysteine, glycine betaine, and N,N-dimethylglycine in patients attending a lipid clinic
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, PO Box 151, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Metabolism 54:1-14. 2005
    ..Glycine betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and carnitine were measured in fasting plasma and urine samples...
  19. pmc Betaine improves the PCR amplification of GC-rich DNA sequences
    W Henke
    Research Division of the Department of Urology, University Hospital Charite, Humboldt University, D 10098 Berlin, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 25:3957-8. 1997
    b>Betaine improves the co-amplification of the two alternatively spliced variants of the prostate-specific membrane antigen mRNA as well as the amplification of the coding cDNA region of c-jun...
  20. ncbi The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 43:732-44. 2010
    b>Betaine is an essential osmolyte and source of methyl groups and comes from either the diet or by the oxidation of choline. Its metabolism methylates homocysteine to methionine, also producing N,N-dimethylglycine...
  21. ncbi Determination of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in plasma by a high-throughput method based on normal-phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Pal I Holm
    LOCUS for Homocysteine and Related Vitamins, University of Bergen, N 5021 Bergen, Norway
    Clin Chem 49:286-94. 2003
    The quaternary ammonium compounds, choline and betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) reside along a metabolic pathway linked to the synthesis of neurotransmitters and membrane phospholipids and to homocysteine remethylation and, therefore, ..
  22. pmc Identification of genes required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa carnitine catabolism
    Matthew J Wargo
    The Vermont Lung Center, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Microbiology 155:2411-9. 2009
    ..shown that carnitine is converted to 3-dehydrocarnitine (3-dhc) which is in turn metabolized to glycine betaine (GB), an intermediate metabolite in the catabolism of carnitine to glycine...
  23. pmc Proteomics reveal a concerted upregulation of methionine metabolic pathway enzymes, and downregulation of carbonic anhydrase-III, in betaine supplemented ethanol-fed rats
    Kusum K Kharbanda
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centre, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381:523-7. 2009
    We employed a proteomic profiling strategy to examine the effects of ethanol and betaine diet supplementation on major liver protein level changes. Male Wistar rats were fed control, ethanol or betaine supplemented diets for 4 weeks...
  24. ncbi Effects of orange juice and proline betaine on glycine betaine and homocysteine in healthy male subjects
    Wendy Atkinson
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, PO Box 151, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Eur J Nutr 46:446-52. 2007
    Proline betaine (PB), a glycine betaine (GB) analogue found in citrus foods, increases urinary GB loss and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in rats. Its presence in human plasma is associated with increased GB excretion.
  25. pmc Role of the glycine betaine and carnitine transporters in adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes to chill stress in defined medium
    Apostolos S Angelidis
    Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:7492-8. 2003
    ..The uptake and intracellular accumulation of the potent compatible solutes glycine betaine and carnitine has been shown to be a key mediator of the pathogen's cold-tolerant phenotype...
  26. ncbi The osmoprotectant proline betaine is a major substrate for the binding-protein-dependent transport system ProU of Escherichia coli K-12
    M Haardt
    University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, Federal Republic of Germany
    Mol Gen Genet 246:783-6. 1995
    ..and ProU transport systems of Escherichia coli mediate the uptake of several osmoprotectants including glycine betaine. Here we report that both ProP and ProU are involved in the transport of the potent osmoprotectant proline ..
  27. pmc Cellular choline and glycine betaine pools impact osmoprotection and phospholipase C production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Liam F Fitzsimmons
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont, USA
    J Bacteriol 194:4718-26. 2012
    ..is abundantly produced by eukaryotes and plays an important role as a precursor of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, glycine betaine has additional roles as a nutrient source and an inducer of the ..
  28. ncbi Plasma choline and betaine correlate with serum folate, plasma S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine in healthy volunteers
    Apolline Imbard
    Biochemistry Hormonology Laboratory, Robert Debre Hospital, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Clin Chem Lab Med 51:683-92. 2013
    ..its synthesis requires methyl groups donated by S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet); and b) choline oxidation product betaine methylates homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine (Met) and produces dimethylglycine...
  29. pmc DMSO and betaine greatly improve amplification of GC-rich constructs in de novo synthesis
    Michael A Jensen
    Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e11024. 2010
    ..these limitations in researching GC-rich genes and their non-coding elements, we explored the use of DMSO and betaine in two conventional methods of assembly and amplification...
  30. pmc A novel transgenic mouse model of CBS-deficient homocystinuria does not incur hepatic steatosis or fibrosis and exhibits a hypercoagulative phenotype that is ameliorated by betaine treatment
    Kenneth N Maclean
    Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 101:153-62. 2010
    ..determinations indicate that HO mice are in a hypercoagulative state that is significantly ameliorated by betaine treatment in a manner that recapitulates the disease as it occurs in humans...
  31. ncbi Betaine administration corrects ethanol-induced defective VLDL secretion
    Kusum K Kharbanda
    Research Service 151, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4101 Woolworth Avenue, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
    Mol Cell Biochem 327:75-8. 2009
    ..of this study was to determine whether VLDL secretion was reduced by chronic ethanol consumption and whether betaine supplementation, that restores PEMT activity and prevents the development of alcoholic steatosis, could normalize ..
  32. ncbi Long-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjects
    U Schwab
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:70-6. 2011
    To examine the effects of betaine on serum lipid profile, plasma homocysteine concentration and hemostatic factors in healthy subjects.
  33. ncbi Osmotically induced intracellular trehalose, but not glycine betaine accumulation promotes desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli
    D T Welsh
    Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Italy
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 174:57-63. 1999
    ..In contrast, glycine betaine whether added as an excipient or accumulated intracellularly had no influence on desiccation tolerance...
  34. ncbi An abnormal urinary excretion of glycine betaine may persist for years
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 40:798-801. 2007
    Does abnormal betaine excretion persist?
  35. pmc Corynebacterium glutamicum is equipped with four secondary carriers for compatible solutes: identification, sequencing, and characterization of the proline/ectoine uptake system, ProP, and the ectoine/proline/glycine betaine carrier, EctP
    H Peter
    Institut für Biotechnologie 1, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, D 52425 Julich, Germany
    J Bacteriol 180:6005-12. 1998
    Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the compatible solutes glycine betaine, proline, and ectoine for protection against hyperosmotic shock...
  36. ncbi Betaine excretion correlates with plasma homocysteine when plasma lipids are elevated
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 45:154-6. 2012
    To reconcile observing a positive correlation of betaine excretion with homocysteine in lipid disorder patients but not other study groups.
  37. ncbi Sex differences in the control of plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of glycine betaine in patients attending a lipid disorders clinic
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 40:1225-31. 2007
    To find whether the control of betaine metabolism differs between male and female patients and identify the effects of insulin and other hormones.
  38. pmc Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease
    Zeneng Wang
    Department of Cell Biology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nature 472:57-63. 2011
    ..Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine--choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine--were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort...
  39. pmc Choline metabolism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based study
    Xinran Xu
    Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    FASEB J 22:2045-52. 2008
    ..we investigated the associations of dietary intake of choline and two related micronutrients, methionine and betaine, and risk of breast cancer...
  40. pmc Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in the Canary Islands: a conformational disease due to I244T mutation in the P11L-containing alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    A Santana
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7277-82. 2003
    ..Among various chemical chaperones tested in cell culture, betaine substantially improved the solubility of the mutant protein and the enzymatic activity in cell lysates...
  41. pmc Mitochondrial adaptations to NaCl. Complex I is protected by anti-oxidants and small heat shock proteins, whereas complex II is protected by proline and betaine
    E W Hamilton
    Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 130 College Place, Syracuse, New York 13244 1220, USA
    Plant Physiol 126:1266-74. 2001
    ..on maize (Zea mays) mitochondrial electron transport and its relative protection by osmoprotectants (proline, betaine, and sucrose), antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol), antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Cu/..
  42. ncbi Consumption of wheat aleurone-rich foods increases fasting plasma betaine and modestly decreases fasting homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol in adults
    Ruth K Price
    Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK
    J Nutr 140:2153-7. 2010
    ..Although underlying mechanisms and components are unclear, betaine, found at high levels in wheat aleurone, may play a role...
  43. ncbi 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolic assessment in a rat model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet
    So Hyun Kim
    College of Pharmacy, Chung Ang University, Seoul, 156 756, Republic of Korea
    Anal Bioanal Chem 395:1117-24. 2009
    ..Several key metabolites in urine, such as betaine, taurine, acetone/acetoacetate, phenylacetylglycine, pyruvate, lactate, and citrate contributed to the ..
  44. ncbi Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis with different sub-cellular localization affect stress responses
    Tagnon D Missihoun
    Institute of Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants IMBIO, University of Bonn, Kirschallee 1, 53115 Bonn, Germany
    Planta 233:369-82. 2011
    Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to those plants that do not naturally accumulate glycine betaine (GB), although its genome contains two genes, ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 that code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs)...
  45. ncbi Glycinebetaine: an effective protectant against abiotic stress in plants
    Tony H H Chen
    Department of Horticulture, ALS 4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 13:499-505. 2008
    ..In particular, the reproductive organs of GB-accumulating transgenic plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress. Furthermore, accumulation of GB results in increased yield potentials under non-stress conditions...
  46. ncbi Cloning of a Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent betaine transporter that is regulated by hypertonicity
    A Yamauchi
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Biol Chem 267:649-52. 1992
    ..intracellular concentrations of electrolytes by accumulating high concentrations of the nonperturbing osmolyte betaine. When kidney-derived Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are cultured in hypertonic medium, they accumulate ..
  47. ncbi Synergism between the chaperone-like activity of the stress regulated ASR1 protein and the osmolyte glycine-betaine
    Zvia Konrad
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 84105, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Planta 227:1213-9. 2008
    ..The protective activity of SlASR1 is synergistic with that of the osmolyte glycine-betaine, which accumulates under stress conditions...
  48. ncbi Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women
    Svetlana V Konstantinova
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020, Norway
    J Nutr 138:914-20. 2008
    Choline is involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, including blood lipids, and is the immediate precursor of betaine, which serves as a methyl group donor in a reaction converting homocysteine to methionine...
  49. pmc GbdR regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa plcH and pchP transcription in response to choline catabolites
    Matthew J Wargo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Infect Immun 77:1103-11. 2009
    ..and PchP enzyme activity are positively regulated by phosphorylcholine degradation products, including glycine betaine. Here we report that the induction of plcH and pchP transcription by glycine betaine is mediated by GbdR, an AraC ..
  50. ncbi Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice
    Cheng Ji
    USC UCLA Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, Research Center for Liver Disease and Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90033, USA
    Gastroenterology 124:1488-99. 2003
    ..This novel ER stress mechanism of alcoholic liver injury was studied in the model of intragastric alcohol-fed mice...
  51. ncbi Betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis by restoring phosphatidylcholine generation via the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathway
    Kusum K Kharbanda
    VA Alcohol Research Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
    J Hepatol 46:314-21. 2007
    ..Further in vitro studies showed that betaine supplementation could correct these alterations in the ratio as well as attenuate alcoholic steatosis...
  52. ncbi Carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity and protective effect of betaine in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Feral Ozturk
    Department of Histology Embryology, Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey
    Urology 62:353-6. 2003
    ..the antioxidative defense enzymes and to detect the alterations of renal microscopy after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in rats and to investigate the possible protective effects of betaine against CCl4-induced renal damage.
  53. ncbi Inter- and intra-individual variations in normal urinary glycine betaine excretion
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 40:447-53. 2007
    To establish whether normal human subjects excrete glycine betaine at a constant rate.
  54. pmc Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase
    Weijuan Fan
    National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e37344. 2012
    ..The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible ..
  55. pmc Betaine and secondary events in an acute coronary syndrome cohort
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    PLoS ONE 7:e37883. 2012
    b>Betaine insufficiency is associated with unfavourable vascular risk profiles in metabolic syndrome patients. We investigated associations between betaine insufficiency and secondary events in acute coronary syndrome patients.
  56. ncbi Metabolic markers of breast cancer: enhanced choline metabolism and reduced choline-ether-phospholipid synthesis
    Rachel Katz-Brull
    Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Cancer Res 62:1966-70. 2002
    ..The phosphorylation of choline to phosphocholine and oxidation of choline to betaine yielded 10-fold higher levels of these metabolites in the cancer cells...
  57. pmc Metabolic profiling in Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and young onset type 2 diabetes fails to detect robust urinary biomarkers
    Anna L Gloyn
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e40962. 2012
    ..No single metabolite contributed significantly to the separation of the patient groups. However, betaine, valine, glycine and glucose were elevated in the urine of HNF1A-MODY subjects compared to the other subgroups...
  58. ncbi Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans
    Pal I Holm
    LOCUS for Homocysteine and Related Vitamins, University of Bergen, Norway
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:379-85. 2005
    Two published studies have demonstrated that betaine in the circulation is a determinant of plasma total homocysteine, but none had sufficient power to investigate the possible effect modification by folate status.
  59. ncbi Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study
    M F Abdelmalek
    Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Surgical Pathology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 96:2711-7. 2001
    OBJECTIVES: No effective therapy currently exists for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Betaine, a naturally occurring metabolite of choline, has been shown to raise S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) levels that may in turn ..
  60. ncbi Head group specificity in the requirement of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for very low density lipoprotein secretion from cultured hepatocytes
    Z M Yao
    Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Group, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    J Biol Chem 264:11373-80. 1989
    ..the impaired VLDL secretion from the choline-deficient hepatocytes could also be corrected by supplementation of betaine (0.2 mM) and homocysteine (0...
  61. ncbi Betaine can partially spare choline in chicks but only when added to diets containing a minimal level of choline
    Ryan N Dilger
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    J Nutr 137:2224-8. 2007
    The ability of betaine to serve as a methyl donor in chicks was assessed in 3 bioassays using a choline-free purified diet that contained adequate methionine (Met)...
  62. pmc The osmoreactive betaine carrier BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a sensor for cytoplasmic K+
    R Rübenhagen
    Institut fur Biochemie, Universitat zu Koln, D 50674 Köln, Germany
    EMBO J 20:5412-20. 2001
    The isolated glycine betaine uptake carrier BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum was reconstituted in Escherichia coli phospholipid liposomes and its response to osmotic stress studied...
  63. pmc Molecular and physiological analysis of the role of osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC in growth of Listeria monocytogenes at low temperatures
    Henrike H Wemekamp-Kamphuis
    Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2912-8. 2004
    ..However, upon the addition of betaine to defined medium, the hierarchy of transporter importance shifted to Gbu > BetL > OpuC...
  64. ncbi The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men
    John F Trepanowski
    Cardiorespiratory Metabolic Laboratory, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    J Strength Cond Res 25:3461-71. 2011
    Trepanowski, JF, Farney, TM, McCarthy, CG, Schilling, BK, Craig, SA, and Bloomer, RJ. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, and associated biochemical parameters in ..
  65. ncbi Betaine stabilizes cell volume and protects against apoptosis in human corneal epithelial cells under hyperosmotic stress
    Qian Garrett
    Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia
    Exp Eye Res 108:33-41. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of the organic osmolyte, betaine, to act as an osmoprotectant against hypertonic stress-induced human corneal epithelial cell shrinkage and ..
  66. pmc Identification of an ATP-driven, osmoregulated glycine betaine transport system in Listeria monocytogenes
    R Ko
    Departments of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 65:4040-8. 1999
    ..osmolarity and reduced temperature is due in part to the transport and accumulation of the osmolyte glycine betaine. Previously we showed that glycine betaine transport was the result of Na(+)-glycine betaine symport...
  67. ncbi Glycinebetaine protects plants against abiotic stress: mechanisms and biotechnological applications
    Tony H H Chen
    Department of Horticulture, ALS 4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Plant Cell Environ 34:1-20. 2011
    ..Thus, transgenic approaches that increase tolerance to abiotic stress have enhanced our understanding of mechanisms that protect plants against such stress...
  68. ncbi Determination of betaine in Lycium chinense fruits by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Y G Shin
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, South Korea
    J Chromatogr A 857:331-5. 1999
    ..liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric method has been developed for the determination of betaine in Lycium chinense fruits...
  69. ncbi Adaptation of Escherichia coli to high osmolarity environments: osmoregulation of the high-affinity glycine betaine transport system proU
    J M Lucht
    University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, FRG
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 14:3-20. 1994
    ..solutes include polyoles such as trehalose, amino acids such as proline, and methyl-amines such as glycine betaine. One of the most important compatible solutes for bacteria is glycine betaine...
  70. ncbi A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects
    Alastair B Ross
    Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Br J Nutr 105:1492-502. 2011
    ..Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, ..
  71. pmc Osmotic regulation of transcription: induction of the proU betaine transport gene is dependent on accumulation of intracellular potassium
    L Sutherland
    J Bacteriol 168:805-14. 1986
    The proU locus, which encodes a high-affinity betaine transport system, and the kdp operon, which encodes a potassium transport system, are the principal osmoresponsive genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium...
  72. pmc The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women
    Stephanie E Chiuve
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:1073-81. 2007
    Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy), a risk factor for many chronic diseases, can be remethylated to methionine by folate. Alternatively, tHcy can be metabolized by other 1-carbon nutrients, ie, betaine and its precursor, choline.
  73. ncbi Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in Avy/a mice
    G L Wolff
    Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079 9502, USA
    FASEB J 12:949-57. 1998
    ..Therefore, this experimental system should be useful for identifying maternal factors that modulate epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA methylation, in developing embryos...
  74. pmc Amino acid residues critical for the specificity for betaine aldehyde of the plant ALDH10 isoenzyme involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine
    Angel G Díaz-Sánchez
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico Distrito Federal, Mexico
    Plant Physiol 158:1570-82. 2012
    ..or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine ..
  75. ncbi Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial
    Manal F Abdelmalek
    Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Hepatology 50:1818-26. 2009
    Based on animal studies and pilot studies in humans, betaine, a methyl donor for the remethylation of homocysteine, may be a therapeutic agent for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
  76. ncbi Quantitative measurement of betaine and free choline in plasma, cereals and cereal products by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS
    Stephen J Bruce
    Department of Bioanalytical Science, Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Agric Food Chem 58:2055-61. 2010
    b>Betaine and choline are important components of the one-carbon metabolism cycle, linked with the amino acid homocysteine and lipid metabolism...
  77. pmc Quantifying why urea is a protein denaturant, whereas glycine betaine is a protein stabilizer
    Emily J Guinn
    Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16932-7. 2011
    To explain the large, opposite effects of urea and glycine betaine (GB) on stability of folded proteins and protein complexes, we quantify and interpret preferential interactions of urea with 45 model compounds displaying protein ..
  78. pmc High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study
    Xinran Xu
    Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Box 1057, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    FASEB J 23:4022-8. 2009
    Choline and betaine provide methyl groups for one-carbon metabolism. Humans obtain these nutrients from a wide range of foods. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor, choline...
  79. ncbi The osmolyte betaine promotes protein misfolding and disruption of protein aggregates
    Antonino Natalello
    Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, Milan 20126, Italy
    Proteins 75:509-17. 2009
    In this work the effect of betaine on the structure and aggregation of the GST-GFP fluorescent fusion protein was studied by different complementary techniques, including electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism, ..
  80. ncbi Relationship of dimethylglycine, choline, and betaine with oxoproline in plasma of pregnant women and their newborn infants
    Russell W Friesen
    Nutrition Research Program, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada V5Z 4H4
    J Nutr 137:2641-6. 2007
    Choline and glycine are inter-related through their roles in methyl metabolism. Choline is metabolized to betaine, which donates a methyl group to homocysteine to form methionine, also generating dimethylglycine, which is further ..
  81. ncbi Genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine leads to increased tolerance of photosynthesis to salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants
    Xinghong Yang
    Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Plant Mol Biol 66:73-86. 2008
    ..the ability to synthesis glycinebetaine (GB) in chloroplasts was established by introducing the BADH gene for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)...
  82. ncbi Choline and homocysteine interrelations in umbilical cord and maternal plasma at delivery
    Anne M Molloy
    Department of Clinical Medicine and the National Human Genome Research Institute, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:836-42. 2005
    ..Choline, via betaine, is an important folate-independent source of methyl groups for remethylating homocysteine in liver.
  83. ncbi Short and long-term variation of plasma glycine betaine concentrations in humans
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 37:184-90. 2004
    Glycine betaine is important in cell volume regulation and in remethylating homocysteine, a vascular risk factor.
  84. ncbi The codA transgene for glycinebetaine synthesis increases the size of flowers and fruits in tomato
    Eung Jun Park
    Department of Horticulture, ALS4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Plant Biotechnol J 5:422-30. 2007
    ..The enlargement of flowers was related to an increase in the size and number of cells, and reflected the pleiotropic effect of the codA transgene on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell division...
  85. ncbi Cationic lipids derived from glycine betaine promote efficient and non-toxic gene transfection in cultured hepatocytes
    David Gilot
    Hopital Pontchaillou, Régulation des équilibres fonctionnels du foie normal et pathologique, INSERM U522, Avenue de la Bataille Flandre Dunkerque, 35033 Rennes, France
    J Gene Med 4:415-27. 2002
    ..The low efficiency and toxicity of transfection in a primary culture of hepatocytes using cationic lipids remains a limiting step to the study of gene function and the setting up of non-viral gene therapy...
  86. ncbi Two evolutionarily closely related ABC transporters mediate the uptake of choline for synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis
    R M Kappes
    Philipps University Marburg, Department of Biology, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 32:203-16. 1999
    Biosynthesis of the compatible solute glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis confers a considerable degree of osmotic tolerance and proceeds via a two-step oxidation process of choline, with glycine betaine aldehyde as the intermediate...
  87. ncbi Elevated glycine betaine excretion in diabetes mellitus patients is associated with proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperglycemia
    W J Dellow
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 43:91-9. 1999
    ..population of diabetic subjects (Type 1 and Type 2), the urine excretion of the renal osmolyte, glycine betaine, was compared to known markers of glycemic control, renal dysfunction and to the excretion of related betaines, ..
  88. ncbi Plasma dependent and independent accumulation of betaine in male and female rat tissues
    S Slow
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch Mail Center, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Physiol Res 58:403-10. 2009
    Tissue betaine is an intracellular osmolyte that also provides a store of labile methyl groups. Despite these important biological roles, there are few data regarding tissue betaine content...
  89. ncbi Fibrates may cause an abnormal urinary betaine loss which is associated with elevations in plasma homocysteine
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P O Box 151, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 23:395-401. 2009
    b>Betaine is an osmolyte, supplies methyl groups, and controls plasma homocysteine. Abnormal urinary loss of betaine is common in patients with the metabolic syndrome or diabetes mellitus...
  90. ncbi Betaine supplementation decreases post-methionine hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic renal failure
    David O McGregor
    Department of Nephrology, Christchurch Hospital and School of Medicine, Private Bag 4710, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Kidney Int 61:1040-6. 2002
    ..Glycine betaine (GB) is known to decrease tHcy in other clinical settings, but whether it is beneficial in chronic renal failure ..
  91. pmc Dietary intake of S-(alpha-carboxybutyl)-DL-homocysteine induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats
    Jana Strakova
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Nutr Res 30:492-500. 2010
    b>Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteine (Hcy), forming dimethylglycine and methionine...
  92. pmc Betaine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver and associated hepatic insulin resistance: a potential mechanism for hepatoprotection by betaine
    Elango Kathirvel
    Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach 90822, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299:G1068-77. 2010
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a common liver disease, associated with insulin resistance. Betaine has been tested as a treatment for NAFL in animal models and in small clinical trials, with mixed results...
  93. ncbi Glycinebetaine accumulation is more effective in chloroplasts than in the cytosol for protecting transgenic tomato plants against abiotic stress
    Eung Jun Park
    Department of Horticulture, ALS 4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Plant Cell Environ 30:994-1005. 2007
    ..Thus, an increase in total GB content does not necessarily lead to enhanced stress tolerance, but additional accumulation of chloroplastic GB is likely to further raise the level of stress tolerance beyond what we have observed...
  94. pmc Choline and betaine intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in men
    Jung Eun Lee
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:884-7. 2010
    Dietary choline and betaine have been hypothesized to decrease the risk of cancer because of their role as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism...
  95. pmc Substrate specificity and ion coupling in the Na+/betaine symporter BetP
    Camilo Perez
    Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    EMBO J 30:1221-9. 2011
    BetP is an Na(+)-coupled betaine-specific transporter of the betaine-choline-carnitine (BCC) transporter family involved in the response to hyperosmotic stress...
  96. ncbi Influence of temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and glycine betaine by marine phytoplankton
    Astrid Spielmeyer
    Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University, Lessingstr 8, 07743 Jena D, Germany
    Mar Environ Res 73:62-9. 2012
    ..In addition, we addressed glycine betaine (GBT) that fulfills a similar function as osmolyte like DMSP...
  97. pmc Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, PO Box 151, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 11:34. 2012
    Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients), we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes ..
  98. ncbi Betaine supplementation attenuates atherosclerotic lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
    Shiwei Lv
    Faculty of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat Sen University, 74th Zhongshan Road II, 510080, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Eur J Nutr 48:205-12. 2009
    b>Betaine serves as a methyl donor in a reaction converting homocysteine to methionine. It is commonly used for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans, which indicates it may be associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis...
  99. ncbi Plasma and urine betaine and dimethylglycine variation in healthy young male subjects
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 42:706-12. 2009
    We aimed to compare the individuality (within subject consistency) of plasma and urine betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine.
  100. ncbi Glycine betaine may have opposite effects on protein stability at high and low pH values
    Laishram R Singh
    Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1794:929-35. 2009
    The compatible osmolyte glycine betaine (GB) is the most efficient osmoprotectant and best excluder from the protein surface...
  101. ncbi Betaine protects chronic alcohol and omega-3 PUFA-mediated down-regulations of PON1 gene, serum PON1 and homocysteine thiolactonase activities with restoration of liver GSH
    Ravi Varatharajalu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Lipid Research Laboratory, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20422, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:424-31. 2010
    ..may affect PON1 status presumably via reactive oxygen species by depleting liver glutathione (GSH), whereas betaine may counter their effects...

Research Grants63

  1. Role of ALDH7A1 in Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Damage
    CHAD NICHOLAS BROCKER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Furthermore, our data indicates ALDH7A1 generates betaine from betaine aldehyde. Betaine is an important osmolyte and methyl-group donor...
  2. Interrelationships among nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism in Banglades
    MEGAN NINA HALL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Specifically, the roles of two nutrients, choline and betaine, i.e...
  3. Risk factors for orofacial clefts
    Suzan L Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..acid, pro-vitamin A, vitamins C and E, zinc) or promote it (iron, saturated fat);2) methyl group metabolism - betaine, choline, folate, methionine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, zinc;and 3) glycemic control - dietary ..
  4. Dietary Methyl Score, Genomic DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Several dietary factors including folate, alcohol, methionine, riboflavin, vitamins B6 and B12, choline, and betaine mediate or facilitate one-carbon metabolism pathway...
  5. Host-associated regulation of P. aeruginosa colonization and virulence
    Deborah A Hogan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PlcH-mediated degradation of host phopholipids provides the bacteria with precursors necessary to derive glycine betaine (GB)...
  6. Epigenetic regulation of alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model
    CHARLES HOPKINSON HALSTED; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mice with be fed control or ethanol containing diets that will or will not be supplemented with the methyl donor betaine over 4 weeks...
  7. Nutrients involved 1-carbon metabolism and the methylation of arsenic and DNA
    MEGAN NINA HALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, the roles of two nutrients, choline and betaine - i.e...
  8. Homocysteine, Adiponectin, and Alcoholic Liver Disease
    Zhenyuan Song; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intervention, specifically these being able to rectify abnormal methionine/homocysteine metabolism such as betaine and S-adenosylmethionine, have been well-accepted;thus, our approach is designed to not only more completely ..
  9. Risk Factors for Craniosynostosis
    Suzan L Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..control or oxidative stress are associated with risk of CS among offspring, including folate/folic acid, choline, betaine, methionine, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, riboflavin, glycemic load, [unreadable]-carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C...
  10. Gut flora metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular disease
    Stanley L Hazen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specific aims are: Aim 1) Testing the hypothesis that dietary phosphatidylcholine metabolites choline, TMANO and betaine are both diagnostic markers for cardiac risk and mechanistically linked to development of atherosclerosis...
  11. Hepatic Steatosis and the Lipid Metabolome
    GHULAM A S ANSARI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aim 1), a situation exacerbated by alcohol consumption (aim 2), and which can be reversed by dietary supplement (betaine) (aim 3)...
  12. DEVELOPING SOLUTES AS STRUCTURAL/MECHANISTIC PROBES OF PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS
    M Thomas Record; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Insight into the roles of E. coli osmolytes (e.g. Kglutamate, glycine betaine) in the biophysics of regulation of cytoplasmic volume and biopolymer volume fraction in response to osmotic ..
  13. Air Pollution, Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Health: A Human Intervention Trial
    Andrea Baccarelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., folic acid, Vitamins B6 &B12, betaine, methionine, and choline) can avert this DNA methylation loss and mitigate the cardiovascular effects induced by ..
  14. Homocysteine, ER Stress and Alcoholic Liver Injury.
    Neil Kaplowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Feeding betaine prevents all of these effects of alcohol...
  15. DNA and RNA Stability in Glycine Betaine, TMAO, and Urea Solutions: Correlating S
    JEFFREY JAMES contact SCHWINEFUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The investigations detailed in this proposal will quantify accumulation or exclusion of glycine betaine, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), and urea at nucleic acid surfaces to correlate cosolute interactions with chemical ..
  16. Wilson Disease: Regulation of Steatosis by Methionine Metabolism
    Valentina Medici; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in vivo (with DZA) and in vitro (with shRNA carried by lentivirus) and provision of methyl groups as supplemental betaine, a compound known to correct aberrant methionine metabolism...
  17. MODULATORS OF ALCOHOLIC LIPIDEMIA & STEATOSIS:KEY ROLE OF SCAVENGER RECEPTOR B I
    Raj M Lakshman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Similarly, since dietary betaine has significant lowering effects on plasma and liver lipids, it is equally important to investigate whether ..
  18. Conotruncal defects: genetic and nutritional risk
    EDWARD JAMES LAMMER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..genetic variation of five genes related to folate metabolic pathways (5,10-methyltetrahydrofolate reductase, betaine homocysteine methyltransferases 1&2, N-acetyltransferase 1, and thymidylate synthase);2) studying genetic ..
  19. Ethanol-Induced Hypomethylation Accelerates Hepatitis C Progression
    NATALIA ALEKSANDR OSNA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 we will assess whether the correction of ethanol- induced methylation defects by the pro-methylating agent, betaine, restores interferon signaling and improves HCV clearance in infected mice treated with IFN[unreadable]2b...
  20. Effect of Alcohol on Hepatic Creatine Biosynthesis: Role of Defective Methylation
    Kusum K Kharbanda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, betaine supplementation by virtue of correcting the altered SAM:SAH ratio could normalize hepatic creatine biosynthesis ..
  21. Comprehensive Assessment of Pulmonary Disorders Using Polarized 13C Technology
    Rahim R Rizi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for the comprehensive assessment of lung function by producing hyperpolarized tracer molecules (bicarbonate/CO2, betaine, cyclopropanedimethanol, and pyruvate) for MR imaging and spectroscopy of both normal and diseased lungs...
  22. Fetal Alcohol Effects and Choline Intervention
    Jennifer D Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, it is also possible that choline alters brain development by acting as a precursor to betaine and influencing the methionine/homocysteine cycle...
  23. NEW AMINO ACID DISORDERS IN CEREBRAL DISEASE
    Vivian Shih; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..4) The effectiveness of long-term betaine treatment in HCS patients will be evaluated particularly in the prevention of vascular disease, osteoporosis, and ..
  24. Epidemiologic Study of Placental Abruption
    Cande Ananth; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A yields G polymorphism, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia...
  25. Biomedical Informatics Research Training at Yale
    Perry L Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The scope of Biomedical Informatics activities is growing rapidly at Yale. We are requesting support for 9 predoctoral trainees and 6 postdoctoral trainees. ..
  26. PREDOCTORAL TRAINING PROGRAM IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
    DANIEL M QUINN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An emphasis of the Training Program is the recruitment and training of a diverse cohort of trainees. This emphasis not only addresses national needs but also provides a more inclusive educational experience for the trainees. ..
  27. Morehouse School of Medicine SNRP
    Peter R MacLeish; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will test the hypothesis that the combination of betaine (trimethylglycine) and fenofibrate may be a potential strategy for treating this neurological disease...
  28. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Training Program
    Alexander J Hartemink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Graduates have done extremely well, 6 have taken postdoctoral positions at prestigious institutions and 4 have taken strong industrial positions. ..
  29. Dietary affects upon genomic methylation in Trout cancer
    Joseph Brunelli; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..influenced by dietary regimens which manipulate the availability of (folate, methionine, choline, vitamins B12, betaine and zinc)...
  30. Physiology of Osmotic Stress in Saccharmyces cerevisiae
    Robert Ramirez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, mammalian renal cells are known to accumulate glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glycine betaine, sorbitol, inositol and urea during anti-diuresis...
  31. Accumulation of Isoaspartyl Residue-Bearing Proteins and Alcoholic Liver Disease
    KUSUM KHARBANDA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..residue-bearing proteins in the livers of rats consuming alcohol and an attenuation of this accumulation by betaine supplementation...
  32. INTERACTION OF METHYLTRANSFERASE AND GLYCINE BORONATES
    Robert Lindquist; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The specific aims of this proposal are as follows. (1) To purify betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) from rat liver and to develop an HPLC assay based upon quantitation of the ..
  33. OSMOREGULATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
    BRIAN WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..g., proline, glycine betaine, choline)...
  34. Alcohol and Colorectal Cancer: The Influence of Inherited and Nutritional Factors
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of other nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism, including vitamins B6 and B12, methionine, choline, and betaine. We have large prospective studies of women and men with existing data on alcohol consumption and drinking ..
  35. NUTRIENT REGULATION OF BHMT EXPRESSION
    Timothy Garrow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is proposed to have a major role in the regulation of blood homocysteine (..
  36. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ADAPTATION TO OSMOTIC STRESS
    Merna Villarejo; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..experimental model is proU, a locus which encodes a transport system for the ubiquitous osmoprotectant glycine betaine. proU is induced strongly and rapidly in response to the changes in intracellular ion composition that accompany ..
  37. Clinical Trials in Rett Syndrome Conference
    Walter Kaufmann; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Of the small number of reported clinical trials in Rett syndrome (RTT), only an ongoing study of folate and betaine takes advantage of this new genetic information. Consequently, the proposed workshop is quite timely...
  38. Dietary Supplements, Imprint Gene Expression and Cancer
    Randy Jirtle; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have demonstrated that dietary methyl donor supplementation with extra folic acid, vitamin B12, choline and betaine during early development of viable yellow agouti (A {vy}) mice alters coat color by increasing CpG methylation at ..
  39. Choline Tracers for Imaging of Cancer
    Timothy DeGrado; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We also believe their oxidative metabolism to betaine derivatives is very low, resulting in a simplification of their in-vivo kinetics...
  40. Fetal arsenic-nutrient interaction in adult-onset cancer
    Kenneth Beckman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Fourth, fetal exposure to the dietary lipotropes betaine, choline, folate and vitamin B12, through maternal supplementation, alters DNA methylation in utero...
  41. Characterization of the ubiquitous choline transporter
    James Stoll; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Choline is a dietary essential nutrient that is required for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids, betaine, osmolytes and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine...
  42. Pathophysiology of Rett Syndrome /MECP2 Mutations
    Huda Zoghbi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and Percy) will clinically characterize the girls studied in Project 1 and test whether methyl donors (folate and betaine) can ameliorate neurologic dysfunction in RTT by enhancing cytosine methylation. Project 3 (Dr...
  43. GENERAL CLINICAL RESEARCH CENTER
    NORMAN NELSON; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The following studies are among those presently planned for facility: The Effect of Betaine on Cognitive Function, Behavior, Platelets and Amino Acid Patterns in Homocystinuria...
  44. New Polymeric Betaines as Antiadherent Materials
    Andrew Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The antimicrobial properties of the betaine copolymers will be tested by two methods...
  45. EPITHELIAL DIFFERENTIATION AND ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    Mark Donowitz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..2) Project 2: will increase understanding of how the renal osmolyte transporter, betaine/GABA transporter (BGT1) is regulated by purifying and then cloning a transcription factor called TonE binding ..
  46. NUTRIENT REGULATION OF BHMT EXPRESSION
    Timothy Garrow; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Tissue homocysteine, choline, betaine, SAM and SAH will also be determined...
  47. NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER
    Steven Zeisel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We are requesting two postdoctoral and six predoctoral trainee positions each year for this purpose. ..
  48. Diethanolamine, brain development and adult memory
    Steven Zeisel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. Evaluation of Biological Relevance of Choline Intake
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results from the proposed grant will enhance understanding of the role of choline intake in humans and lay the groundwork for future studies on choline intake and overall methyl-group-deficient diet and cancer. ..
  50. Metabolic and Epidemiologic Evaluation of Choline and Betaine Intake
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2008
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): [unreadable] [unreadable] Choline and betaine are nutrients involved in methyl-group metabolism, which is critical for DNA synthesis and methylation...
  51. 2007 Cellular Osmoregulation: Sensors, Tranducers & Regulators Gordon Research Co
    PAUL YANCEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In all aspects of the conference, the organizers are working to promote the involvement of women, minorities and people with disabilities. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  52. Role of Organic Osmolytes in Renal Papillary Necrosis
    Gilbert Moeckel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It is necessary to understand these processes in order to design effective diagnostic procedures, therapeutic approaches and preventive measures for RPN. ..
  53. FASEB Summer Conference: Folate, B12 and 1C Metabolism
    JAMES FINKELSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The format encourages discussions between the presenters and the fellows, residents and junior investigators in attendance. Similarly, the poster sessions also highlight the activities and the needs of the younger participants. ..
  54. Role of COX2 in Medullary Interstitial Cell Survival and Function
    Gilbert Moeckel; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..It is necessary to understand how these cells function in order to design better drugs to treat high blood pressure. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Evaluation of models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy.
    H White; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. FOLATE PATHWAY GENES AND RISK FOR OROFACIAL CLEFTS
    Gary Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. LOCAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN CHLAMYDIA SALPINGITIS
    Dorothy Patton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..trachomatis- induced PID. If one chlamydial antigen is the major cause of the DTH response in PID, diagnostic or immunomodulatory efforts can be directed towards that antigen. ..
  58. IN VIVO IMAGING OF GROWTH PLATE DYNAMICS
    Cornelia Farnum; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Detailed functional knowledge of vascular routes to the growth plate, and movement of molecules within the growth plate, is essential as thought is given to targeting therapeutic agents to the growth plate. ..
  59. Aging, Herpesviruses, and Alzheimer's Disease
    James Hill; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This project could lead to strategies to identify high-risk individuals who would be treated with antivirals, thus reducing their risk of developing AD. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  60. Metabolic Biomarkers of Autism: Predictive Potential and Genetic Susceptibility
    SANDRA JILL JAMES; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  61. Juvenile trophic factors for the prevention and treatment of hippocampal aging
    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The ultimate goal of our studies is to relate our results to the age-associated changes in memory in humans, and to develop juvenile growth-factor replacement strategies that could benefit people. ..