betaine

Summary

Summary: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Betaine in human nutrition
    Stuart A S Craig
    Danisco USA Inc, 440 Saw Mill River Road, Ardsley, NY 10502, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:539-49. 2004
  2. ncbi Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in beneficial effects of betaine on high-sucrose diet-induced hepatic steatosis
    Zhenyuan Song
    Dept of Medicine, Univ of Louisville Medical Center, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293:G894-902. 2007
  3. ncbi Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods
    Steven H Zeisel
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7461, USA
    J Nutr 133:1302-7. 2003
  4. doi Choline and betaine in health and disease
    Per Magne Ueland
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    J Inherit Metab Dis 34:3-15. 2011
  5. ncbi Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women
    Svetlana V Konstantinova
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020, Norway
    J Nutr 138:914-20. 2008
  6. pmc Plasma lipids and betaine are related in an acute coronary syndrome cohort
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    PLoS ONE 6:e21666. 2011
  7. pmc Smoking, dietary betaine, methionine, and vitamin D in monozygotic twins with discordant macular degeneration: epigenetic implications
    Johanna M Seddon
    New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Ophthalmology 118:1386-94. 2011
  8. pmc Mitochondrial adaptations to NaCl. Complex I is protected by anti-oxidants and small heat shock proteins, whereas complex II is protected by proline and betaine
    E W Hamilton
    Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 130 College Place, Syracuse, New York 13244 1220, USA
    Plant Physiol 126:1266-74. 2001
  9. pmc Annotation of genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: discovery of the betaine lipid synthase BTA1Cr
    Wayne R Riekhof
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:242-52. 2005
  10. ncbi Separation of cationic aracyl derivatives of betaines and related compounds
    Malina K Storer
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P O Box 151, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Chromatogr A 1104:263-71. 2006

Detail Information

Publications321 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Betaine in human nutrition
    Stuart A S Craig
    Danisco USA Inc, 440 Saw Mill River Road, Ardsley, NY 10502, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:539-49. 2004
    b>Betaine is distributed widely in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and rich dietary sources include seafood, especially marine invertebrates ( approximately 1%); wheat germ or bran ( approximately 1%); and spinach ( approximately 0...
  2. ncbi Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in beneficial effects of betaine on high-sucrose diet-induced hepatic steatosis
    Zhenyuan Song
    Dept of Medicine, Univ of Louisville Medical Center, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293:G894-902. 2007
    ..Promising beneficial effects of betaine supplementation on human NAFLD have been reported in some pilot clinical studies; however, data related to ..
  3. ncbi Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods
    Steven H Zeisel
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7461, USA
    J Nutr 133:1302-7. 2003
    ..b>Betaine, a choline derivative, is important because of its role in the donation of methyl groups to homocysteine to form ..
  4. doi Choline and betaine in health and disease
    Per Magne Ueland
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    J Inherit Metab Dis 34:3-15. 2011
    ..Pre-and postnatal choline availability is important for neurodevelopment in rodents. Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, which ..
  5. ncbi Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women
    Svetlana V Konstantinova
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020, Norway
    J Nutr 138:914-20. 2008
    Choline is involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, including blood lipids, and is the immediate precursor of betaine, which serves as a methyl group donor in a reaction converting homocysteine to methionine...
  6. pmc Plasma lipids and betaine are related in an acute coronary syndrome cohort
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    PLoS ONE 6:e21666. 2011
    Low plasma betaine has been associated with unfavorable plasma lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk. In some studies raised plasma betaine after supplementation is associated with elevations in plasma lipids...
  7. pmc Smoking, dietary betaine, methionine, and vitamin D in monozygotic twins with discordant macular degeneration: epigenetic implications
    Johanna M Seddon
    New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Ophthalmology 118:1386-94. 2011
    ..We evaluated monozygotic twin pairs with discordant age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes to assess differences in behavioral and nutritional factors...
  8. pmc Mitochondrial adaptations to NaCl. Complex I is protected by anti-oxidants and small heat shock proteins, whereas complex II is protected by proline and betaine
    E W Hamilton
    Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 130 College Place, Syracuse, New York 13244 1220, USA
    Plant Physiol 126:1266-74. 2001
    ..on maize (Zea mays) mitochondrial electron transport and its relative protection by osmoprotectants (proline, betaine, and sucrose), antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol), antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Cu/..
  9. pmc Annotation of genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: discovery of the betaine lipid synthase BTA1Cr
    Wayne R Riekhof
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:242-52. 2005
    ..the bifunctional protein that it encodes; we predicted this protein to be sufficient for the synthesis of the betaine lipid diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS), a major membrane component in Chlamydomonas...
  10. ncbi Separation of cationic aracyl derivatives of betaines and related compounds
    Malina K Storer
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P O Box 151, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Chromatogr A 1104:263-71. 2006
    ..Retention is reduced by increasing the water content and the buffer concentration. Capillary electrophoresis migration times are affected by the choice of buffer anion, with low pH citrate buffers favoured...
  11. pmc Betaine improves the PCR amplification of GC-rich DNA sequences
    W Henke
    Research Division of the Department of Urology, University Hospital Charite, Humboldt University, D 10098 Berlin, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 25:3957-8. 1997
    b>Betaine improves the co-amplification of the two alternatively spliced variants of the prostate-specific membrane antigen mRNA as well as the amplification of the coding cDNA region of c-jun...
  12. ncbi Homocysteine, glycine betaine, and N,N-dimethylglycine in patients attending a lipid clinic
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, PO Box 151, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Metabolism 54:1-14. 2005
    ..Glycine betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and carnitine were measured in fasting plasma and urine samples...
  13. ncbi Determination of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in plasma by a high-throughput method based on normal-phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Pal I Holm
    LOCUS for Homocysteine and Related Vitamins, University of Bergen, N 5021 Bergen, Norway
    Clin Chem 49:286-94. 2003
    The quaternary ammonium compounds, choline and betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) reside along a metabolic pathway linked to the synthesis of neurotransmitters and membrane phospholipids and to homocysteine remethylation and, therefore, ..
  14. pmc Identification of two gene clusters and a transcriptional regulator required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycine betaine catabolism
    Matthew J Wargo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:2690-9. 2008
    Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  15. ncbi The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 43:732-44. 2010
    b>Betaine is an essential osmolyte and source of methyl groups and comes from either the diet or by the oxidation of choline. Its metabolism methylates homocysteine to methionine, also producing N,N-dimethylglycine...
  16. pmc A novel transgenic mouse model of CBS-deficient homocystinuria does not incur hepatic steatosis or fibrosis and exhibits a hypercoagulative phenotype that is ameliorated by betaine treatment
    Kenneth N Maclean
    Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 101:153-62. 2010
    ..determinations indicate that HO mice are in a hypercoagulative state that is significantly ameliorated by betaine treatment in a manner that recapitulates the disease as it occurs in humans...
  17. pmc DMSO and betaine greatly improve amplification of GC-rich constructs in de novo synthesis
    Michael A Jensen
    Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e11024. 2010
    ..these limitations in researching GC-rich genes and their non-coding elements, we explored the use of DMSO and betaine in two conventional methods of assembly and amplification...
  18. doi Betaine administration corrects ethanol-induced defective VLDL secretion
    Kusum K Kharbanda
    Research Service 151, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4101 Woolworth Avenue, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
    Mol Cell Biochem 327:75-8. 2009
    ..of this study was to determine whether VLDL secretion was reduced by chronic ethanol consumption and whether betaine supplementation, that restores PEMT activity and prevents the development of alcoholic steatosis, could normalize ..
  19. ncbi Improved salt tolerance in tobacco plants by co-transformation of a betaine synthesis gene BADH and a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene SeNHX1
    Shufeng Zhou
    Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Molecular Environmental Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nan XinCun XiangShan, Beijing 100093, China
    Biotechnol Lett 30:369-76. 2008
    ..acquired by separate transformation or co-transformation of a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene, SeNHX1, and a betaine synthesis gene, BADH...
  20. doi The ATP-binding cassette transporter Cbc (choline/betaine/carnitine) recruits multiple substrate-binding proteins with strong specificity for distinct quaternary ammonium compounds
    Chiliang Chen
    Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Mol Microbiol 75:29-45. 2010
    We identified a choline, betaine and carnitine transporter, designated Cbc, from Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that is unusual among members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family in its use of multiple ..
  21. ncbi Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial
    Manal F Abdelmalek
    Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Hepatology 50:1818-26. 2009
    Based on animal studies and pilot studies in humans, betaine, a methyl donor for the remethylation of homocysteine, may be a therapeutic agent for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
  22. doi Quantitative measurement of betaine and free choline in plasma, cereals and cereal products by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS
    Stephen J Bruce
    Department of Bioanalytical Science, Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Agric Food Chem 58:2055-61. 2010
    b>Betaine and choline are important components of the one-carbon metabolism cycle, linked with the amino acid homocysteine and lipid metabolism...
  23. ncbi An abnormal urinary excretion of glycine betaine may persist for years
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 40:798-801. 2007
    Does abnormal betaine excretion persist?
  24. ncbi Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice
    Cheng Ji
    USC UCLA Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, Research Center for Liver Disease and Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90033, USA
    Gastroenterology 124:1488-99. 2003
    ..This novel ER stress mechanism of alcoholic liver injury was studied in the model of intragastric alcohol-fed mice...
  25. ncbi Osmotically induced intracellular trehalose, but not glycine betaine accumulation promotes desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli
    D T Welsh
    Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Italy
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 174:57-63. 1999
    ..In contrast, glycine betaine whether added as an excipient or accumulated intracellularly had no influence on desiccation tolerance...
  26. doi A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects
    Alastair B Ross
    Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Br J Nutr 105:1492-502. 2011
    ..Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, ..
  27. doi Long-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjects
    U Schwab
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:70-6. 2011
    To examine the effects of betaine on serum lipid profile, plasma homocysteine concentration and hemostatic factors in healthy subjects.
  28. pmc Corynebacterium glutamicum is equipped with four secondary carriers for compatible solutes: identification, sequencing, and characterization of the proline/ectoine uptake system, ProP, and the ectoine/proline/glycine betaine carrier, EctP
    H Peter
    Institut für Biotechnologie 1, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, D 52425 Julich, Germany
    J Bacteriol 180:6005-12. 1998
    Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the compatible solutes glycine betaine, proline, and ectoine for protection against hyperosmotic shock...
  29. doi Betaine excretion correlates with plasma homocysteine when plasma lipids are elevated
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 45:154-6. 2012
    To reconcile observing a positive correlation of betaine excretion with homocysteine in lipid disorder patients but not other study groups.
  30. ncbi Sex differences in the control of plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of glycine betaine in patients attending a lipid disorders clinic
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 40:1225-31. 2007
    To find whether the control of betaine metabolism differs between male and female patients and identify the effects of insulin and other hormones.
  31. pmc Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease
    Zeneng Wang
    Department of Cell Biology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nature 472:57-63. 2011
    ..Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine--choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine--were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort...
  32. ncbi Consumption of wheat aleurone-rich foods increases fasting plasma betaine and modestly decreases fasting homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol in adults
    Ruth K Price
    Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK
    J Nutr 140:2153-7. 2010
    ..Although underlying mechanisms and components are unclear, betaine, found at high levels in wheat aleurone, may play a role...
  33. doi Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis with different sub-cellular localization affect stress responses
    Tagnon D Missihoun
    Institute of Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants IMBIO, University of Bonn, Kirschallee 1, 53115 Bonn, Germany
    Planta 233:369-82. 2011
    Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to those plants that do not naturally accumulate glycine betaine (GB), although its genome contains two genes, ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 that code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs)...
  34. doi Glycinebetaine protects plants against abiotic stress: mechanisms and biotechnological applications
    Tony H H Chen
    Department of Horticulture, ALS 4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Plant Cell Environ 34:1-20. 2011
    ..Thus, transgenic approaches that increase tolerance to abiotic stress have enhanced our understanding of mechanisms that protect plants against such stress...
  35. doi 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolic assessment in a rat model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet
    So Hyun Kim
    College of Pharmacy, Chung Ang University, Seoul, 156 756, Republic of Korea
    Anal Bioanal Chem 395:1117-24. 2009
    ..Several key metabolites in urine, such as betaine, taurine, acetone/acetoacetate, phenylacetylglycine, pyruvate, lactate, and citrate contributed to the ..
  36. ncbi Glycinebetaine: an effective protectant against abiotic stress in plants
    Tony H H Chen
    Department of Horticulture, ALS 4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 13:499-505. 2008
    ..In particular, the reproductive organs of GB-accumulating transgenic plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress. Furthermore, accumulation of GB results in increased yield potentials under non-stress conditions...
  37. ncbi Cloning of a Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent betaine transporter that is regulated by hypertonicity
    A Yamauchi
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Biol Chem 267:649-52. 1992
    ..intracellular concentrations of electrolytes by accumulating high concentrations of the nonperturbing osmolyte betaine. When kidney-derived Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells are cultured in hypertonic medium, they accumulate ..
  38. ncbi Betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis by restoring phosphatidylcholine generation via the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathway
    Kusum K Kharbanda
    VA Alcohol Research Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
    J Hepatol 46:314-21. 2007
    ..Further in vitro studies showed that betaine supplementation could correct these alterations in the ratio as well as attenuate alcoholic steatosis...
  39. ncbi Carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity and protective effect of betaine in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Feral Ozturk
    Department of Histology Embryology, Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey
    Urology 62:353-6. 2003
    ..the antioxidative defense enzymes and to detect the alterations of renal microscopy after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in rats and to investigate the possible protective effects of betaine against CCl4-induced renal damage.
  40. pmc Choline metabolism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based study
    Xinran Xu
    Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    FASEB J 22:2045-52. 2008
    ..we investigated the associations of dietary intake of choline and two related micronutrients, methionine and betaine, and risk of breast cancer...
  41. ncbi Inter- and intra-individual variations in normal urinary glycine betaine excretion
    Michael Lever
    Clinical Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 40:447-53. 2007
    To establish whether normal human subjects excrete glycine betaine at a constant rate.
  42. pmc GbdR regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa plcH and pchP transcription in response to choline catabolites
    Matthew J Wargo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Infect Immun 77:1103-11. 2009
    ..and PchP enzyme activity are positively regulated by phosphorylcholine degradation products, including glycine betaine. Here we report that the induction of plcH and pchP transcription by glycine betaine is mediated by GbdR, an AraC ..
  43. pmc Cellular choline and glycine betaine pools impact osmoprotection and phospholipase C production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Liam F Fitzsimmons
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont, USA
    J Bacteriol 194:4718-26. 2012
    ..is abundantly produced by eukaryotes and plays an important role as a precursor of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, glycine betaine has additional roles as a nutrient source and an inducer of the ..
  44. pmc High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study
    Xinran Xu
    Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Box 1057, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
    FASEB J 23:4022-8. 2009
    Choline and betaine provide methyl groups for one-carbon metabolism. Humans obtain these nutrients from a wide range of foods. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor, choline...
  45. ncbi Two evolutionarily closely related ABC transporters mediate the uptake of choline for synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis
    R M Kappes
    Philipps University Marburg, Department of Biology, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 32:203-16. 1999
    Biosynthesis of the compatible solute glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis confers a considerable degree of osmotic tolerance and proceeds via a two-step oxidation process of choline, with glycine betaine aldehyde as the intermediate...
  46. ncbi Relationship of dimethylglycine, choline, and betaine with oxoproline in plasma of pregnant women and their newborn infants
    Russell W Friesen
    Nutrition Research Program, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada V5Z 4H4
    J Nutr 137:2641-6. 2007
    Choline and glycine are inter-related through their roles in methyl metabolism. Choline is metabolized to betaine, which donates a methyl group to homocysteine to form methionine, also generating dimethylglycine, which is further ..
  47. ncbi Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism?
    M A Pajares
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM, Arturo Duperier 4, 28029, Madrid, Spain
    Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2792-803. 2006
    b>Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), a Zn(2+)-dependent thiolmethyltransferase, contributes to the regulation of homocysteine levels, increases in which are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases...
  48. ncbi The codA transgene for glycinebetaine synthesis increases the size of flowers and fruits in tomato
    Eung Jun Park
    Department of Horticulture, ALS4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Plant Biotechnol J 5:422-30. 2007
    ..The enlargement of flowers was related to an increase in the size and number of cells, and reflected the pleiotropic effect of the codA transgene on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell division...
  49. ncbi Cationic lipids derived from glycine betaine promote efficient and non-toxic gene transfection in cultured hepatocytes
    David Gilot
    Hopital Pontchaillou, Régulation des équilibres fonctionnels du foie normal et pathologique, INSERM U522, Avenue de la Bataille Flandre Dunkerque, 35033 Rennes, France
    J Gene Med 4:415-27. 2002
    ..The low efficiency and toxicity of transfection in a primary culture of hepatocytes using cationic lipids remains a limiting step to the study of gene function and the setting up of non-viral gene therapy...
  50. ncbi Choline and homocysteine interrelations in umbilical cord and maternal plasma at delivery
    Anne M Molloy
    Department of Clinical Medicine and the National Human Genome Research Institute, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:836-42. 2005
    ..Choline, via betaine, is an important folate-independent source of methyl groups for remethylating homocysteine in liver.
  51. ncbi Betaine: a key modulator of one-carbon metabolism and homocysteine status
    Per Magne Ueland
    LOCUS for Homocysteine and Related Vitamins, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Clin Chem Lab Med 43:1069-75. 2005
    b>Betaine serves as a methyl donor in a reaction converting homocysteine to methionine, catalysed by the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase...
  52. ncbi Short and long-term variation of plasma glycine betaine concentrations in humans
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 37:184-90. 2004
    Glycine betaine is important in cell volume regulation and in remethylating homocysteine, a vascular risk factor.
  53. doi The osmolyte betaine promotes protein misfolding and disruption of protein aggregates
    Antonino Natalello
    Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, Milan 20126, Italy
    Proteins 75:509-17. 2009
    In this work the effect of betaine on the structure and aggregation of the GST-GFP fluorescent fusion protein was studied by different complementary techniques, including electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism, ..
  54. ncbi Genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine leads to increased tolerance of photosynthesis to salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants
    Xinghong Yang
    Photosynthesis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Plant Mol Biol 66:73-86. 2008
    ..the ability to synthesis glycinebetaine (GB) in chloroplasts was established by introducing the BADH gene for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)...
  55. ncbi Fibrates may cause an abnormal urinary betaine loss which is associated with elevations in plasma homocysteine
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, P O Box 151, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 23:395-401. 2009
    b>Betaine is an osmolyte, supplies methyl groups, and controls plasma homocysteine. Abnormal urinary loss of betaine is common in patients with the metabolic syndrome or diabetes mellitus...
  56. ncbi Elevated glycine betaine excretion in diabetes mellitus patients is associated with proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperglycemia
    W J Dellow
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 43:91-9. 1999
    ..population of diabetic subjects (Type 1 and Type 2), the urine excretion of the renal osmolyte, glycine betaine, was compared to known markers of glycemic control, renal dysfunction and to the excretion of related betaines, ..
  57. ncbi Plasma dependent and independent accumulation of betaine in male and female rat tissues
    S Slow
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch Mail Center, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Physiol Res 58:403-10. 2009
    Tissue betaine is an intracellular osmolyte that also provides a store of labile methyl groups. Despite these important biological roles, there are few data regarding tissue betaine content...
  58. pmc Proteomics reveal a concerted upregulation of methionine metabolic pathway enzymes, and downregulation of carbonic anhydrase-III, in betaine supplemented ethanol-fed rats
    Kusum K Kharbanda
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centre, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381:523-7. 2009
    We employed a proteomic profiling strategy to examine the effects of ethanol and betaine diet supplementation on major liver protein level changes. Male Wistar rats were fed control, ethanol or betaine supplemented diets for 4 weeks...
  59. ncbi Betaine supplementation decreases post-methionine hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic renal failure
    David O McGregor
    Department of Nephrology, Christchurch Hospital and School of Medicine, Private Bag 4710, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Kidney Int 61:1040-6. 2002
    ..Glycine betaine (GB) is known to decrease tHcy in other clinical settings, but whether it is beneficial in chronic renal failure ..
  60. pmc Betaine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver and associated hepatic insulin resistance: a potential mechanism for hepatoprotection by betaine
    Elango Kathirvel
    Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach 90822, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299:G1068-77. 2010
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a common liver disease, associated with insulin resistance. Betaine has been tested as a treatment for NAFL in animal models and in small clinical trials, with mixed results...
  61. pmc Choline and betaine intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in men
    Jung Eun Lee
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:884-7. 2010
    Dietary choline and betaine have been hypothesized to decrease the risk of cancer because of their role as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism...
  62. ncbi Glycinebetaine accumulation is more effective in chloroplasts than in the cytosol for protecting transgenic tomato plants against abiotic stress
    Eung Jun Park
    Department of Horticulture, ALS 4017, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Plant Cell Environ 30:994-1005. 2007
    ..Thus, an increase in total GB content does not necessarily lead to enhanced stress tolerance, but additional accumulation of chloroplastic GB is likely to further raise the level of stress tolerance beyond what we have observed...
  63. pmc Dietary intake of S-(alpha-carboxybutyl)-DL-homocysteine induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats
    Jana Strakova
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Nutr Res 30:492-500. 2010
    b>Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteine (Hcy), forming dimethylglycine and methionine...
  64. pmc Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, PO Box 151, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 11:34. 2012
    Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients), we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes ..
  65. doi Influence of temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and glycine betaine by marine phytoplankton
    Astrid Spielmeyer
    Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University, Lessingstr 8, 07743 Jena D, Germany
    Mar Environ Res 73:62-9. 2012
    ..In addition, we addressed glycine betaine (GBT) that fulfills a similar function as osmolyte like DMSP...
  66. pmc Substrate specificity and ion coupling in the Na+/betaine symporter BetP
    Camilo Perez
    Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    EMBO J 30:1221-9. 2011
    BetP is an Na(+)-coupled betaine-specific transporter of the betaine-choline-carnitine (BCC) transporter family involved in the response to hyperosmotic stress...
  67. doi Glycinebetaine-induced water-stress tolerance in codA-expressing transgenic indica rice is associated with up-regulation of several stress responsive genes
    Hitesh Kathuria
    Department of Plant Molecular Biology, Interdisciplinary Centre for Plant Genomics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi, India
    Plant Biotechnol J 7:512-26. 2009
    ..Our data show that metabolic engineering for GB is a promising strategy for introducing stress tolerance in crop plants and which could be imparted, in part, by H2O2- and/or GB-induced stress response genes...
  68. pmc Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans
    Margreet R Olthof
    Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS Med 2:e135. 2005
    b>Betaine (trimethylglycine) lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease...
  69. ncbi Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation
    A Nyyssola
    Danisco Cultor Innovation, Kantvik, Sokeritehtaantie 20, FIN 02460 Kantvik, Finland
    J Biol Chem 275:22196-201. 2000
    Glycine betaine is a compatible solute, which is able to restore and maintain osmotic balance of living cells. It is synthesized and accumulated in response to abiotic stress...
  70. pmc Cystathionine beta-synthase null homocystinuric mice fail to exhibit altered hemostasis or lowering of plasma homocysteine in response to betaine treatment
    Kenneth N Maclean
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, United States
    Mol Genet Metab 101:163-71. 2010
    ..crosses is non-Mendelian and not significantly improved by treatment with either the Hcy lowering compound betaine or the cysteine donor N-acetylcysteine...
  71. ncbi Betaine supplementation improves the atherogenic risk factor profile in a transgenic mouse model of hyperhomocysteinemia
    B C Schwahn
    Departments of Human Genetics and Pediatrics, McGill University Health Center Montreal Children s Hospital, Montreal, Canada
    Atherosclerosis 195:e100-7. 2007
    To investigate the lipotropic action of betaine on plasma lipoproteins and tissue lipids.
  72. ncbi Ectoines as compatible solutes and carbon and energy sources for the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens
    C Vargas
    Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
    J Appl Microbiol 100:98-107. 2006
    ..To investigate the catabolism of ectoine and hydroxyectoine, which are the major compatible solutes synthesized by Chromohalobacter salexigens...
  73. pmc Hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase
    Janet D Sparks
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biochem J 395:363-71. 2006
    We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks ..
  74. doi Betaine supplementation attenuates atherosclerotic lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
    Shiwei Lv
    Faculty of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat Sen University, 74th Zhongshan Road II, 510080, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Eur J Nutr 48:205-12. 2009
    b>Betaine serves as a methyl donor in a reaction converting homocysteine to methionine. It is commonly used for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans, which indicates it may be associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis...
  75. doi Glycine betaine may have opposite effects on protein stability at high and low pH values
    Laishram R Singh
    Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1794:929-35. 2009
    The compatible osmolyte glycine betaine (GB) is the most efficient osmoprotectant and best excluder from the protein surface...
  76. ncbi Increasing solubility of proteins and peptides by site-specific modification with betaine
    Junpeng Xiao
    Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Biochemistry Graduate Program, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Bioconjug Chem 19:1113-8. 2008
    ..solubility and prevent aggregation of polypeptides using site-specific modification with the small molecule betaine, which contains a quaternary ammonium moiety...
  77. doi Betaine protects chronic alcohol and omega-3 PUFA-mediated down-regulations of PON1 gene, serum PON1 and homocysteine thiolactonase activities with restoration of liver GSH
    Ravi Varatharajalu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Lipid Research Laboratory, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20422, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:424-31. 2010
    ..may affect PON1 status presumably via reactive oxygen species by depleting liver glutathione (GSH), whereas betaine may counter their effects...
  78. doi Plasma and urine betaine and dimethylglycine variation in healthy young male subjects
    Michael Lever
    Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Clin Biochem 42:706-12. 2009
    We aimed to compare the individuality (within subject consistency) of plasma and urine betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine.
  79. pmc Osmoregulatory systems of Escherichia coli: identification of betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family member BetU and distributions of betU and trkG among pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates
    Anh Ly
    Department of Microbiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    J Bacteriol 186:296-306. 2004
    ..Both lacked the trkH homologue trkG. Transporters ProP and ProU account for all glycine-betaine uptake activity in E...
  80. ncbi Organization of the genes involved in dimethylglycine and sarcosine degradation in Arthrobacter spp.: implications for glycine betaine catabolism
    R Meskys
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemistry, Mokslininku 12, Vilnius, Lithuania
    Eur J Biochem 268:3390-8. 2001
    ..Based on the sequence analysis reported herein, pathways are proposed for glycine betaine catabolism in Arthrobacter species, which involve the identified folate-dependent enzymes.
  81. ncbi Betaine supplementation and blood lipids: fact or artifact?
    Steven H Zeisel
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Nutr Rev 64:77-9. 2006
    b>Betaine supplementation in humans has been shown to lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in modestly hyperhomocysteinemic patients...
  82. doi Synergism between the chaperone-like activity of the stress regulated ASR1 protein and the osmolyte glycine-betaine
    Zvia Konrad
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 84105, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Planta 227:1213-9. 2008
    ..The protective activity of SlASR1 is synergistic with that of the osmolyte glycine-betaine, which accumulates under stress conditions...
  83. ncbi NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs
    Hanne Christine Bertram
    Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarslev, Denmark
    Mol Nutr Food Res 53:1055-62. 2009
    ..The 3.29 ppm signal is ascribed to N(CH(3))(3) protons in betaine, which may be an important contributor to the health promoting effects of rye.
  84. ncbi Isolation and sequencing of Escherichia coli gene proP reveals unusual structural features of the osmoregulatory proline/betaine transporter, ProP
    D E Culham
    Department of Microbiology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    J Mol Biol 229:268-76. 1993
    Transporters encoded in genetic loci putP, proP and proU mediate proline and/or betaine accumulation by Escherichia coli K-12. The ProP and ProU systems are osmoregulatory...
  85. pmc Glycine betaine transport in the obligate halophilic archaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis
    M C Lai
    Department of Botany, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Bacteriol 182:5020-4. 2000
    Transport of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine was investigated using the glycine betaine-synthesizing microbe Methanohalophilus portucalensis (strain FDF1), since solute uptake for this class of obligate halophilic methanogenic Archaea ..
  86. pmc Interrelations between glycine betaine catabolism and methionine biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 102F34
    Lise Barra
    Osmorégulation chez les bactéries, UMR CNRS 6026, Universite de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Av du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes, France
    J Bacteriol 188:7195-204. 2006
    ..This vitamin B(12)-dependent enzyme is encoded by the metH gene. Glycine betaine can also serve as an alternative methyl donor for homocysteine...
  87. ncbi Enhancement of tolerance of abiotic stress by metabolic engineering of betaines and other compatible solutes
    Tony H H Chen
    Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:250-7. 2002
    ..Some interventions have increased the tolerance of some crop plants to abiotic stress. Furthermore, analysis of such transgenic plants has begun to clarify the roles of compatible solutes in stress tolerance...
  88. ncbi Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women
    Margreet R Olthof
    Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences and Wageningen University, Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Nutr 133:4135-8. 2003
    ..plasma homocysteine is a risk for cardiovascular disease and can be lowered through supplementation with 6 g/d of betaine. However, dietary intake of betaine is approximately 0.5-2 g/d...
  89. ncbi Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans
    Ursula Schwab
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Finland
    J Nutr 136:34-8. 2006
    b>Betaine, i.e., trimethylglycine, is linked to homocysteine metabolism. A 3-mo daily betaine supplementation decreased even normal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in humans...
  90. ncbi Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two kinds of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase in betaine-accumulating mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh
    T Hibino
    Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    Plant Mol Biol 45:353-63. 2001
    ..The level of glycinebetaine in A. marina increased under high salinity. Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) was detected in all four species, but choline monooxygenase could not be detected...
  91. ncbi Evaluation of the stress-inducible production of choline oxidase in transgenic rice as a strategy for producing the stress-protectant glycine betaine
    Jin Su
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Exp Bot 57:1129-35. 2006
    Glycine betaine (GB) is a compatible solute that is also capable of stabilizing the structure and function of macromolecules...
  92. pmc Thermoprotection of Bacillus subtilis by exogenously provided glycine betaine and structurally related compatible solutes: involvement of Opu transporters
    Gudrun Holtmann
    Laboratory for Microbiology, Department of Biology, Philipps University Marburg, D 35032 Marburg, Germany
    J Bacteriol 186:1683-93. 2004
    ..subtilis. Low concentrations of glycine betaine enhanced the growth of the B...
  93. doi Impaired sulfur-amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress in nonalcoholic fatty liver are alleviated by betaine supplementation in rats
    Do Y Kwon
    College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, San 56 1 Shinrim Dong, Kwanak Ku, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    J Nutr 139:63-8. 2009
    ..An additional group of rats received the HF diet supplemented with betaine (1%)...
  94. ncbi Metabolic engineering for betaine accumulation in microbes and plants
    Rungaroon Waditee
    Research Institute of Meijo University, Tenpaku ku, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    J Biol Chem 282:34185-93. 2007
    Plants accumulate a variety of osmoprotectants that improve their ability to combat abiotic stresses. Among them, betaine appears to play an important role in conferring resistance to stresses...
  95. doi Betaine (trimethylglycine) as a nutritional agent prevents oxidative stress after chronic ethanol consumption in pancreatic tissue of rats
    Gungor Kanbak
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, The Medical School, Department of Biochemistry Eskişehir, Turkey
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 79:79-86. 2009
    ..cytotoxic effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the pancreatic tissue and a possible cytoprotective effect of betaine as a methyl donor and an important participant in the methionine cycle...
  96. doi [Effects of salinity and betaine on BHMT mRNA expression in Lateolabrax japonicus]
    Yun Xia Qian
    Faculty of Life Science and Biotechnology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
    Dongwuxue Yanjiu 32:277-84. 2011
    b>Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteines (Hcy) to form dimethylglycine and Met, respectively...
  97. doi Characterization of osmolyte betaine synthesizing sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase from Methanohalophilus portucalensis
    Shih Ya Chen
    Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC
    Arch Microbiol 191:735-43. 2009
    ..overcome the extracellular salt stress, Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1(T) synthesizes the compatible solute betaine through the methylation of glycine, sarcosine, and N,N-dimethylglycine...
  98. doi Betaine removal during thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse: influence of temperature and pH on the progress and efficiency of the process
    Edmund Cibis
    Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Wrocław University of Economics, Komandorska 118 120, 53 345 Wrocław, Poland
    J Environ Manage 92:1733-9. 2011
    ..a high extent of biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse is to establish the conditions for the assimilation of betaine, which is the main pollutant in this high-strength industrial effluent...
  99. ncbi Combined effect of betaine and trehalose on osmotic tolerance of Escherichia coli in mineral salts medium
    E N Miller
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Biotechnol Lett 29:213-7. 2007
    In mineral salts medium, supplementing with betaine in combination with increased production of endogenous osmoprotectant from a second copy of the trehalose biosynthetic genes (otsBA) improved growth of E...
  100. pmc Interactions of the osmolyte glycine betaine with molecular surfaces in water: thermodynamics, structural interpretation, and prediction of m-values
    Michael W Capp
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Biochemistry 48:10372-9. 2009
    ..area (ASA) analysis are developed to quantify and interpret the interactions of the remarkable osmolyte glycine betaine (GB) with molecular surfaces in water...
  101. pmc S-adenosyl-methionine and betaine improve early virological response in chronic hepatitis C patients with previous nonresponse
    Magdalena Filipowicz
    Hepatology Laboratory, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 5:e15492. 2010
    ..S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) and betaine potentiate IFNα signaling in cultured cells that express hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins, and enhance the ..

Research Grants76

  1. Interrelationships among nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism in Banglades
    MEGAN NINA HALL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specifically, the roles of two nutrients, choline and betaine, i.e...
  2. Homocysteine, Adiponectin, and Alcoholic Liver Disease
    Zhenyuan Song; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..intervention, specifically these being able to rectify abnormal methionine/homocysteine metabolism such as betaine and S-adenosylmethionine, have been well-accepted;thus, our approach is designed to not only more completely ..
  3. Homocysteine, Adiponectin, and Alcoholic Liver Disease
    Zhenyuan Song; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..intervention, specifically these being able to rectify abnormal methionine/homocysteine metabolism such as betaine and S-adenosylmethionine, have been well-accepted;thus, our approach is designed to not only more completely ..
  4. DNA and RNA Stability in Glycine Betaine, TMAO, and Urea Solutions: Correlating S
    JEFFREY JAMES contact SCHWINEFUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The investigations detailed in this proposal will quantify accumulation or exclusion of glycine betaine, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), and urea at nucleic acid surfaces to correlate cosolute interactions with chemical ..
  5. HUMAN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NUTRIENT CHOLINE
    Steven Zeisel; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..choline metabolites, total body choline by isotopic dilution, methionine oxidation rate, urinary choline and betaine excretion, serum alanine aminotransferase, hepatic steatosis, plasma homocysteine, folate and methionine, mass ..
  6. NEW AMINO ACID DISORDERS IN CEREBRAL DISEASE
    Vivian Shih; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..4) The effectiveness of long-term betaine treatment in HCS patients will be evaluated particularly in the prevention of vascular disease, osteoporosis, and ..
  7. NEW AMINO ACID DISORDERS IN CEREBRAL DISEASE
    Vivian Shih; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..4) The effectiveness of long-term betaine treatment in HCS patients will be evaluated particularly in the prevention of vascular disease, osteoporosis, and ..
  8. Wilson Disease: Regulation of Steatosis by Methionine Metabolism
    Valentina Medici; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in vivo (with DZA) and in vitro (with shRNA carried by lentivirus) and provision of methyl groups as supplemental betaine, a compound known to correct aberrant methionine metabolism...
  9. MOLECULAR BASIS AND ENZYMOLOGY OF MICROBIAL BIOSYNTHESIS
    F Tabita; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  10. DEVELOPING SOLUTES AS STRUCTURAL/MECHANISTIC PROBES OF PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS
    M Thomas Record; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Insight into the roles of E. coli osmolytes (e.g. Kglutamate, glycine betaine) in the biophysics of regulation of cytoplasmic volume and biopolymer volume fraction in response to osmotic ..
  11. DEVELOPING SOLUTES AS STRUCTURAL/MECHANISTIC PROBES OF PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS
    M Thomas Record; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Insight into the roles of E. coli osmolytes (e.g. Kglutamate, glycine betaine) in the biophysics of regulation of cytoplasmic volume and biopolymer volume fraction in response to osmotic ..
  12. Epidemiologic Study of Placental Abruption
    Cande Ananth; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A yields G polymorphism, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia...
  13. Epidemiologic Study of Placental Abruption
    Cande Ananth; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A yields G polymorphism, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia...
  14. Epidemiologic Study of Placental Abruption
    Cande Ananth; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A yields G polymorphism, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia...
  15. Epidemiologic Study of Placental Abruption
    Cande Ananth; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A yields G polymorphism, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia...
  16. Epidemiologic Study of Placental Abruption
    Cande Ananth; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A yields G polymorphism, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia...
  17. OSMOLYTE PROTECTION OF PROTEINS AGAINST INACTIVATION
    DAVID BOLEN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..compatible osmolytes sorbitol and inositol, and the counteracting osmolytes glycerolphosphoryl choline (GCP) and betaine. We will use transfer free energy measurements of amino acid side chains and the peptide backbone from water to ..
  18. OSMOLYTE PROTECTION OF PROTEINS AGAINST INACTIVATION
    DAVID BOLEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..compatible osmolytes sorbitol and inositol, and the counteracting osmolytes glycerolphosphoryl choline (GCP) and betaine. We will use transfer free energy measurements of amino acid side chains and the peptide backbone from water to ..
  19. Rare disease CRC for new therapies and new diagnostics
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..with AS according to genotype, to complete the ongoing double-blind, placebo controlled trial of folic acid and betaine in AS, and to develop a follow-on clinical trial for activation of the paternal allele for UBE3A in AS patients...
  20. Rare disease CRC for new therapies and new diagnostics
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..with AS according to genotype, to complete the ongoing double-blind, placebo controlled trial of folic acid and betaine in AS, and to develop a follow-on clinical trial for activation of the paternal allele for UBE3A in AS patients...
  21. OSMOLYTE PROTECTION OF PROTEINS AGAINST INACTIVATION
    DAVID BOLEN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..compatible osmolytes sorbitol and inositol, and the counteracting osmolytes glycerolphosphoryl choline (GCP) and betaine. We will use transfer free energy measurements of amino acid side chains and the peptide backbone from water to ..
  22. Risk Factors for Craniosynostosis
    Suzan Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..control or oxidative stress are associated with risk of CS among offspring, including folate/folic acid, choline, betaine, methionine, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, riboflavin, glycemic load, 2-carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C. Aim 2...
  23. Rare disease CRC for new therapies and new diagnostics
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..with AS according to genotype, to complete the ongoing double-blind, placebo controlled trial of folic acid and betaine in AS, and to develop a follow-on clinical trial for activation of the paternal allele for UBE3A in AS patients...
  24. Rare disease CRC for new therapies and new diagnostics
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..with AS according to genotype, to complete the ongoing double-blind, placebo controlled trial of folic acid and betaine in AS, and to develop a follow-on clinical trial for activation of the paternal allele for UBE3A in AS patients...
  25. ENZYMES IN THE CRYSTALLINE STATE
    Martha Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..enzymes to be studied, B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), are key catalysts in the metabolism of one-carbon units and control the ..
  26. ENZYMES IN THE CRYSTALLINE STATE
    Janet Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..enzymes to be studied, B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), are key catalysts in the metabolism of one-carbon units and control the ..
  27. ENZYMES IN THE CRYSTALLINE STATE
    Martha Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..enzymes to be studied, B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), are key catalysts in the metabolism of one-carbon units and control the ..
  28. Role of ALDH7A1 in Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Damage
    CHAD NICHOLAS BROCKER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Furthermore, our data indicates ALDH7A1 generates betaine from betaine aldehyde. Betaine is an important osmolyte and methyl-group donor...
  29. Primary Hyperoxaluria
    DAWN SCHMAUTZ MILLINER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..to be successful, and has facilitated sufficient numbers of patients to test new treatments in clinical trials of betaine and Oxalobacter, to date...
  30. GENETIC RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA
    ROY GRAVEL; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The second is betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT)...
  31. GENETIC RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA
    ROY GRAVEL; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The second is betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT)...
  32. Genetics of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..effect of various drugs on human cultured fibroblasts and in mice, and an ongoing clinical trial of folate and betaine will be modified based on these results...
  33. Genetics of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..effect of various drugs on human cultured fibroblasts and in mice, and an ongoing clinical trial of folate and betaine will be modified based on these results...
  34. Accumulation of Isoaspartyl Residue-Bearing Proteins and Alcoholic Liver Disease
    KUSUM KHARBANDA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..residue-bearing proteins in the livers of rats consuming alcohol and an attenuation of this accumulation by betaine supplementation...
  35. Genetics of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..effect of various drugs on human cultured fibroblasts and in mice, and an ongoing clinical trial of folate and betaine will be modified based on these results...
  36. Genetics of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome
    Arthur Beaudet; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..effect of various drugs on human cultured fibroblasts and in mice, and an ongoing clinical trial of folate and betaine will be modified based on these results...
  37. SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN MAMMALS
    JAMES FINKELSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of homocysteine to cysteine (cystathionine synthase, cystathionase) and the remethylation of homocysteine (betaine homocysteine methyltransferase and N5 methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase)...
  38. THERMODYNAMIC AND NMR STUDIES ON THE E COLI CYTOPLASM
    M Record; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..g. glycine betaine, proline) in the growth medium...
  39. Physiology of Osmotic Stress in Saccharmyces cerevisiae
    Robert Ramirez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For example, mammalian renal cells are known to accumulate glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glycine betaine, sorbitol, inositol and urea during anti-diuresis...
  40. Physiology of Osmotic Stress in Saccharmyces cerevisiae
    Robert Ramirez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For example, mammalian renal cells are known to accumulate glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glycine betaine, sorbitol, inositol and urea during anti-diuresis...
  41. Physiology of Osmotic Stress in Saccharmyces cerevisiae
    Robert Ramirez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, mammalian renal cells are known to accumulate glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glycine betaine, sorbitol, inositol and urea during anti-diuresis...
  42. Dietary affects upon genomic methylation in Trout cancer
    Joseph Brunelli; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..influenced by dietary regimens which manipulate the availability of (folate, methionine, choline, vitamins B12, betaine and zinc)...
  43. THERMODYNAMIC AND NMR STUDIES ON THE E COLI CYTOPLASM
    M Record; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..g. glycine betaine, proline) in the growth medium...
  44. Dietary affects upon genomic methylation in Trout cancer
    Joseph Brunelli; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..influenced by dietary regimens which manipulate the availability of (folate, methionine, choline, vitamins B12, betaine and zinc)...
  45. SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN MAMMALS
    JAMES FINKELSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The second, formed by the enzymes which utilize homocysteine (adenosylhomocysteinase, cystathionine synthase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and methyltetrahydrofolat-homocysteicysteine methyltransferase), governs ..
  46. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF OSMOREGULATION
    James Botsford; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We would determine if osmoprotectants like proline and betaine affect this. For many bacteria but not the R. meliloti, the amino acid proline is an osmoprotectant...
  47. Nutrients involved 1-carbon metabolism and the methylation of arsenic and DNA
    MEGAN NINA HALL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Specifically, the roles of two nutrients, choline and betaine - i.e...
  48. OSMOREGULATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
    BRIAN WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..g., proline, glycine betaine, choline)...
  49. INTERACTION OF METHYLTRANSFERASE AND GLYCINE BORONATES
    Robert Lindquist; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The specific aims of this proposal are as follows. (1) To purify betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) from rat liver and to develop an HPLC assay based upon quantitation of the ..
  50. RENAL CELL SOLUTE REGULATION
    Steven Gullans; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..In renal epithelial cells four major osmolytes exist, glycerophosphorylocholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol...
  51. RENAL CELL SOLUTE REGULATION
    Steven Gullans; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..In renal epithelial cells four major osmolytes exist, glycerophosphorylocholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol...
  52. RENAL CELL SOLUTE REGULATION
    Steven Gullans; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In renal epithelial cells four major osmolytes exist, glycerophosphorylocholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol...
  53. RENAL CELL SOLUTE REGULATION
    Steven Gullans; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In renal epithelial cells four major osmolytes exist, glycerophosphorylocholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol...
  54. Relationship of Apo B and BHMT: Nutrition and Physiology
    Janet Sparks; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In McArdle RH-7777 (McA) cells, the restoration of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) expression through transfection is positively correlated with apo B mRNA ..
  55. Relationship of Apo B and BHMT: Nutrition and Physiology
    Janet Sparks; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In McArdle RH-7777 (McA) cells, the restoration of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) expression through transfection is positively correlated with apo B mRNA ..
  56. P AERUGINOSA PHOSPHOLIPASE C--MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS
    Michael Vasil; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..We will investigate how a class of compounds, known as osmoprotectants including, glycine betaine, are able to induce the synthesis of both PLCs in P. aeruginosa...
  57. Targeting By mLin-7 Binding Partners In Renal Epithelia
    Benjamin Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The PDZ domain of mammalian Lin-7 can bind to the carboxy-terminal tail of the betaine gamma amino butyric acid transporter-i (BGT-l) and may have an important role in the retention of BGT-1 at the ..
  58. Targeting By mLin-7 Binding Partners In Renal Epithelia
    Benjamin Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The PDZ domain of mammalian Lin-7 can bind to the carboxy-terminal tail of the betaine gamma amino butyric acid transporter-i (BGT-l) and may have an important role in the retention of BGT-1 at the ..
  59. Targeting By mLin-7 Binding Partners In Renal Epithelia
    Benjamin Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The PDZ domain of mammalian Lin-7 can bind to the carboxy-terminal tail of the betaine gamma amino butyric acid transporter-i (BGT-l) and may have an important role in the retention of BGT-1 at the ..
  60. Targeting By mLin-7 Binding Partners In Renal Epithelia
    Benjamin Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The PDZ domain of mammalian Lin-7 can bind to the carboxy-terminal tail of the betaine gamma amino butyric acid transporter-i (BGT-l) and may have an important role in the retention of BGT-1 at the ..
  61. GENETIC STUDIES OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN BACTERIA
    Sydney Kustu; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Is their internal pH abnormally alkaline under these conditions? Are their K+ pools low? Are their pools of trehalose elevated? Can the osmoprotectants proline and glycine-betaine substitute for (K+) glutamate?
  62. Hepatic Steatosis and the Lipid Metabolome
    GHULAM A S ANSARI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..aim 1), a situation exacerbated by alcohol consumption (aim 2), and which can be reversed by dietary supplement (betaine) (aim 3)...
  63. Hepatic Steatosis and the Lipid Metabolome
    GHULAM ANSARI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..aim 1), a situation exacerbated by alcohol consumption (aim 2), and which can be reversed by dietary supplement (betaine) (aim 3)...
  64. Hepatic Steatosis and the Lipid Metabolome
    GHULAM ANSARI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..aim 1), a situation exacerbated by alcohol consumption (aim 2), and which can be reversed by dietary supplement (betaine) (aim 3)...
  65. Clinical Trials in Rett Syndrome Conference
    Walter Kaufmann; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Of the small number of reported clinical trials in Rett syndrome (RTT), only an ongoing study of folate and betaine takes advantage of this new genetic information. Consequently, the proposed workshop is quite timely...
  66. NUTRIENT REGULATION OF BHMT EXPRESSION
    Timothy Garrow; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is proposed to have a major role in the regulation of blood homocysteine (..
  67. MODULATORS OF ALCOHOLIC LIPIDEMIA & STEATOSIS:KEY ROLE OF SCAVENGER RECEPTOR B I
    Raj Lakshman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Similarly, since dietary betaine has significant lowering effects on plasma and liver lipids, it is equally important to investigate whether ..
  68. Dietary Supplements, Imprint Gene Expression and Cancer
    Randy Jirtle; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We have demonstrated that dietary methyl donor supplementation with extra folic acid, vitamin B12, choline and betaine during early development of viable yellow agouti (A {vy}) mice alters coat color by increasing CpG methylation at ..
  69. Dietary Supplements, Imprint Gene Expression and Cancer
    Randy Jirtle; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We have demonstrated that dietary methyl donor supplementation with extra folic acid, vitamin B12, choline and betaine during early development of viable yellow agouti (A {vy}) mice alters coat color by increasing CpG methylation at ..
  70. Dietary Supplements, Imprint Gene Expression and Cancer
    Randy Jirtle; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have demonstrated that dietary methyl donor supplementation with extra folic acid, vitamin B12, choline and betaine during early development of viable yellow agouti (A {vy}) mice alters coat color by increasing CpG methylation at ..
  71. Biomedical Informatics Research Training at Yale
    Perry Miller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The scope of Biomedical Informatics activities is growing rapidly at Yale. We are requesting support for 12 predoctoral trainees, 6 postdoctoral trainees, and 2 short-term trainees. ..
  72. Transition-state mimicking inhibitors of human BHMT
    Timothy Garrow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is proposed to have a major role in the regulation of blood homocysteine (..
  73. Transition-state mimicking inhibitors of human BHMT
    Timothy Garrow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is proposed to have a major role in the regulation of blood homocysteine (..
  74. Biomedical Informatics Research Training at Yale
    Perry Miller; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The scope of Biomedical Informatics activities is growing rapidly at Yale. We are requesting support for 12 predoctoral trainees, 6 postdoctoral trainees, and 2 short-term trainees. ..