chloramphenicol

Summary

Summary: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Profound cardioprotection with chloramphenicol succinate in the swine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Javier A Sala-Mercado
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Circulation 122:S179-84. 2010
  2. ncbi A new mechanism for chloramphenicol, florfenicol and clindamycin resistance: methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA at A2503
    Corinna Kehrenberg
    Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Höltystrasse 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 57:1064-73. 2005
  3. ncbi Multiresidue determination of fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol antibiotics in urban waters in China
    Xianzhi Peng
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute for Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People s Republic of China
    Environ Toxicol Chem 27:73-9. 2008
  4. pmc Identification of a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance gene in Staphylococcus sciuri
    S Schwarz
    Institut für Tierzucht und Tierverhalten der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft Braunschweig FAL, Celle, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:2530-3. 2000
  5. pmc mexEF-oprN multidrug efflux operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: regulation by the MexT activator in response to nitrosative stress and chloramphenicol
    Hossam Fetar
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:508-14. 2011
  6. pmc Mechanisms of resistance to chloramphenicol in Pseudomonas putida KT2440
    Matilde Fernandez
    Bio Iliberis Research and Development, I D Department, Peligros, Granada, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1001-9. 2012
  7. ncbi Maturation of the Coxiella burnetii parasitophorous vacuole requires bacterial protein synthesis but not replication
    Dale Howe
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82071 3944, USA
    Cell Microbiol 5:469-80. 2003
  8. ncbi Replacement of catalytic histidine-195 of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase: evidence for a general base role for glutamate
    A Lewendon
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, U K
    Biochemistry 33:1944-50. 1994
  9. pmc Chloramphenicol causes mitochondrial stress, decreases ATP biosynthesis, induces matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression, and solid-tumor cell invasion
    Ching Hao Li
    Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Toxicol Sci 116:140-50. 2010
  10. ncbi Chloramphenicol and expression of multidrug efflux pump in Enterobacter aerogenes
    Didier Ghisalberti
    Enveloppe Bacterienne, Perméabilité et Antibiotiques, EA2197, IFR48, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 328:1113-8. 2005

Research Grants

  1. Synthetic lethality of bicyclomycin
    KARL A DRLICA; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Radical SAM Methytransferases
    Danica Galonic Fujimori; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Methane Monoxygenase Structure and Function
    John Lipscomb; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. Roles of protein structure and diiron cluster chemistry in oxygen activation
    John D Lipscomb; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. NUCLEIC ACID PROBES OF RIBOSOMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    BARRY COOPERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
  6. MODELS OF IN VIVO MYOMETRIAL GENE TRANSFER
    Gregory Christman; Fiscal Year: 2001
  7. High Throughput Protein Production by Novel E. coli Expression-Secretion System
    WILLIAM MACCONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2006
  8. Quantitative Studies of Bacterial Growth Physiology
    Terence Hwa; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. PROMYELOCYTIC ZINC FINGER GENE
    Jennifer Morris; Fiscal Year: 1999
  10. CELLULAR CONSEQUENCES OF DEFECTIVE IIB AND IIIA GENES
    Paul Bray; Fiscal Year: 1993

Detail Information

Publications317 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Profound cardioprotection with chloramphenicol succinate in the swine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Javier A Sala-Mercado
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Circulation 122:S179-84. 2010
    ..Our aim was to test this paradigm in a clinically relevant, large animal model of acute myocardial infarction...
  2. ncbi A new mechanism for chloramphenicol, florfenicol and clindamycin resistance: methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA at A2503
    Corinna Kehrenberg
    Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Höltystrasse 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 57:1064-73. 2005
    The gene product of cfr from Staphylococcus sciuri confers resistance to chloramphenicol, florfenicol and clindamycin in Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli...
  3. ncbi Multiresidue determination of fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol antibiotics in urban waters in China
    Xianzhi Peng
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute for Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People s Republic of China
    Environ Toxicol Chem 27:73-9. 2008
    ..determine multiclass antibiotic residues, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol in urban riverine water and wastewater by off-line solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid ..
  4. pmc Identification of a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance gene in Staphylococcus sciuri
    S Schwarz
    Institut für Tierzucht und Tierverhalten der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft Braunschweig FAL, Celle, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:2530-3. 2000
    The 16.5-kbp plasmid pSCFS1 from Staphylococcus sciuri mediated combined resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. The gene responsible for this resistance property, cfr, was cloned and sequenced...
  5. pmc mexEF-oprN multidrug efflux operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: regulation by the MexT activator in response to nitrosative stress and chloramphenicol
    Hossam Fetar
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:508-14. 2011
    ..In both instances, this GSNO-inducible expression was dependent upon MexT. Chloramphenicol, a nitroaromatic antimicrobial that is a substrate for MexEF-OprN, was shown to induce mexEF-oprN but not ..
  6. pmc Mechanisms of resistance to chloramphenicol in Pseudomonas putida KT2440
    Matilde Fernandez
    Bio Iliberis Research and Development, I D Department, Peligros, Granada, Spain
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1001-9. 2012
    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a chloramphenicol-resistant bacterium that is able to grow in the presence of this antibiotic at a concentration of up to 25 μg/ml...
  7. ncbi Maturation of the Coxiella burnetii parasitophorous vacuole requires bacterial protein synthesis but not replication
    Dale Howe
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82071 3944, USA
    Cell Microbiol 5:469-80. 2003
    ..PV were not observed in cells treated with a bacteriostatic concentration of the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol. Rather, fluorescence microscopy of individual cells revealed multiple, acidic PV harbouring a single ..
  8. ncbi Replacement of catalytic histidine-195 of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase: evidence for a general base role for glutamate
    A Lewendon
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, U K
    Biochemistry 33:1944-50. 1994
    The imidazole N epsilon 2 of His-195 plays an essential part in the proposed general base mechanism of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), hydrogen bonding to and a abstracting a proton from the primary hydroxyl group of ..
  9. pmc Chloramphenicol causes mitochondrial stress, decreases ATP biosynthesis, induces matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression, and solid-tumor cell invasion
    Ching Hao Li
    Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Toxicol Sci 116:140-50. 2010
    Overuse and abuse of antibiotics can increase the risk of cancer. Chloramphenicol can inhibit both bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis, causing mitochondrial stress and decreased ATP biosynthesis...
  10. ncbi Chloramphenicol and expression of multidrug efflux pump in Enterobacter aerogenes
    Didier Ghisalberti
    Enveloppe Bacterienne, Perméabilité et Antibiotiques, EA2197, IFR48, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 328:1113-8. 2005
    b>Chloramphenicol has been reported to act as an inducer of the multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli...
  11. pmc Development and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticle formulation for ophthalmic delivery of chloramphenicol using a Box-Behnken design
    Jifu Hao
    College of Pharmacy, Taishan Medical University, Taian, PR China
    Int J Nanomedicine 6:683-92. 2011
    The purpose of the present study was to optimize a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) of chloramphenicol by investigating the relationship between design factors and experimental data using response surface methodology...
  12. pmc Role of the two component signal transduction system CpxAR in conferring cefepime and chloramphenicol resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044
    Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan
    Council of Scientific Industrial Research Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39 A, Chandigarh, India
    PLoS ONE 7:e33777. 2012
    ..Two-component systems serve as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions including antibiotic stress...
  13. pmc Chloramphenicol is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes
    Ji Young Park
    Department of Pharmacology, Gachon Medical School, Incheon, Korea
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3464-9. 2003
    The inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms was evaluated with human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYPs...
  14. pmc Distribution of florfenicol resistance genes fexA and cfr among chloramphenicol-resistant Staphylococcus isolates
    Corinna Kehrenberg
    Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystr 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1156-63. 2006
    A total of 302 chloramphenicol-resistant Staphylococcus isolates were screened for the presence of the florfenicol/chloramphenicol resistance genes fexA and cfr and their localization on mobile genetic elements...
  15. ncbi Effect of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-beta-naphthylamide on the MIC values of the quinolones, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, in Escherichia coli isolates of different origin
    Yolanda Sáenz
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:544-5. 2004
  16. ncbi A set of temperature sensitive-replication/-segregation and temperature resistant plasmid vectors with different copy numbers and in an isogenic background (chloramphenicol, kanamycin, lacZ, repA, par, polA)
    T Hashimoto-Gotoh
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Research Institute for Geriatrics and Neurological Diseases, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
    Gene 241:185-91. 2000
    A set of plasmid vectors conferring chloramphenicol resistance (Cm(R)), 3064bp in size, or kanamycin resistance (Km(R)), 2972bp in size, were developed, having multiple cloning sites in lacZ' genes for alpha-complementation...
  17. ncbi Antibiotics and Wolbachia in filarial nematodes: antifilarial activity of rifampicin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol against Onchocerca gutturosa, Onchocerca lienalis and Brugia pahangi
    S Townson
    Tropical Parasitic Diseases Unit, Northwick Park Institute for Medical Research, Harrow, UK
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 94:801-16. 2000
    The activity against filarial parasites of the antibiotics rifampicin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol was examined...
  18. ncbi Chromatographic evaluation of polymers imprinted with analogs of chloramphenicol and application to selective solid-phase extraction
    Christina Schirmer
    Department of Safety and Quality of Milk and Fish Products, Max Rubner Institute, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Hermann Weigmann Str 1, 24103 Kiel, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 394:2249-55. 2009
    To obtain a highly selective material for the antibiotic chloramphenicol, which has several harmful side effects in humans, different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared...
  19. ncbi Fusogenicity of the Coxiella burnetii parasitophorous vacuole
    Dale Howe
    University of Wyoming, Department of Molecular Biology, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 3944, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 990:556-62. 2003
    ..of infection of approximately 10 and simultaneously treated with bacteriostatic concentrations of chloramphenicol or carbenicillin. At 96 h post-infection, cells were viewed by phase contrast microscopy for PV maturation...
  20. ncbi Suppressing glioblastoma stem cell function by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition with chloramphenicol or disulfiram as a new treatment adjunct: an hypothesis
    Richard E Kast
    University of Vermont, 2 Church Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 4:314-7. 2009
    ..We have three old yet potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on the market- chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, and disulfiram- they should be investigated as adjuncts in glioblastoma chemotherapy...
  21. ncbi The gene cluster for chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 includes novel shikimate pathway homologues and a monomodular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene
    J He
    Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1
    Microbiology 147:2817-29. 2001
    ..Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 chromosome flanking pabAB, an amino-deoxychorismate synthase gene needed for chloramphenicol (Cm) production, were examined for involvement in biosynthesis of the antibiotic...
  22. pmc Inhibitors of antibiotic efflux in resistant Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains
    Jacqueline Chevalier
    EA2197, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1043-6. 2004
    ..Analyses of energy-dependent chloramphenicol efflux indicate that this compound inhibits the efflux pump mechanism and improves the activity of ..
  23. ncbi In vitro selection and characterization of DNA aptamers recognizing chloramphenicol
    Jaytry Mehta
    University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan, Antwerp, Belgium
    J Biotechnol 155:361-9. 2011
    b>Chloramphenicol (Cam), although an effective antibiotic, has lost favour due to some fatal side effects. Thus there is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive methods to detect residues in food, feed and environment...
  24. ncbi Antibacterial synergism of novel antibiotic peptides with chloramphenicol
    Yoonkyung Park
    Research Center for Proteineous Materials, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk dong, Dong Ku, Kwangju 501 759, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 321:109-15. 2004
    ..We found that A3 acted synergistically with chloramphenicol against bacterial cells...
  25. ncbi Synergism of Leu-Lys rich antimicrobial peptides and chloramphenicol against bacterial cells
    Yoonkyung Park
    Research Center for Proteineous Materials, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk dong, Dong Ku, Kwangju 501 759, Korea
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1764:24-32. 2006
    ..In addition, P5 and chloramphenicol has potent synergistic effect against tested cell lines...
  26. ncbi Microarray expression profiling of Yersinia pestis in response to chloramphenicol
    Jingfu Qiu
    Laboratory of Analytical Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, National Center for Biomedical Analysis, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 263:26-31. 2006
    ..Human plague can be effectively controlled by timely antibiotic administration, chloramphenicol being a drug of choice...
  27. ncbi Quinazoline derivatives are efficient chemosensitizers of antibiotic activity in Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant strains
    Jacqueline Chevalier
    UMR MD1, Facultes de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, IFR88, Marseille, France
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 36:164-8. 2010
    ..N-alkyl compounds induced an increase in the activity of chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin, which are substrates of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps in ..
  28. pmc Characterization of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli associated with bovine diarrhea
    D G White
    North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:4593-8. 2000
    ..The flo gene, which confers resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol, has previously been identified in Photobacterium piscicida and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104...
  29. pmc fexA, a novel Staphylococcus lentus gene encoding resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol
    Corinna Kehrenberg
    Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:615-8. 2004
    The Staphylococcus lentus plasmid pSCFS2 carries a novel florfenicol-chloramphenicol resistance gene, designated fexA, encoding a protein of 475 amino acids with 14 transmembrane domains...
  30. pmc Phenytoin pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in African children following fosphenytoin and chloramphenicol coadministration
    Bernhards R Ogutu
    Kenya Medical Research Institute KEMRI Wellcome Trust Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 54:635-42. 2002
    Some children with malaria and convulsions also have concurrent bacterial meningitis. Chloramphenicol is used to treat the latter whereas phenytoin is used for convulsions...
  31. pmc Chloramphenicol versus ampicillin plus gentamicin for community acquired very severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months in low resource settings: multicentre randomised controlled trial (SPEAR study)
    Rai Asghar
    Rawalpindi General Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
    BMJ 336:80-4. 2008
    To evaluate whether five days' treatment with injectable ampicillin plus gentamicin compared with chloramphenicol reduces treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months with community acquired very severe pneumonia in low resource ..
  32. pmc Florfenicol-chloramphenicol exporter gene fexA is part of the novel transposon Tn558
    Corinna Kehrenberg
    Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystr 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:813-5. 2005
    The florfenicol-chloramphenicol exporter gene fexA is part of the novel transposon Tn558 from Staphylococcus lentus...
  33. pmc Involvement of the efflux pumps in chloramphenicol selected strains of Burkholderia thailandensis: proteomic and mechanistic evidence
    Fabrice V Biot
    UMR MD 1, Facultes de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, IFR88, Marseille, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e16892. 2011
    ..By sequentially plating B. thailandensis wild type strains on chloramphenicol we obtained several resistant variants...
  34. pmc Effect of polyamines on the inhibition of peptidyltransferase by antibiotics: revisiting the mechanism of chloramphenicol action
    Maria A Xaplanteri
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, GR 26500 Patras, Greece
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:5074-83. 2003
    b>Chloramphenicol is thought to interfere competitively with the binding of the aminoacyl-tRNA 3'-terminus to ribosomal A-site...
  35. ncbi Refined crystal structure of type III chloramphenicol acetyltransferase at 1.75 A resolution
    A G Leslie
    Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, U K
    J Mol Biol 213:167-86. 1990
    High level bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol is generally due to O-acetylation of the antibiotic in a reaction catalysed by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT, EC 2.3.1.28) in which acetyl-coenzyme A is the acyl donor...
  36. ncbi Chloramphenicol-induced oxidative stress in human neutrophils
    Paulina L Páez
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Argentina
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 103:349-53. 2008
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of chloramphenicol in order to determine its potential toxic effects on human neutrophils, by using assays of reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination, nitrite measurement and ..
  37. pmc Increasing chloramphenicol resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Papua New Guinean children with acute bacterial meningitis
    Laurens Manning
    School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Fremantle Hospital, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:4454-6. 2011
    ..PNG) children with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), all Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates had a median chloramphenicol MIC of 3 μg/ml, it was ≥4 μg/ml ..
  38. ncbi Occurrence of chloramphenicol-resistance genes as environmental pollutants from swine feedlots
    Juan Li
    Key Laboratory of Development and Evaluation of Chemical and Herbal Drugs for Animal Use, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    Environ Sci Technol 47:2892-7. 2013
    b>Chloramphenicol-resistance genes could be propagated to the surrounding environment via agricultural application of swine waste...
  39. ncbi Role of coresistance in the development of resistance to chloramphenicol in Escherichia coli isolated from sick cattle and pigs
    Kazuki Harada
    National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1 15 1 Tokura, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185 8511, Japan
    Am J Vet Res 67:230-5. 2006
    To determine the cause of persistent resistance to chloramphenicol (CP) after the ban on its use in food-producing animals in several countries.
  40. ncbi Aptasensing of chloramphenicol in the presence of its analogues: reaching the maximum residue limit
    Sanaz Pilehvar
    Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
    Anal Chem 84:6753-8. 2012
    A novel, label-free folding induced aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the presence of its analogues has been developed...
  41. ncbi Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance gene on conjugative R plasmids from the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida
    Hideaki Morii
    Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Bunkyou, Nagasaki 852 8521, Japan
    Dis Aquat Organ 53:107-13. 2003
    ..piscicida from Japan. Drug resistances were transferred via plasmids of 100, 50, and 40 kb. Resistance to chloramphenicol (Cmr) was transferred on plasmids of all 3 sizes...
  42. ncbi The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts
    Li Pin Kao
    Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 261:42-9. 2012
    ..We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated ..
  43. pmc Novel mechanism of resistance to oxazolidinones, macrolides, and chloramphenicol in ribosomal protein L4 of the pneumococcus
    Nicole Wolter
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, P O Box 1038, Johannesburg, 2000, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3554-7. 2005
    Two clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, identified as resistant to macrolides and chloramphenicol and nonsusceptible to linezolid, were found to contain 6-bp deletions in the gene encoding riboprotein L4...
  44. ncbi Development of a rapid and sensitive SPE-LC-ESI MS/MS method for the determination of chloramphenicol in seafood
    Evangelos Gikas
    GAIA Research Center, Bioanalytical Department, The Goulandris Natural History Museum, 13 Levidou Street, Kifissia, GR 145 62, Greece
    J Agric Food Chem 52:1025-30. 2004
    ..mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in seafood samples...
  45. ncbi Rapid pretreatment-free immunochromatographic assay of chloramphenicol in milk
    N A Byzova
    Immunobiochemistry Laboratory, A N Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Talanta 81:843-8. 2010
    A pretreatment-free immunochromatographic assay for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk was developed...
  46. ncbi An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads
    Xiaoqi Tao
    Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China
    Drug Test Anal 5:346-52. 2013
    ..based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed...
  47. ncbi Quantum dot-based lateral flow immunoassay for detection of chloramphenicol in milk
    Anna N Berlina
    AN Baсh Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Anal Bioanal Chem 405:4997-5000. 2013
    A novel rapid (20 min) fluorescent lateral flow test for chloramphenicol (CAP) detection in milk was developed. The chosen format is a binding-inhibition assay...
  48. ncbi An overview of highly optically pure chloramphenicol bases: applications and modifications
    Kanghui Yang
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Shandong University, Ji Nan, Shandong, P R China
    Mini Rev Med Chem 9:1329-41. 2009
    b>Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used broad-spectrum antibiotic. As the precursor of CAP, chloramphenicol bases are stereochemically pure agents and could be used as resolution agents, chiral catalysts and so on...
  49. pmc Chloramphenicol is a substrate for a novel nitroreductase pathway in Haemophilus influenzae
    Arnold L Smith
    Microbial Pathogens Program, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98109 5219, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2820-9. 2007
    The p-nitroaromatic antibiotic chloramphenicol has been used extensively to treat life-threatening infections due to Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis; its mechanism of action is the inhibition of protein synthesis...
  50. ncbi Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol, thiamphenicol, and chloramphenicol in turkeys
    M Switała
    Department of Biochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Agricultural University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30:145-50. 2007
    The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF), thiamphenicol (TP) and chloramphenicol (CP) after single intravenous (i.v.) or oral (p.o.) administration was studied in an independent cross-over study in broiler turkeys...
  51. ncbi Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis
    Sam Young
    Amphibian Disease Ecology Group, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia
    J Zoo Wildl Med 43:330-7. 2012
    ..caerulea) with heavy Bd infections were cured using a combination of continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution for 14 days, parenteral isotonic electrolyte fluid therapy for 6 days, and increased ambient ..
  52. ncbi Strain differences in haematological response to chloramphenicol succinate in mice: implications for toxicological research
    M F Festing
    MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, University of Leicester, PO Box 138, Lancaster Road, LE1 9HN, Leicester, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 39:375-83. 2001
    ..Here we report qualitative and quantitative strain differences in the haematological response to chloramphenicol succinate (CAPS) when administered by gavage at 500-2500 mg/kg for 7 days, to four inbred strains of mouse (..
  53. ncbi Chloramphenicol, erythromycin, carbomycin and vernamycin B protect overlapping sites in the peptidyl transferase region of 23S ribosomal RNA
    D Moazed
    Thimann Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064
    Biochimie 69:879-84. 1987
    ..sulfate and kethoxal, we have probed antibiotic-ribosome complexes, and identified sites of interaction of chloramphenicol, erythromycin, carbomycin, vernamycin B and viomycin with 23S rRNA...
  54. ncbi Transmembrane distribution of kanamycin and chloramphenicol: insights into the cytotoxicity of antibacterial drugs
    Chao Song
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Mol Biosyst 6:1901-10. 2010
    ..Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were exposed to two structurally different antibiotics, kanamycin (KAN) and chloramphenicol (CAP). The membrane distribution and toxicological effects of these antibiotics were investigated...
  55. ncbi Treatment of enteric fever in children on the basis of current trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A
    V Manchanda
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Chacha Nehru Children Hospital, Geeta Colony, New Delhi 110 031, India
    Indian J Med Microbiol 24:101-6. 2006
    Recent reports indicate decreased susceptibility of S. typhi to fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin. Chloramphenicol has been suggested as first line therapy of enteric fever in many studies...
  56. ncbi Mitochondrial DNA deletions and chloramphenicol treatment stimulate the autophagic transcript ATG12
    Alessandro Prigione
    Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Technologies, University of Milan Bicocca, Monza, Italy
    Autophagy 3:377-80. 2007
    ..However, the bioenergetic inhibitor rotenone does not induce ATG12. We show here that chloramphenicol, which inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis, induces ATG12, and that mtDNA deletions result in an ..
  57. pmc A conserved chloramphenicol binding site at the entrance to the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel
    Katherine S Long
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, Sølvgade 83H, DK 1307 Copenhagen K, Denmark
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:7208-15. 2003
    The antibiotic chloramphenicol produces modifications in 23S rRNA when bound to ribosomes from the bacterium Escherichia coli and the archaeon Halobacterium halobium and irradiated with 365 nm light...
  58. ncbi Failure of chloramphenicol prophylaxis to reduce the frequency of abscess formation as a complication of envenoming by Bothrops snakes in Brazil: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
    M T Jorge
    Departamento de Clinica Medica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:529-34. 2004
    ..Bothrops, admitted to two hospitals in Brazil, between 1990 and 1996, were randomized to receive either oral chloramphenicol (500 mg every six hours for five days) or placebo...
  59. ncbi Re-emerging chloramphenicol sensitivity and emerging low level ciprofloxacin resistance among Salmonella enterica serotype typhi isolates in North India
    Varsha Gupta
    Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital Sec 32, Chandigarh, Punjab 160030, India
    Trop Doct 39:28-30. 2009
    ..of typhoid fever with the emergence and worldwide spread of Salmonella enterica typhi strains resistant to chloramphenicol. However, the rampant use of ciprofloxacin gradually led to an increase in its minimum inhibitory ..
  60. ncbi Chloramphenicol and florfenicol susceptibility of fish-pathogenic bacteria isolated in France: comparison of minimum inhibitory concentration, using recommended provisory standards for fish bacteria
    C Michel
    Unite de Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaires, Equipe Infection et Immunité des Poissons, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches de Jouy en Josas, Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
    J Appl Microbiol 95:1008-15. 2003
    ..The last species was screened on two media (diluted Mueller-Hinton and peptone-enriched Anacker and Ordal), both supplemented with horse serum...
  61. ncbi 4-alkoxy and 4-thioalkoxyquinoline derivatives as chemosensitizers for the chloramphenicol-resistant clinical Enterobacter aerogenes 27 strain
    Sandrine Gallo
    GERCTOP UMR CNRS 6009, IFR 48, Fac Pharmacie, Université de Méditerranée, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 22:270-3. 2003
    ..Strains resistant to chloramphenicol are frequently isolated...
  62. ncbi An amperometric chloramphenicol immunosensor based on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles modified-dendrimer bonded conducting polymer
    Dong Min Kim
    Department of Chemistry and Institute of BioPhysio Sensor Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609 735, South Korea
    Biosens Bioelectron 25:1781-8. 2010
    An amperometric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (anti-CAT) antibody on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) modified-dendrimer that was bonded to the ..
  63. ncbi Linkage of determinants for streptogramin A, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, and chloramphenicol resistance on a conjugative plasmid in Enterococcus faecium and dissemination of this cluster among streptogramin-resistant enterococci
    G Werner
    Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 290:543-8. 2000
    ....
  64. ncbi Evidence for chloramphenicol/H+ antiport in Cmr (MdfA) system of Escherichia coli and properties of the antiporter
    T Mine
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama, 700 8530, Japan
    J Biochem 124:187-93. 1998
    We detected chloramphenicol/H+ antiport activity in membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli and cloned a gene for the antiporter from chromosomal DNA of E. coli. Introduction of the gene into E...
  65. ncbi A sensitive immunoassay based on direct hapten coated format and biotin-streptavidin system for the detection of chloramphenicol
    Na Sai
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tian Jin University, Tianjin 300072, China
    Talanta 82:1113-21. 2010
    A novel enzyme liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
  66. ncbi Primary structure of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specified by R plasmids
    W V Shaw
    Nature 282:870-2. 1979
    Naturally occurring isolates of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria commonly synthesise chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3...
  67. ncbi RNA aptamers to the peptidyl transferase inhibitor chloramphenicol
    D H Burke
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Development Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0347, USA
    Chem Biol 4:833-43. 1997
    ..Specifically, the antibiotic chloramphenicol (Cam) naturally binds bacterial ribosomes in the 'peptidyl transferase loop' of 23S ribosomal RNA to inhibit ..
  68. ncbi Nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance transposon Tn9
    N K Alton
    Nature 282:864-9. 1979
    ..of two direct repeats of the insertion sequence IS1 flanking a region of 1,102 base pairs which determines chloramphenicol resistance...
  69. ncbi Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase
    Weixin Tao
    Department of Medical Bioscience, Dong A University, Busan 604 714, Korea
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:1203-10. 2011
    ..EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in ..
  70. ncbi In vitro post-antibiotic effect of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, beta-lactams, tetracyclines, vancomycin, clindamycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin and rifampicin on Bacillus anthracis
    A Athamna
    The Triangle Research and Development Center, Kfar Qaraa, Israel
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:609-15. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of 19 antibacterial agents against two strains of Bacillus anthracis (ST-1 and Sterne strains)...
  71. ncbi The DNA sequence of an IS/-flanked transposon coding for resistance to chloramphenicol and fusidic acid
    R Marcoli
    FEBS Lett 110:11-4. 1980
  72. pmc Inactivation of chloramphenicol and florfenicol by a novel chloramphenicol hydrolase
    Weixin Tao
    Department of Medicinal Biotechnology, Dong A University, Busan, Republic of Korea
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:6295-301. 2012
    b>Chloramphenicol and florfenicol are broad-spectrum antibiotics. Although the bacterial resistance mechanisms to these antibiotics have been well documented, hydrolysis of these antibiotics has not been reported in detail...
  73. ncbi High resolution studies of the Afa/Dr adhesin DraE and its interaction with chloramphenicol
    David Pettigrew
    Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 279:46851-7. 2004
    ..One such difference is disruption of the interaction between DraE and CD55 by chloramphenicol, whereas binding of AfaE-III to CD55 is unaffected...
  74. ncbi Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya
    G M Kikuvi
    Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
    Microb Drug Resist 13:62-8. 2007
    The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Kenya and the role of plasmids in the spread of the resistance...
  75. pmc Axial filament formation in Bacillus subtilis: induction of nucleoids of increasing length after addition of chloramphenicol to exponential-phase cultures approaching stationary phase
    J E Bylund
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140
    J Bacteriol 175:1886-90. 1993
    When chloramphenicol was added to a culture of Bacillus subtilis in early exponential growth, microscopic observation of cells stained by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole showed nucleoids that had changed in appearance from irregular ..
  76. pmc Erythromycin- and chloramphenicol-induced ribosomal assembly defects are secondary effects of protein synthesis inhibition
    Triinu Siibak
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Estonia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:563-71. 2009
    ..Here we demonstrate that erythromycin and chloramphenicol, inhibitors of the large ribosomal subunit, affect the assembly of both the large and small subunits...
  77. ncbi The protein synthesis inhibitors, oxazolidinones and chloramphenicol, cause extensive translational inaccuracy in vivo
    Jill Thompson
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    J Mol Biol 322:273-9. 2002
    ..Both promoted highly significant frameshifting and nonsense suppression. Chloramphenicol, a peptidyl transferase inhibitor, affected translational fidelity in a similar fashion...
  78. ncbi Advantages of molecularly imprinted polymers LC-ESI-MS/MS for the selective extraction and quantification of chloramphenicol in milk-based matrixes. comparison with a classical sample preparation
    Rayane Mohamed
    Nestle Research Center, Nestec Limited, P O Box 44, Vers chez les Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Anal Chem 79:9557-65. 2007
    A simple and fast selective extraction of the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) from milk (raw milk, skimmed milk, and milk powder) using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbent is described...
  79. ncbi Chloramphenicol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with decreased transferrin receptor expression and ferritin synthesis in K562 cells and is unrelated to IRE-IRP interactions
    L M Leiter
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Cell Physiol 180:334-44. 1999
    b>Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that consistently suppresses the bone marrow and induces sideroblastic anemia. It is also a rare cause of aplastic anemia...
  80. ncbi Surface plasmon resonance assay for chloramphenicol
    Jing Yuan
    Biosensors and Biomeasurement, The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand, HortResearch Ruakura, Private Bag 3123, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Anal Chem 80:8329-33. 2008
    We report a rapid and ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay of chloramphenicol (CAP) by using large gold nanoparticles (40 nm) for signal enhancement on a mixed self-assembled monolayer (mSAM) sensor surface...
  81. ncbi Electrochemical analysis of chloramphenicol using boron-doped diamond electrode applied to a flow-injection system
    Suchada Chuanuwatanakul
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Anal Sci 24:493-8. 2008
    The electrochemical properties of chloramphenicol at a boron-doped diamond thin-film (BDD) electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry. The highest current response of chloramphenicol was obtained with phosphate buffer, pH 6 (0...
  82. ncbi Occurrences and ecological risks of roxithromycin, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol in the Han River, Korea
    Kyungho Choi
    School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 799, Korea
    Environ Toxicol Chem 27:711-9. 2008
    We evaluated the occurrence of three antibiotics (roxithromycin, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol) in surface water and effluents from several sewage treatment plants (STPs) on the Han River, Korea...
  83. ncbi Single live cell imaging of chromosomes in chloramphenicol-induced filamentous Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Christina Steel
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
    Biochemistry 43:175-82. 2004
    ..The quantity of chromosomes and the length of the filamentous wild-type cells increase as the chloramphenicol concentration increases to 50 and 250 microg/mL, suggesting that chloramphenicol induces the filamentation...
  84. ncbi Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology
    Nan Liu
    Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050, China
    Anal Chim Acta 632:128-34. 2009
    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed...
  85. ncbi Molecularly imprinted polymers for on-line clean up and preconcentration of chloramphenicol prior to its voltammetric determination
    M L Mena
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
    Anal Bioanal Chem 376:18-25. 2003
    ..MIP) as a selective solid-phase extraction sorbent for the clean-up and preconcentration of the antibiotic chloramphenicol is described...
  86. ncbi A microflow chemiluminescence system for determination of chloramphenicol in honey with preconcentration using a molecularly imprinted polymer
    Wisanu Thongchai
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
    Talanta 82:560-6. 2010
    ..incorporating a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) preconcentration step was used for the determination of chloramphenicol in honey samples...
  87. ncbi Simple determination of betamethasone and chloramphenicol in a pharmaceutical preparation using a short monolithic column coupled to a sequential injection system
    Dalibor Satinsky
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    J Sep Sci 29:2494-9. 2006
    ..on a reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) technique for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and betamethasone in pharmaceutical eye drops...
  88. pmc Gatifloxacin versus chloramphenicol for uncomplicated enteric fever: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial
    Amit Arjyal
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:445-54. 2011
    We aimed to investigate whether gatifloxacin, a new generation and affordable fluoroquinolone, is better than chloramphenicol for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever in children and adults.
  89. ncbi Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol
    Stefan Schwarz
    Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystrasse 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 28:519-42. 2004
    b>Chloramphenicol (Cm) and its fluorinated derivative florfenicol (Ff) represent highly potent inhibitors of bacterial protein biosynthesis...
  90. ncbi Competitive immunoassay by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence for the trace detection of chloramphenicol in animal-derived foods
    Can Zhang
    Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, P R China
    Electrophoresis 29:3422-8. 2008
    A competitive immunoassay using CE with an LIF detector was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
  91. ncbi Surface plasmon resonance assay for chloramphenicol without surface regeneration
    Jing Yuan
    Biosensors and Biomeasurement, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research, Hamilton, Waikato 2001, New Zealand
    Anal Biochem 390:97-9. 2009
    ..plasmon resonance (SPR) assay without surface regeneration was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
  92. pmc Persistence of Salmonellae in blood and bone marrow: randomized controlled trial comparing ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol treatments against enteric fever
    M Hussein Gasem
    Department of Medicine, Dr Kariadi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1727-31. 2003
    ..a randomized controlled trial involving 55 adult patients with enteric fever to compare ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Blood and bone marrow cultures and cytokine profiles during therapy were done to compare the clinical and ..
  93. pmc Role of mexA-mexB-oprM in antibiotic efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    X Z Li
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39:1948-53. 1995
    ..Finally, a single-step mutant over-producing MexAB-OprM accumulated less tetracycline and chloramphenicol than the parent strain and was more resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, including beta-..
  94. ncbi Molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol
    Christina Schirmer
    Department of Safety and Quality of Milk and Fish Products, Max Rubner Institute, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Hermann Weigmann Str 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 392:223-9. 2008
    A variety of bulk polymers for the selective separation of chloramphenicol were synthesised from 2-vinylpyridine, diethylaminoethyl methacrylate or methacrylic acid monomers...
  95. ncbi Development of an improved method for trace analysis of chloramphenicol using molecularly imprinted polymers
    Brian Boyd
    MIP Technologies AB, Box 737, Lund 22007, Sweden
    J Chromatogr A 1174:63-71. 2007
    A confirmatory method is described for the determination of the illegal antibiotic chloramphenicol using a specifically developed molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as the sample clean-up technique...
  96. ncbi Sensitive voltammetric determination of chloramphenicol by using single-wall carbon nanotube-gold nanoparticle-ionic liquid composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes
    Fei Xiao
    Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China
    Anal Chim Acta 596:79-85. 2007
    ..On it, chloramphenicol can produce a sensitive cathodic peak at -0.66 V (versus SCE) in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solutions...
  97. pmc Studies on the haemotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the Dunkin Hartley guinea pig
    J A Turton
    Centre for Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29 39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
    Int J Exp Pathol 83:225-38. 2002
    In man, chloramphenicol (CAP), induces two major haemotoxic effects. First, a reversible, dose-related reticulocytopenia and anaemia developing during treatment...
  98. ncbi Molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of chloramphenicol in fish tissues coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography determination
    Linyuan Guo
    Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China
    Anal Bioanal Chem 392:1431-8. 2008
    ..MSPD) sorbent, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the efficient determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in fish tissues are studied...
  99. pmc Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass
    Bjorn Berendsen
    RIKILT, Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, P O Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1955-63. 2010
    b>Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins...
  100. ncbi Liposomal phospholipid preparations of chloramphenicol for ophthalmic applications
    Sherif S Mahmoud
    Biophysics Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt
    J Pharm Sci 97:2691-701. 2008
    ..has prompted the pursuit of ways to prepare drug-encapsulating liposomes that enable bulk release of the drug chloramphenicol (CAP) once the liposomal structure is perturbed...
  101. ncbi Randomized comparative study of fleroxacin and chloramphenicol in typhoid fever
    K Arnold
    Roche Asian Research Foundation, Hong Kong
    Am J Med 94:195S-200S. 1993
    This study compared fleroxacin, 400 mg daily for 7 or 14 days, with chloramphenicol, 50 mg/kg per day for 14 days, for the treatment of patients with typhoid fever in a multicenter study...

Research Grants62

  1. Synthetic lethality of bicyclomycin
    KARL A DRLICA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. bacteriostatic concentrations of chloramphenicol or tetracycline) either generates (E. coli) or dramatically increases (K. pneumoniae, A...
  2. Radical SAM Methytransferases
    Danica Galonic Fujimori; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The recent discovery of cfr (chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance gene) in a multidrug-resistant hospital isolate of Staphylococcus aureus is an ..
  3. Methane Monoxygenase Structure and Function
    John Lipscomb; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have purified the first member of this family (CmlA) from the biosynthetic pathway for chloramphenicol in Streptomyces, where it catalyzes ?-hydroxylation of L-p aminophenylalanine (PAPA)...
  4. Roles of protein structure and diiron cluster chemistry in oxygen activation
    John D Lipscomb; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While studying the biosynthetic pathway for chloramphenicol from Streptomyces, we found two new diiron enzymes that address these requirements...
  5. NUCLEIC ACID PROBES OF RIBOSOMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    BARRY COOPERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..use, such as tetracycline, erythromycin and other macrolides, neomycin and other aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol target ribosomes as their sites of action...
  6. MODELS OF IN VIVO MYOMETRIAL GENE TRANSFER
    Gregory Christman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Plasmid gene therapy vectors will then be injected into the leiomyoma nodules. Plasmid vectors encoding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase genes will be used to monitor transfection efficiency and to compare ..
  7. High Throughput Protein Production by Novel E. coli Expression-Secretion System
    WILLIAM MACCONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..coli outer membrane porin (OmpF), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), or L-asparagenase genes to the c-terminal 200 amino acid portions of the Hly A gene ..
  8. Quantitative Studies of Bacterial Growth Physiology
    Terence Hwa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Experiments will initially focus on the effect of chloramphenicol (Cm), a translation-inhibiting drug, on the growth of E...
  9. PROMYELOCYTIC ZINC FINGER GENE
    Jennifer Morris; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..PLZF expression vectors will be cotransfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter genes containing PLZF binding sites into mouse fibroblasts and myeloid ..
  10. CELLULAR CONSEQUENCES OF DEFECTIVE IIB AND IIIA GENES
    Paul Bray; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..sequences will be engineered into the pRSV cat plasmid, a vector which has been used successfully to express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in mammalian cells...
  11. MOLECULAR BASIS OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR
    Jeffrey Milbrandt; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..DNA fragments from each of these regions will be cloned upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, and each construct will be transfected into PC12 cells...
  12. Structure of the multidrug efflux protein AcrA
    Partho Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..coli AcrAB-TolC system, which promotes efflux of novobiocin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol among others...
  13. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF RIBOSOMAL RNA FUNCTION
    Philip Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In this system the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter message is translated exclusively by plasmid encoded ribosomes which cannot ..
  14. Cytochrome P450 in Reperfusion Injury
    Roberta Gottlieb; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We have shown that inhibition of CYP with compounds such as chloramphenicol or sulfaphenazole can reduce tissue injury following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion...
  15. HORMONAL REGULATION OF THYROGLOBULIN GENE IN THYROIDS
    Chi Bom Chae; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We will construct genes by fusing the regulatory regions of TG gene with the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene...
  16. BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT
    Peter Henson; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..and autoradiograms, Western (immuno-) blots, thin layer chromatography including such applications as CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) assays to monitor gene expression, restriction-fragment length polymorphism analysis, ..
  17. HTLV-III SEQUENCES AT THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL LEVEL
    JOSEPH MOSCA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..LTR), we constructed permanent cell lines (murine and simian), containing the HTLV-III LTR directing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene...
  18. CABP GENE INTERACTION WITH VITAMIN D3 RECEPTOR
    Barry Komm; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..This DNA will be subcloned into plasmid vectors containing reporter genes such as chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) or human growth hormone (hGH) and transfected into cell lines that express the 1,25 (..
  19. Quinolone and multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    David C Hooper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aureus pumps NorA, NorB, and NorC can confer resistance to various quinolone antimicrobials along with chloramphenicol and some dyes...
  20. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF THE 790 LOOP IN RIBOSOMAL RNA
    Philip Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In this system, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter message is translated exclusively by plasmid encoded ribosomes which cannot ..
  21. ANALYSIS OF CELLULAR ONCOGENES IN VIRUS-INDUCED TUMORS
    David Steffen; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Clones of normal and virally-altered c-myc genes will be fused to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and the activities of a series of myc-CAT fusions containing variable amounts of ..
  22. REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION IN POLYOMA VIRUS
    GOKUL DAS; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..For in vivo assay, the promoter will be linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CATase) gene of E...
  23. REGULATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXICITY
    WILLIAM HOUSER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..mouse Hepa-1, human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells using heterologous gene fusion assays with the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; 2) Determine the location and consensus sequence of the PAH-responsive proximal cis-..
  24. MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF HIV EXPRESSION BY OPIATES
    Om Prakash; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..To examine this question directly, we will use HIV-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion genes (HIV/LTR-CAT)...
  25. IRON REGULATION OF HUMAN TRANSFERRIN SYNTHESIS
    David Haile; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..establish that regulation by iron is lost in transgenic mice expressing a mutated chimeric human transferrin chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) transgene in which the mutation of the IRE results in loss of protein binding in ..
  26. THE REGULATION OF FIBRINOGEN BIOSYNTHESIS
    DANA FOWLKES; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The chimeric viruses have the "promoter" region of the r-fibrinogen gene fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, and their ability to enter hepatocytes in culture was confirmed...
  27. BIOLOGICAL VARIATION OF EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS
    Susan Carpenter; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The biological significance of variation in the LTR will be studied in transient expression assays using CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) as a reporter gene...
  28. TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL OF SERUM AMYLOID GENES
    Hugh Rienhoff; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Portions of the genes including promoter regions will be joined to the coding domain of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase(CAT) gene...
  29. SOMATOSTATIN--ENDOCRINE AND PARACRINE BIOSYNTHESIS
    JOEL HABENER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..using fusion genes of the regulatory region of the somatostatin gene and the bacterial reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). 2)...
  30. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF VIRULENCE IN PROPHYROMONAS
    HANSEL FLETCHER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..gingivalis. A transcriptional fusion of a known P. gingivalis promoter with the promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) and luciferase (luxAB) genes will be inserted in the P...
  31. THE ROLE OF YEAST MITOCHONDRIA AND CANCER
    JULIUS MARMUR; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The bacterial chloramphenicol resistance (Cm1) gene is expressed in yeast, coding for the enzyme chloramphenicol transacetylase (CT)...
  32. THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR DNA RECOGNITION
    Thomas Lavin; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..four base pairs affect the ability of the receptor to bind and to promote rGH directed transcription of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene...
  33. METALLOTHIONEIN ACTIVATION--A MODEL OF CARCINOGEN ACTION
    Michael Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..MT-I and MT-II expression following the introduction of plasmids bearing MT-I or MT-II fusion genes (chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT ) or luciferase)...
  34. REGULATION OF SERINE HYDROXYMETHYLTRANSFERASE
    PATRICK STOVER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Consensus or novel cis-acting sequence elements that contribute to SHMT expression will be identified using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays and in vivo footprint analysis...
  35. REGULATION OF SERUM AMYLOID A PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
    BIMAL RAY; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..determining the sequence of the regulatory regions; (3) characterization of these regions using a reporter chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene...
  36. VASOACTIVE HORMONE INDUCED GENES IN DIABETIC VASCULATURE
    EDWARD FEENER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..for a novel AII-stimulated tyrosine kinase-responsive transcriptional element with a series of 13 PAI-2/Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmids, including up to 3.3 Kb of the 5' flanking promoter sequence...
  37. POTENTIATORS OF BACTERIOSTATIC ANTIBIOTICS IN GRAM +
    PENELOPE MARKHAM; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of compounds, the lead of which, in combination with bacteriostatic concentrations of either erythromycin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin or tetracycline, is synergistically and rapidly bactericidal to S. aureus...
  38. ADENOVIRUS GENOME EXPRESSION: PHYSICAL MAPPING STUDIES
    Clark Tibbetts; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..E1A promoter sequences, or derivative variants, have been joined to probe genes such as chloramphenicol acetyltransferase to conveniently measure extents of gene expression in transfected human cells in culture...
  39. TRANSLATIONAL ATTENUATION AS A GENE REGULATOR
    PAUL LOVETT; Fiscal Year: 1993
    b>Chloramphenicol (Cm) inhibits bacterial growth by blocking peptide elongation during translation on 70S ribosomes...
  40. OUTER MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY OF PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA
    Jane Burns; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The cloned DNA will be subcloned and analyzed. The subcloned fragment will be used to probe chloramphenicol susceptible and resistant isolates to identify homologous sequences...
  41. DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS OF THYMUS ANTIGENS
    GLEN EVANS; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..transcriptional enhancer activity identified by the ability to activate in cis the indicator gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase...
  42. TWO-STAGE SKIN CARCINOGENESIS & HA-RAS GENE EXPRESSION
    Jill Pelling; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..regulatory elements of the Ha- ras oncogene, using the transient gene expression assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase...
  43. MULTIHORMONAL REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
    MICHEL SANDERS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..containing the 5'-flanking regions of the ovalbumin or lysozyme genes fused to the marker gene bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)...
  44. GENETIC APPROACH TO INSULIN SIGNALING
    FREDERICK STANLEY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of chimeric plasmids consisting of 5'-flanking DNA from the prolactin gene ligated to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene in GH cells...
  45. MECHANISMS OF C-MYC ONCOGENE ACTION
    SVEND FREYTAG; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Stable cell lines that contain chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) minigenes under the transcriptional control of the pro alpha 2(I) collagen gene ..
  46. CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDES & GROWTH HORMONE GENE EXPRESSION
    RICHARD COPP; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..fusion genes containing various 5'-flanking DNA segments of the rat GH gene linked to coding sequences for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) or in other expression vectors will be analyzed after DNA transfection into rat ..
  47. FUSION AND NUCLEAR RESCUE DOMAINS IN DYSGENIC MICE
    JEANNE POWELL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Biochemical quantification of the fusion will be determined by the production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity following addition of similar cell types from transgenic mice carrying a CAT ..
  48. MECHANISM OF ABORTIVE INITIATION BY RNA POLYMERASE
    LILIAN HSU; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..of the aforementioned promoter set can be determined from fusion constructs by measuring the reporter enzyme chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) activity as well as by quantitating the steady-state level of CAT mRNA by nuclease-..
  49. CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY IN TRANSGENIC RATS AND MICE
    JON GORDON; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The myosin promoters will first be tested for cardiac expression in mice using the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), and then the genes for mdr1 and SOD...
  50. NEURONAL-GLIAL DIFFERENTIATION
    Noboru Sueoka; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..GFAP genomic sequences which include 5' flanking regions and have constructed S100P expression vectors with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)...
  51. Crystallographic Studies of Ribosome Functional Sites
    Susan Schroeder; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..at the peptidyl transferase active site, and guanine to adenine mutations at this site confers resistance to chloramphenicol antibiotic...
  52. TRANSGENIC ANM MODEL/PANCREATIC DUCT CELL ADENOCARCINOMA
    Marsha Frazier; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..prepare a series of constructs composed of deletion mutants of the human and mouse CA II gene linked to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene which will be utilized as a reported sequence...
  53. TRANSLATIONAL REGULATION OF PREPROSOMATOSTATIN
    Ann Danoff; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..the 5' untranslated region of ppSRIF 11 can attenuate translation of heterologous "reporter" proteins such as chloramphenicol acetyl transferase and globin, and investigate if this region can function in an orientatation independent ("..
  54. Maternal Lifestyle Study
    Shahnaz Duara; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The hyperoxia management of newborns in the 1950's resulting in epidemic blindness, and the chloramphenicol induced gray baby syndrome, are only two examples of why a clinical research network of experienced ..
  55. MECHANISMS OF GENE REGULATION IN MYELOPOIESIS
    James Downing; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Transcriptional regulatory sequences will be inserted upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and tested for their ability to program the expression of this "reporter gene" ..
  56. MECHANISTIC APPROACHES TO HSV-2 INDUCED TRANSFORMATION
    Clinton Jones; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..mtrIII play a key role in HSV-2 mediated transformation and gene expression? A reporter gene, the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, will be utilized to correlate the transcriptional enhancer activity of mtrIII with ..
  57. CHROMOSOME TRANSLOCATED ONCOGENES AND NEOPLASIA
    KENNETH MARCU; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..e., chloramphenicol acetyl transferase or CAT) in fibroblasts and different lymphoid cell types...
  58. MECHANISMS OF STEROID HORMONE-REGULATED TRANSCRIPTION
    David Peterson; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..been well characterized; promoter activity will be monitored by expression of a linked reporter gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as well as by direct analysis of MMTV transcripts...
  59. NUCLEOSIDE PHOSPHORYLASE GENE INSERTION AND EXPRESSION
    R McIvor; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Various portions of sequence from the upstream flank of the PNP gene, fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, will be analyzed for gene expression activity in transfection studies...
  60. REGULATION OF ACTIN GENE EXPRESSION
    KAREN KATULA; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..b>Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)...
  61. TRANSGENIC MICE FOR CUTANEOUS PHOTOTOXICOLOGY TESTING
    Eric Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..genetically hairless transgenic mice expressing the human elastin promoter (EP) linked to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), in the Crl: SKH1-hrBR strain that has been standardized for Phototoxicology testing...
  62. Postsynthetic Modifications of Bacterial Membrane Lipids
    John Cronan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These processes will be studied by a combination of biochemical, genetic, and molecular biological approaches including tests of pathogenesis in a mouse model system ..