Genomes and Genes
Summary: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Publications290 found, 100 shown here
- Multiresidue determination of fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol antibiotics in urban waters in ChinaXianzhi Peng
State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute for Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People s Republic of China
Environ Toxicol Chem 27:73-9. 2008..determine multiclass antibiotic residues, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol in urban riverine water and wastewater by off-line solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid ..
- Microarray expression profiling of Yersinia pestis in response to chloramphenicolJingfu Qiu
Laboratory of Analytical Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, National Center for Biomedical Analysis, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
FEMS Microbiol Lett 263:26-31. 2006..Human plague can be effectively controlled by timely antibiotic administration, chloramphenicol being a drug of choice...
- mexEF-oprN multidrug efflux operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: regulation by the MexT activator in response to nitrosative stress and chloramphenicolHossam Fetar
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:508-14. 2011..In both instances, this GSNO-inducible expression was dependent upon MexT. Chloramphenicol, a nitroaromatic antimicrobial that is a substrate for MexEF-OprN, was shown to induce mexEF-oprN but not ..
- Replacement of catalytic histidine-195 of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase: evidence for a general base role for glutamateA Lewendon
Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, U K
Biochemistry 33:1944-50. 1994The imidazole N epsilon 2 of His-195 plays an essential part in the proposed general base mechanism of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), hydrogen bonding to and a abstracting a proton from the primary hydroxyl group of ..
- Chloramphenicol causes mitochondrial stress, decreases ATP biosynthesis, induces matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression, and solid-tumor cell invasionChing Hao Li
Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Toxicol Sci 116:140-50. 2010Overuse and abuse of antibiotics can increase the risk of cancer. Chloramphenicol can inhibit both bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis, causing mitochondrial stress and decreased ATP biosynthesis...
- Development and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticle formulation for ophthalmic delivery of chloramphenicol using a Box-Behnken designJifu Hao
College of Pharmacy, Taishan Medical University, Taian, PR China
Int J Nanomedicine 6:683-92. 2011The purpose of the present study was to optimize a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) of chloramphenicol by investigating the relationship between design factors and experimental data using response surface methodology...
- A new mechanism for chloramphenicol, florfenicol and clindamycin resistance: methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA at A2503Corinna Kehrenberg
Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Höltystrasse 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
Mol Microbiol 57:1064-73. 2005The gene product of cfr from Staphylococcus sciuri confers resistance to chloramphenicol, florfenicol and clindamycin in Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli...
- A set of temperature sensitive-replication/-segregation and temperature resistant plasmid vectors with different copy numbers and in an isogenic background (chloramphenicol, kanamycin, lacZ, repA, par, polA)T Hashimoto-Gotoh
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Research Institute for Geriatrics and Neurological Diseases, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
Gene 241:185-91. 2000A set of plasmid vectors conferring chloramphenicol resistance (Cm(R)), 3064bp in size, or kanamycin resistance (Km(R)), 2972bp in size, were developed, having multiple cloning sites in lacZ' genes for alpha-complementation...
- Suppressing glioblastoma stem cell function by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition with chloramphenicol or disulfiram as a new treatment adjunct: an hypothesisRichard E Kast
University of Vermont, 2 Church Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 4:314-7. 2009..We have three old yet potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on the market- chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, and disulfiram- they should be investigated as adjuncts in glioblastoma chemotherapy...
- In vitro selection and characterization of DNA aptamers recognizing chloramphenicolJaytry Mehta
University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan, Antwerp, Belgium
J Biotechnol 155:361-9. 2011b>Chloramphenicol (Cam), although an effective antibiotic, has lost favour due to some fatal side effects. Thus there is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive methods to detect residues in food, feed and environment...
- Chromatographic evaluation of polymers imprinted with analogs of chloramphenicol and application to selective solid-phase extractionChristina Schirmer
Department of Safety and Quality of Milk and Fish Products, Max Rubner Institute, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Hermann Weigmann Str 1, 24103 Kiel, Germany
Anal Bioanal Chem 394:2249-55. 2009To obtain a highly selective material for the antibiotic chloramphenicol, which has several harmful side effects in humans, different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared...
- Antibiotics and Wolbachia in filarial nematodes: antifilarial activity of rifampicin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol against Onchocerca gutturosa, Onchocerca lienalis and Brugia pahangiS Townson
Tropical Parasitic Diseases Unit, Northwick Park Institute for Medical Research, Harrow, UK
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 94:801-16. 2000The activity against filarial parasites of the antibiotics rifampicin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol was examined...
- Distribution of florfenicol resistance genes fexA and cfr among chloramphenicol-resistant Staphylococcus isolatesCorinna Kehrenberg
Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystr 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1156-63. 2006A total of 302 chloramphenicol-resistant Staphylococcus isolates were screened for the presence of the florfenicol/chloramphenicol resistance genes fexA and cfr and their localization on mobile genetic elements...
- Characterization of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli associated with bovine diarrheaD G White
North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
J Clin Microbiol 38:4593-8. 2000..The flo gene, which confers resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol, has previously been identified in Photobacterium piscicida and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104...
- Fusogenicity of the Coxiella burnetii parasitophorous vacuoleDale Howe
University of Wyoming, Department of Molecular Biology, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 3944, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 990:556-62. 2003..of infection of approximately 10 and simultaneously treated with bacteriostatic concentrations of chloramphenicol or carbenicillin. At 96 h post-infection, cells were viewed by phase contrast microscopy for PV maturation...
- Treatment of enteric fever in children on the basis of current trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi AV Manchanda
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Chacha Nehru Children Hospital, Geeta Colony, New Delhi 110 031, India
Indian J Med Microbiol 24:101-6. 2006Recent reports indicate decreased susceptibility of S. typhi to fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin. Chloramphenicol has been suggested as first line therapy of enteric fever in many studies...
- 4-alkoxy and 4-thioalkoxyquinoline derivatives as chemosensitizers for the chloramphenicol-resistant clinical Enterobacter aerogenes 27 strainSandrine Gallo
GERCTOP UMR CNRS 6009, IFR 48, Fac Pharmacie, Université de Méditerranée, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France
Int J Antimicrob Agents 22:270-3. 2003..Strains resistant to chloramphenicol are frequently isolated...
- Linkage of determinants for streptogramin A, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, and chloramphenicol resistance on a conjugative plasmid in Enterococcus faecium and dissemination of this cluster among streptogramin-resistant enterococciG Werner
Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany
Int J Med Microbiol 290:543-8. 2000....
- The gene cluster for chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 includes novel shikimate pathway homologues and a monomodular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase geneJ He
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1
Microbiology 147:2817-29. 2001..Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 chromosome flanking pabAB, an amino-deoxychorismate synthase gene needed for chloramphenicol (Cm) production, were examined for involvement in biosynthesis of the antibiotic...
- Mitochondrial DNA deletions and chloramphenicol treatment stimulate the autophagic transcript ATG12Alessandro Prigione
Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Technologies, University of Milan Bicocca, Monza, Italy
Autophagy 3:377-80. 2007..However, the bioenergetic inhibitor rotenone does not induce ATG12. We show here that chloramphenicol, which inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis, induces ATG12, and that mtDNA deletions result in an ..
- Failure of chloramphenicol prophylaxis to reduce the frequency of abscess formation as a complication of envenoming by Bothrops snakes in Brazil: a double-blind randomized controlled trialM T Jorge
Departamento de Clinica Medica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:529-34. 2004..Bothrops, admitted to two hospitals in Brazil, between 1990 and 1996, were randomized to receive either oral chloramphenicol (500 mg every six hours for five days) or placebo...
- Evidence for chloramphenicol/H+ antiport in Cmr (MdfA) system of Escherichia coli and properties of the antiporterT Mine
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama, 700 8530, Japan
J Biochem 124:187-93. 1998We detected chloramphenicol/H+ antiport activity in membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli and cloned a gene for the antiporter from chromosomal DNA of E. coli. Introduction of the gene into E...
- An amperometric chloramphenicol immunosensor based on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles modified-dendrimer bonded conducting polymerDong Min Kim
Department of Chemistry and Institute of BioPhysio Sensor Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609 735, South Korea
Biosens Bioelectron 25:1781-8. 2010An amperometric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (anti-CAT) antibody on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) modified-dendrimer that was bonded to the ..
- Re-emerging chloramphenicol sensitivity and emerging low level ciprofloxacin resistance among Salmonella enterica serotype typhi isolates in North IndiaVarsha Gupta
Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital Sec 32, Chandigarh, Punjab 160030, India
Trop Doct 39:28-30. 2009..of typhoid fever with the emergence and worldwide spread of Salmonella enterica typhi strains resistant to chloramphenicol. However, the rampant use of ciprofloxacin gradually led to an increase in its minimum inhibitory ..
- A conserved chloramphenicol binding site at the entrance to the ribosomal peptide exit tunnelKatherine S Long
Department of Biological Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, Sølvgade 83H, DK 1307 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Nucleic Acids Res 31:7208-15. 2003The antibiotic chloramphenicol produces modifications in 23S rRNA when bound to ribosomes from the bacterium Escherichia coli and the archaeon Halobacterium halobium and irradiated with 365 nm light...
- Chloramphenicol and florfenicol susceptibility of fish-pathogenic bacteria isolated in France: comparison of minimum inhibitory concentration, using recommended provisory standards for fish bacteriaC Michel
Unite de Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaires, Equipe Infection et Immunité des Poissons, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches de Jouy en Josas, Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
J Appl Microbiol 95:1008-15. 2003..The last species was screened on two media (diluted Mueller-Hinton and peptone-enriched Anacker and Ordal), both supplemented with horse serum...
- In vitro post-antibiotic effect of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, beta-lactams, tetracyclines, vancomycin, clindamycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin and rifampicin on Bacillus anthracisA Athamna
The Triangle Research and Development Center, Kfar Qaraa, Israel
J Antimicrob Chemother 53:609-15. 2004..The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of 19 antibacterial agents against two strains of Bacillus anthracis (ST-1 and Sterne strains)...
- High resolution studies of the Afa/Dr adhesin DraE and its interaction with chloramphenicolDavid Pettigrew
Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 279:46851-7. 2004..One such difference is disruption of the interaction between DraE and CD55 by chloramphenicol, whereas binding of AfaE-III to CD55 is unaffected...
- RNA aptamers to the peptidyl transferase inhibitor chloramphenicolD H Burke
Department of Molecular, Cellular and Development Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0347, USA
Chem Biol 4:833-43. 1997..Specifically, the antibiotic chloramphenicol (Cam) naturally binds bacterial ribosomes in the 'peptidyl transferase loop' of 23S ribosomal RNA to inhibit ..
- Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferaseWeixin Tao
Department of Medical Bioscience, Dong A University, Busan 604 714, Korea
J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:1203-10. 2011..EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in ..
- The DNA sequence of an IS/-flanked transposon coding for resistance to chloramphenicol and fusidic acidR Marcoli
FEBS Lett 110:11-4. 1980
- A sensitive immunoassay based on direct hapten coated format and biotin-streptavidin system for the detection of chloramphenicolNa Sai
School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tian Jin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Talanta 82:1113-21. 2010A novel enzyme liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
- Primary structure of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specified by R plasmidsW V Shaw
Nature 282:870-2. 1979Naturally occurring isolates of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria commonly synthesise chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3...
- Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in KenyaG M Kikuvi
Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Microb Drug Resist 13:62-8. 2007The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Kenya and the role of plasmids in the spread of the resistance...
- Profound cardioprotection with chloramphenicol succinate in the swine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injuryJavier A Sala-Mercado
Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Circulation 122:S179-84. 2010..Our aim was to test this paradigm in a clinically relevant, large animal model of acute myocardial infarction...
- Nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance transposon Tn9N K Alton
Nature 282:864-9. 1979..of two direct repeats of the insertion sequence IS1 flanking a region of 1,102 base pairs which determines chloramphenicol resistance...
- Inactivation of chloramphenicol and florfenicol by a novel chloramphenicol hydrolaseWeixin Tao
Department of Medicinal Biotechnology, Dong A University, Busan, Republic of Korea
Appl Environ Microbiol 78:6295-301. 2012b>Chloramphenicol and florfenicol are broad-spectrum antibiotics. Although the bacterial resistance mechanisms to these antibiotics have been well documented, hydrolysis of these antibiotics has not been reported in detail...
- Axial filament formation in Bacillus subtilis: induction of nucleoids of increasing length after addition of chloramphenicol to exponential-phase cultures approaching stationary phaseJ E Bylund
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140
J Bacteriol 175:1886-90. 1993When chloramphenicol was added to a culture of Bacillus subtilis in early exponential growth, microscopic observation of cells stained by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole showed nucleoids that had changed in appearance from irregular ..
- A microflow chemiluminescence system for determination of chloramphenicol in honey with preconcentration using a molecularly imprinted polymerWisanu Thongchai
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Talanta 82:560-6. 2010..incorporating a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) preconcentration step was used for the determination of chloramphenicol in honey samples...
- The protein synthesis inhibitors, oxazolidinones and chloramphenicol, cause extensive translational inaccuracy in vivoJill Thompson
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
J Mol Biol 322:273-9. 2002..Both promoted highly significant frameshifting and nonsense suppression. Chloramphenicol, a peptidyl transferase inhibitor, affected translational fidelity in a similar fashion...
- Molecularly imprinted polymers for on-line clean up and preconcentration of chloramphenicol prior to its voltammetric determinationM L Mena
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
Anal Bioanal Chem 376:18-25. 2003..MIP) as a selective solid-phase extraction sorbent for the clean-up and preconcentration of the antibiotic chloramphenicol is described...
- Simple determination of betamethasone and chloramphenicol in a pharmaceutical preparation using a short monolithic column coupled to a sequential injection systemDalibor Satinsky
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
J Sep Sci 29:2494-9. 2006..on a reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) technique for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and betamethasone in pharmaceutical eye drops...
- Erythromycin- and chloramphenicol-induced ribosomal assembly defects are secondary effects of protein synthesis inhibitionTriinu Siibak
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Estonia
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:563-71. 2009..Here we demonstrate that erythromycin and chloramphenicol, inhibitors of the large ribosomal subunit, affect the assembly of both the large and small subunits...
- Surface plasmon resonance assay for chloramphenicolJing Yuan
Biosensors and Biomeasurement, The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand, HortResearch Ruakura, Private Bag 3123, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand
Anal Chem 80:8329-33. 2008We report a rapid and ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay of chloramphenicol (CAP) by using large gold nanoparticles (40 nm) for signal enhancement on a mixed self-assembled monolayer (mSAM) sensor surface...
- Electrochemical analysis of chloramphenicol using boron-doped diamond electrode applied to a flow-injection systemSuchada Chuanuwatanakul
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Anal Sci 24:493-8. 2008The electrochemical properties of chloramphenicol at a boron-doped diamond thin-film (BDD) electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry. The highest current response of chloramphenicol was obtained with phosphate buffer, pH 6 (0...
- Advantages of molecularly imprinted polymers LC-ESI-MS/MS for the selective extraction and quantification of chloramphenicol in milk-based matrixes. comparison with a classical sample preparationRayane Mohamed
Nestle Research Center, Nestec Limited, P O Box 44, Vers chez les Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
Anal Chem 79:9557-65. 2007A simple and fast selective extraction of the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) from milk (raw milk, skimmed milk, and milk powder) using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbent is described...
- Occurrences and ecological risks of roxithromycin, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol in the Han River, KoreaKyungho Choi
School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 799, Korea
Environ Toxicol Chem 27:711-9. 2008We evaluated the occurrence of three antibiotics (roxithromycin, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol) in surface water and effluents from several sewage treatment plants (STPs) on the Han River, Korea...
- Synergism of Leu-Lys rich antimicrobial peptides and chloramphenicol against bacterial cellsYoonkyung Park
Research Center for Proteineous Materials, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk dong, Dong Ku, Kwangju 501 759, Korea
Biochim Biophys Acta 1764:24-32. 2006..In addition, P5 and chloramphenicol has potent synergistic effect against tested cell lines...
- Single live cell imaging of chromosomes in chloramphenicol-induced filamentous Pseudomonas aeruginosaChristina Steel
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Biochemistry 43:175-82. 2004..The quantity of chromosomes and the length of the filamentous wild-type cells increase as the chloramphenicol concentration increases to 50 and 250 microg/mL, suggesting that chloramphenicol induces the filamentation...
- Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technologyNan Liu
Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050, China
Anal Chim Acta 632:128-34. 2009Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed...
- Chloramphenicol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with decreased transferrin receptor expression and ferritin synthesis in K562 cells and is unrelated to IRE-IRP interactionsL M Leiter
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Cell Physiol 180:334-44. 1999b>Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that consistently suppresses the bone marrow and induces sideroblastic anemia. It is also a rare cause of aplastic anemia...
- Chloramphenicol versus ampicillin plus gentamicin for community acquired very severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months in low resource settings: multicentre randomised controlled trial (SPEAR study)Rai Asghar
Rawalpindi General Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
BMJ 336:80-4. 2008To evaluate whether five days' treatment with injectable ampicillin plus gentamicin compared with chloramphenicol reduces treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months with community acquired very severe pneumonia in low resource ..
- Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicolStefan Schwarz
Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystrasse 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
FEMS Microbiol Rev 28:519-42. 2004b>Chloramphenicol (Cm) and its fluorinated derivative florfenicol (Ff) represent highly potent inhibitors of bacterial protein biosynthesis...
- Gatifloxacin versus chloramphenicol for uncomplicated enteric fever: an open-label, randomised, controlled trialAmit Arjyal
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal
Lancet Infect Dis 11:445-54. 2011We aimed to investigate whether gatifloxacin, a new generation and affordable fluoroquinolone, is better than chloramphenicol for the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever in children and adults.
- Maturation of the Coxiella burnetii parasitophorous vacuole requires bacterial protein synthesis but not replicationDale Howe
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82071 3944, USA
Cell Microbiol 5:469-80. 2003..PV were not observed in cells treated with a bacteriostatic concentration of the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol. Rather, fluorescence microscopy of individual cells revealed multiple, acidic PV harbouring a single ..
- Surface plasmon resonance assay for chloramphenicol without surface regenerationJing Yuan
Biosensors and Biomeasurement, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research, Hamilton, Waikato 2001, New Zealand
Anal Biochem 390:97-9. 2009..plasmon resonance (SPR) assay without surface regeneration was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
- Competitive immunoassay by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence for the trace detection of chloramphenicol in animal-derived foodsCan Zhang
Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, P R China
Electrophoresis 29:3422-8. 2008A competitive immunoassay using CE with an LIF detector was developed for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP)...
- Molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicolChristina Schirmer
Department of Safety and Quality of Milk and Fish Products, Max Rubner Institute, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Hermann Weigmann Str 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany
Anal Bioanal Chem 392:223-9. 2008A variety of bulk polymers for the selective separation of chloramphenicol were synthesised from 2-vinylpyridine, diethylaminoethyl methacrylate or methacrylic acid monomers...
- Role of mexA-mexB-oprM in antibiotic efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosaX Z Li
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39:1948-53. 1995..Finally, a single-step mutant over-producing MexAB-OprM accumulated less tetracycline and chloramphenicol than the parent strain and was more resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, including beta-..
- Persistence of Salmonellae in blood and bone marrow: randomized controlled trial comparing ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol treatments against enteric feverM Hussein Gasem
Department of Medicine, Dr Kariadi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1727-31. 2003..a randomized controlled trial involving 55 adult patients with enteric fever to compare ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Blood and bone marrow cultures and cytokine profiles during therapy were done to compare the clinical and ..
- Antibacterial synergism of novel antibiotic peptides with chloramphenicolYoonkyung Park
Research Center for Proteineous Materials, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk dong, Dong Ku, Kwangju 501 759, Republic of Korea
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 321:109-15. 2004..We found that A3 acted synergistically with chloramphenicol against bacterial cells...
- Studies on the haemotoxicity of chloramphenicol succinate in the Dunkin Hartley guinea pigJ A Turton
Centre for Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29 39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
Int J Exp Pathol 83:225-38. 2002In man, chloramphenicol (CAP), induces two major haemotoxic effects. First, a reversible, dose-related reticulocytopenia and anaemia developing during treatment...
- Sensitive voltammetric determination of chloramphenicol by using single-wall carbon nanotube-gold nanoparticle-ionic liquid composite film modified glassy carbon electrodesFei Xiao
Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China
Anal Chim Acta 596:79-85. 2007..On it, chloramphenicol can produce a sensitive cathodic peak at -0.66 V (versus SCE) in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solutions...
- Development of an improved method for trace analysis of chloramphenicol using molecularly imprinted polymersBrian Boyd
MIP Technologies AB, Box 737, Lund 22007, Sweden
J Chromatogr A 1174:63-71. 2007A confirmatory method is described for the determination of the illegal antibiotic chloramphenicol using a specifically developed molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as the sample clean-up technique...
- Rollback of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi resistance to chloramphenicol and other antimicrobials in Kolkata, IndiaShanta Dutta
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1662-3. 2005
- Randomized comparative study of fleroxacin and chloramphenicol in typhoid feverK Arnold
Roche Asian Research Foundation, Hong Kong
Am J Med 94:195S-200S. 1993This study compared fleroxacin, 400 mg daily for 7 or 14 days, with chloramphenicol, 50 mg/kg per day for 14 days, for the treatment of patients with typhoid fever in a multicenter study...
- Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grassBjorn Berendsen
RIKILT, Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, P O Box 230, 6700 AE, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1955-63. 2010b>Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins...
- Molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of chloramphenicol in fish tissues coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography determinationLinyuan Guo
Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China
Anal Bioanal Chem 392:1431-8. 2008..MSPD) sorbent, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the efficient determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in fish tissues are studied...
- Efflux of chloramphenicol by the CmlA1 proteinAnthony M George
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, P O Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia
FEMS Microbiol Lett 209:209-13. 2002The cmlA1 gene cassette contains the cmlA1 gene, that confers resistance to chloramphenicol, as well as a promoter and translational attenuation signals, and expression of cmlA1 is inducible by low concentrations of chloramphenicol...
- Liposomal phospholipid preparations of chloramphenicol for ophthalmic applicationsSherif S Mahmoud
Biophysics Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt
J Pharm Sci 97:2691-701. 2008..has prompted the pursuit of ways to prepare drug-encapsulating liposomes that enable bulk release of the drug chloramphenicol (CAP) once the liposomal structure is perturbed...
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus ocular surface infection efficacy of chloramphenicol eye dropsMasahiko Fukuda
Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka Sayama City, Japan
Cornea 21:S86-9. 2002..In this paper we report the prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS in ocular surface infections...
- Modification of outer membrane protein profile and evidence suggesting an active drug pump in Enterobacter aerogenes clinical strainsStéphane Gayet
EA2197 IFR 48, Faculte de Medecine, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 UMR 5048, CNRS, U554 INSERM, 34090 Montpellier, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1555-9. 2003..aerogenes that exhibited phenotypes of multiresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and kanamycin were investigated...
- Role of topical antibiotics in hip surgery. A prospective randomised studyS Kamath
Orthopaedics, Leighton Hospital, Crewe, CW1 4QJ, UK
Injury 36:783-7. 2005..We carried out a randomised prospective trial to study the role of topical chloramphenicol ointment application on postoperative wounds following surgeries for hip fractures.
- Influence on mitochondria and cytotoxicity of different antibiotics administered in high concentrations on primary human osteoblasts and cell linesN Duewelhenke
Klinik und Poliklinik für Orthopädie, Universitätsklinikum Köln, Joseph Stelzmann Str 24, 50931 Koln, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:54-63. 2007..High concentrations of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, rifampin, tetracycline, and linezolid during 48 h of incubation inhibited proliferation and metabolic ..
- Method for regulated expression of single-copy efflux pump genes in a surrogate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain: identification of the BpeEF-OprC chloramphenicol and trimethoprim efflux pump of Burkholderia pseudomallei 1026bAyush Kumar
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1682, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3460-3. 2006..Using this method, the Burkholderia pseudomallei bpeEF-oprC operon was shown to encode a chloramphenicol and trimethoprim efflux pump.
- Laboratory guidelines for monitoring of antimicrobial drugs. National Academy of Clinical BiochemistryC A Hammett-Stabler
Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville 32610, USA
Clin Chem 44:1129-40. 1998..Those that are monitored include the aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin), chloramphenicol, and in some cases, vancomycin...
- A randomized comparison of oral chloramphenicol versus ofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in LaosSimmaly Phongmany
Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99:451-8. 2005We conducted a randomized open trial of oral chloramphenicol (50mg/kg/day in four divided doses for 14 days) versus ofloxacin (15 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 3 days) in 50 adults with culture-confirmed uncomplicated typhoid fever ..
- Chloramphenicol and expression of multidrug efflux pump in Enterobacter aerogenesDidier Ghisalberti
Enveloppe Bacterienne, Perméabilité et Antibiotiques, EA2197, IFR48, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 328:1113-8. 2005b>Chloramphenicol has been reported to act as an inducer of the multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli...
- Ceftriaxone as effective as long-acting chloramphenicol in short-course treatment of meningococcal meningitis during epidemics: a randomised non-inferiority studyN Nathan
Epicentre, Paris, France
Lancet 366:308-13. 2005..The current recommended treatment by WHO is short-course long-acting oily chloramphenicol. Continuation of the production of this drug is uncertain, so simple alternatives need to be found...
- Novel mechanism of resistance to oxazolidinones, macrolides, and chloramphenicol in ribosomal protein L4 of the pneumococcusNicole Wolter
Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, P O Box 1038, Johannesburg, 2000, South Africa
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3554-7. 2005Two clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, identified as resistant to macrolides and chloramphenicol and nonsusceptible to linezolid, were found to contain 6-bp deletions in the gene encoding riboprotein L4...
- Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetics in African children with severe malariaGilbert O Kokwaro
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
J Trop Pediatr 52:239-43. 2006The objective of this study was to determine if the current dosage regimen for chloramphenicol CAP administered to children with severe malaria SM for presumptive treatment of concomitant bacterial meningitis achieves steady state plasma ..
- Chloramphenicol: a reviewHoward J Balbi
Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Good Samaritan Hospital Medical Center, West Islip, NY, USA
Pediatr Rev 25:284-8. 2004
- Detection and prevalence of active drug efflux mechanism in various multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from TurkeyUfuk Over Hasdemir
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
J Clin Microbiol 42:2701-6. 2004..MICs of various antibiotics, including quinolones, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and beta-lactams, for those strains were determined either with or without the efflux pump ..
- Chloramphenicol resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia: impact of prior fluoroquinolone use?Carolyn V Gould
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25:138-45. 2004The prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has increased markedly during the past decade. Few data exist regarding the epidemiology of resistance of VRE to chloramphenicol, one of the few therapeutic options.
- Effect of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-beta-naphthylamide on the MIC values of the quinolones, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, in Escherichia coli isolates of different originYolanda Sáenz
J Antimicrob Chemother 53:544-5. 2004
- Role of coresistance in the development of resistance to chloramphenicol in Escherichia coli isolated from sick cattle and pigsKazuki Harada
National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1 15 1 Tokura, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185 8511, Japan
Am J Vet Res 67:230-5. 2006To determine the cause of persistent resistance to chloramphenicol (CP) after the ban on its use in food-producing animals in several countries.
- Association of resistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and quinolones with changes in major outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide in Burkholderia cepaciaJ M Rajyaguru
Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease Research, Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children and Women, Orlando, FL 32806, USA
J Antimicrob Chemother 40:803-9. 1997..We isolated antibiotic-resistant mutants by stepwise exposure to chloramphenicol (Chlor) and to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (T/S) for four B...
- Chloramphenicol-induced mitochondrial stress increases p21 expression and prevents cell apoptosis through a p21-dependent pathwayChing Hao Li
Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
J Biol Chem 280:26193-9. 2005Pretreatment of HepG2 and H1299 cells with chloramphenicol rendered the cells resistant to mitomycin-induced apoptosis. Both mitomycin-induced caspase 3 activity and PARP activation were also inhibited...
- Effects of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and thiamphenicol on growth of algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Isochrysis galbana, and Tetraselmis chuiHong Thih Lai
Department of Aquatic Biosciences, National Chiayi University, 300 University Rd, Chiayi, 60004 Taiwan, Republic of China
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:329-34. 2009..Different dose levels of chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF), and thiamphenicol (TAP) were added to cultures of one freshwater green alga, ..
- Characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in neonatal swineKenneth M Bischoff
Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, College Station, Texas 77845, USA
J Clin Microbiol 40:389-94. 2002..Interestingly, 53% of swine E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol (CHL), an antibiotic whose use in food animals has been prohibited in the United States since the mid-1980s...
- Chloramphenicol versus benzylpenicillin and gentamicin for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children in Papua New Guinea: a randomised trialTrevor Duke
Department of Paediatrics, Goroka Base Hospital, PO Box 392, Goroka, Papua New Guinea
Lancet 359:474-80. 2002..We aimed to establish whether the combination of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin or chloramphenicol would be better as first-line treatment in children with severe pneumonia in Papua New Guinea.
- The pdx genetic marker adjacent to the chloramphenicol biosynthesis gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: functional characterizationN Magarvey
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1
Microbiology 147:2103-12. 2001..requirement for pyridoxal (pdx) and is a marker for the genetically mapped cluster of genes associated with chloramphenicol biosynthesis. A gene regulating salvage synthesis of vitamin B6 cofactors in S...
- Structural and functional study of the phenicol-specific efflux pump FloR belonging to the major facilitator superfamilyMartine Braibant
UR86 Bio Agresseurs, santé, Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherche de Tours, 37380 Nouzilly, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2965-71. 2005The florfenicol-chloramphenicol resistance gene floR from Salmonella enterica was previously identified and postulated to belong to the major facilitator (MF) superfamily of drug exporters...
- Chloramphenicol, erythromycin, carbomycin and vernamycin B protect overlapping sites in the peptidyl transferase region of 23S ribosomal RNAD Moazed
Thimann Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064
Biochimie 69:879-84. 1987..sulfate and kethoxal, we have probed antibiotic-ribosome complexes, and identified sites of interaction of chloramphenicol, erythromycin, carbomycin, vernamycin B and viomycin with 23S rRNA...
- Treatment of acute neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis: a comparison of fucidic acid to chloramphenicol eye dropsErik Kreyberg Normann
Aker University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Acta Ophthalmol Scand 80:183-7. 2002To compare the clinical and bacteriological effects of fucidic acid (Fucithalmic: 1.0%) and chloramphenicol (Minims(R): 0.5%) eye drops in neonates with a clinical diagnosis of acute conjunctivitis of suspected bacterial origin.
- The crystal structures of chloramphenicol phosphotransferase reveal a novel inactivation mechanismT Izard
Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
EMBO J 19:2690-700. 2000b>Chloramphenicol (Cm), produced by the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, is an inhibitor of bacterial ribosomal peptidyltransferase activity...
- The importance of highly conserved nucleotides in the binding region of chloramphenicol at the peptidyl transfer centre of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNAB Vester
Biostructural Chemistry, Kemisk Institut, Aarhus C, Denmark
EMBO J 7:3577-87. 1988..has been localized at the centre of domain V of 23S-like ribosomal RNA (rRNA) primarily on the basis of a chloramphenicol binding site...
- Refined crystal structure of type III chloramphenicol acetyltransferase at 1.75 A resolutionA G Leslie
Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, U K
J Mol Biol 213:167-86. 1990High level bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol is generally due to O-acetylation of the antibiotic in a reaction catalysed by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT, EC 22.214.171.124) in which acetyl-coenzyme A is the acyl donor...
- Inhibitors of antibiotic efflux pump in resistant Enterobacter aerogenes strainsMonique Malléa
EA2197, IFR48, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293:1370-3. 2002..parameters which contribute to the efficacy of the efflux mechanism, such as energy, flux selectivity, or functional assembly of the membrane complex, increases the intracellular chloramphenicol concentration in resistant isolates.
- Characterization of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella Kinshasa from dairy calves in TexasK M Bischoff
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, TX, USA
Lett Appl Microbiol 38:140-5. 2004..To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolated from a central Texas dairy calf farm that raises animals for dairy-beef production...
- Gene replacement method for determining conditions in which Bacillus subtilis genes are essential or dispensable for cell viabilityH Yakhnin
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:382-6. 2004..This method utilizes a chloramphenicol-resistant plasmid containing a temperature-sensitive (ts) replication origin...
- DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA VIRUSES IN TRICHOMONAS & GIARDIAC Wang; Fiscal Year: 1993..g., chloramphenicol acetyltransferase or adenosine deaminase (for potential antigiardiasis action, see text)...
- NUCLEIC ACID PROBES OF RIBOSOMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONBARRY COOPERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003..use, such as tetracycline, erythromycin and other macrolides, neomycin and other aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol target ribosomes as their sites of action...
- Single Molecule Dynamics of mRNA TranslationYale E Goldman; Fiscal Year: 2010..coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CATIII). 3. Optimize the reagents employed in the TIRFM-FRET approach...
- Single Molecule Dynamics of mRNA TranslationBARRY COOPERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009..coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CATIII). 3. Optimize the reagents employed in the TIRFM-FRET approach...
- Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Endothelial Cell PhenotypeJohn F Keaney; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will then dissociate the metabolic stress response from mitochondrial biogenesis using pharmacologic (chloramphenicol) and molecular (Tfam) tools and determine the implications for endothelial protection...
- PERMEABILITY OF THE EPIDEMIC TYPHUS RICKETTSIAHerbert Winkler; Fiscal Year: 1993..in the exit of the rickettsiae will be defined though the use of specific phospholipase inhibitors and chloramphenicol. Appropriate phospholipase inhibitors may allow the rickettsiae to grow and divide in the originally infected ..
- GENETIC COMPETENCE IN STREPTOCCUS MUTANS BIOFILMSDennis Cvitkovitch; Fiscal Year: 2001..It relies on construction of a heterodiploid mutant library of S. mutans with a chloramphenicol resistance-amylase gene fusion (cat-amy) under control of randomly inserted S. mutans promoters...
- High Throughput Protein Production by Novel E. coli Expression-Secretion SystemWILLIAM MACCONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2006..coli outer membrane porin (OmpF), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), or L-asparagenase genes to the c-terminal 200 amino acid portions of the Hly A gene ..
- Cytochrome P450 in Reperfusion InjuryRoberta Gottlieb; Fiscal Year: 2007..We have shown that inhibition of CYP with compounds such as chloramphenicol or sulfaphenazole can reduce tissue injury following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion...
- DIETARY FAT REGULATION OF HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSIONDONALD JUMP; Fiscal Year: 1993..To corroborate the in vivo studies, S14-CAT (Sl4-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) and FAS-CAT fusion genes will be used to transfect cultured hepatocytes...
- Structure of the multidrug efflux protein AcrAPartho Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2006..coli AcrAB-TolC system, which promotes efflux of novobiocin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol among others...
- STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF THE 790 LOOP IN RIBOSOMAL RNAPhilip Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2001..In this system, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter message is translated exclusively by plasmid encoded ribosomes which cannot ..