azaperone

Summary

Summary: A butyrophenone used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A behavioral pharmacological study of mafoprazine, a new phenylpiperazine derivative
    M Yamamura
    Pharmacology Department, Tanabe Seiyaku Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan
    Jpn J Pharmacol 48:203-12. 1988
  2. ncbi Euthanasia of exotic pigs
    G A Maxwell
    Vet Rec 159:60. 2006
  3. ncbi Immobilization of black bears (Ursus americanus) with a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine
    Lisa L Wolfe
    Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526 2097, USA
    J Wildl Dis 44:748-52. 2008
  4. ncbi [Evaluation of perioperative analgesia by nociceptive flexor reflex in pigs under ketamine-azaperone-general anaesthesia]
    Ulf Rintisch
    Klinik für Klauentiere, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Freie Universitat Berlin
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 125:96-102. 2012
  5. ncbi Butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine anesthesia in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using radiotransmitter darts
    Jessica Siegal-Willott
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    J Wildl Dis 45:468-80. 2009
  6. ncbi Butorphanol and azaperone as a safe alternative for repeated chemical restraint in captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)
    R W Radcliffe
    Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, Department of Animal Health Services, Glen Rose, Texas 76043, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 31:196-200. 2000
  7. ncbi Evaluation of intramuscular butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine and nasal oxygen insufflation for the chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus
    Patrice M Mich
    Colorado State University Department of Clinical Sciences, Department of Anesthesia, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 39:480-7. 2008
  8. ncbi Provision of anaesthesia for porcine cardiac transplantation at the veterinary school in Trinidad and Tobago
    L Merritt-Charles
    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Champs Fleurs, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
    West Indian Med J 52:95-8. 2003
  9. ncbi Multi-residue analysis of tranquillizers in meat: confirmatory assays using mass spectrometry
    Y Govaert
    Food Department, Scientific Institute of Public Health Louis Pasteur, Brussels, Belgium
    Analyst 123:2507-12. 1998
  10. doi Impact of general injection anaesthesia and analgesia on post-castration behaviour and teat order of piglets
    T Schmidt
    Department of Animal Husbandry and Ecology, Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Theodor Lieser Street 11, D 06120 Halle, Germany
    Animal 6:1998-2002. 2012

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. ncbi A behavioral pharmacological study of mafoprazine, a new phenylpiperazine derivative
    M Yamamura
    Pharmacology Department, Tanabe Seiyaku Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan
    Jpn J Pharmacol 48:203-12. 1988
    ..for the prevention of aggressive behavior, were performed to compare its effects with those of an existing drug, azaperone (Stresnil). The acute toxicity of mafoprazine in mice was slightly stronger than that of azaperone...
  2. ncbi Euthanasia of exotic pigs
    G A Maxwell
    Vet Rec 159:60. 2006
  3. ncbi Immobilization of black bears (Ursus americanus) with a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine
    Lisa L Wolfe
    Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526 2097, USA
    J Wildl Dis 44:748-52. 2008
    ..captive and five free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM). The BAM drug combination was premixed using 0.5 ml butorphanol (30 mg/ml), 0...
  4. ncbi [Evaluation of perioperative analgesia by nociceptive flexor reflex in pigs under ketamine-azaperone-general anaesthesia]
    Ulf Rintisch
    Klinik für Klauentiere, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Freie Universitat Berlin
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 125:96-102. 2012
    The objective of the investigation was to evaluate quantitatively the analgesic efficacy of the Ketamine-Azaperone-general anesthesia during surgical procedures on pigs by nociceptive flexor reflexes (NFR)...
  5. ncbi Butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine anesthesia in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using radiotransmitter darts
    Jessica Siegal-Willott
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    J Wildl Dis 45:468-80. 2009
    ..58+/-0.1 mg/kg), azaperone (0.37+/-0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.19+/-0...
  6. ncbi Butorphanol and azaperone as a safe alternative for repeated chemical restraint in captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)
    R W Radcliffe
    Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, Department of Animal Health Services, Glen Rose, Texas 76043, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 31:196-200. 2000
    ..In captive rhinoceroses conditioned to routine handling, a combination of butorphanol and azaperone at mean (+/- SD) doses of 69.3 +/- 18.0 mg and 103.1 +/- 20...
  7. ncbi Evaluation of intramuscular butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine and nasal oxygen insufflation for the chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus
    Patrice M Mich
    Colorado State University Department of Clinical Sciences, Department of Anesthesia, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 39:480-7. 2008
    ..A potentially useful alternative sedation protocol includes a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM: 0.43 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.36 mg/kg azaperone, 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine)...
  8. ncbi Provision of anaesthesia for porcine cardiac transplantation at the veterinary school in Trinidad and Tobago
    L Merritt-Charles
    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Champs Fleurs, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
    West Indian Med J 52:95-8. 2003
    ..Adequate pre-medication with azaperone and a smooth induction were ensured for both pigs, which were anaesthetized simultaneously with sodium ..
  9. ncbi Multi-residue analysis of tranquillizers in meat: confirmatory assays using mass spectrometry
    Y Govaert
    Food Department, Scientific Institute of Public Health Louis Pasteur, Brussels, Belgium
    Analyst 123:2507-12. 1998
    ..developed to attempt to confirm the presence of the beta-blocker carazolol and the tranquillizers acepromazine, azaperone, chlorpromazine, propionylpromazine and xylazine in pig muscle tissues...
  10. doi Impact of general injection anaesthesia and analgesia on post-castration behaviour and teat order of piglets
    T Schmidt
    Department of Animal Husbandry and Ecology, Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Theodor Lieser Street 11, D 06120 Halle, Germany
    Animal 6:1998-2002. 2012
    Injection anaesthesia with a combination of ketamine and azaperone (K/A) is discussed as a painless alternative to commonly used non-anaesthetized castration...
  11. ncbi [Surgical treatment of lung suppuration. Comment on Nissen R (1929). The surgical treatment of lung suppurations. I. Abscess and gangrene of the lungs. Chirurg 1: 1153-1165 and (1930) II. Bronchiectases. Chirurg 2: 361-9]
    L Sunder-Plassman
    Abteilung für Thorax und Gefässchirurgie Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Germany
    Chirurg 75:206-8. 2004
  12. doi Racemic ketamine in comparison to S-ketamine in combination with azaperone and butorphanol for castration of pigs
    - Bettschart-Wolfensberger
    Equine Department, Section Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 155:669-75. 2013
    ..randomised study, 28 male 9 week old pigs of bodyweight 25 kg, were anaesthetised for castration using 5 mg/kg azaperone, 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol and 0...
  13. doi [In Process Citation]
    - Enz
    Departement für Nutztiere, Abteilung Schweinemedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultät Zürich
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 155:661-8. 2013
    ..The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow...
  14. doi 9 single fixed-time laparoscopic intrauterine insemination in pigs to produce low-diverse embryos
    K P Brüssow
    Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology FBN, Dummerstorf, Germany
    Reprod Fertil Dev 25:152. 2012
    ..The LIUI was performed 31h after hCG treatment. To that, ketamine/azaperone-anaesthetized gilts were fixed in a dorsal position, a pneumoperitoneum was produced and 3 trocar cannulas were ..
  15. ncbi Use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an American badger (Taxidea taxus)
    Laurie J Gage
    Coyote Point Museum, 1651 Coyote Point Drive, San Mateo, Califoria 94401, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 36:520-2. 2005
    ..failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. The badger was treated with 10 mg buspirone p.o. b.i.d...
  16. ncbi Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)
    Michele Miller
    Palm Beach Zoo, 1301 Summit Boulevard, West Palm Beach, Florida 33405, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 44:55-61. 2013
    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009...
  17. doi Anaesthetic complications in pigs undergoing MRI guided convection enhanced drug delivery to the brain: a case series
    Alan Jones
    School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Vet Anaesth Analg 39:647-52. 2012
    ..Pigs received azaperone and ketamine premedication to allow venous cannulation and propofol induction of anaesthesia...
  18. ncbi Resource efficiency and economic implications of alternatives to surgical castration without anaesthesia
    K de Roest
    1Research Centre on Animal Production CRPA, Reggio Emilia, Italy
    Animal 3:1522-31. 2009
    ..General anaesthesia administered by inhalation or injection of Ketamin in combination with a sedative (Azaperone, Midazolan) is more expensive...
  19. doi Post-farrowing stress management in sows by administration of azaperone: effects on piglets performance
    K Ruediger
    Institute for the Reproduction of Farm Animals Schoenow e V IFN, 16321 Bernau, Germany
    J Anim Sci 90:2331-6. 2012
    This study examined the impact of a single dose of azaperone administered to sows at the end of farrowing on piglet weight gain and mortality during the lactation period...
  20. ncbi The litterbox blues
    Sharon L Crowell-Davis
    Department of Anatomy and Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, USA
    Compend Contin Educ Vet 29:34-7. 2007
  21. ncbi Determination of residues of azaperone in the kidneys by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection
    Vesna Cerkvenik-Flajs
    Veterinary Faculty of University of Ljubljana, Institute of Food Hygiene and Bromatology, Gerbiceva 60, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Anal Chim Acta 586:374-82. 2007
    An analytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of residues of the tranquillizer azaperone (AZN) in the kidneys of slaughtered animals...
  22. ncbi Haloperidol and azaperone in drive-net captured Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica)
    G Mentaberre
    Servei d Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
    J Wildl Dis 46:923-8. 2010
    We investigated the effect of haloperidol and azaperone in drive-net captured Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). Both tranquilizers have been successfully used in a wide range of wild species for reducing postcapture stress response...
  23. ncbi Evaluation of the effects of the sedation with azaperone/acepromazine and immobilization with guaiphenesin/thiopentone in mules
    J U Carmona
    School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad de Caldas, Air mail 275, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia
    Vet Res Commun 31:125-32. 2007
  24. ncbi Experience with drugs for capture and restraint of wildebeest, impala, eland and hartebeest in Kenya
    J G Grootenhuis
    Veterinary Research Laboratory, P O Kabete, Kenya
    J Wildl Dis 12:435-43. 1976
    ..combinations of xylazine, etorphine and acepromazine, or xylazine and fentanyl, with or without the addition of azaperone. For restraint in captivity, xylazine alone proved to be satisfactory in most instances...
  25. ncbi Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen
    M Bush
    Conservation and Research Center, Smithsonian National Zoological Park, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, Virginia 22630, USA
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 75:79-84. 2004
    White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension...
  26. ncbi Induction of anaesthesia in pigs using a new alphaxalone formulation
    H Keates
    School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    Vet Rec 153:627-8. 2003
  27. ncbi Anaesthesia for castration of piglets: comparison between intranasal and intramuscular application of ketamine, climazolam and azaperone
    S M Axiak
    Division of Anaesthesiology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:395-402. 2007
    ..5 mg kg-1 and azaperone 1.0 mg kg-1, IN or IM, 10 minutes prior to castration. Physiological parameters were measured...
  28. ncbi The cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine, azaperone, detomidine, and butorphanol in field-anesthetized white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum)
    Sandra Wenger
    Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 9LT, United Kingdom
    J Zoo Wildl Med 38:380-7. 2007
    ..In the control group (n=15), the rhinoceroses were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, detomidine, and hyaluronidase administered intramuscularly...
  29. ncbi Successful treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum
    Gidona Goodman
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Vet Dermatol 18:460-3. 2007
    ..Under azaperone and butorphanol anaesthesia, the skin tumour was surgically removed...
  30. pmc Enhanced blood pressure and appetite responses to chronic central melanocortin-3/4 receptor blockade in dietary-induced obesity
    John H Dubinion
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216 4505, USA
    J Hypertens 28:1466-70. 2010
    ....
  31. ncbi Acid-base balance and ventilation during sternal and lateral recumbency in field immobilized black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) receiving oxygen insufflation: a preliminary report
    P Vdb Morkel
    Frankfurt Zoological Society, 42 Kinnersley Street, Newton Park 6045, South Africa
    J Wildl Dis 46:236-45. 2010
    ..in Namibia in March and April of 2008, from a helicopter, by remote intramuscular injection with etorphine HCl, azaperone, and hyaluronidase. Time from darting to recumbency was 6.0 (3, 15.5) min...
  32. doi Use of haloperidol and azaperone for stress control in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) captured by means of drive-nets
    Gregorio Mentaberre
    Servei d Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
    Res Vet Sci 88:531-5. 2010
    ..We studied the effect of haloperidol and azaperone on the stress response of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) through the study of physiological, haematological and ..
  33. doi Low plasma potassium in deep hypothermic cardiac arrest indicates that cardiac arrest is secondary to hypothermia: a porcine study
    Benedict Kjaergaard
    Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
    Eur J Emerg Med 17:131-5. 2010
    ..The aim of this animal study was to assess biochemical changes after anoxic circulatory arrest at hypothermia and at normothermia followed by external cooling...
  34. ncbi [Determination of azaperone and carazolol residues in animals kidney using LC-MS/MS method]
    Iwona Zawadzka
    Pracownia Badań Chemicznych Srodków Spozywczych, Zakład Higieny Weterynaryjnej, Wojewódzki Inspektorat Weterynarii, Białystok
    Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 60:19-23. 2009
    The method is presented to analyze azaperone and carazolol in pigs kidney. Samples were extracted with acetonitryle. The determination was performed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The LC was equipped with column Luna C18 Phenomenex...
  35. doi The use of in vitro technologies coupled with high resolution accurate mass LC-MS for studying drug metabolism in equine drug surveillance
    James P Scarth
    HFL Sport Science A Quotient Bioresearch Ltd Company, Newmarket Road, Fordham, Cambridgeshire, CB7 5WW, UK
    Drug Test Anal 2:1-10. 2010
    ..were used to study the phase I metabolism of eight drugs of relevance to equine drug surveillance (acepromazine, azaperone, celecoxib, fentanyl, fluphenazine, mepivacaine, methylphenidate and tripelennamine)...
  36. ncbi Butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine for immobilization of captive white-tailed deer
    Brad F Miller
    Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Wildl Dis 45:457-67. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) would provide safe and effective immobilization of captive white-tailed deer while ..
  37. doi Rapid method for the determination of tranquilizers and a beta-blocker in porcine and bovine kidney by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry
    Kamila Mitrowska
    National Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, al Partyzantow 57, 24 100 Pulawy, Poland
    Anal Chim Acta 637:185-92. 2009
    ..and confirmation of tranquilizers (chlorpromazine, propionylpromazine, acepromazine, triflupromazine, promazine, azaperone and its metabolite, azaperol) and beta-blocker (carazolol) in porcine and bovine kidney has been presented...
  38. ncbi Thermal, cardiorespiratory and cortisol responses of impala (Aepyceros melampus) to chemical immobilisation with 4 different drug combinations
    L C R Meyer
    Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 79:121-9. 2008
    ..were darted and chemically immobilised for 30 min with each of the following drug combinations: etorphine and azaperone; etorphine and medetomidine; thiafentanil and azaperone, and a thiafentanil medetomidine combination...
  39. doi Simultaneous determination of azaperone and azaperol in animal tissues by HPLC with confirmation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Yoichi Aoki
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229 1132, Japan
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:166-72. 2009
    A simple method is described for the determination of azaperone and its metabolite, azaperol, in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV)...
  40. doi A novel method for transuterine identification of piglets
    M M Birck
    Division of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Lab Anim 42:331-7. 2008
    ..The sows were sedated with azaperone and induced with propofol intravenously. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and oxygen...
  41. doi Comparison of azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine and azaperone-tiletamine-zolazepam for anaesthesia in piglets
    Mari L Heinonen
    Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Vet Anaesth Analg 36:151-7. 2009
    To investigate a combination of azaperone, detomidine, butorphanol and ketamine (DBK) in pigs and to compare it with the combination of azaperone, tiletamine and zolazepam (TZ).
  42. ncbi Chemical anesthesia of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris): results of past field studies
    D H Monson
    U S Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 32:181-9. 2001
    ..22 mg/kg and diazepam at 0.07 mg/kg. We advise the use of the opioid antagonist naltrexone at a ratio of 2:1 to the total fentanyl administered during processing...
  43. ncbi Use of azaperone and zuclopenthixol acetate to facilitate translocation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
    Matt R Read
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    J Zoo Wildl Med 33:163-5. 2002
    ..Group 1 (<1 yr old; n = 6) animals were immobilized with a combination of xylazine 1 mg/kg i.m. and azaperone 0.3 mg/kg i.m. At the end of the procedure the deer received zuclopenthixol acetate 1 mg/kg i.m...
  44. ncbi Investigation of the metabolism of azaperone in the horse
    Y C Chui
    Can Test Ltd, Vancouver, B C, Canada
    J Chromatogr 652:23-33. 1994
    Urine samples collected from a horse after intramuscular administration of 40 mg of azaperone were extracted at pH 10 before and after acid hydrolysis. The extracts were concentrated and analysed by LC-MS-MS...
  45. ncbi Pulmonary hydraulic impedance responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in newborn pigs
    P W Domkowski
    Department of Surgery, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 77:386-96. 1994
    ..of 48-h-old compared with 2-wk-old open-chest Yorkshire pigs while using two different anesthetic regimens: 1) azaperone and ketamine (4 and 12 mg/kg im, respectively) and 2) thiopental sodium (25 mg/kg i.v.)...
  46. ncbi Cardiopulmonary effects of three prolonged periods of isoflurane anesthesia in an adult elephant
    C I Dunlop
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:1439-44. 1994
    ..Lateral recumbency and anesthesia were achieved with etorphine (anesthesia 1 and 2) or etorphine and azaperone (anesthesia 3)...
  47. ncbi Excitement in an elephant after intravenous administration of atropine
    M E Gross
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:1437-8. 1994
    ..The elephant was sedated with azaperone, and atropine was administered IV 90 minutes later in preparation for induction of anesthesia with etorphine HCl...
  48. ncbi [Analysis of some neuroleptics and carazolol in pork kidneys]
    W Arneth
    Institut für Chemie und Physik der Bundesanstalt für Fleischforschung, Kulmbach, Germany
    Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 201:261-5. 1995
    A method is described for the analytical determination of the neuroleptics azaperone (plus its metabolite azaperol), acetylpromazine, propionylpromazine, chlorpromazine and the beta-blocking agent carazolol in pork kidneys...
  49. ncbi Azaperone and azaperone-ketamine as a neuroleptic sedative and anesthetic in rats and mice
    M E Olson
    Department of Animal Care Services, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Lab Anim Sci 38:299-304. 1988
    b>Azaperone alone and combined with ketamine were evaluated as sedative and anesthetic agents in outbred rats and mice. Using azaperone alone the duration of immobility was 1.9 to 10.8 hours for mice and 0.9 to 2.4 hours for rats...
  50. ncbi The suppression of electro-ejaculation in the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) by azaperone
    D G Meltzer
    Roodeplaat Research Laboratories, Sinoville, Republic of South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 59:53. 1988
    ..The animals were subsequently successfully electro-ejaculated. No semen was obtained from animals when azaperone was used instead of xylazine, despite the use of a successful standardised method of electrical stimulation.
  51. ncbi Mutagenicity evaluation of azaperone in the Salmonella/microsome test
    M Duverger-van Bogaert
    Laboratory of Toxicology, UCL 7237, School of Pharmacy, Brussels, Belgium
    Drug Chem Toxicol 10:329-38. 1987
    b>Azaperone was evaluated for its mutagenic potential by the Salmonella/microsome test. No mutagenic activity towards six S...
  52. ncbi Effects of amperozide and azaperone on aggression and productivity of growing-finishing pigs
    H W Gonyou
    University of Illinois, Urbana 61801
    J Anim Sci 66:2856-64. 1988
    ..8 kg) injected with amperozide (1.0 mg/kg i.m.), azaperone (2.2 mg/kg i.m.) or saline (.1 ml/kg i.m.) immediately prior to mixing...
  53. ncbi Thin-layer chromatographic screening method for the tranquillizers azaperone, propiopromazine and carazolol in pig tissues
    N Haagsma
    Department of the Science of Food of Animal Origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Chromatogr 436:73-9. 1988
    A procedure is described for the detection of azaperone, propiopromazine and carazolol in pig muscle, liver and kidney tissue...
  54. ncbi [Anesthesia in swine]
    K Heinritzi
    II Medizinischen Tierklinik der Universität München
    Tierarztl Prax 16:45-52. 1988
    ..Together with barbiturate anaesthesia neurolept-analgesia with Azaperone--Metomidate has become more and more important, because with this form of anaesthesia the technically easy intra-..
  55. ncbi Altered adrenocortical response to acute stressors or ACTH(1-24) in intensively housed pigs
    E von Borell
    Institute of Animal Husbandry and Animal Behavior, Federal Research Center of Agriculture, Westerau, FRG
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 6:299-309. 1989
    ..anesthesia; for the second experiment, 36 pigs were selected according to their adrenocortical response to azaperone-metomidate anesthesia...
  56. ncbi Influence of infused beta-adrenergic agonists on porcine blood metabolites and catecholamines
    H J Mersmann
    U S Department of Agriculture, Clay Center, NE 68933
    J Anim Sci 67:2633-45. 1989
    ..b>Azaperone, a drug used to calm the pigs before anesthesia, caused hypotension and bradycardia but did not affect plasma ..
  57. ncbi Blood gas tensions, acid-base status and cardiovascular function in miniature swine anaesthetized with halothane and methoxyflurane or intravenous metomidate hydrochloride
    P Svendsen
    Biomedical Laboratory, University of Odense, Denmark
    Pharmacol Toxicol 64:88-93. 1989
    Göttingen mini-pigs were given atropine and anaesthetized with one of the following drug combinations: 1) azaperone + metomidate, 2) acepromazine + thiopentone for endotracheal intubation, followed by halothane + methoxyflurane in ..
  58. ncbi Redistribution of cardiac output caused by opening of arteriovenous anastomoses by a combination of azaperone and metomidate
    L J van Woerkens
    Thoraxcenter, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Br J Anaesth 65:393-9. 1990
    The effects of the butyrophenone, azaperone 5 mg kg-1 i.m. alone and after addition of the imidazole derivative metomidate 6 mg kg-1 i.v. were studied in eight conscious pigs...
  59. ncbi Time-dependent effects of anesthetic agents on 31P NMR high-energy phosphates in KHT and RIF-1 fibrosarcomas
    B M Fenton
    Experimental Therapeutics Division, University of Rochester Cancer Center, NY 14642
    NMR Biomed 4:137-41. 1991
    ..The present work contrasts the effects of PB with azaperone-ketamine (AZ) in RIF-1 and KHT tumors while animal body core temperature is maintained at 37 degrees C...
  60. ncbi Effect of preslaughter anesthesia on muscle metabolism and meat quality of pigs of different halothane genotypes
    R E Klont
    Research Institute for Animal Production IVO DLO Schoonoord, Zeist, The Netherlands
    J Anim Sci 71:1477-85. 1993
    ..There were differences in color and drip loss between the halothane genotypes that cannot be explained by differences in pH and carcass temperature at 45 min postmortem...
  61. ncbi Comparison of sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects induced by medetomidine, acepromazine, azaperone, droperidol and midazolam in laboratory pigs
    R Nishimura
    Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 55:687-90. 1993
    The sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects of medetomidine, acepromazine, azaperone, droperidol and midazolam were compared in laboratory pigs...
  62. ncbi Anaesthetics for general anaesthesia in growing pigs
    H Henrikson
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Acta Vet Scand 36:401-11. 1995
    ..The anaesthetics combinations compared were 1) azaperone plus metomidate (AM), 2) Zoletil (zolazepam + tiletamine) plus xylazine (ZX), and 3) Zoletil plus xylazine plus ..
  63. ncbi Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Part 1: anaesthesia
    G F Stegmann
    Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 72:239-41. 2001
    ..The animal was immobilised with 4.5 mg etorphine and 60 mg azaperone. For continued observation, the immobilised animal was transported to a boma...
  64. ncbi Optimization of intraperitoneal injection anesthesia in mice: drugs, dosages, adverse effects, and anesthesia depth
    M Arras
    Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Central Biological Laboratory, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Comp Med 51:443-56. 2001
    ..g., embryo transfer/vasectomy) coupled with a simple method to assess anesthesia depth under routine laboratory conditions...
  65. ncbi Determination of a method for detecting and quantifying azaperone, azaperol and carazolol in pig tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    D Fluchard
    CER, Laboratoire d Hormonologie, Marloie, Belgium
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 744:139-47. 2000
    A quick, simple method for quantifying carazolol, azaperol and azaperone is described. Liquid extraction was followed by a clean-up on an Oasis SPE cartridge...
  66. ncbi Standing laparoscopic-guided uterine biopsy in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)
    R M Radcliffe
    University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine, Saint Paul 55108, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 31:201-7. 2000
    ..Standing anesthesia, incorporating butorphanol and azaperone together with local anesthetic infiltration, facilitated the laparoscopy...
  67. ncbi A new porcine model of reperfusion injury after lung transplantation
    S C Clark
    The Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Lab Anim 33:135-42. 1999
    ..6 h. The mortality rate is 4% in our series. We have found the model to be reliable, reproducible and flexible. We propose this model as an adaptable investigation for evaluating lung reperfusion injury and preservation...
  68. ncbi Adverse effects of nicotine and interleukin-1beta on autoresuscitation after apnea in piglets: implications for sudden infant death syndrome
    J F Frøen
    Department of Pediatric Research, Institute of Surgical Research, The National Hospital, University of Oslo
    Pediatrics 105:E52. 2000
    ..This is performed by investigating the acute effects of nicotine and IL-1beta on apnea by laryngeal reflex stimulation and on the subsequent autoresuscitation...
  69. ncbi Comparison of two combinations of sedatives before anaesthetising pigs with halothane and nitrous oxide
    D C Brodbelt
    Highfield Veterinary Surgery, Broxbourne, Hertfordshire
    Vet Rec 145:283-7. 1999
    Two groups of 21 three-month-old Landrace x Large White pigs were sedated with either azaperone (2 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg) (group A), or detomidine (100 microg/kg), butorphanol (0...
  70. ncbi Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of veterinary tranquillizers in urine: evaluation of method performance
    M L Olmos-Carmona
    Laboratorio de Salud Pública, Consejería de Sanidad y Servicios Sociales, Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 734:113-20. 1999
    ..Detection limits are 5 microg/l for ketamine, azaperone and the phenothiazines (chlor-, aceto- and propionylpromazine), 10 microg/l for haloperidol, 20 microg/l for ..
  71. ncbi Confirmation of azaperone and its metabolically reduced form, azaperol, in swine liver by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
    L A Adam
    U S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD 20855, USA
    J AOAC Int 82:815-24. 1999
    The method described confirms the use of the tranquilizer azaperone by detecting the parent compound and the metabolically reduced form, azaperol...
  72. ncbi Identification of metabolites of azaperone in horse urine
    R A Sams
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
    J Pharm Sci 85:79-84. 1996
    Two metabolites of the tranquilizer azaperone were extracted from alkalinized horse urine after treatment with beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase from limpets (Patella vulgata)...
  73. ncbi Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MS
    M Uhl
    Bayerisches Landeskriminalamt, Munchen, Germany
    Forensic Sci Int 84:281-94. 1997
    ..Careful evaluation of the findings can provide an approximate measure of the intensity of drug use in the majority of cases...
  74. ncbi Analysis and identification of azaperone and its metabolites in humans
    M van Boven
    Catholic University of Louvain, Laboratory of Toxicology and Bromatology, Belgium
    J Anal Toxicol 16:33-5. 1992
    b>Azaperone, dihydroazaperone, and 4'[fluoro-4-(4-(2-pyridyl)-1-piperazinyl]butyrophenone are identified in the urine of an intoxicated patient...
  75. ncbi Comparison of three injectable anaesthetic techniques in pigs
    R E Clutton
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Roslin, Midlothian
    Vet Rec 141:140-6. 1997
    ..After intramuscular azaperone (1.0 mg/kg) and ketamine (2...
  76. ncbi Investigation of the relationship between farrowing environment, sex steroid concentrations and maternal aggression in gilts
    K A McLean
    Genetics and Behavioural Sciences Department, SAC Edinburgh, UK
    Anim Reprod Sci 50:95-109. 1998
    ..The reaction of each gilt to her piglets was monitored. Gilts savaging piglets were sedated with azaperone (n = 8). There was no overall effect of farrowing environment on oestradiol and progesterone concentrations...
  77. ncbi Effect of muscle injection site and drug temperature on pre-anaesthetic sedation in pigs
    R E Clutton
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Veterinary Field Station, Roslin, Midlothian
    Vet Rec 142:718-21. 1998
    The responses of 83 Meishan gilts given azaperone (1...
  78. ncbi 4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine
    F Wappler
    Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Anesthesiology 90:1733-40. 1999
    ..g., insulin, heparin, succinylcholine), and it has been suggested that 4-CmC might trigger malignant hyperthermia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 4-CmC in vivo and in vitro in the same animals...
  79. ncbi Respiratory and circulatory parameters of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone
    J Still
    Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Medical University of Southern Africa, Medunsa, South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 67:123-7. 1996
    ..of oxygen were measured in 22 juvenile African elephants (Loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone during a period of 35-65 minutes after they had assumed lateral recumbency...
  80. ncbi A review of drugs and techniques used for sedation and anaesthesia in captive rhinoceros species
    T J Portas
    Western Plains Zoo, PO Box 831, Dubbo, New South Wales 2830
    Aust Vet J 82:542-9. 2004
    ..opioid, etorphine hydrochloride in combination with an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist or the butyrophenone, azaperone. Carfentanil citrate based combinations have also been used to a lesser extent...