- Development and evaluation of AS03, an Adjuvant System containing α-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium
Expert Rev Vaccines 11:349-66. 2012
AS03 is an Adjuvant System composed of α-tocopherol, squalene and polysorbate 80 in an oil-in-water emulsion...
- Cholesterol-dependent degradation of squalene monooxygenase, a control point in cholesterol synthesis beyond HMG-CoA reductase
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
Cell Metab 13:260-73. 2011
..b>Squalene monooxygenase (SM) catalyzes the first oxygenation step in cholesterol synthesis, acting on squalene before ..
- Influence of squalene on lipid particle/droplet and membrane organization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
Biochim Biophys Acta 1821:647-53. 2012
In a previous study (Spanova et al., 2010, J. Biol. Chem., 285, 6127-6133) we demonstrated that squalene, an intermediate of sterol biosynthesis, accumulates in yeast strains bearing a deletion of the HEM1 gene...
- Safety of MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in pregnancy: a comparative cohort study
Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Am J Obstet Gynecol 207:177.e1-8. 2012
..The 2009-2010 A/H1N1 pandemic provided a unique setting to study the safety of MF59-adjuvanted vaccination in pregnancy...
- Effect of lipid particle biogenesis on the subcellular distribution of squalene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12 II, A 8010 Graz, Austria
J Biol Chem 285:6127-33. 2010
b>Squalene belongs to the group of isoprenoids and is a precursor for the synthesis of sterols, steroids, and ubiquinones...
- From squalene to brassinolide: the steroid metabolic and signaling pathways across the plant kingdom
CropDesign NV, a BASF Plant Science Company, 9052 Gent, Belgium
Mol Plant 6:1738-57. 2013
..We also discuss emerging insights into the regulations of these pathways, their interactions with other hormonal pathways and multiple environmental signals, and the putative nature of sterols as signaling molecules. ..
- Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut
L S Maguire
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland
Int J Food Sci Nutr 55:171-8. 2004
..Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, ..
- Effect of squalene on tissue defense system in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats
K H Sabeena Farvin
Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri P O, Cochin 682 029, India
Pharmacol Res 50:231-6. 2004
This study was designed to examine the effects of squalene on tissue antioxidant status in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male albino rats...
- A new nanomedicine of gemcitabine displays enhanced anticancer activity in sensitive and resistant leukemia types
L Harivardhan Reddy
Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
J Control Release 124:20-7. 2007
..The preclinical data obtained in vitro and in vivo with SQdFdC NA demonstrate that this nanomedicine represents a new therapeutic system for the effective treatment of leukemia...
- The antioxidant network of the stratum corneum
J J Thiele
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
Curr Probl Dermatol 29:26-42. 2001
- Immunogenicity and safety of the influenza A/H1N1 2009 inactivated split-virus vaccine in young and older adults: MF59-adjuvanted vaccine versus nonadjuvanted vaccine
Hee Jin Cheong
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 97 Gurodong Gil, Guro Gu, Seoul 152 703, South Korea
Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:1358-64. 2011
..75-μg, MF59 adjuvanted vaccine priming schedule. Following a two-dose priming schedule, the increase in hemagglutinin inhibition titers was higher with MF59 adjuvanted vaccine than with nonadjuvanted vaccine...
- Assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of varying doses of an MF59®-adjuvanted cell culture-derived A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in Japanese paediatric, adult and elderly subjects
CPC Clinic, Medipolis Medical Research Institute, Kagoshima, Japan
Vaccine 30:5030-7. 2012
- The adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and MF59 induce monocyte and granulocyte chemoattractants and enhance monocyte differentiation toward dendritic cells
Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy
J Immunol 180:5402-12. 2008
- Effects of overproduction of the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase on squalene synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
K A Donald
Department of Cellular Physiology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3341-4. 1997
..This overproduction leads to an enhancement of squalene production, implying that HMG-R has been deregulated...
- Squalene emulsions for parenteral vaccine and drug delivery
Christopher B Fox
Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
Molecules 14:3286-312. 2009
b>Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented...
- Squalene-hopene cyclases
Institute for Microbiology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
Appl Environ Microbiol 77:3905-15. 2011
..They are biochemically synthesized from linear precursors (squalene, 2,3-oxidosqualene) in only one enzymatic step that is catalyzed by squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC) or ..
- Cytoprotective effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid or squalene on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative injury: an experimental study on rat myocardium, testicles and urinary bladder
Tarek M K Motawi
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Food Chem Toxicol 48:2326-36. 2010
The present study aimed to evaluate the role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and squalene (SQ) on oxidative cardiac, testicular and urotoxic damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP)...
- Photo-oxidation products of skin surface squalene mediate metabolic and inflammatory responses to solar UV in human keratinocytes
Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Skin Pathophysiology, Istituto Dermopatico dell Immacolata IDI IRCCS, Rome, Italy
PLoS ONE 7:e44472. 2012
..The decay of photo-sensitive lipid-soluble components, alpha-tocopherol, squalene (Sq), and cholesterol in SSL was analysed and products of squalene photo-oxidation (SqPx) were quantitatively ..
- Squalene: A natural triterpene for use in disease management and therapy
L Harivardhan Reddy
Univ Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
Adv Drug Deliv Rev 61:1412-26. 2009
b>Squalene is a natural lipid belonging to the terpenoid family and a precursor of cholesterol biosynthesis. It is synthesized in humans and also in a wide array of organisms and substances, from sharks to olives and even bran, among others...
- Cardioprotective effect of squalene on lipid profile in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats
K H Sabeena Farvin
Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri PO, Cochin, India
J Med Food 9:531-6. 2006
We studied the cardioprotective effect of squalene on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in male albino rats with respect to changes in the levels of lipid components in plasma and heart tissue...
- Preclinical toxicology (subacute and acute) and efficacy of a new squalenoyl gemcitabine anticancer nanomedicine
L Harivardhan Reddy
Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, Unité Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 8612, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 325:484-90. 2008
..These data support the candidature of SQgem for clinical trials...
- Characterization of antibodies induced by vaccination with hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins
Department of Internal Medicine and Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
J Infect Dis 202:862-6. 2010
..Neutralizing serum samples had increased affinity levels and displayed >2-fold higher specific activity levels to well-characterized epitopes on E1/E2, especially to the hypervariable region 1 of E2...
- Vaccine adjuvants alum and MF59 induce rapid recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes that participate in antigen transport to draining lymph nodes
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Siena, Italy
Vaccine 29:1812-23. 2011
..Further studies will reveal whether other single cell types are crucial or whether the different recruited cell populations are redundant with overlapping functions...
- Enhancement of gemcitabine affinity for biomembranes by conjugation with squalene: differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir-Blodgett studies using biomembrane models
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
J Colloid Interface Sci 316:43-52. 2007
Molecular interactions between gemcitabine, alone or conjugated with squalene to form the gem-squalene prodrug, with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir film balance ..
- MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces immunologic memory and heterotypic antibody responses in non-elderly and elderly adults
Novartis Vaccines, Marburg, Germany
PLoS ONE 4:e4384. 2009
..Pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) has the potential to cause a major global pandemic in humans. Safe and effective vaccines that induce immunologic memory and broad heterotypic response are needed...
- MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines: integrated analysis from a large safety database
Global Clinical Research and Development, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
Vaccine 27:6959-65. 2009
..Adding adjuvants such as MF59((R)) to influenza vaccines can enhance the immune response. This analysis evaluated the safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted [(+)MF59] compared with non-adjuvanted [(-)MF59] vaccines in a large clinical database...
- Safety and immunogenicity of HCV E1E2 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 administered to healthy adults
Sharon E Frey
Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
Vaccine 28:6367-73. 2010
..We describe the first in humans clinical trial of this prophylactic HCV vaccine...
- The validity of serum squalene and non-cholesterol sterols as surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption in type 2 diabetes
Department of Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Atherosclerosis 197:883-8. 2008
..In type 2 diabetes (T2D) cholesterol metabolism is perturbed, and the role of squalene and non-cholesterol sterols has not been related to absolute cholesterol metabolism in detail.
- Visceral obesity is associated with high levels of serum squalene
Department of Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:1155-63. 2006
..To investigate the impact of visceral obesity on cholesterol metabolism in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes...
- A new MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine enhances the immune response in the elderly with chronic diseases: results from an immunogenicity meta-analysis
Clinical Research and Medical Affairs, Chiron Vaccines, Marburg, Germany
Gerontology 49:177-84. 2003
..The elderly are at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection than younger adults, but get less protection from conventional vaccination...
- Cross-protection by MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine: neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody activity against A(H3N2) drifted influenza viruses
CIRI IV, Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Vaccine 26:1525-9. 2008
..Thus, MF59-adjuvanted vaccine confers greater immunogenicity than non-adjuvanted vaccines in vulnerable populations...
- Cloning, solubilization, and characterization of squalene synthase from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1
Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
J Bacteriol 190:3808-16. 2008
b>Squalene synthase (SQS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to give presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of PSPP to squalene...
- Predictors of immune response and reactogenicity to AS03B-adjuvanted split virion and non-adjuvanted whole virion H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza vaccines
Nick J Andrews
Department of Statistics, Modelling and Economics, Health Protection Services, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Vaccine 29:7913-9. 2011
..Reduction in the interval between doses for earlier protection would be at the cost of reduced immunogenicity. The effect of seasonal vaccine on immunogenicity merits further investigation...
- MF59 is a safe and potent vaccine adjuvant that enhances protection against influenza virus infection
Derek T O'Hagan
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Expert Rev Vaccines 6:699-710. 2007
..MF59 has been shown to be more potent for both antibody and T-cell responses than aluminum-based adjuvants. MF59 has broad potential to be used as a safe and effective vaccine adjuvant for a wide range of vaccine types...
- Adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines and perpetual viral metamorphosis: the importance of cross-protection
Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa CIRI IV, Inter University Research Centre on Influenza, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Vaccine 27:3345-8. 2009
..Promising results were obtained using a new generation of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants, named AS, offering cross-protection against heterologous challenge in ferrets...
- Safety of MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adolescents: an integrated analysis
Center for Global Health and Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45326, USA
Vaccine 28:7331-6. 2010
..These data support the safety of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in the pediatric population...
- Peroxidated squalene induces the production of inflammatory mediators in HaCaT keratinocytes: a possible role in acne vulgaris
San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS, Rome, Italy
J Invest Dermatol 126:2430-7. 2006
..can be responsible for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with peroxidated squalene. NF-kappaB activation, secretion, and expression of IL-6, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ..
- Impact of corticosteroids on the immune response to a MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in elderly COPD-patients
A de Roux
Department of Chest and Infectious Diseases, Heckeshorn, Helios Kliniken Emil von Behring, Berlin, Germany
Vaccine 24:1537-42. 2006
..Systemic steroids did not influence the antibody response towards the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine. We found that the strains included in the vaccine showed varying long-term immunogenicity...
- Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College, Cork, Ireland
Plant Foods Hum Nutr 62:85-91. 2007
..lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols...
- Conversion of squalene to the pentacarbocyclic hopene
Dirk J Reinert
Institut fur Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat, Albertstr 21, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
Chem Biol 11:121-6. 2004
The membrane protein squalene-hopene cyclase was cocrystallized with 2-azasqualene and analyzed by X-ray diffraction to 2.13 A resolution...
- Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of squalene in oil samples
Carlo G Zambonin
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 20:325-7. 2006
- Attenuation of cyclophosphamide induced toxicity by squalene in experimental rats
Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu, India
Chem Biol Interact 160:252-60. 2006
..In this study, the protective role of squalene (SQ) towards the tissue defense system in the toxicity induced by CP (150 mg/kg b.w...
- Application of supercritical fluid chromatography in the quantitative analysis of minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) from palm oil
Yuen May Choo
Malaysian Palm Oil Board MPOB, No 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Lipids 40:429-32. 2005
..with a UV variable-wavelength detector to isolate the minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) in crude palm oil (CPO) and the residual oil from palm-pressed fiber is reported...
- Airway gene transfer using cationic emulsion as a mucosal gene carrier
Tae Woo Kim
Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, 1, 5 Ka, Anam Dong, Sungbuk Ku, Seoul 136 791, Korea
J Gene Med 7:749-58. 2005
..In this study, we use a cationic emulsion system, which is physically stable and facilitates the transfer of genes in the presence of up to 90% serum, as a mucosal gene carrier...
- Squalene does not exhibit a chemopreventive activity and increases plasma cholesterol in a Wistar rat hepatocarcinogenesis model
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil
Nutr Cancer 50:101-9. 2004
The eventual chemopreventive effect of squalene (SQ), a triterpene present in olive oil, was evaluated when administered to Wistar rats during a period comprising the initiation and selection/promotion of the "resistant hepatocyte&..
- Accumulation of squalene is associated with the clustering of lipid droplets
Minh T Ta
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
FEBS J 279:4231-44. 2012
The isoprenoid squalene is an important precursor for the biosynthesis of sterols. The cellular storage of squalene and its impact on membrane properties have been the subject of recent investigations...
- Molecular characterization of Glycine max squalene synthase genes in seed phytosterol biosynthesis
Hanh T M Nguyen
Division of Plant Sciences and National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Plant Physiol Biochem 73:23-32. 2013
The reaction catalyzed by squalene synthase (EC.2.5.1...
- The monotopic membrane protein human oxidosqualene cyclase is active as monomer
F Hoffmann La Roche Ltd, Pharma Research Discovery, CH 4070 Basel, Switzerland
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 315:247-54. 2004
..The availability of this active recombinant human membrane protein is a very important step on the way to a more detailed functional and structural characterization of OSCs...
- Balancing kinetic and thermodynamic control: the mechanism of carbocation cyclization by squalene cyclase
Department of Chemistry and Supercomputing Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
J Am Chem Soc 125:12768-81. 2003
..a combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential have been carried out to investigate the squalene-to-hopene carbocation cyclization mechanism in squalene-hopene cyclase (SHC)...
- Formation of the C ring in the lanosterol biosynthesis from squalene
B Andes Hess
Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA
Org Lett 5:165-7. 2003
..to elucidate the mechanism of the formation of the five-membered C ring in the biosynthesis of lanosterol from squalene. A conformational analysis of the side chain containing the double bond indicated that the conformer that should ..
- Assessment of squalene adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines against pandemic H1N1 influenza in children 6 months to 17 years of age
Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:1283-92. 2012
..We tested H1N1 vaccines with or without AF03, a squalene-based adjuvant, in children. Two randomized, open-label, trials were conducted...
- Screening and characterization of squalene-producing thraustochytrids from Hong Kong mangroves
Department of Biology and Kwong Living Trust Food Safety and Analysis Laboratory, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
J Agric Food Chem 57:4267-72. 2009
Eighteen strains of thraustochytrids were newly isolated from Hong Kong mangroves, and their fatty acid and squalene contents were analyzed. All strains could grow well heterotrophically with glucose as the sole carbon source...
- An adjuvanted pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine provides early and long term protection in health care workers
Abdullah S Madhun
Influenza Centre, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, N 5021 Bergen, Norway
Vaccine 29:266-73. 2010
..A rapid induction of protective antibody is important in reducing community spread of pandemic influenza and in helping maintain the integrity of the health care system during the pandemic...
- Presence of wax esters and squalene in human saliva
Andrew J Brasser
Dows Institute for Dental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Arch Oral Biol 56:588-91. 2011
..The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and relative composition of neutral lipids in human saliva...
- 5-Nitrofuranes and 5-nitrothiophenes with anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and ability to accumulate squalene
Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Química, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay
Bioorg Med Chem 17:7500-9. 2009
..cruzi through oxidative stress and inhibition of parasite ergosterol biosynthesis, specifically at the level of squalene epoxidase...
- MF59 adjuvant: the best insurance against influenza strain diversity
Derek T O'Hagan
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Cambridge, MA, USA
Expert Rev Vaccines 10:447-62. 2011
- Confirmation of the presence of squalene in human eyelid lipid by heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectroscopy
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, 301 E Muhammad Ali Blvd, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA
Lipids 48:1269-77. 2013
1)H-NMR spectroscopy has been used to quantify squalene in meibum and sebum...
- Heterogeneous oxidation of squalene film by ozone under various indoor conditions
Technion, ITT Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion City, Haifa, Israel
Indoor Air 19:381-91. 2009
..conditions (ozone concentration, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the presence of NO(x)) on heterogeneous squalene oxidation were studied with Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy...
- Increased squalene concentrations in the clitoral gland during the estrous cycle in rats: an estrus-indicating scent mark?
Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India
Theriogenology 76:1676-83. 2011
b>Squalene in the rat clitoral gland is reported to be semi-volatile and may serve as a chemo-signal. The objective was to determine squalene concentrations in the clitoral gland throughout the reproductive cycle...
- Pharmacologic inhibition of squalene synthase and other downstream enzymes of the cholesterol synthesis pathway: a new therapeutic approach to treatment of hypercholesterolemia
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, USA
Cardiol Rev 17:70-6. 2009
..b>Squalene synthase is another enzyme that is downstream to HMG-CoA reductase in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and ..
- Influence of squalene feeding on plasma leptin, testosterone & blood pressure in rats
College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, PR China
Indian J Med Res 129:150-3. 2009
Obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypercholesterolaemia are known risk factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Squalene has been shown to reduce serum cholesterol and triglycerides in dogs although its therapeutic use in high BP and obese ..
- Proteomics and gene expression analyses of squalene-supplemented mice identify microsomal thioredoxin domain-containing protein 5 changes associated with hepatic steatosis
Departamento Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón IIS, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
J Proteomics 77:27-39. 2012
b>Squalene is an abundant hydrocarbon present in virgin olive oil. Previous studies showed that its administration decreased atherosclerosis and steatosis in male apoE-knock-out mice...
- Biological importance and applications of squalene and squalane
Se Kwon Kim
Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea
Adv Food Nutr Res 65:223-33. 2012
b>Squalene is a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon with a formula of C₃₀H₅₀. Squalene can be found in certain fish oils, especially shark liver oil, in high amounts and some vegetable oils in relatively smaller amounts...
- Squalene in a sex-dependent manner modulates atherosclerotic lesion which correlates with hepatic fat content in apoE-knockout male mice
Departamento Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
Atherosclerosis 197:72-83. 2008
b>Squalene is an intermediate of cholesterol biosynthesis which can be obtained from the diet where it is abundant, for example, in olive oil...
- Fast and easy in vitro screening assay for cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors in the post-squalene pathway
Department Pharmazie, Zentrum für Pharmaforschung, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munchen, Butenandtstrasse 5 13, 81377 Munich, Germany
Steroids 72:633-42. 2007
A whole-cell assay for screening cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors in the post-squalene pathway has been developed. HL 60 cells were incubated for 24h with test substances...
- Transmembrane diffusion of gemcitabine by a nanoparticulate squalenoyl prodrug: an original drug delivery pathway
Univ Paris Sud, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141 ITFM, Faculte de Pharmacie, Chatenay Malabry, F 92296, France
J Control Release 147:163-70. 2010
We have designed an amphiphilic prodrug of gemcitabine (dFdC) by its covalent coupling to a derivative of squalene, a natural lipid...
- Squalene and squalane emulsions as adjuvants
A C Allison
SurroMed Corporation, 1060 East Meadow Circle, Palo Alto, California 94303, USA
Methods 19:87-93. 1999
Microfluidized squalene or squalane emulsions are efficient adjuvants, eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses. Microfluidization stabilizes the emulsions and allows sterilization by terminal filtration...
- Squalane is in the midplane of the lipid bilayer: implications for its function as a proton permeability barrier
Hahn Meitner Institute, Glienicker Strasse 100, D 14109, Berlin, Germany
Biochim Biophys Acta 1556:149-54. 2002
..The alkaliphiles are unique in that they contain up to 40 mol% isoprenes in their membranes including 10-11 mol% squalene [J. Bacteriol. 168 (1986) 334]. Squalene is a polyisoprene hydrocarbon without polar groups...
- Supernatant protein factor, which stimulates the conversion of squalene to lanosterol, is a cytosolic squalene transfer protein and enhances cholesterol biosynthesis
Department of Health Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:2244-9. 2001
b>Squalene epoxidase, a membrane-associated enzyme that converts squalene to squalene 2,3-oxide, plays an important role in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis...
- Squalene content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa leaves and seeds
Ting Fu Ko
Graduate Institute of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan, Republic of China
J Agric Food Chem 50:5343-8. 2002
b>Squalene was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) spiking analyses in the supercritical CO(2) extracts of freeze-dried abscisic leaves of Terminalia catappa L...
- Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis by dietary olive oil and squalene
T J Smith
Laboratory for Cancer Research, College of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
Carcinogenesis 19:703-6. 1998
..b>Squalene, a characteristic compound in olive oil, is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase ..
- Characterization of botryococcene synthase enzyme activity, a squalene synthase-like activity from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii, Race B
Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
Arch Biochem Biophys 422:110-8. 2004
..Botryococcenes are structurally similar to squalene raising the possibility of a common enzyme for the biosynthesis of both. While B...
- Impact of prior or concomitant seasonal influenza vaccination on MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine (Focetria) in adult and elderly subjects
Department of Health Sciences, Genoa University, Genoa, Italy
Int J Clin Pract 64:432-8. 2010
..We investigated prior seasonal vaccination in adult and elderly subjects, and concomitant vaccination with seasonal vaccine in adults, on the tolerability and immunogenicity of the Novartis MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine, Focetria...
- Antibodies to squalene in US Navy Persian Gulf War veterans with chronic multisymptom illness
Christopher J Phillips
Department of Defense Center for Deployment Health Research, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA 92106 3521, USA
Vaccine 27:3921-6. 2009
..One of the many possible exposures suspected of causing chronic multisymptom illnesses Gulf War veterans is squalene, thought to be present in anthrax vaccine...
- Cloning, heterologous expression, and enzymological characterization of human squalene monooxygenase
B P Laden
Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0082, USA
Arch Biochem Biophys 374:381-8. 2000
The cDNA for human squalene monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the committed pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis, was amplified from a human liver cDNA library and cloned, and the protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified...
- An alternative renewable source of squalene for use in emulsion adjuvants
Luis A Brito
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 350 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Vaccine 29:6262-8. 2011
..to reduce reactogenicity of emulsion adjuvants lead to the development of oil in water emulsions based on squalene. MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion that is a component of an approved influenza product in Europe...
- Production of a polyunsaturated isoprenoid wax ester during aerobic metabolism of squalene by Marinobacter squalenivorans sp. nov
Jean François Rontani
Laboratoire d Océanographie et de Biogéochimie UMR 6535, Centre d Océanologie de Marseille OSU, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, 13288 Marseille, France
Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4167-76. 2003
..during the aerobic degradation of squalene by a Marinobacter strain, 2Asq64, isolated from the marine environment...
- Recombinant squalene synthase. A mechanism for the rearrangement of presqualene diphosphate to squalene
Brian S J Blagg
Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East Room 2020, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
J Am Chem Soc 124:8846-53. 2002
b>Squalene synthase (SQase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to form presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement and NADPH-dependent reduction of PSPP to squalene (SQ)...
- Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil and squalene from amaranthus grain
Han Ping He
Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
J Agric Food Chem 51:7921-5. 2003
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) was used for the extraction of oil and squalene from Amaranthus grain...
- Enantioselective inhibition of squalene synthase by aziridine analogues of presqualene diphosphate
Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
J Org Chem 75:4769-77. 2010
b>Squalene synthase catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate to squalene via the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP)...
- Squalene selectively protects mouse bone marrow progenitors against cisplatin and carboplatin-induced cytotoxicity in vivo without protecting tumor growth
Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Program, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
Neoplasia 10:1105-19. 2008
b>Squalene, an isoprenoid antioxidant is a potential cytoprotective agent against chemotherapy-induced toxicity...
- Adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces early CD4+ T cell response that predicts long-term persistence of protective antibody levels
Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena 53100, Italy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3877-82. 2009
..We suggest that CD4(+) T cell priming might be used as an early predictor of the immunogenicity of prepandemic vaccines...
- Antifungal activity of bis-azasqualenes, inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase
Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy
Mycoses 53:481-7. 2010
The antifungal activity and in vitro toxicity toward animal cells of two inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase, squalene bis-diethylamine (SBD) and squalene bis-diethylmethylammonium iodide (SBDI) were studied...
- Anticancer efficacy of squalenoyl gemcitabine nanomedicine on 60 human tumor cell panel and on experimental tumor
L Harivardhan Reddy
Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
Mol Pharm 6:1526-35. 2009
..have recently developed the concept of squalenoylation which consisted in the bioconjugation of gemcitabine with squalene, a natural lipid...
- Squalenoylation favorably modifies the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of gemcitabine in mice
L Harivardhan Reddy
Faculte de Pharmacie, Unité Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 8612, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 141, Universite Paris XI, Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
Drug Metab Dispos 36:1570-7. 2008
..Herein, this paper brings comprehensive pharmacokinetic and biodistribution insights that may explain the previously observed greater efficacy of SQdFdC nanoassemblies against experimental leukemia...
- Circadian rhythm of cholesterol synthesis in mouse liver: a statistical analysis of the post-squalene metabolites in wild-type and Crem-knock-out mice
Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 408:635-41. 2011
..Here, we show for the first time that intermediates of the post-squalene portion of cholesterol synthesis also follow a circadian rhythm in the mouse liver...
- A linear sesterterpene, two squalene derivatives and two peptide derivatives from Croton hieronymi
Cesar A N Catalan
Instituto de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 491, 4000 S M de Tucumán, Argentina
Phytochemistry 64:625-9. 2003
..furnished in addition to a large number of plant sterols and triterpenes the C-25 analog of trans-phytol, the squalene derivatives all-trans-2,6,15,19,23-pentamethyltetracosa-2,6,10,(28),14,22,28-hexaene-11-ol and all-trans-10-..
- MF59-adjuvanted vaccine: a safe and useful tool to enhance and broaden protection against seasonal influenza viruses in subjects at risk
Department of Health Sciences Section of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, University of Genoa, Head of the Outpatient Clinic of the Hygiene Unit, San Martino University Hospital, Via Pastore 1 16132, Genoa, Italy
Expert Opin Biol Ther 10:639-51. 2010
..The protection offered by non-adjuvanted vaccines may be further reduced by periodic antigenic drifts...
- [Evaluation of alum-adjuvanted whole virus influenza vaccine and future aspects of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine]
National Hospital Organization Mie National Hospital, Department of Pediatrics 357 Ohsato Kubota, Tsu, Mie 514 0125, Japan
Uirusu 60:69-78. 2010
..Additionally, since WHO speculates (H1N1) 2009 virus could be endemic in near future, the (H1N1) 2009 virus-derived strain is included in the 2010/11 seasonal influenza vaccine...
- Induction and detection of antibodies to squalene
G R Matyas
Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
J Immunol Methods 245:1-14. 2000
..coated on hydrophobic polyvinyldiene fluoride (PVDF) membranes is described for detecting antibodies that bind to squalene (SQE)...
- Effect of squalene on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity
Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600025, India
Clin Chim Acta 364:335-42. 2006
..Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is a widely used antineoplastic drug, which could cause toxicity of normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. We evaluated the protective role of squalene (SQ) in the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide.
- Improved squalene production via modulation of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and heterologous expression of genes from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 in Escherichia coli
Gopal Prasad Ghimire
Institute of Biomolecule Reconstruction, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sun Moon University, 100 Kalsan ri, Tangjeong myeon, Asansi, Chungnam 336 708, South Korea
Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7291-3. 2009
..hopanoid genes from Streptomyces peucetius were introduced into Escherichia coli to improve the production of squalene, an industrially important compound...
- Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants perturb metabolism of neutral lipids and enhance lipid droplet formation
Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia St, Suite 400, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 393:350-5. 2010
..The accumulated lipids comprise not only the delivered squalene, but also cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and diacylglycerols...
- Induction of CYP3A by 2,3-oxidosqualene:lanosterol cyclase inhibitors is mediated by an endogenous squalene metabolite in primary cultured rat hepatocytes
Sarita D Shenoy
Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
Mol Pharmacol 65:1302-12. 2004
..following agents that inhibit steps upstream of cyclase in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway: squalestatin 1 (squalene synthase inhibitor), (E)N-ethyl-N-(6,6-dimethyl-2-hepten-4-ynyl)-3-[(3,3'-bithiophen-5-yl)methoxy]..
- Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo delivery of siRNA-squalene nanoparticles targeting fusion oncogene in papillary thyroid carcinoma
Laboratoire de Physicochimie, Pharmacotechnie et Biopharmacie, Faculté de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, Université Paris Sud 11, 5 rue J B Clément, 92296 Châtenay Malabry, France
J Med Chem 54:4067-76. 2011
We report the conjugation of the natural lipid squalene (SQ) with a small interfering RNA (siRNA), against the junction oncogene RET/PTC1, usually found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)...
- Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer
C V Rao
Division of Nutritional Carcinogenesis, American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
Carcinogenesis 19:287-90. 1998
..b>Squalene, a constituent of olive oil, and a key intermediate in cholesterol synthesis may be regarded as partially ..
- Cloning and characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana SQS1 gene encoding squalene synthase--involvement of the C-terminal region of the enzyme in the channeling of squalene through the sterol pathway
Laboratoire de Génétique Physiologique et Moléculaire, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et d Ingénierie Génétique, Universite de Poitiers, France
Eur J Biochem 249:61-9. 1997
b>Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first committed step of the sterol biosynthetic pathway. A full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SQS cDNA has been isolated by combining library screening and PCR-based approaches...
- Yeast oxidosqualene cyclase (Erg7p) is a major component of lipid particles
Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Facolta di Farmacia, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Corso Raffaello 31, I 10125 Torino, Italy
J Biol Chem 277:2406-12. 2002
- Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by squalene synthase inhibitors does not induce myotoxicity in vitro
O P Flint
Department of Experimental Pathology, Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Syracuse, New York 13057, USA
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 145:91-8. 1997
..Farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and squalene are metabolites of mevalonate...
- Vinyl sulfide derivatives of truncated oxidosqualene as selective inhibitors of oxidosqualene and squalene-hopene cyclases
Dipartimento Farmacochimico, Tossicologico e Biologico, , Italy
Lipids 36:629-36. 2001
..These compounds, having the reactive functions at positions C-2, C-15 and C-19 of the squalene skeleton, were studied as inhibitors of pig liver and Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) (EC 5...
- In vitro cytoprotective activity of squalene on a bone marrow versus neuroblastoma model of cisplatin-induced toxicity. implications in cancer chemotherapy
New Agent and Innovative Therapy Program, Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
Eur J Cancer 39:2556-65. 2003
..Here, we report the in vitro selective cytoprotective activity of squalene, an isoprenoid molecule with antioxidant properties...