squalene

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Effect of squalene on tissue defense system in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats
    K H Sabeena Farvin
    Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri P O, Cochin 682 029, India
    Pharmacol Res 50:231-6. 2004
  2. doi Development and evaluation of AS03, an Adjuvant System containing α-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion
    Nathalie Garçon
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium
    Expert Rev Vaccines 11:349-66. 2012
  3. ncbi A new nanomedicine of gemcitabine displays enhanced anticancer activity in sensitive and resistant leukemia types
    L Harivardhan Reddy
    Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    J Control Release 124:20-7. 2007
  4. ncbi Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut
    L S Maguire
    Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 55:171-8. 2004
  5. ncbi The antioxidant network of the stratum corneum
    J J Thiele
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Curr Probl Dermatol 29:26-42. 2001
  6. pmc MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces immunologic memory and heterotypic antibody responses in non-elderly and elderly adults
    Angelika Banzhoff
    Novartis Vaccines, Marburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4384. 2009
  7. ncbi MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines: integrated analysis from a large safety database
    Michele Pellegrini
    Global Clinical Research and Development, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 27:6959-65. 2009
  8. doi Pharmacologic inhibition of squalene synthase and other downstream enzymes of the cholesterol synthesis pathway: a new therapeutic approach to treatment of hypercholesterolemia
    Stephanie Seiki
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, USA
    Cardiol Rev 17:70-6. 2009
  9. pmc Photo-oxidation products of skin surface squalene mediate metabolic and inflammatory responses to solar UV in human keratinocytes
    Vladimir Kostyuk
    Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Skin Pathophysiology, Istituto Dermopatico dell Immacolata IDI IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e44472. 2012
  10. ncbi Cytoprotective effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid or squalene on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative injury: an experimental study on rat myocardium, testicles and urinary bladder
    Tarek M K Motawi
    Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:2326-36. 2010

Research Grants

  1. ISOPRENOID METABOLISM IN THE RETINA
    STEVEN FLIESLER; Fiscal Year: 1999
  2. Regulation of Hepatic P450s by Anti-Cholesterol Drugs
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2003
  4. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2001
  5. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2002
  6. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2006
  7. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2004
  8. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2005
  10. TERPENE CONDENSATION REACTIONS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 1990

Detail Information

Publications239 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Effect of squalene on tissue defense system in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats
    K H Sabeena Farvin
    Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri P O, Cochin 682 029, India
    Pharmacol Res 50:231-6. 2004
    This study was designed to examine the effects of squalene on tissue antioxidant status in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male albino rats...
  2. doi Development and evaluation of AS03, an Adjuvant System containing α-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion
    Nathalie Garçon
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium
    Expert Rev Vaccines 11:349-66. 2012
    AS03 is an Adjuvant System composed of α-tocopherol, squalene and polysorbate 80 in an oil-in-water emulsion...
  3. ncbi A new nanomedicine of gemcitabine displays enhanced anticancer activity in sensitive and resistant leukemia types
    L Harivardhan Reddy
    Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    J Control Release 124:20-7. 2007
    ..The preclinical data obtained in vitro and in vivo with SQdFdC NA demonstrate that this nanomedicine represents a new therapeutic system for the effective treatment of leukemia...
  4. ncbi Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut
    L S Maguire
    Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 55:171-8. 2004
    ..Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, ..
  5. ncbi The antioxidant network of the stratum corneum
    J J Thiele
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Curr Probl Dermatol 29:26-42. 2001
    ....
  6. pmc MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces immunologic memory and heterotypic antibody responses in non-elderly and elderly adults
    Angelika Banzhoff
    Novartis Vaccines, Marburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4384. 2009
    ..Pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) has the potential to cause a major global pandemic in humans. Safe and effective vaccines that induce immunologic memory and broad heterotypic response are needed...
  7. ncbi MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines: integrated analysis from a large safety database
    Michele Pellegrini
    Global Clinical Research and Development, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 27:6959-65. 2009
    ..Adding adjuvants such as MF59((R)) to influenza vaccines can enhance the immune response. This analysis evaluated the safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted [(+)MF59] compared with non-adjuvanted [(-)MF59] vaccines in a large clinical database...
  8. doi Pharmacologic inhibition of squalene synthase and other downstream enzymes of the cholesterol synthesis pathway: a new therapeutic approach to treatment of hypercholesterolemia
    Stephanie Seiki
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, USA
    Cardiol Rev 17:70-6. 2009
    ..b>Squalene synthase is another enzyme that is downstream to HMG-CoA reductase in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and ..
  9. pmc Photo-oxidation products of skin surface squalene mediate metabolic and inflammatory responses to solar UV in human keratinocytes
    Vladimir Kostyuk
    Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Skin Pathophysiology, Istituto Dermopatico dell Immacolata IDI IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e44472. 2012
    ..The decay of photo-sensitive lipid-soluble components, alpha-tocopherol, squalene (Sq), and cholesterol in SSL was analysed and products of squalene photo-oxidation (SqPx) were quantitatively ..
  10. ncbi Cytoprotective effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid or squalene on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative injury: an experimental study on rat myocardium, testicles and urinary bladder
    Tarek M K Motawi
    Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:2326-36. 2010
    The present study aimed to evaluate the role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and squalene (SQ) on oxidative cardiac, testicular and urotoxic damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP)...
  11. doi Squalene: A natural triterpene for use in disease management and therapy
    L Harivardhan Reddy
    Univ Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 61:1412-26. 2009
    b>Squalene is a natural lipid belonging to the terpenoid family and a precursor of cholesterol biosynthesis. It is synthesized in humans and also in a wide array of organisms and substances, from sharks to olives and even bran, among others...
  12. pmc Effect of lipid particle biogenesis on the subcellular distribution of squalene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Miroslava Spanova
    Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12 II, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    J Biol Chem 285:6127-33. 2010
    b>Squalene belongs to the group of isoprenoids and is a precursor for the synthesis of sterols, steroids, and ubiquinones...
  13. doi Transmembrane diffusion of gemcitabine by a nanoparticulate squalenoyl prodrug: an original drug delivery pathway
    L Bildstein
    Univ Paris Sud, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141 ITFM, Faculte de Pharmacie, Chatenay Malabry, F 92296, France
    J Control Release 147:163-70. 2010
    We have designed an amphiphilic prodrug of gemcitabine (dFdC) by its covalent coupling to a derivative of squalene, a natural lipid...
  14. ncbi Safety of MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in pregnancy: a comparative cohort study
    Terho Heikkinen
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 207:177.e1-8. 2012
    ..The 2009-2010 A/H1N1 pandemic provided a unique setting to study the safety of MF59-adjuvanted vaccination in pregnancy...
  15. doi Predictors of immune response and reactogenicity to AS03B-adjuvanted split virion and non-adjuvanted whole virion H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza vaccines
    Nick J Andrews
    Department of Statistics, Modelling and Economics, Health Protection Services, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 29:7913-9. 2011
    ..Reduction in the interval between doses for earlier protection would be at the cost of reduced immunogenicity. The effect of seasonal vaccine on immunogenicity merits further investigation...
  16. doi MF59 adjuvant: the best insurance against influenza strain diversity
    Derek T O'Hagan
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:447-62. 2011
    ....
  17. ncbi MF59 is a safe and potent vaccine adjuvant that enhances protection against influenza virus infection
    Derek T O'Hagan
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Expert Rev Vaccines 6:699-710. 2007
    ..MF59 has been shown to be more potent for both antibody and T-cell responses than aluminum-based adjuvants. MF59 has broad potential to be used as a safe and effective vaccine adjuvant for a wide range of vaccine types...
  18. doi Vaccine adjuvants alum and MF59 induce rapid recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes that participate in antigen transport to draining lymph nodes
    Samuele Calabro
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 29:1812-23. 2011
    ..Further studies will reveal whether other single cell types are crucial or whether the different recruited cell populations are redundant with overlapping functions...
  19. ncbi Cardioprotective effect of squalene on lipid profile in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats
    K H Sabeena Farvin
    Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri PO, Cochin, India
    J Med Food 9:531-6. 2006
    We studied the cardioprotective effect of squalene on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in male albino rats with respect to changes in the levels of lipid components in plasma and heart tissue...
  20. doi Preclinical toxicology (subacute and acute) and efficacy of a new squalenoyl gemcitabine anticancer nanomedicine
    L Harivardhan Reddy
    Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, Unité Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 8612, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 325:484-90. 2008
    ..These data support the candidature of SQgem for clinical trials...
  21. pmc Characterization of antibodies induced by vaccination with hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins
    Ranjit Ray
    Department of Internal Medicine and Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:862-6. 2010
    ..Neutralizing serum samples had increased affinity levels and displayed >2-fold higher specific activity levels to well-characterized epitopes on E1/E2, especially to the hypervariable region 1 of E2...
  22. ncbi Enhancement of gemcitabine affinity for biomembranes by conjugation with squalene: differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir-Blodgett studies using biomembrane models
    Francesco Castelli
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
    J Colloid Interface Sci 316:43-52. 2007
    Molecular interactions between gemcitabine, alone or conjugated with squalene to form the gem-squalene prodrug, with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir film balance ..
  23. ncbi A new MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine enhances the immune response in the elderly with chronic diseases: results from an immunogenicity meta-analysis
    Angelika Banzhoff
    Clinical Research and Medical Affairs, Chiron Vaccines, Marburg, Germany
    Gerontology 49:177-84. 2003
    ..The elderly are at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection than younger adults, but get less protection from conventional vaccination...
  24. ncbi Visceral obesity is associated with high levels of serum squalene
    Paula Peltola
    Department of Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:1155-63. 2006
    ..To investigate the impact of visceral obesity on cholesterol metabolism in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes...
  25. doi Cross-protection by MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine: neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody activity against A(H3N2) drifted influenza viruses
    Filippo Ansaldi
    CIRI IV, Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
    Vaccine 26:1525-9. 2008
    ..Thus, MF59-adjuvanted vaccine confers greater immunogenicity than non-adjuvanted vaccines in vulnerable populations...
  26. ncbi The adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and MF59 induce monocyte and granulocyte chemoattractants and enhance monocyte differentiation toward dendritic cells
    Anja Seubert
    Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy
    J Immunol 180:5402-12. 2008
    ....
  27. pmc Safety and immunogenicity of HCV E1E2 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 administered to healthy adults
    Sharon E Frey
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    Vaccine 28:6367-73. 2010
    ..We describe the first in humans clinical trial of this prophylactic HCV vaccine...
  28. ncbi The validity of serum squalene and non-cholesterol sterols as surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption in type 2 diabetes
    Piia Simonen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 197:883-8. 2008
    ..In type 2 diabetes (T2D) cholesterol metabolism is perturbed, and the role of squalene and non-cholesterol sterols has not been related to absolute cholesterol metabolism in detail.
  29. ncbi Peroxidated squalene induces the production of inflammatory mediators in HaCaT keratinocytes: a possible role in acne vulgaris
    Monica Ottaviani
    San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    J Invest Dermatol 126:2430-7. 2006
    ..can be responsible for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with peroxidated squalene. NF-kappaB activation, secretion, and expression of IL-6, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ..
  30. doi Safety of MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adolescents: an integrated analysis
    Steven Black
    Center for Global Health and Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45326, USA
    Vaccine 28:7331-6. 2010
    ..These data support the safety of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in the pediatric population...
  31. doi Adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines and perpetual viral metamorphosis: the importance of cross-protection
    Filippo Ansaldi
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa CIRI IV, Inter University Research Centre on Influenza, Via Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa, Italy
    Vaccine 27:3345-8. 2009
    ..Promising results were obtained using a new generation of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants, named AS, offering cross-protection against heterologous challenge in ferrets...
  32. ncbi Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes
    E Ryan
    Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College, Cork, Ireland
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr 62:85-91. 2007
    ..lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols...
  33. ncbi Impact of corticosteroids on the immune response to a MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in elderly COPD-patients
    A de Roux
    Department of Chest and Infectious Diseases, Heckeshorn, Helios Kliniken Emil von Behring, Berlin, Germany
    Vaccine 24:1537-42. 2006
    ..Systemic steroids did not influence the antibody response towards the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine. We found that the strains included in the vaccine showed varying long-term immunogenicity...
  34. ncbi Conversion of squalene to the pentacarbocyclic hopene
    Dirk J Reinert
    Institut fur Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat, Albertstr 21, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Chem Biol 11:121-6. 2004
    The membrane protein squalene-hopene cyclase was cocrystallized with 2-azasqualene and analyzed by X-ray diffraction to 2.13 A resolution...
  35. doi Antibodies to squalene in US Navy Persian Gulf War veterans with chronic multisymptom illness
    Christopher J Phillips
    Department of Defense Center for Deployment Health Research, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA 92106 3521, USA
    Vaccine 27:3921-6. 2009
    ..One of the many possible exposures suspected of causing chronic multisymptom illnesses Gulf War veterans is squalene, thought to be present in anthrax vaccine...
  36. ncbi Recombinant squalene synthase. A mechanism for the rearrangement of presqualene diphosphate to squalene
    Brian S J Blagg
    Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East Room 2020, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 124:8846-53. 2002
    b>Squalene synthase (SQase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to form presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement and NADPH-dependent reduction of PSPP to squalene (SQ)...
  37. ncbi Characterization of botryococcene synthase enzyme activity, a squalene synthase-like activity from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii, Race B
    Shigeru Okada
    Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Arch Biochem Biophys 422:110-8. 2004
    ..Botryococcenes are structurally similar to squalene raising the possibility of a common enzyme for the biosynthesis of both. While B...
  38. pmc Production of a polyunsaturated isoprenoid wax ester during aerobic metabolism of squalene by Marinobacter squalenivorans sp. nov
    Jean François Rontani
    Laboratoire d Océanographie et de Biogéochimie UMR 6535, Centre d Océanologie de Marseille OSU, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, 13288 Marseille, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4167-76. 2003
    ..during the aerobic degradation of squalene by a Marinobacter strain, 2Asq64, isolated from the marine environment...
  39. pmc Influence of squalene on lipid particle/droplet and membrane organization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Miroslava Spanova
    Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1821:647-53. 2012
    In a previous study (Spanova et al., 2010, J. Biol. Chem., 285, 6127-6133) we demonstrated that squalene, an intermediate of sterol biosynthesis, accumulates in yeast strains bearing a deletion of the HEM1 gene...
  40. ncbi An alternative renewable source of squalene for use in emulsion adjuvants
    Luis A Brito
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 350 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Vaccine 29:6262-8. 2011
    ..to reduce reactogenicity of emulsion adjuvants lead to the development of oil in water emulsions based on squalene. MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion that is a component of an approved influenza product in Europe...
  41. ncbi Impact of prior or concomitant seasonal influenza vaccination on MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine (Focetria) in adult and elderly subjects
    R Gasparini
    Department of Health Sciences, Genoa University, Genoa, Italy
    Int J Clin Pract 64:432-8. 2010
    ..We investigated prior seasonal vaccination in adult and elderly subjects, and concomitant vaccination with seasonal vaccine in adults, on the tolerability and immunogenicity of the Novartis MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine, Focetria...
  42. ncbi Cloning, heterologous expression, and enzymological characterization of human squalene monooxygenase
    B P Laden
    Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0082, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 374:381-8. 2000
    The cDNA for human squalene monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the committed pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis, was amplified from a human liver cDNA library and cloned, and the protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified...
  43. pmc Adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces early CD4+ T cell response that predicts long-term persistence of protective antibody levels
    Grazia Galli
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena 53100, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3877-82. 2009
    ..We suggest that CD4(+) T cell priming might be used as an early predictor of the immunogenicity of prepandemic vaccines...
  44. doi Antifungal activity of bis-azasqualenes, inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase
    Samuele Voyron
    Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy
    Mycoses 53:481-7. 2010
    The antifungal activity and in vitro toxicity toward animal cells of two inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase, squalene bis-diethylamine (SBD) and squalene bis-diethylmethylammonium iodide (SBDI) were studied...
  45. doi Anticancer efficacy of squalenoyl gemcitabine nanomedicine on 60 human tumor cell panel and on experimental tumor
    L Harivardhan Reddy
    Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    Mol Pharm 6:1526-35. 2009
    ..have recently developed the concept of squalenoylation which consisted in the bioconjugation of gemcitabine with squalene, a natural lipid...
  46. doi Circadian rhythm of cholesterol synthesis in mouse liver: a statistical analysis of the post-squalene metabolites in wild-type and Crem-knock-out mice
    Jure Acimovic
    Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 408:635-41. 2011
    ..Here, we show for the first time that intermediates of the post-squalene portion of cholesterol synthesis also follow a circadian rhythm in the mouse liver...
  47. pmc Enantioselective inhibition of squalene synthase by aziridine analogues of presqualene diphosphate
    Ali Koohang
    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Org Chem 75:4769-77. 2010
    b>Squalene synthase catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate to squalene via the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP)...
  48. pmc Squalene selectively protects mouse bone marrow progenitors against cisplatin and carboplatin-induced cytotoxicity in vivo without protecting tumor growth
    Bikul Das
    Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Program, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Neoplasia 10:1105-19. 2008
    b>Squalene, an isoprenoid antioxidant is a potential cytoprotective agent against chemotherapy-induced toxicity...
  49. doi Squalenoylation favorably modifies the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of gemcitabine in mice
    L Harivardhan Reddy
    Faculte de Pharmacie, Unité Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 8612, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 141, Universite Paris XI, Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    Drug Metab Dispos 36:1570-7. 2008
    ..Herein, this paper brings comprehensive pharmacokinetic and biodistribution insights that may explain the previously observed greater efficacy of SQdFdC nanoassemblies against experimental leukemia...
  50. ncbi Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil and squalene from amaranthus grain
    Han Ping He
    Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    J Agric Food Chem 51:7921-5. 2003
    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) was used for the extraction of oil and squalene from Amaranthus grain...
  51. ncbi [Evaluation of alum-adjuvanted whole virus influenza vaccine and future aspects of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine]
    Toshiaki Ihara
    National Hospital Organization Mie National Hospital, Department of Pediatrics 357 Ohsato Kubota, Tsu, Mie 514 0125, Japan
    Uirusu 60:69-78. 2010
    ..Additionally, since WHO speculates (H1N1) 2009 virus could be endemic in near future, the (H1N1) 2009 virus-derived strain is included in the 2010/11 seasonal influenza vaccine...
  52. doi MF59-adjuvanted vaccine: a safe and useful tool to enhance and broaden protection against seasonal influenza viruses in subjects at risk
    Paolo Durando
    Department of Health Sciences Section of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, University of Genoa, Head of the Outpatient Clinic of the Hygiene Unit, San Martino University Hospital, Via Pastore 1 16132, Genoa, Italy
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 10:639-51. 2010
    ..The protection offered by non-adjuvanted vaccines may be further reduced by periodic antigenic drifts...
  53. ncbi A linear sesterterpene, two squalene derivatives and two peptide derivatives from Croton hieronymi
    Cesar A N Catalan
    Instituto de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 491, 4000 S M de Tucumán, Argentina
    Phytochemistry 64:625-9. 2003
    ..furnished in addition to a large number of plant sterols and triterpenes the C-25 analog of trans-phytol, the squalene derivatives all-trans-2,6,15,19,23-pentamethyltetracosa-2,6,10,(28),14,22,28-hexaene-11-ol and all-trans-10-..
  54. doi Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo delivery of siRNA-squalene nanoparticles targeting fusion oncogene in papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Mouna Raouane
    Laboratoire de Physicochimie, Pharmacotechnie et Biopharmacie, Faculté de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, Université Paris Sud 11, 5 rue J B Clément, 92296 Châtenay Malabry, France
    J Med Chem 54:4067-76. 2011
    We report the conjugation of the natural lipid squalene (SQ) with a small interfering RNA (siRNA), against the junction oncogene RET/PTC1, usually found in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)...
  55. ncbi Induction and detection of antibodies to squalene
    G R Matyas
    Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    J Immunol Methods 245:1-14. 2000
    ..coated on hydrophobic polyvinyldiene fluoride (PVDF) membranes is described for detecting antibodies that bind to squalene (SQE)...
  56. ncbi Induction of CYP3A by 2,3-oxidosqualene:lanosterol cyclase inhibitors is mediated by an endogenous squalene metabolite in primary cultured rat hepatocytes
    Sarita D Shenoy
    Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 65:1302-12. 2004
    ..following agents that inhibit steps upstream of cyclase in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway: squalestatin 1 (squalene synthase inhibitor), (E)N-ethyl-N-(6,6-dimethyl-2-hepten-4-ynyl)-3-[(3,3'-bithiophen-5-yl)methoxy]..
  57. ncbi Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer
    C V Rao
    Division of Nutritional Carcinogenesis, American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Carcinogenesis 19:287-90. 1998
    ..b>Squalene, a constituent of olive oil, and a key intermediate in cholesterol synthesis may be regarded as partially ..
  58. pmc Improved squalene production via modulation of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and heterologous expression of genes from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 in Escherichia coli
    Gopal Prasad Ghimire
    Institute of Biomolecule Reconstruction, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sun Moon University, 100 Kalsan ri, Tangjeong myeon, Asansi, Chungnam 336 708, South Korea
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7291-3. 2009
    ..hopanoid genes from Streptomyces peucetius were introduced into Escherichia coli to improve the production of squalene, an industrially important compound...
  59. ncbi Cloning and characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana SQS1 gene encoding squalene synthase--involvement of the C-terminal region of the enzyme in the channeling of squalene through the sterol pathway
    R Kribii
    Laboratoire de Génétique Physiologique et Moléculaire, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et d Ingénierie Génétique, Universite de Poitiers, France
    Eur J Biochem 249:61-9. 1997
    b>Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first committed step of the sterol biosynthetic pathway. A full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SQS cDNA has been isolated by combining library screening and PCR-based approaches...
  60. doi Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants perturb metabolism of neutral lipids and enhance lipid droplet formation
    Lucie Kalvodova
    Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia St, Suite 400, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 393:350-5. 2010
    ..The accumulated lipids comprise not only the delivered squalene, but also cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and diacylglycerols...
  61. ncbi Effect of squalene on cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity
    Subramanian Senthilkumar
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600025, India
    Clin Chim Acta 364:335-42. 2006
    ..Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is a widely used antineoplastic drug, which could cause toxicity of normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. We evaluated the protective role of squalene (SQ) in the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide.
  62. ncbi In vitro cytoprotective activity of squalene on a bone marrow versus neuroblastoma model of cisplatin-induced toxicity. implications in cancer chemotherapy
    B Das
    New Agent and Innovative Therapy Program, Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Eur J Cancer 39:2556-65. 2003
    ..Here, we report the in vitro selective cytoprotective activity of squalene, an isoprenoid molecule with antioxidant properties...
  63. ncbi Immunogenicity of a recombinant human cytomegalovirus gB vaccine in seronegative toddlers
    Douglas K Mitchell
    Center for Pediatric Research, Children s Hospital of the King s Daughters, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:133-8. 2002
    ..We conducted a Phase I trial in CMV-seronegative toddlers to evaluate the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a CMV gB vaccine administered with MF59, an oil and water adjuvant...
  64. ncbi Analogs of squalene and oxidosqualene inhibit oxidosqualene cyclase of Trypanosoma cruzi expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Simonetta Oliaro-Bosso
    Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Universita di Torino, 10125 Turin, Italy
    Lipids 40:1257-62. 2005
    ..19 inhibitors: aza, methylidene, vinyl sulfide, and conjugated vinyl sulfide derivatives of oxidosqualene and squalene, selected as representative of different classes of substrate analog inhibitors of OSC...
  65. ncbi Yeast oxidosqualene cyclase (Erg7p) is a major component of lipid particles
    Paola Milla
    Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Facolta di Farmacia, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Corso Raffaello 31, I 10125 Torino, Italy
    J Biol Chem 277:2406-12. 2002
    ....
  66. doi Processing stability of squalene in amaranth and antioxidant potential of amaranth extract
    Rohan V Tikekar
    Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 56:10675-8. 2008
    The processing stability of squalene in amaranth and the antioxidant capacity of the oil-rich fraction of amaranth were studied. The processes investigated were continuous puffing and roasting...
  67. ncbi Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by squalene synthase inhibitors does not induce myotoxicity in vitro
    O P Flint
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Syracuse, New York 13057, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 145:91-8. 1997
    ..Farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and squalene are metabolites of mevalonate...
  68. doi Vaccination, squalene and anti-squalene antibodies: facts or fiction?
    Giuseppe Lippi
    U O Diagnostica Ematochimica, Dipartimento di Patologia e Medicina di Laboratorio, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy
    Eur J Intern Med 21:70-3. 2010
    b>Squalene, a hydrocarbon obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil and other botanic sources, is increasingly used as an immunologic adjuvant in several vaccines, including seasonal and the novel influenza A (H1N1) ..
  69. ncbi Vinyl sulfide derivatives of truncated oxidosqualene as selective inhibitors of oxidosqualene and squalene-hopene cyclases
    M Ceruti
    Dipartimento Farmacochimico, Tossicologico e Biologico, , Italy
    Lipids 36:629-36. 2001
    ..These compounds, having the reactive functions at positions C-2, C-15 and C-19 of the squalene skeleton, were studied as inhibitors of pig liver and Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) (EC 5...
  70. ncbi Consumption of argan oil (Morocco) with its unique profile of fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic compounds should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects
    F Khallouki
    Laboratoire D Ingénierie Moléculaire et de Biochimie Pharmalogique, Universite de Metz, Campus Bridoux, rue Claude Bernard, 57070, Metz, France
    Eur J Cancer Prev 12:67-75. 2003
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic antioxidants in three types of argan oil (Moroccan food, Moroccan aesthetic and a French commercial variety) along with a basic comparison ..
  71. ncbi Profound insights into squalene cyclization
    Karl Poralla
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Eberhardt Karls Universitat Tubingen, Germany
    Chem Biol 11:12-4. 2004
    In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, our understanding of the formation of pentacyclic hopene from the linear squalene is enhanced by an X-ray structure of a complex between squalene-hopene cyclase and the substrate analog 2-..
  72. doi Gingival vascular damage in atherosclerotic rabbits: hydroxytyrosol and squalene benefits
    Pedro Bullon
    Dept of Periodontology, Dental School, University of Sevilla, Spain
    Food Chem Toxicol 47:2327-31. 2009
    ..We investigated effects of squalene, hydroxytyrosol and coenzyme Q(10) on gingival tissues of rabbits fed on an atherosclerotic diet...
  73. pmc Molecular and cellular signatures of human vaccine adjuvants
    F Mosca
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10501-6. 2008
    ..We propose that oil-in-water emulsions are the most efficient human vaccine adjuvants, because they induce an early and strong immunocompetent environment at the injection site by targeting muscle cells...
  74. ncbi The adjuvanted influenza vaccines with novel adjuvants: experience with the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine
    A Podda
    Clinical Research and Medical Affairs, Chiron Vaccines, Chiron SpA, Via Florentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 19:2673-80. 2001
    ..Among these, an oil in water adjuvant emulsion containing squalene, MF59, has been combined with subunit influenza antigens and tested in clinical trials in comparison with non-..
  75. ncbi Independent association of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols with coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women
    R A Rajaratnam
    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Am Coll Cardiol 35:1185-91. 2000
    ..The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cholesterol metabolism is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in postmenopausal women...
  76. doi Discovery of new hexagonal supramolecular nanostructures formed by squalenoylation of an anticancer nucleoside analogue
    Patrick Couvreur
    Universite Paris Sud XI, Faculte de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, IFR 141, 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    Small 4:247-53. 2008
    In this study, the dynamically folded conformation of squalene (SQ) is taken advantage of to link this natural compound to the anticancer nucleoside analogue gemcitabine (gem) in order to achieve the spontaneous formation of ..
  77. ncbi Ellagitannins and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters as inhibitors of vertebrate squalene epoxidase
    I Abe
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    J Nat Prod 64:1010-4. 2001
    ..esters of hexahydroxydiphenyl (HHDP) dicarboxylic acid were evaluated as enzyme inhibitors of recombinant rat squalene epoxidase, a rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis...
  78. pmc Cloning, solubilization, and characterization of squalene synthase from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1
    Sungwon Lee
    Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:3808-16. 2008
    b>Squalene synthase (SQS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to give presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of PSPP to squalene...
  79. pmc Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection
    Robert F Pass
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham 35233, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1191-9. 2009
    ..Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments in newborns...
  80. ncbi Conjugation of squalene to acyclovir improves the affinity for biomembrane models
    Maria Grazia Sarpietro
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
    Int J Pharm 382:73-9. 2009
    ..the interaction of acyclovir and its prodrug squalenoyl-acyclovir (obtained by conjugation of 1,1',2-tris-nor-squalene acid (squaleneCOOH) with acyclovir) with biomembrane models made of DMPC multilamellar vesicles with the aim to ..
  81. ncbi Wipe-test and patch-test for alcohol misuse based on the concentration ratio of fatty acid ethyl esters and squalene CFAEE/CSQ in skin surface lipids
    F Pragst
    Institute of Legal Medicine, Humboldt University, Hannoversche Strasse 6, 10115 Berlin, Germany
    Forensic Sci Int 143:77-86. 2004
    ..ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate and by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for squalene, (SQ), as a natural reference substance which the FAEE concentrations were related to...
  82. ncbi Antibodies to squalene in Gulf War syndrome
    P B Asa
    Department of Microbiology, Tulane Medical School, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70112, USA
    Exp Mol Pathol 68:55-64. 2000
    ..We sought to determine whether the presence of antibodies to squalene correlates with the presence of signs and symptoms of GWS...
  83. ncbi Rubritalea squalenifaciens sp. nov., a squalene-producing marine bacterium belonging to subdivision 1 of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'
    Hiroaki Kasai
    Marine Biotechnology Institute, 3 75 1 Heita, Kamaishi, Iwate 026 0001, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1630-4. 2007
    ..44-0.53x0.65-0.79 microm) bacterium. The strain produced squalene and a red-pink carotenoid pigment...
  84. doi Biological and pharmacological activities of squalene and related compounds: potential uses in cosmetic dermatology
    Zih Rou Huang
    Pharmaceutics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    Molecules 14:540-54. 2009
    b>Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source...
  85. ncbi Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometric analysis of squalene monohydroperoxide isomers in sunlight-exposed human skin
    Kiyotaka Nakagawa
    Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
    J Lipid Res 48:2779-87. 2007
    We previously discovered that squalene monohydroperoxide (SQ-OOH) was produced on human forehead skin and suggested that skin squalene (SQ) may be the principal target lipid for oxidative stress (e.g., sunlight exposure)...
  86. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of nonadjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/H9N2 vaccine preparations
    Robert L Atmar
    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1135-42. 2006
    ..Influenza A/H9N2 viruses can infect humans and are considered to be a pandemic threat. Effective vaccines are needed for these and other avian influenza viruses...
  87. ncbi [Biological action and clinical application of shark liver oil]
    Natalia Lewkowicz
    Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lodzi, Zakład Periodontologii i Chorób Błony Sluzowej Jamy Ustnej
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 20:598-601. 2006
    ..Shark liver oils are rich in alkylglycerols and squalene, but contain relatively low amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids...
  88. ncbi Squalene and squalane emulsions as adjuvants
    A C Allison
    SurroMed Corporation, 1060 East Meadow Circle, Palo Alto, California 94303, USA
    Methods 19:87-93. 1999
    Microfluidized squalene or squalane emulsions are efficient adjuvants, eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses. Microfluidization stabilizes the emulsions and allows sterilization by terminal filtration...
  89. ncbi An MF59-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine containing A/Panama/1999 (H3N2) induced broader serological protection against heterovariant influenza virus strain A/Fujian/2002 than a subunit and a split influenza vaccine
    Giuseppe Del Giudice
    Chiron Vaccines, Research Center and Clinical Research, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 24:3063-5. 2006
    ..We conclude that MF59-adjuvanted vaccines confer protection also against influenza virus strains which are not fully matched with those included in the vaccine...
  90. ncbi Identification of oxidation products of squalene in solution and in latent fingerprints by ESI-MS and LC/APCI-MS
    Katrina A Mountfort
    Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring, Pharmaceutical Science Research Division, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, King s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
    Anal Chem 79:2650-7. 2007
    An investigation was carried out to identify oxidation products of squalene (SQ) in latent fingerprints...
  91. ncbi Antioxidant activities of essential oil mixtures toward skin lipid squalene oxidized by UV irradiation
    Alfreda Wei
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, California, USA
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:227-33. 2007
    ..of essential oil mixtures--thyme or clove leaf with cinnamon leaf, rose, or parsley seed--toward skin lipid, squalene oxidized by UV irradiation were investigated using the malonaldehyde/gas chromatography assay...
  92. ncbi [The effect of alcoxyglycerols, squalene and n-3 fatty acid on some innate immunity parameters in healthy people]
    Tchórzewski Henryk
    Zakład Immunologii Klinicznej Instytutu Centrum Zdrowia Matki Polki w Lodzi
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 18:303-6. 2005
    ..BioMarine 570 is well tolerated agent supporting the innate immunity. It was isolated from Greenland shark liver...
  93. ncbi Antibody responses and HIV-1 viral load in HIV-1-seropositive subjects immunised with either the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine or a conventional non-adjuvanted subunit vaccine during highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Anna M Iorio
    Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06122 Perugia, Italy
    Vaccine 21:3629-37. 2003
    ....
  94. ncbi Oil and squalene in amaranthus grain and leaf
    Han Ping He
    Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    J Agric Food Chem 51:7913-20. 2003
    Amaranthus grain of 104 genotypes from 30 species was investigated for oil and squalene contents and fatty acid profiles. The overall average oil content in Amaranthus grain was 5.0%, ranging from 1.9 to 8.7%...
  95. ncbi Rate of degradation of alpha-tocopherol, squalene, phenolics, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in olive oil during different storage conditions
    Luca Rastrelli
    Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano SA, Italy
    J Agric Food Chem 50:5566-70. 2002
    Changes in the concentration of tocopherol, monophenols, o-diphenols, squalene, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in olive oil were evaluated during 1 year at various storage conditions...
  96. ncbi Effect of squalene and shark liver oil on serum cholesterol level in hamsters
    Zesheng Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, The People s Republic of China
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 53:411-8. 2002
    b>Squalene (SQ) and shark liver oil (SLO) are popularly sold as health supplements. The present study was designed to test the hypercholesterolemic activities of pure SQ and SLO in hamsters. SQ was supplemented in diets at the levels of 0...
  97. doi Membrane proteins and squalene-hydrosqualene profile in methanoarchaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus resistant to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide
    Z Novakova
    Institute of Animal Biochemistry and Genetics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 900 28 Ivanka pri Dunaji, Slovakia
    Folia Microbiol (Praha) 53:237-40. 2008
    ..in the maintenance of methanoarchaeal membrane structure and function, such as the composition of the mixture of squalene and its hydrosqualene derivatives and also properties of membrane-associated proteins were compared in wild-type ..
  98. ncbi Changes in the levels of glutathione after cellular and cutaneous damage induced by squalene monohydroperoxide
    K Chiba
    Department of Toxicology, Safety Research Center, Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, 1796 Kunitachi shi yaho, Tokyo, 186 8650, Japan
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 15:150-8. 2001
    b>Squalene monohydroperoxide (Sq-OOH), the initial product of ultraviolet-peroxidated squalene, was used to investigate the effect of peroxidative challenge upon the glutathione contents in rabbit ear skin and primary-cultured fibroblasts ..
  99. doi Squalene protects against oxidative DNA damage in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells but not in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells
    Fernando Warleta
    Immunology Division, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s n, 23071 Jaen, Spain
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:1092-100. 2010
    Until now, very little has been known about the antioxidant capacity of squalene and its effect on human breast tumourigenesis...
  100. ncbi MF59-adjuvanted vaccines: increased immunogenicity with an optimal safety profile
    Audino Podda
    Chiron Vaccines Clinical Research and Medical Affairs, Siena, Italy
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2:197-203. 2003
    ..MF59 has been the first adjuvant to be licensed for human use after alum and, as part of an enhanced influenza vaccine for the elderly, is now available in the marketplace of several countries worldwide...
  101. ncbi Detection of squalene in alpha-fetoprotein and fetal serum albumin from bovine
    V Ruiz-Gutierrez
    Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville, Spain
    J Protein Chem 20:19-23. 2001
    ..was analyzed by gas chromatography and the peak appearing just after the arachidonic acid was identified as squalene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...

Research Grants78

  1. ISOPRENOID METABOLISM IN THE RETINA
    STEVEN FLIESLER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The present proposal is aimed at alleviating this deficiency. The chemical levels of cholesterol, squalene, Dol-P and dolichol will be determined by high performance liquid chromatography...
  2. Regulation of Hepatic P450s by Anti-Cholesterol Drugs
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..g., certain statins and the squalene monooxygenase inhibitor, NB-598) are able to bind directly to a xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor, and these do ..
  3. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will concentrate on five enzymes that are potentially enzymes that are potentially excellent drug targets: squalene synthetase, squalene epoxidase, C14 demethylase, delta 14-reductase, and C8 isomerase...
  4. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We will concentrate on five enzymes that are potentially enzymes that are potentially excellent drug targets: squalene synthetase, squalene epoxidase, C14 demethylase, delta 14-reductase, and C8 isomerase...
  5. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will concentrate on five enzymes that are potentially enzymes that are potentially excellent drug targets: squalene synthetase, squalene epoxidase, C14 demethylase, delta 14-reductase, and C8 isomerase...
  6. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The post-squalene pathway leading to ergosterol in fungi or cholesterol in animal cells share eleven enzymatic reactions in ..
  7. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The post-squalene pathway leading to ergosterol in fungi or cholesterol in animal cells share eleven enzymatic reactions in ..
  8. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The post-squalene pathway leading to ergosterol in fungi or cholesterol in animal cells share eleven enzymatic reactions in ..
  9. THE YEAST ERGOSTEROL PATHWAY
    Martin Bard; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The post-squalene pathway leading to ergosterol in fungi or cholesterol in animal cells share eleven enzymatic reactions in ..
  10. TERPENE CONDENSATION REACTIONS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..the prenyltransfer enzymes farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase (sterol, ubiquinone, and dolichol pathways), squalene synthetase (branch point for sterol pathway) dimethylallyltryptophan synthetase (ergot alkaloid metabolism), 3-..
  11. REGULATION OF HEPATIC P450S BY ANTICHOLESTEROL DRUGS
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..inhibit sterol biosynthesis, such as inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase or squalene synthase, induce rat hepatic CYP2B1 gene expression by causing depletion of the critical cellular sterols that ..
  12. REGULATION OF HEPATIC P450S BY ANTICHOLESTEROL DRUGS
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..inhibit sterol biosynthesis, such as inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase or squalene synthase, induce rat hepatic CYP2B1 gene expression by causing depletion of the critical cellular sterols that ..
  13. REGULATION OF HEPATIC P450S BY ANTICHOLESTEROL DRUGS
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..inhibit sterol biosynthesis, such as inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase or squalene synthase, induce rat hepatic CYP2B1 gene expression by causing depletion of the critical cellular sterols that ..
  14. REGULATION OF HEPATIC P450S BY ANTICHOLESTEROL DRUGS
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..inhibit sterol biosynthesis, such as inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase or squalene synthase, induce rat hepatic CYP2B1 gene expression by causing depletion of the critical cellular sterols that ..
  15. REGULATION OF HEPATIC P450S BY ANTICHOLESTEROL DRUGS
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..inhibit sterol biosynthesis, such as inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase or squalene synthase, induce rat hepatic CYP2B1 gene expression by causing depletion of the critical cellular sterols that ..
  16. Role of iNOS, Nitric Oxide & Arginase in Statin-Mediated Toxicity in Cancer Cells
    Balaraman Kalyanaraman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..their ability to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, which blocks the synthesis of isoprenylated small GTPases, and not by squalene, an immediate precursor of cholesterol...
  17. THE CELLULAR ORGANIZATION OF CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
    Yvonne Lange; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..will be incubated with 3H-acetate to label biosynthetically so as to induce the accumulation of the intermediates squalene, squalene oxide and lanosterol: (a) incubation at 10 degrees C; (b) treatment with 4,4,10 beta - Trimethyl-trans-..
  18. Role of iNOS, Nitric Oxide & Arginase in Statin-Mediated Toxicity in Cancer Cells
    Balaraman Kalyanaraman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..their ability to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, which blocks the synthesis of isoprenylated small GTPases, and not by squalene, an immediate precursor of cholesterol...
  19. SPHINGOLIPIDS AND STEROLS--METABOLISM AND INTERACTIONS
    Seiichi Matsuda; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Another hereditary disorder of development, suggested to be a defect in squalene epoxidase, is also being studied...
  20. SPHINGOLIPIDS AND STEROLS--METABOLISM AND INTERACTIONS
    Seiichi Matsuda; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Another hereditary disorder of development, suggested to be a defect in squalene epoxidase, is also being studied...
  21. Role of iNOS, Nitric Oxide & Arginase in Statin-Mediated Toxicity in Cancer Cells
    Balaraman Kalyanaraman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..their ability to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, which blocks the synthesis of isoprenylated small GTPases, and not by squalene, an immediate precursor of cholesterol...
  22. Role of iNOS, Nitric Oxide & Arginase in Statin-Mediated Toxicity in Cancer Cells
    Balaraman Kalyanaraman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..their ability to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, which blocks the synthesis of isoprenylated small GTPases, and not by squalene, an immediate precursor of cholesterol...
  23. SPECIFICITY IN TERPENE AND STEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
    Robert Coates; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..total synthesis of the cyclobutyl isomer of presqualene as a new intermediate in, or inhibitor or, squalene biosynthesis. 3...
  24. SPECIFICITY IN TERPENE AND STEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
    Robert Coates; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..total synthesis of the cyclobutyl isomer of presqualene as a new intermediate in, or inhibitor or, squalene biosynthesis. 3...
  25. SPECIFICITY IN TERPENE AND STEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
    Robert Coates; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..total synthesis of the cyclobutyl isomer of presqualene as a new intermediate in, or inhibitor or, squalene biosynthesis. 3...
  26. Synthesis of Macrolides, Steroids, Cyclopentanoids, etc.
    BARRY TROST; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..to families of compounds possessing powerful antihelmintic and antinematodol mold metabolites ranging to squalene synthase and Ras farnesyl transfer inhibitors...
  27. Synthesis of Macrolides, Steroids, Cyclopentanoids, etc.
    BARRY TROST; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..to families of compounds possessing powerful antihelmintic and antinematodol mold metabolites ranging to squalene synthase and Ras farnesyl transfer inhibitors...
  28. Synthesis of Macrolides, Steroids, Cyclopentanoids, etc.
    BARRY TROST; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to families of compounds possessing powerful antihelmintic and antinematodol mold metabolites ranging to squalene synthase and Ras farnesyl transfer inhibitors...
  29. Synthesis of Macrolides, Steroids, Cyclopentanoids, etc.
    BARRY TROST; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..to families of compounds possessing powerful antihelmintic and antinematodol mold metabolites ranging to squalene synthase and Ras farnesyl transfer inhibitors...
  30. DRUG RESISTANCE AND GENE AMPLIFICATION IN LEISHMANIA
    Stephen Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..genes within the H region for two other drugs of interest to prospective antileishmanial chemotherapy (a squalene epoxidase inhibitor and an 8-aminoquinoline) will be mapped, sequenced and the protein products characterized...
  31. DRUG RESISTANCE AND GENE AMPLIFICATION IN LEISHMANIA
    Stephen Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..genes within the H region for two other drugs of interest to prospective antileishmanial chemotherapy (a squalene epoxidase inhibitor and an 8-aminoquinoline) will be mapped, sequenced and the protein products characterized...
  32. DRUG RESISTANCE AND GENE AMPLIFICATION IN LEISHMANIA
    Stephen Beverley; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..genes within the H region for two other drugs of interest to prospective antileishmanial chemotherapy (a squalene epoxidase inhibitor and an 8-aminoquinoline) will be mapped, sequenced and the protein products characterized...
  33. DRUG RESISTANCE AND GENE AMPLIFICATION IN LEISHMANIA
    Stephen Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..genes within the H region for two other drugs of interest to prospective antileishmanial chemotherapy (a squalene epoxidase inhibitor and an 8-aminoquinoline) will be mapped, sequenced and the protein products characterized...
  34. DRUG RESISTANCE AND GENE AMPLIFICATION IN LEISHMANIA
    Stephen Beverley; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..genes within the H region for two other drugs of interest to prospective antileishmanial chemotherapy (a squalene epoxidase inhibitor and an 8-aminoquinoline) will be mapped, sequenced and the protein products characterized...
  35. Protein Structure/Function by NMR, Crystallography and Computational Chemistry
    Eric Oldfield; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In recent work, we discovered that human squalene synthase inhibitors can also block staphyloxanthin biosynthesis in S. aureus, at 200 nM levels. The resulting S...
  36. Protein Structure/Function by NMR, Crystallography and Computational Chemistry
    Eric Oldfield; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In recent work, we discovered that human squalene synthase inhibitors can also block staphyloxanthin biosynthesis in S. aureus, at 200 nM levels. The resulting S...
  37. REGULATION OF ERGOSTEROL AND CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
    DAVID SPRINSON; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..For this reason, isolated sterol mutants in yeast are limited to those blocked after squalene. New strategies therefore need to be found to obtain early sterol mutants and/or dolichol phosphate mutants...
  38. Studies of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases, and the enzymes that catalyze cyclopropanation building reactions (squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase)...
  39. Studies of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases, and the enzymes that catalyze cyclopropanation building reactions (squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase)...
  40. Studies of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases, and the enzymes that catalyze cyclopropanation building reactions (squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase)...
  41. Studies of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases, and the enzymes that catalyze cyclopropanation building reactions (squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase)...
  42. Developing Immunotherapeutics for Methamphetamine Abuse
    Thomas Kosten; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These adjuvants include CpG oligonucleotides, MPL, and a squalene-based adjuvant;CFA and alum will be included as controls...
  43. Developing Immunotherapeutics for Methamphetamine Abuse
    THOMAS RICHARD KOSTEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These adjuvants include CpG oligonucleotides, MPL, and a squalene-based adjuvant;CFA and alum will be included as controls...
  44. ISOPRENOID BIOSYNTHESIS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The specific targets are isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase, and enzymes in the non-mevalonate pathway...
  45. ISOPRENOID BIOSYNTHESIS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The specific targets are isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase, and enzymes in the non-mevalonate pathway...
  46. ISOPRENOID BIOSYNTHESIS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The specific targets are isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase, and enzymes in the non-mevalonate pathway...
  47. ISOPRENOID BIOSYNTHESIS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The specific targets are isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, squalene synthase, phytoene synthase, chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase, and enzymes in the non-mevalonate pathway...
  48. ISOPRENOID METABOLISM IN THE RETINA
    RONALD KELLER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The present proposal is aimed at alleviating this deficiency. The chemical levels of cholesterol, squalene, Dol-P and dolichol will be determined by high performance liquid chromatography...
  49. ISOPRENOID METABOLISM IN THE RETINA
    RONALD KELLER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The present proposal is aimed at alleviating this deficiency. The chemical levels of cholesterol, squalene, Dol-P and dolichol will be determined by high performance liquid chromatography...
  50. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF X-LINKED CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA
    Gail Herman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Seven human disorders involving enzyme defects in post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis have been identified...
  51. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF X-LINKED CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA
    Gail Herman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Seven human disorders involving enzyme defects in post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis have been identified...
  52. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF X-LINKED CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA
    Gail Herman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Seven human disorders involving enzyme defects in post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis have been identified...
  53. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF X-LINKED CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA
    Gail Herman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Seven human disorders involving enzyme defects in post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis have been identified...
  54. Regulation of Hepatic P450s by Anti-Cholesterol Drugs
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..g., certain statins and the squalene monooxygenase inhibitor, NB-598) are able to bind directly to a xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor, and these do ..
  55. SQUALENE EPOXIDASE AND OXIDOSQUALENE CYCLASE FROM LIVER
    Glenn Prestwich; Fiscal Year: 1999
    b>Squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) are the two key enzymes required for the production of lanosterol from an acyclic polyene precursor...
  56. Regulation of Hepatic P450s by Anti-Cholesterol Drugs
    THOMAS KOCAREK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..g., certain statins and the squalene monooxygenase inhibitor, NB-598) are able to bind directly to a xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor, and these do ..
  57. Thermochemistry of Strained Organic Heterocycles and Organic Peroxides
    KATHLEEN M MORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These functional groups are also present in a variety of biologically active molecules such as steroid precursor squalene-2,3-epoxide and therapeutic mitomycin...
  58. Thermochemistry of Strained Organic Heterocycles and Organic Peroxides
    KATHLEEN MORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These functional groups are also present in a variety of biologically active molecules such as steroid precursor squalene-2,3-epoxide and therapeutic mitomycin...
  59. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL CHOLESTEROL ABSORPTION
    RICHARD OSTLUND; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The central hypothesis of this proposal is that certain lipids (phytosterols, squalene and oxysterols), in the quantities found in western diets, have physiologically important effects on cholesterol ..
  60. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL CHOLESTEROL ABSORPTION
    RICHARD OSTLUND; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The central hypothesis of this proposal is that certain lipids (phytosterols, squalene and oxysterols), in the quantities found in western diets, have physiologically important effects on cholesterol ..
  61. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL CHOLESTEROL ABSORPTION
    RICHARD OSTLUND; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The central hypothesis of this proposal is that certain lipids (phytosterols, squalene and oxysterols), in the quantities found in western diets, have physiologically important effects on cholesterol ..
  62. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL CHOLESTEROL ABSORPTION
    RICHARD OSTLUND; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The central hypothesis of this proposal is that certain lipids (phytosterols, squalene and oxysterols), in the quantities found in western diets, have physiologically important effects on cholesterol ..
  63. ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL NATURAL PRODUCTS
    MICHAEL CRIMMINS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..photocycloadditions applied to a synthesis of the novel natural products CP-263,114 and CP-225,917 which inhibit squalene synthase and ras farnesyl transferase...
  64. ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL NATURAL PRODUCTS
    MICHAEL CRIMMINS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..photocycloadditions applied to a synthesis of the novel natural products CP-263,114 and CP-225,917 which inhibit squalene synthase and ras farnesyl transferase...
  65. TERPENE CONDENSATION REACTIONS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Seven enzymes will be studied - farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase, dimethylallyladenosyl-tRNA synthase, protein prenyltransferase, ..
  66. TERPENE CONDENSATION REACTIONS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Seven enzymes will be studied - farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase, dimethylallyladenosyl-tRNA synthase, protein prenyltransferase, ..
  67. TERPENE CONDENSATION REACTIONS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Seven enzymes will be studied - farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase, dimethylallyladenosyl-tRNA synthase, protein prenyltransferase, ..
  68. SQUALENE AND OXIDOSQUALENE CYCLASES
    Glenn Prestwich; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION (verbatim from the abstract): Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) and bacterial squalene:hopene cyclases (SHCs) are responsible for generating over 80 different steroidal and other polycyclic triterpene structures...
  69. Cytokine-Mediated Regulation of Cholesterogenesis
    Ishaiahu Shechter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first reaction of the isoprenoid metabolic pathway committed to cholesterol biosynthesis and its activity regulates the flux of intermediates to sterols...
  70. SQUALENE AND OXIDOSQUALENE CYCLASES
    Glenn Prestwich; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (verbatim from the abstract): Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) and bacterial squalene:hopene cyclases (SHCs) are responsible for generating over 80 different steroidal and other polycyclic triterpene structures...
  71. SQUALENE EPOXIDASE AND OXIDOSQUALENE CYCLASE FROM LIVER
    Glenn Prestwich; Fiscal Year: 1992
    b>Squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) are the two key enzymes required for the production of lanosterol from an acyclic polyene precursor. Squalene epoxidase requires a supernatant protein factor (SPF) for activity...
  72. NOVEL INHIBITORS OF CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS
    Thomas Spencer; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Other experiments will be conducted to determine if 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol or other substances derived from squalene dioxide have additional diochemical importance...
  73. SQUALENE AND OXIDOSQUALENE CYCLASES
    Glenn Prestwich; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION (verbatim from the abstract): Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) and bacterial squalene:hopene cyclases (SHCs) are responsible for generating over 80 different steroidal and other polycyclic triterpene structures...
  74. SQUALENE AND OXIDOSQUALENE CYCLASES
    Glenn Prestwich; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION (verbatim from the abstract): Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) and bacterial squalene:hopene cyclases (SHCs) are responsible for generating over 80 different steroidal and other polycyclic triterpene structures...
  75. Characterization of EGCG-receptors: Role in mediating the effects of green tea
    MARK LUNDQUIST; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Alternatively, other EGCG-proteins, such as squalene monooxygenase, MICAL, or 67LR might mediate the effects of EGCG in neurons...