chloroform

Summary

Summary: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Spectrophotometric determination of pipazethate HCl, dextromethorphan HBr and drotaverine HCl in their pharmaceutical preparations
    Alaa S Amin
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 67:1088-93. 2007
  2. ncbi Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction
    P Chomczynski
    Anal Biochem 162:156-9. 1987
  3. ncbi The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on
    Piotr Chomczynski
    Molecular Research Center, 2600 Clifton Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:581-5. 2006
  4. ncbi Chloroform respiration to dichloromethane by a Dehalobacter population
    Ariel Grostern
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 3E5
    Environ Microbiol 12:1053-60. 2010
  5. pmc Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Nalamolu Koteswara Rao
    Pharmacology Division, GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India
    BMC Complement Altern Med 6:17. 2006
  6. ncbi Effectiveness of rotary and hand files in gutta-percha and sealer removal using chloroform or chlorhexidine gel
    Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno
    Department of Endodontics, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Braz Dent J 17:139-43. 2006
  7. ncbi The antimicrobial effect of chloroform on Enterococcus faecalis after gutta-percha removal
    Scott W Edgar
    Department of Endodontology, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Endod 32:1185-7. 2006
  8. pmc Computational toxicology of chloroform: reverse dosimetry using Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, and human biomonitoring data
    Michael A Lyons
    Quantitative and Computational Toxicology Group, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1040-6. 2008
  9. ncbi Hepatoprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. I. Protection when given twenty-four hours after chloroform or bromobenzene
    R C Lind
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 27:342-7. 1999
  10. ncbi Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus
    Nirmal K Lohiya
    Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
    Asian J Androl 10:298-306. 2008

Detail Information

Publications240 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Spectrophotometric determination of pipazethate HCl, dextromethorphan HBr and drotaverine HCl in their pharmaceutical preparations
    Alaa S Amin
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 67:1088-93. 2007
    ..The method consists of extracting the formed ion-associates into chloroform in the case of pipazethate HCl and dextromethorphan HBr or into methylene chloride in the case of drotaverine ..
  2. ncbi Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction
    P Chomczynski
    Anal Biochem 162:156-9. 1987
    A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h...
  3. ncbi The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on
    Piotr Chomczynski
    Molecular Research Center, 2600 Clifton Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:581-5. 2006
    ..from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation...
  4. ncbi Chloroform respiration to dichloromethane by a Dehalobacter population
    Ariel Grostern
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 3E5
    Environ Microbiol 12:1053-60. 2010
    b>Chloroform (CF), or trichloromethane, is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant because of its widespread industrial use, historically poor disposal and recalcitrance to biodegradation...
  5. pmc Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Nalamolu Koteswara Rao
    Pharmacology Division, GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India
    BMC Complement Altern Med 6:17. 2006
    ..In the present investigation, the chloroform extract of T...
  6. ncbi Effectiveness of rotary and hand files in gutta-percha and sealer removal using chloroform or chlorhexidine gel
    Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno
    Department of Endodontics, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Braz Dent J 17:139-43. 2006
    ..K3 rotary files and hand files for removal of gutta-percha and sealer from obturated root canals using either chloroform or chlorhexidine as solvents...
  7. ncbi The antimicrobial effect of chloroform on Enterococcus faecalis after gutta-percha removal
    Scott W Edgar
    Department of Endodontology, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Endod 32:1185-7. 2006
    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of chloroform on Enterococcus faecalis when used as a gutta-percha solvent during endodontic retreatment...
  8. pmc Computational toxicology of chloroform: reverse dosimetry using Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, and human biomonitoring data
    Michael A Lyons
    Quantitative and Computational Toxicology Group, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1040-6. 2008
    ..One problem of interpreting population-based biomonitoring data is the reconstruction of corresponding external exposure in cases where no such data are available...
  9. ncbi Hepatoprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. I. Protection when given twenty-four hours after chloroform or bromobenzene
    R C Lind
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 27:342-7. 1999
    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been reported to protect against hepatotoxicity resulting from chloroform (CHCl3) or bromobenzene (BB) when given 10 hr after the toxicant...
  10. ncbi Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus
    Nirmal K Lohiya
    Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
    Asian J Androl 10:298-306. 2008
    To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys.
  11. pmc A large, voltage-dependent channel, isolated from mitochondria by water-free chloroform extraction
    Evgeny Pavlov
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    Biophys J 88:2614-25. 2005
    We examined ion channels derived from a chloroform extract of isolated, dehydrated rat liver mitochondria...
  12. doi The n-hexane and chloroform fractions of Piper betle L. trigger different arms of immune responses in BALB/c mice and exhibit antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarid Brugia malayi
    Meghna Singh
    Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, P Box 173, Lucknow 226001, India
    Int Immunopharmacol 9:716-28. 2009
    ..present report describes the in vivo immunomodulatory efficacy of the crude methanolic extract and its n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol fractions of the female plant at various dose levels ranging between 0.3 and 500 mg/kg in BALB/c...
  13. pmc General anesthetics have additive actions on three ligand gated ion channels
    Andrew Jenkins
    Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1462 Clifton Rd NE Suite 420, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:486-93. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi Cytotoxicity evaluation of gutta-percha solvents: Chloroform and GP-Solvent (limonene)
    La ongthong Vajrabhaya
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Mahidol University Faculty of Dentistry, Bangkok, Thailand
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 98:756-9. 2004
    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 2 gutta-percha solvents, chloroform and GP-Solvent, on cell line L929.
  15. doi Microbial degradation of chloroform
    M Cappelletti
    Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Italy
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:1395-409. 2012
    b>Chloroform (CF) is largely produced by both anthropogenic and natural sources. It is detected in ground and surface water sources and it represents the most abundant halocarbon in the atmosphere...
  16. ncbi Chloroform extract of deer antler inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption
    Yin Ji Li
    Division of Molecular Life Sciences and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Ethnopharmacol 113:191-8. 2007
    ..b>Chloroform extract (CE-C) of deer antler inhibited osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow cultures stimulated by ..
  17. doi Complete chloroform dechlorination by organochlorine respiration and fermentation
    Matthew Lee
    Centre for Marine BioInnovation, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Environ Microbiol 14:883-94. 2012
    b>Chloroform (CF, CHCl(3)) is a recalcitrant and toxic environmental pollutant. In this communication we report for the first time a microbial community capable of complete CF dechlorination by metabolic processes...
  18. ncbi Chloroform in indoor swimming-pool air: monitoring and modeling coupled with the effects of environmental conditions and occupant activities
    H T Hsu
    Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No 91 Hsueh Shih Rd, Taichung, Taiwan
    Water Res 43:3693-704. 2009
    Human exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools has been recognized as a potential health concern...
  19. pmc Effects of isoflurane, halothane, and chloroform on the interactions and lateral organization of lipids in the liquid-ordered phase
    Serhan Turkyilmaz
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    Langmuir 27:14380-5. 2011
    ..combination with Monte Carlo simulations, have been used to investigate the action of isoflurane, halothane, and chloroform on the compactness and lateral organization of cholesterol-rich bilayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-..
  20. pmc Phospholipid complexation of general anesthetics in fluid bilayers
    Serhan Turkyilmaz
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    Langmuir 26:5309-11. 2010
    ..derived from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in the presence of varying concentrations of chloroform. This analysis has yielded a fundamentally new, molecular-level view of the interaction of general anesthetics ..
  21. ncbi Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa in experimental animal models
    Malaya Gupta
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India
    Biol Pharm Bull 26:1342-4. 2003
    ..In mice, carrageenan peritonitis test was performed for the extract by oral administration. The chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa (CEBL) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect at the dose 50, 100 and 200 ..
  22. pmc Modulation of TRPC5 cation channels by halothane, chloroform and propofol
    Y M Bahnasi
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 153:1505-12. 2008
    ..g. Gd3+) and phospholipids (e.g. lysophosphatidylcholine: LPC). Here we report the effects of inhalational (halothane and chloroform) and intravenous (propofol) general anaesthetics upon TRPC5.
  23. ncbi Determining the structure of α-phenylethyl isocyanide in chloroform by VCD spectroscopy and DFT calculations--simple case or challenge?
    Christian Merten
    Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:11635-41. 2010
    ..theoretical and experimental study of the vibrational circular dichroism of (S)-α-phenylethyl isocyanide in chloroform. The structure in solution is investigated systematically by density functional theory calculations starting ..
  24. doi Formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes between bile acids and lidocaine in the lidocaine transfer from an aqueous phase to chloroform
    Mihalj Posa
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
    Eur J Pharm Sci 34:281-92. 2008
    ..the rate constant of the decrease of lidocaine concentration in the aqueous phase during its transfer to the chloroform solution of a bile acid...
  25. doi Inclusion complexes of cryptophane-E with dichloromethane and chloroform: A thermodynamic and kinetic study using the 1D-EXSY NMR method
    Sahar Nikkhou Aski
    Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Magn Reson Chem 46:1135-40. 2008
    Complexation equilibria and kinetics of exchange of chloroform and dichloromethane molecules between the cavity of cryptophane-E and bulk solution were investigated using NMR methods...
  26. doi Halogen bonded complexes between volatile anaesthetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane) and formaldehyde: a theoretical study
    Wiktor Zierkiewicz
    Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50 370 Wrocław, Poland
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:5105-13. 2011
    The structures and intermolecular interactions in the halogen bonded complexes of anaesthetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane and isoflurane) with formaldehyde were studied by ab initio MP2 and CCSD(T) methods...
  27. ncbi Bioassay-guided fractionation and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of fractions of chloroform extract of Artemisia maciverae Linn
    A C Ene
    Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Acta Trop 112:288-94. 2009
    In the search for new plant-derived anti-malarial compounds, chromatographic fractions of chloroform extract of whole plants of Artemisia maciverae were tested in vivo using chloroquine resistant and chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium ..
  28. ncbi Comparative quantification of sphingolipids and analogs in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography after chloroform extraction
    Paul Andréani
    Institute for Immunology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625 Hanover, Germany
    Anal Biochem 358:239-46. 2006
    ..were efficiently isolated from biological samples such as cells, tissues, serum, plasma, and media by simple chloroform extraction...
  29. ncbi Antinociceptive effects of a chloroform extract and the alkaloid dicentrine isolated from fruits of Ocotea puberula
    Deise Prehs Montrucchio
    Departamento de Farmacia, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
    Planta Med 78:1543-8. 2012
    The present work describes the chemical characterization of a chloroform fraction (CF) obtained from an extract of Ocotea puberula (Lauraceae) fruits, and preliminary antinociceptive analysis of CF and the alkaloid dicentrine, isolated ..
  30. ncbi Suppression of pulmonary host defenses and enhanced susceptibility to respiratory bacterial infection in mice following inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene and chloroform
    MaryJane K Selgrade
    Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    J Immunotoxicol 7:350-6. 2010
    ..Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform are among 33 hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S...
  31. ncbi Amelioration of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death by chloroform fraction of bay leaves (Laurus nobilis)
    Eun Young Cho
    Natural Product Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:2029-35. 2010
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Laurus nobilis chloroform fraction (LNCF) protects against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage...
  32. doi A phenol-chloroform protocol for extracting DNA from ancient samples
    Ross Barnett
    Department of Archaeology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 840:13-9. 2012
    ..Here, we describe the phenol-chloroform method for extracting aDNA from any tissue type...
  33. doi Dissolving efficacy of eucalyptus and orange oil, xylol and chloroform solvents on different root canal sealers
    J Martos
    Department of Semiology and Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    Int Endod J 44:1024-8. 2011
    To evaluate the solubility of five root canal sealers in orange oil, eucalyptol, xylol and chloroform solvents.
  34. pmc Loosening and reorganization of fluid phospholipid bilayers by chloroform
    Serhan Turkyilmaz
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:5068-9. 2009
    ..Similar mixing experiments that were carried out in the presence of chloroform showed a leveling effect, where moderate sterol-phospholipid affinity was observed in all cases...
  35. doi Influence of chloroform in liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases in lipid membranes
    Ramon Reigada
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Phys Chem B 115:2527-35. 2011
    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the influence of chloroform in two different lipid membranes: one representative of a liquid-disordered phase and another one mixed with cholesterol and representative of a liquid-ordered ..
  36. doi NMR investigation of guest-host complex between chloroform and cryptophane C
    Z Takacs
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Magn Reson Chem 48:623-9. 2010
    Guest-host complex between cryptophane C, possessing two non-equivalent caps, and chloroform is investigated by NMR spectroscopy...
  37. doi Desorption behavior of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in contaminated low organic carbon aquifer sediments
    Robert G Riley
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, United States
    Chemosphere 79:807-13. 2010
    Slow release behavior of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and chloroform (CHCl(3)) in low organic carbon (<0.1%) deep aquifer sediments was quantified by 1-D column desorption studies with intact cores...
  38. doi Growth arrest and induction of apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell death by, Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human ovarian carcinoma Caov-3 cells
    Kheng Leong Ooi
    School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia
    J Ethnopharmacol 128:92-9. 2010
    ....
  39. ncbi Riboflavin- and cobalamin-mediated biodegradation of chloroform in a methanogenic consortium
    Claudia Guerrero-Barajas
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, P O Box 210011, Tucson, Arizona 85721 0011, USA
    Biotechnol Bioeng 89:539-50. 2005
    b>Chloroform (CF) is an important priority pollutant contaminating groundwater. Reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms is a promising strategy towards the remediation of CF...
  40. ncbi Three-dimensional structure of (1-71)bacterioopsin solubilized in methanol/chloroform and SDS micelles determined by 15N-1H heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy
    K V Pervushin
    Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
    Eur J Biochem 219:571-83. 1994
    ..fragment C2 (residues 1-71) of bacterioopsin from Halobacterium halobium, solubilized in a mixture of methanol/chloroform (1:1, by vol.) and 0...
  41. ncbi Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Solanum nigrum chloroform extract in animal models
    Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria
    Faculty of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Universiti Industri Selangor, Jalan Zirkon A7 A, Seksyen 7, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
    Yakugaku Zasshi 126:1171-8. 2006
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.
  42. ncbi Mutagenicity of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA/pKM101 and WP2/pKM101, using a gas exposure method
    Akihiro Araki
    Mutagenicity Test Division, Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Hadano, Kanagawa, Japan
    Environ Mol Mutagen 43:128-33. 2004
    The volatile solvents carbon tetrachloride and chloroform are carcinogens that are often reported as nonmutagenic in bacterial mutagenicity assays...
  43. ncbi Singlet oxygen production upon two-photon excitation of TiO2 in chloroform
    Wenbing Li
    Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, 1400 J R Lynch Street, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
    Chemphyschem 10:1789-93. 2009
    ..By employing (1)O(2) as a probe, we have established an efficient and simple method to elucidate the nature of TiO(2) photoexcitation...
  44. ncbi Reverse dosimetry: interpreting trihalomethanes biomonitoring data using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling
    Yu Mei Tan
    CIIT Centers for Health Research, Center for Human Health Assessment, 6 Davis Drive, P O Box 12137, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2137, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17:591-603. 2007
    ..The present study used an existing PBPK model for chloroform as a generic framework to develop PBPK models for other trihalomethanes (THMs)...
  45. ncbi Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effects of methanol, chloroform and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea less leaf
    E O Iwalewa
    Department of Pharmacology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria
    J Ethnopharmacol 86:229-34. 2003
    The chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea (Asteraceae; Less) leaf (100, 200 and 400mg/kg intraperitoneally) were tested in: acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, carrageenin-induced oedema and brewer's yeast-..
  46. ncbi Effect of chloroform on dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid-induced hypomethylation and expression of the c-myc gene and on their promotion of liver and kidney tumors in mice
    M A Pereira
    Department of Pathology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
    Carcinogenesis 22:1511-9. 2001
    b>Chloroform, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are mouse liver carcinogens that are chlorine disinfection by-products found in drinking water...
  47. doi Apoptotic effects of Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human breast carcinoma T-47D cells mediated by c-myc-, p53-, and caspase-3-dependent pathways
    Kheng Leong Ooi
    School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
    Integr Cancer Ther 9:73-83. 2010
    The chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced a significant growth inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells as compared with other extracts with an EC(50) value of 3.8 microg/mL...
  48. ncbi Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey
    N K Lohiya
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
    Asian J Androl 4:17-26. 2002
    To evaluate the antifertility activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds by oral administration in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus.
  49. pmc The relationship between water concentrations and individual uptake of chloroform: a simulation study
    Heather J Whitaker
    Small Area Health Statistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 111:688-94. 2003
    We simulated the relationship between water chloroform concentrations and chloroform uptake in pregnant women to assess the potential extent of exposure measurement error in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to water ..
  50. ncbi Time dependence of chloroform-induced metabolic alterations in the liver and kidney of B6C3F1 mice
    S Rossi
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Comparative Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Viale Regina Elena 299 00161, Rome, Italy
    Arch Toxicol 73:387-93. 1999
    ..In the liver no biochemical changes were produced up to a week after chloroform treatment...
  51. ncbi Dose-dependent liver tissue repair after chloroform plus trichloroethylene binary mixture
    Sathanandam S Anand
    Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, LA 71209, USA
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 96:436-44. 2005
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that liver tissue repair induced by exposure to chloroform (CHCl(3))+trichloroethylene binary mixture (BM) is dose-dependent similar to that elicited by exposure to these ..
  52. ncbi Comparative efficacy and immunogenicity of Q fever chloroform:methanol residue (CMR) and phase I cellular (Q-Vax) vaccines in cynomolgus monkeys challenged by aerosol
    David M Waag
    Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch, Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Vaccine 20:2623-34. 2002
    Preliminary evidence gathered in rodents and livestock suggested that a phase I chloroform:methanol residue (CMR) extracted vaccine was safe and efficacious in protecting these animals from challenge with the obligate phagolysosomal ..
  53. ncbi A comparison of the effectiveness of chloroform and eucalyptus oil in dissolving root canal sealers
    Edgar Schafer
    Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Munster, Germany
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 93:611-6. 2002
    The solubility of 8 different root canal sealers in chloroform and in eucalyptus oil was compared.
  54. ncbi DNA extraction and quantitation of forensic samples using the phenol-chloroform method and real-time PCR
    Silvano Köchl
    Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    Methods Mol Biol 297:13-30. 2005
    ..The phenol-chloroform method is a sensitive method for the extraction of DNA from a wide variety of forensic samples, although it is ..
  55. doi Construction of recombinant Nitrosomonas europaea expressing green fluorescent protein in response to co-oxidation of chloroform
    Barbara O Gvakharia
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82:1179-85. 2009
    ..europaea in response to oxidation of chloroform and chloromethane. In N...
  56. ncbi Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of the temperature-dependent dermal absorption of chloroform by humans following bath water exposures
    R A Corley
    Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, Chemical Dosimetry, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Toxicol Sci 53:13-23. 2000
    The kinetics of chloroform in the exhaled breath of human volunteers exposed skin-only via bath water (concentrations < 100 ppb) were analyzed using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model...
  57. ncbi A simple stopped assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase avoiding the use of a chloroform extraction phase
    Linda Boldrup
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umea University, SE901 87 Umea, Sweden
    J Biochem Biophys Methods 60:171-7. 2004
    ..It is concluded that the acidic charcoal extraction method provides a robust and simple stopped assay for FAAH without the need to use potentially hazardous solvents like chloroform.
  58. pmc Diagnostic radiopacity and hepatotoxicity following chloroform ingestion: a case report
    S H Choi
    Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
    Emerg Med J 23:394-5. 2006
    ..Diagnostic imaging can help in the management of toxicologic emergencies. The authors report on a patient who presented to the emergency department with coma and suppressed respirations after ingestion of an unknown substance...
  59. ncbi Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration
    Sathanandam S Anand
    Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, 700 University Avenue, Sugar Hall 306, Monroe, LA 71209 0495, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 213:267-81. 2006
    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic ..
  60. ncbi Cation dependence of chloride ion complexation by open-chained receptor molecules in chloroform solution
    Robert Pajewski
    Department of Chemistry, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 127:18281-95. 2005
    ..Significant differences are apparent in complexation strengths when the heptapeptide chain is shortened or lengthened or when the relative position of proline within the heptapeptide is varied...
  61. ncbi Dermal uptake of chloroform and haloketones during bathing
    Xu Xu
    The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, 08854, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15:289-96. 2005
    ..We evaluated dermal absorption of two haloketones (1,1-dichloropropanone and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone) and chloroform while bathing, by collecting and analyzing time profiles of expired breath samples of six human subjects during ..
  62. ncbi A protocol for combined delipidation and subfractionation of membrane proteins using organic solvents
    Bernd Schröder
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Philipps University Marburg, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Anal Biochem 357:144-6. 2006
  63. ncbi Bayesian estimation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in a mode-of-action-based cancer risk assessment for chloroform
    Kai H Liao
    Center for Human Health Assessment, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Risk Anal 27:1535-51. 2007
    b>Chloroform is a carcinogen in rodents and its carcinogenicity is secondary to events associated with cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation...
  64. ncbi Mechanisms of chloroform-induced hepatotoxicity: oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes
    Angela S Burke
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 70:1936-45. 2007
    The role of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and oxidative stress in chloroform toxicity was determined in freshly isolated female B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes...
  65. ncbi Protective effect of a 43 kD protein from the leaves of the herb, Cajanus indicus L on chloroform induced hepatic-disorder
    Ayantika Ghosh
    Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93 1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009, India
    J Biochem Mol Biol 39:197-207. 2006
    ..Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 43 kD protein isolated from the leaves of this herb against chloroform induced hepatotoxicity...
  66. ncbi Removal of chloroform from biodegradable therapeutic microspheres by radiolysis
    S W Zielhuis
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Pharm 315:67-74. 2006
    ..microspheres are loaded with holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) and prepared by a solvent evaporation method using chloroform. After preparation the microspheres (Ho-PLLA-MS) are activated by neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor...
  67. pmc Global transcriptional response of Nitrosomonas europaea to chloroform and chloromethane
    Barbara O Gvakharia
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:3440-5. 2007
    Upon exposure of Nitrosomonas europaea to chloroform (7 microM, 1 h), transcripts for 175 of 2,460 genes were found at higher levels in treated cells than in untreated cells and transcripts for 501 genes were found at lower levels...
  68. ncbi Reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and metabolism correspond to acute chloroform toxicity of in vitro hepatocytes
    Sean Hartig
    Vanderbilt University, Department of Chemical Engineering, VU Station B, Box 351604, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235 1604, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 25:310-7. 2005
    b>Chloroform is a non-genotoxic compound that is present in drinking water and ambient air as a result of water chlorination but whose carcinogenic mechanism in humans is unknown...
  69. ncbi Foldamer dynamics expressed via Markov state models. I. Explicit solvent molecular-dynamics simulations in acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water
    Sidney P Elmer
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, California 94305 5080, USA
    J Chem Phys 123:114902. 2005
    ..polyphenylacetylene (pPA) 12-mer in explicit solvent for four common organic and aqueous solvents: acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water. The solvent quality has a dramatic effect on the time scales in which pPA 12-mers fold...
  70. ncbi Bioactivation, toxicokinetics and acute effects of chloroform in Fisher 344 and Osborne Mendel male rats
    Simonetta Gemma
    Biochemical Toxicology Unit, Comparative Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    J Appl Toxicol 24:203-10. 2004
    b>Chloroform has been regarded as a renal carcinogen, based on results obtained with Osborne Mendel (OM) rats...
  71. ncbi Biologically motivated computational modeling of chloroform cytolethality and regenerative cellular proliferation
    Yu Mei Tan
    CIIT Centers for Health Research, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 75:192-200. 2003
    b>Chloroform is a nongenotoxic-cytotoxic carcinogen in rodents. As such, events related to cytotoxicity are the driving force for cancer induction...
  72. ncbi Tissue repair plays pivotal role in final outcome of liver injury following chloroform and allyl alcohol binary mixture
    Sathanandam S Anand
    Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:1123-32. 2003
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction profile of chloroform (CHCl(3))+allyl alcohol (AA) binary mixture (BM)-induced acute hepatotoxic response...
  73. ncbi Glutathione S-transferase-mediated mutagenicity of trihalomethanes in Salmonella typhimurium: contrasting results with bromodichloromethane off chloroform
    R A Pegram
    Experimental Toxicology Division, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 144:183-8. 1997
    ..Among the THMs, chloroform (CHCl3) generally occurs at the highest concentration in finished water, but the concentrations of each of the ..
  74. ncbi In vitro assessment of the effect of halogenated hydrocarbons: chloroform, dichloromethane, and dibromoethane on embryonic development of the rat
    P D Brown-Woodman
    Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, N S W, Australia
    Teratology 57:321-33. 1998
    ..In the present study three of these solvents--chloroform, dichloromethane, and dibromoethane--were examined for embryotoxic/teratogenic potential using rat embryo ..
  75. ncbi Chloroform: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis
    M E Meek
    Existing Substances Division, Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 5:283-334. 2002
    b>Chloroform has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act...
  76. ncbi Cancer risk associated with household exposure to chloroform
    Benoît Lévesque
    Unite de Recherche en Sante publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Beauport, Canada
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 65:489-502. 2002
    b>Chloroform (CHCl3) the trihalomethane most prevalent in drinking water, is a proven animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen...
  77. ncbi HPLC and anti-inflammatory studies of the flavonoid rich chloroform extract fraction of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves
    Mun Fei Yam
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Molecules 15:4452-66. 2010
    ..Active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was fractionated into three fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method...
  78. ncbi RNA extraction from various recalcitrant plant tissues with a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment
    Yuji Suzuki
    Laboratory of Plant Environmental Responses, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:1951-3. 2008
    ..using a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment from recalcitrant plant tissues such as tree leaves (pine, Norway spruce, ginkgo, Japanese cedar, rose)..
  79. pmc Evaluation of chloroform/methanol extraction to facilitate the study of membrane proteins of non-model plants
    Annelies Vertommen
    Division of Crop Biotechnics, Department of Biosystems, K U Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Planta 231:1113-25. 2010
    ..In this study, protein extraction in a mixture of chloroform and methanol in combination with gel electrophoresis is evaluated as a method to study membrane proteins in non-..
  80. doi A comparison of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of fish tissues following lipid extractions with non-polar and traditional chloroform/methanol solvent systems
    John M Logan
    Large Pelagics Research Center, Zoology Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:1081-6. 2008
    ..1-12.5). In order to compare delta(13)C and delta(15)N values from traditional chloroform/methanol extractions with non-polar solvent alternatives, we analyzed samples following (1) no treatment, (2) ..
  81. doi Probabilistic human health risk assessment for quarterly exposure to high chloroform concentrations in drinking-water distribution network of the Province of Quebec, Canada
    Stephane Buteau
    Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 73:1626-44. 2010
    ..The resulting absorbed doses were compared to short-term reference values for chloroform, used as surrogate for THM, by calculating risk quotients (RQ)...
  82. ncbi Human respiratory uptake of chloroform and haloketones during showering
    Xu Xu
    The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15:6-16. 2005
    ..human study was conducted on six subjects to determine the respiratory uptake of haloketones (HKs) and chloroform, a reference compound, during showering...
  83. ncbi The metabolic rate constants and specific activity of human and rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 2E1 toward toluene and chloroform
    John C Lipscomb
    U S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 67:537-53. 2004
    b>Chloroform (CHCl3) is a near-ubiquitous environmental contaminant, a by-product of the disinfection of drinking water sources and a commercially important compound...
  84. ncbi Age-related changes in the photoreactivity of retinal lipofuscin granules: role of chloroform-insoluble components
    Małgorzata Rózanowska
    Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biotechnology, Krakow, Poland School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:1052-60. 2004
    ..As the composition, absorption, and fluorescence of lipofuscin undergo age-related changes, the purpose of this study was to determine whether photoreactivity of lipofuscin granules also changes with the donor age...
  85. ncbi Extent and timeliness of tissue repair determines the dose-related hepatotoxicity of chloroform
    Sathanandam S Anand
    Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, Louisiana 71209 0495, USA
    Int J Toxicol 22:25-33. 2003
    ..regardless of the mechanisms by which injury is inflicted, using a well-known environmental pollutant, chloroform (CHCl(3))...
  86. ncbi A case of acute toxic hepatitis after suicidal chloroform and dichloromethane ingestion
    Hoon Kim
    Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361 763, South Korea
    Am J Emerg Med 26:1073.e3-6. 2008
    b>Chloroform and dichloromethane are halogenated hydrocarbons that have been used as a potent anesthetic agent or a general industrial solvent...
  87. ncbi Metabolism of chloroform by cytochrome P450 2E1 is required for induction of toxicity in the liver, kidney, and nose of male mice
    A A Constan
    Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709 2137, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 160:120-6. 1999
    b>Chloroform is a nongenotoxic-cytotoxic liver and kidney carcinogen and nasal toxicant in some strains and sexes of rodents...
  88. ncbi A simple and efficient Triton X-100 boiling and chloroform extraction method of RNA isolation from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
    Kidon Sung
    US Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, Division of Microbiology, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 229:97-101. 2003
    ..The method provides a rapid, reliable, and simple tool for the isolation of good quality RNA suitable for various molecular biology experiments...
  89. ncbi Environmental and biological monitoring of chloroform in indoor swimming pools
    G Aggazzotti
    Cattedra di Metodologia Epidemiologica ed Igiene, , Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, , Italy
    J Chromatogr A 710:181-90. 1995
    The presence of chloroform as the result of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was demonstrated in the water and ambient air of indoor swimming pools...
  90. ncbi Binding of the volatile anesthetic chloroform to albumin demonstrated using tryptophan fluorescence quenching
    J S Johansson
    Department of Anesthesia and the Johnson Research Foundation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:17961-5. 1997
    ..intrinsic protein fluorescence quenching approach to monitor anesthetic-protein complexation is reported using chloroform. Chloroform quenches the steady-state tryptophan fluorescence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a concentration-..
  91. ncbi Metabolism of chloroform in the human liver and identification of the competent P450s
    Simonetta Gemma
    Biochemical Toxicology Unit, Comparative Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:266-74. 2003
    The oxidative and reductive cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated chloroform bioactivation has been investigated in human liver microsomes (HLM), and the role of human P450s have been defined by integrating results from several experimental ..
  92. ncbi Structure and potential C-terminal dimerization of a recombinant mutant of surfactant-associated protein C in chloroform/methanol
    Burkhard Luy
    Institut fur Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, Garching, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 271:2076-85. 2004
    ..of a recombinant mutant [rSP-C (FFI)] of the human surfactant-associated protein C (hSP-C) in a mixture of chloroform and methanol was determined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy...
  93. ncbi Use of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to identify exposures consistent with human biomonitoring data for chloroform
    Yu Mei Tan
    Center for Human Health Assessment, CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 69:1727-56. 2006
    ..was to use a combined PBPK model with an exposure model for showering to estimate the intake concentrations of chloroform based on measured blood and exhaled breath concentrations of chloroform...
  94. ncbi Formation of chloroform and other chlorinated byproducts by chlorination of triclosan-containing antibacterial products
    E Matthew Fiss
    The Charles E Via, Jr Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:2387-94. 2007
    ..Products detected included (chlorophenoxy) phenols, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and chloroform. The daughter product yields were found to be highly variable and were dependent on the antimicrobial product ..
  95. ncbi Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and glutathione depletion induce secondary genotoxicity in liver cells via oxidative stress
    Emma J Beddowes
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Toxicology 187:101-15. 2003
    ..b>Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride are rodent carcinogens with characteristics as described above...
  96. ncbi Constituents of Holothuroidea, 17. Isolation and structure of biologically active monosialo-gangliosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata
    Fumiaki Kisa
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 54:982-7. 2006
    ..5), were obtained, together with two known gangliosides, SJG-1 (1) and CG-1 (2), from the lipid fraction of the chloroform/methanol extract of the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata...
  97. ncbi Antiulcerogenic activity of fractions and 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane isolated from Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae)
    Sergio Faloni de Andrade
    Programa de Mestrado em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Núcleo de Investigações Químico Farmacêuticas NIQFAR, Universidade do Vale do Itajai UNIVALI, Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brazil
    Arch Pharm Res 31:41-6. 2008
    The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-soluble fractions from leaves of Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae) were evaluated for their protective actions against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats...
  98. ncbi Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of imatinib mesylate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form
    N Vadera
    Department of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 43:722-6. 2007
    ..The solvent system consisted of chloroform:methanol (6:4, v/v). The system was found to give compact spot for imatinib mesylate (R(f) value of 0.53+/-0.02)...
  99. ncbi Spectroscopic study of association of a hemicyanine dye in mixed aqueous binary solvents
    Parimal Kumar Das
    Department of Chemistry, T D B College, Raniganj, West Bengal 713347, India
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 67:225-9. 2007
    ..While the value of Delta G degrees changes very slightly with the composition of the binary mixture, the value of Delta H degrees has been observed to depend significantly with solvent composition...
  100. ncbi Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae)
    Tzasna Hernandez
    Laboratorio de Fitoquimica, UBIPRO, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Tlalnepantla 54090, Edo de Mexico, Mexico
    J Ethnopharmacol 111:137-41. 2007
    ..antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, obtained by using Clevenger distillation apparatus, and hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cordia curassavica...
  101. ncbi Potentiation of pentobarbital hypnosis by Rosa damascena in mice
    H Rakhshandah
    Department of Pharmacology, Ghaem Medical Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 91735, Iran
    Indian J Exp Biol 44:910-2. 2006
    ..The results showed that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts in 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses significantly increased pentobarbital induced sleeping time which was comparable to diazepam. The chloroformic extract had no hypnotic effect...

Research Grants64

  1. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF TROPICAL NATURAL PRODUCTS
    DEBRA MORIARITY; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..b>Chloroform extracts from three species of Oreopanax were active against the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  2. OCULAR DISPOSITION OF ACYCLOGUANOSINE ANALOGUES
    Ashim Mitra; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The compounds are purified by recrystallization from methanol-chloroform mixture and purity is checked by HPLC. TLC and by melting point on two successive crystallizations...
  3. OCULAR DISPOSITION OF ACYCLOGUANOSINE ANALOGUES
    Ashim Mitra; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The compounds are purified by recrystallization from methanol-chloroform mixture and purity is checked by HPLC. TLC and by melting point on two successive crystallizations...
  4. OCULAR DISPOSITION OF ACYCLOGUANOSINE ANALOGUES
    Ashim Mitra; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The compounds are purified by recrystallization from methanol-chloroform mixture and purity is checked by HPLC. TLC and by melting point on two successive crystallizations...
  5. OCULAR DISPOSITION OF ACYCLOGUANOSINE ANALOGUES
    Ashim Mitra; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The compounds are purified by recrystallization from methanol-chloroform mixture and purity is checked by HPLC. TLC and by melting point on two successive crystallizations...
  6. VOLATILE ANESTHETICS AND NMDA RECEPTORS
    ROBERT ARONSTAM; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..several volatile anesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, diethyl ether, cyclopropane, nitrous oxide and chloroform) on the following processes in rat brain (hippocampus): 1) Ligand binding to glutamate binding sites on the NMDA ..
  7. DETECT AND PREDICT HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOXICITY
    Max Costa; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The following model toxic agents will be utilized: a) benzene; b) chloroform; c) 2,4,5,2',4',5' hexachlorobiphenyl; d) trichloroethylene; 3) cadmium chloride; f) potassium chromate; g) ..
  8. Reductive processes for bioremediation of chlorinated solvent/metal mixtures
    Craig Criddle; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Genes required for carbon tetrachloride transformation to chloroform will be knocked out and genes for conversion of carbon tetrachloride degradation by a pathways that does not ..
  9. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING MACROMOLECULES IN AGING BRAIN
    ERIC BRUNNGRABER; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Human brain tissue from neurological normal human patients are extracted with chloroform-methanol or tetrahydrofuran to recover the gangliosides...
  10. Production of Pilot Scale Libraries of Marine Natural Products
    Amy E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..All compounds provided will meet the MLSMR's criteria of 10 mg, >90% purity and solubility in either chloroform:methanol 9:1 or DMSO...
  11. Assessment of human VOC exposure near Superfund sites
    Karla Thrall; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..perchloroethylene, 1,1- dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, toluene, xylene, benzene, diethylbenzene isomers, and chloroform. Furthermore, since this research will involved extension of existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic ..
  12. TOBACCO-BORNE IRON-BINDING SUBSTANCES
    John Eaton; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..materials in tobacco and tobacco smoke which cause the solvation of iron in non-polar organic solvents such as chloroform and also cause intact human cells to accumulate iron...
  13. BIOSYNTHESIS OF NEUROPHYSINS
    TING CHI WUU; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Phenol-chloroform-sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction followed by affinity chromatography on oligo-(dT) cellulose column will be ..
  14. PROTON TRANSLOCATING SECTOR OF E COLI H+ ATPASE
    ROBERT FILLINGAME; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We have shown that subunit c folds in a chloroform-methanol-H2O solvent much like it is predicted to fold in situ...
  15. PROTON TRANSLOCATING SECTOR OF E COLI H+ ATPASE
    ROBERT FILLINGAME; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We have shown that subunit c folds in a chloroform-methanol-H2O solvent much like it is predicted to fold in situ...
  16. PROTON TRANSLOCATING SECTOR OF E COLI H+ ATPASE
    ROBERT FILLINGAME; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We have shown that subunit c folds in a chloroform-methanol-H2O solvent much like it is predicted to fold in situ...
  17. PROTON TRANSLOCATING SECTOR OF E COLI H+ ATPASE
    ROBERT FILLINGAME; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We have shown that subunit c folds in a chloroform-methanol-H2O solvent much like it is predicted to fold in situ...
  18. PROTON TRANSLOCATING SECTOR OF E COLI H+ ATPASE
    ROBERT FILLINGAME; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We have shown that subunit c folds in a chloroform-methanol-H2O solvent much like it is predicted to fold in situ...
  19. TRICHLOROETHYLENE BAIT-AND-SWITCH IMMUNOASSAY
    Robert Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The halogenated solvents, which include vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene,1,2 dichloroethane and chloroform, are a significant source of contamination at Superfund Sites...
  20. TRICHLOROETHYLENE CAPTURE IMMUNOASSAY
    Robert Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..applicant): The halogenated solvents, which include vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane and chloroform, are a significant source of contamination at Superfund Sites...
  21. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND HYPERALGESIA
    Jon Levine; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..We have, in addition, recently developed an animal model, using cutaneous application of chloroform, of noradrenaline (NA)- sensitive hyperalgesia, such as occurs clinically in reflex sympathetic dystrophy and ..
  22. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND HYPERALGESIA
    Jon Levine; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..We have, in addition, recently developed an animal model, using cutaneous application of chloroform, of noradrenaline (NA)- sensitive hyperalgesia, such as occurs clinically in reflex sympathetic dystrophy and ..
  23. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND HYPERALGESIA
    Jon Levine; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We have, in addition, recently developed an animal model, using cutaneous application of chloroform, of noradrenaline (NA)- sensitive hyperalgesia, such as occurs clinically in reflex sympathetic dystrophy and ..
  24. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND HYPERALGESIA
    Jon Levine; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..We have, in addition, recently developed an animal model, using cutaneous application of chloroform, of noradrenaline (NA)- sensitive hyperalgesia, such as occurs clinically in reflex sympathetic dystrophy and ..
  25. Innovative molecular cytogenetic techniques for early leukemia/lymphoma detection
    JOE LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The method includes subtracting hybridized biotin-labeled repetitive-sequence DNA complex with phenol and chloroform and a second subtraction using avidin labeled magnetic beads...
  26. PNEUMOCOCCAL CELL SURFACE PROTECTION ELICITING MOLECULES
    LARRY MCDANIEL; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Pretreating the CWE with pronase or chloroform- butanol extracting prior to immunization eliminated its ability to elicit protection, thus indicating that the ..
  27. PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN MUSCLE
    MICHAEL BARANY; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..are: Changes in the phosphate content of myosin light chains, tropomyosin, troponin-T, the 10,000 dalton acid chloroform-methanol soluble protein, and the proteins of the sarcoplasmic reticulum will be determined during a single ..
  28. Novel Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer
    CHENDIL DAMODARAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Earlier, we reported that the chloroform fraction of Rasagenthi Lehyam (cRL), an herbal preparation, is effective for the treatment of PCa (Ranga et al...
  29. Analysis of Chiral Drug Intermediates by 1- & 2-D NMR
    NARAYANA BALAKRISHNAN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..will be investigated by dissolving and orienting these compounds in a polypeptide liquid crystal of PBLG with chloroform as co-solvent...
  30. ETHANOL AND THE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANES
    Nathan Janes; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..transfer protein (PITP) is enhanced by the presence of clinical concentrations of ethanol or chloroform. We found that PITP activity is exquisitely sensitive to membrane structure (curvature) in ethanol's absence-..
  31. ETHANOL AND THE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANES
    Nathan Janes; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..transfer protein (PITP) is enhanced by the presence of clinical concentrations of ethanol or chloroform. We found that PITP activity is exquisitely sensitive to membrane structure (curvature) in ethanol's absence-..
  32. ETHANOL AND THE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANES
    Nathan Janes; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..transfer protein (PITP) is enhanced by the presence of clinical concentrations of ethanol or chloroform. We found that PITP activity is exquisitely sensitive to membrane structure (curvature) in ethanol's absence-..
  33. ETHANOL AND THE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANES
    Nathan Janes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..transfer protein (PITP) is enhanced by the presence of clinical concentrations of ethanol or chloroform. We found that PITP activity is exquisitely sensitive to membrane structure (curvature) in ethanol's absence-..
  34. Novel Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer
    CHENDIL DAMODARAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Earlier, we reported that the chloroform fraction of Rasagenthi Lehyam (cRL), an herbal preparation, is effective for the treatment of PCa (Ranga et al...
  35. ETHANOL AND THE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANES
    Nathan Janes; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..transfer protein (PITP) is enhanced by the presence of clinical concentrations of ethanol or chloroform. We found that PITP activity is exquisitely sensitive to membrane structure (curvature) in ethanol's absence-..
  36. Safe Alternative Solvents for Antibiotics Extraction
    Jennifer Clark; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The solvents used for penicillin extraction include methyl isobutyl ketone, amyl acetate, butyl acetate, and chloroform. These solvents are toxic, irritants, volatile, and extremely flammable...
  37. POTENTIATION OF HALOALKANE RENAL INJURY BY KETONES
    WILLIAM HEWITT; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Recently, the applicant has demonstrated that three ketonic solvents can interact with chloroform, a representative haloalkane, to produce a potentiated nephrotoxic response in rats...
  38. MULTINUCLEAR MR OF RIESKE FERREDOXIN COMPONENT OF TOLUENE 4 MONOOXYGENASE
    John Markley; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..and can also catalyze the adventitious oxidation of numerous other hydrocarbons such as indole, naphthalene, chloroform, and trichloroethylene...
  39. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TIMING THE DAILY MEAL
    RICHARD SPIELER; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..for fish on each feeding regime include: growth (weight gain and increase in standard length), fattening (chloroform/methanol extracted lipids), activity (remote-monitored), reproductive state (gonadal-somatic index and histology)..
  40. CORE--MASS SPECTROMETRY
    Max Deinzer; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2- trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, chloroacetaldehyde and chloroform. The development of this new instrument will require the construction of a gas chromatograph electron ..
  41. CORE--MASS SPECTROMETRY
    Max Deinzer; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2- trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, chloroacetaldehyde and chloroform. The development of this new instrument will require the construction of a gas chromatograph electron ..
  42. CORE--MASS SPECTROMETRY
    Max Deinzer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2- trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, chloroacetaldehyde and chloroform. The development of this new instrument will require the construction of a gas chromatograph electron ..
  43. MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESIS AND FUNGAL SPORE GERMINATION
    Robert Brambl; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The synthesis during germination of the chloroform-methanol-soluble subunit of mitochondrial ATPase will be measured and the metabolic requirements for its ..
  44. Manufacture and Supply of Hyperpolarized Chloroform for Use as an NMR Solvent
    NEAL KALECHOFSKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is a scalable approach that works on all non zero spin nuclei--in particular, chloroform and other liquids commonly used as solvents in NMR experiments and/or to mimic certain in vivo conditions so as ..
  45. MECHANISMS OF NEUROTOXICITY
    Gerald Audesirk; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The applicant will correlate neurite growth, effects on Ca++ channels, and (Ca++)i in cultured neurons with and without toxin exposure...
  46. AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS
    Arlan Richardson; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The conversion of AFB1 to water-soluble and chloroform-soluble metabolites by liver homogenates was studied also...
  47. HEPATOPROTECTIVE MECHANISMS OF DMSO
    A Gandolfi; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..preliminary studies, DMSO has been shown to reverse the hepatotoxicity produced by halothane, bromobenzene, and chloroform when administered up to 24 hr after the toxicant exposure...
  48. TRITIUM LABELLING OF DNA & RNA BY CHEMICAL & ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS
    MANOUCHEHR SALJOUGHIAN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Stability of the 3H-aptamer in blood has been examined in isolated rabbit blood utilizing phenol/chloroform extractions and ion exchange HPLC...
  49. Avocado in cancer prevention
    Haiming Ding; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, increasing ROS levels from endogenous sources appears to be toxic to these cells. The D003 extract (chloroform fraction) isolated from avocado meat selectively enhances the levels of ROS and induces apoptosis in HPV-..
  50. Pilot Study--Models of Organic Compounds in Drinking H2O
    Patrick Gurian; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Many organic compounds commonly found in drinking water (e.g., benzene, chloroform) are believed to be carcinogenic...
  51. STRUCTURE AND FOLDING OF SUBUNIT C OF THE FLFO ATPASE
    Mark Girvin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The protein has been shown to fold as a pair of interacting antiparallel helices in a mixture of chloroform-methanol-water by NMR, with the structural features predicted from a large number of biochemical and genetic ..
  52. PROTON TRANSLOCATING SECTOR OF E COLI H+ ATPASE
    ROBERT FILLIGNAME; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The following two projects are a part of structural studies of subunit c of E. coli F0F1 ATP synthase in chloroform/methanol/water solvent conducted in our lab. 1. The c subunit in vivo forms a regular complex of 9-12 protein molecules...
  53. STRUCTURE AND FOLDING OF SUBUNIT C OF THE FLFO ATPASE
    Mark Girvin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The protein has been shown to fold as a pair of interacting antiparallel helices in a mixture of chloroform-methanol-water by NMR, with the structural features predicted from a large number of biochemical and genetic ..
  54. ARRHYTHMIGENIC CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS
    Gary Carlson; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Similar studies on the relationship between the metabolism of chlorinated compounds and their arrhythmigenic potential are being conducted with halothane, chloroform, methylchloroform and tetrachloroethylene.
  55. BINDING FREE ENERGIES & EXTRACTION SELECTIVITY CALCULATIONS
    JAROSLAV VACEK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The simulations are performed both in water and chloroform. Molecular graphics is used to prepare the input structure as well as to evaluate the processes invoved in ..
  56. BINDING FREE ENERGIES & EXTRACTION SELECTIVITY CALCULATIONS
    JAROSLAV VACEK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The simulations were performed both in water and chloroform. Access to molecular graphics at the Computer Graphics Laoratory is essential in this study...