chloroform

Summary

Summary: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction
    P Chomczynski
    Anal Biochem 162:156-9. 1987
  2. ncbi The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on
    Piotr Chomczynski
    Molecular Research Center, 2600 Clifton Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:581-5. 2006
  3. ncbi A simple stopped assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase avoiding the use of a chloroform extraction phase
    Linda Boldrup
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umea University, SE901 87 Umea, Sweden
    J Biochem Biophys Methods 60:171-7. 2004
  4. ncbi Complete chloroform dechlorination by organochlorine respiration and fermentation
    Matthew Lee
    Centre for Marine BioInnovation, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Environ Microbiol 14:883-94. 2012
  5. pmc Computational toxicology of chloroform: reverse dosimetry using Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, and human biomonitoring data
    Michael A Lyons
    Quantitative and Computational Toxicology Group, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1040-6. 2008
  6. ncbi Metabolism of chloroform in the human liver and identification of the competent P450s
    Simonetta Gemma
    Biochemical Toxicology Unit, Comparative Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:266-74. 2003
  7. pmc A large, voltage-dependent channel, isolated from mitochondria by water-free chloroform extraction
    Evgeny Pavlov
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    Biophys J 88:2614-25. 2005
  8. ncbi Chloroform respiration to dichloromethane by a Dehalobacter population
    Ariel Grostern
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 3E5
    Environ Microbiol 12:1053-60. 2010
  9. ncbi Cytotoxicity evaluation of gutta-percha solvents: Chloroform and GP-Solvent (limonene)
    La ongthong Vajrabhaya
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Mahidol University Faculty of Dentistry, Bangkok, Thailand
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 98:756-9. 2004
  10. ncbi One-day dietary restriction changes hepatic metabolism and potentiates the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in rats
    Li Qiang Qin
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
    Tohoku J Exp Med 212:379-87. 2007

Detail Information

Publications256 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction
    P Chomczynski
    Anal Biochem 162:156-9. 1987
    A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h...
  2. ncbi The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on
    Piotr Chomczynski
    Molecular Research Center, 2600 Clifton Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:581-5. 2006
    ..from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation...
  3. ncbi A simple stopped assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase avoiding the use of a chloroform extraction phase
    Linda Boldrup
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umea University, SE901 87 Umea, Sweden
    J Biochem Biophys Methods 60:171-7. 2004
    ..It is concluded that the acidic charcoal extraction method provides a robust and simple stopped assay for FAAH without the need to use potentially hazardous solvents like chloroform.
  4. ncbi Complete chloroform dechlorination by organochlorine respiration and fermentation
    Matthew Lee
    Centre for Marine BioInnovation, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Environ Microbiol 14:883-94. 2012
    b>Chloroform (CF, CHCl(3)) is a recalcitrant and toxic environmental pollutant. In this communication we report for the first time a microbial community capable of complete CF dechlorination by metabolic processes...
  5. pmc Computational toxicology of chloroform: reverse dosimetry using Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, and human biomonitoring data
    Michael A Lyons
    Quantitative and Computational Toxicology Group, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1040-6. 2008
    ..One problem of interpreting population-based biomonitoring data is the reconstruction of corresponding external exposure in cases where no such data are available...
  6. ncbi Metabolism of chloroform in the human liver and identification of the competent P450s
    Simonetta Gemma
    Biochemical Toxicology Unit, Comparative Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:266-74. 2003
    The oxidative and reductive cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated chloroform bioactivation has been investigated in human liver microsomes (HLM), and the role of human P450s have been defined by integrating results from several experimental ..
  7. pmc A large, voltage-dependent channel, isolated from mitochondria by water-free chloroform extraction
    Evgeny Pavlov
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    Biophys J 88:2614-25. 2005
    We examined ion channels derived from a chloroform extract of isolated, dehydrated rat liver mitochondria...
  8. ncbi Chloroform respiration to dichloromethane by a Dehalobacter population
    Ariel Grostern
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 3E5
    Environ Microbiol 12:1053-60. 2010
    b>Chloroform (CF), or trichloromethane, is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant because of its widespread industrial use, historically poor disposal and recalcitrance to biodegradation...
  9. ncbi Cytotoxicity evaluation of gutta-percha solvents: Chloroform and GP-Solvent (limonene)
    La ongthong Vajrabhaya
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Mahidol University Faculty of Dentistry, Bangkok, Thailand
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 98:756-9. 2004
    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 2 gutta-percha solvents, chloroform and GP-Solvent, on cell line L929.
  10. ncbi One-day dietary restriction changes hepatic metabolism and potentiates the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in rats
    Li Qiang Qin
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
    Tohoku J Exp Med 212:379-87. 2007
    ..0 kcal), and observed the metabolic changes of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) and the hepatotoxicity of chloroform (CHCl(3)) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))...
  11. ncbi Isolation, fractionation and evaluation of the antiplasmodial properties of Phyllanthus niruri resident in its chloroform fraction
    Obidike Ifeoma
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, P M B 21, Abuja, Nigeria
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 6:169-75. 2013
    ..To investigate the antiplasmodial activity of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) methanol extract (ME) and its fractions in mice...
  12. ncbi Inelastic electron interaction with chloroform clusters embedded in helium droplets
    Stephan Denifl
    Institut für Ionenphysik and Angewandte Physik and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Leopold Franzens Universitat Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    J Am Chem Soc 130:5065-71. 2008
    The inelastic electron interaction (ionization/attachment) with chloroform embedded in helium droplets has been studied utilizing a two-sector field mass spectrometer...
  13. ncbi The n-hexane and chloroform fractions of Piper betle L. trigger different arms of immune responses in BALB/c mice and exhibit antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarid Brugia malayi
    Meghna Singh
    Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, P Box 173, Lucknow 226001, India
    Int Immunopharmacol 9:716-28. 2009
    ..present report describes the in vivo immunomodulatory efficacy of the crude methanolic extract and its n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol fractions of the female plant at various dose levels ranging between 0.3 and 500 mg/kg in BALB/c...
  14. ncbi Antitrypanosomal effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Artemisia maciverae Linn
    A C Ene
    Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Indian J Exp Biol 47:981-6. 2009
    Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of A. maciverae were studied in vitro and in vivo for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in Swiss albino mice...
  15. pmc Molecular-dynamics simulations of insertion of chemically modified DNA nanostructures into a water-chloroform interface
    Jianping Lin
    Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Biophys J 95:1099-107. 2008
    ..of this study was to design a modified amphiphilic double crossover DNA molecule that would insert into a water-chloroform interface, thus showing an amphiphilic character...
  16. ncbi Adduction of the chloroform metabolite phosgene to lysine residues of human histone H2B
    Laura Fabrizi
    Section on Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 16:266-75. 2003
    Human exposure to trihalomethanes such as chloroform has been associated with both cancer and reproductive toxicity...
  17. ncbi Application of an updated physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chloroform to evaluate CYP2E1-mediated renal toxicity in rats and mice
    Alan F Sasso
    National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA
    Toxicol Sci 131:360-74. 2013
    ..b>Chloroform (CHCl(3)) is a chemical for which there are PBPK models available in different species and multiple sites of ..
  18. pmc General anesthetics have additive actions on three ligand gated ion channels
    Andrew Jenkins
    Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1462 Clifton Rd NE Suite 420, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:486-93. 2008
    ....
  19. ncbi Antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of poly-constituents, in aqueous and chloroform extracts, of Withania coagulans Dunal in experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats
    Quaisul Hoda
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
    Hum Exp Toxicol 29:653-8. 2010
    ..As per the principles of Indigenous System of Medicine, the combined use of aqueous and chloroform extracts of W coagulans fruits, containing multi-constituents, has been evaluated for the effect on blood ..
  20. ncbi In vitro modulation of HERG channels by organochlorine solvent trichlormethane as potential explanation for proarrhythmic effects of chloroform
    Eberhard P Scholz
    3rd Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology, Medical University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 165:156-66. 2006
    Acute chloroform intoxication can cause depression of the central nervous system and may lead to death from lethal arrhythmias or respiratory arrest...
  21. pmc Anaerobic biotransformation of high concentrations of chloroform by an enrichment culture and two bacterial isolates
    Huifeng Shan
    CH2MHILL, Atlanta, GA 30328, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6463-9. 2010
    ..designated DHM-1) was developed that is capable of cometabolically biotransforming high concentrations of chloroform (CF) to nontoxic end products. Two Pantoea spp...
  22. ncbi Antiulcer activity of the chloroform extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf
    Elly Ezlinda Abdul Hisam
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
    Pharm Biol 50:1498-507. 2012
    ..Fabaceae) is a native plant species of many Asian countries, including Malaysia and India. In India, the root, stem, bark, and leaf of B. purpurea are used to treat various ailments, including ulcers and stomach cancer...
  23. ncbi Evaluating nonpolarizable nucleic acid force fields: a systematic comparison of the nucleobases hydration free energies and chloroform-to-water partition coefficients
    Maarten G Wolf
    Computational Biomolecular Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    J Comput Chem 33:2225-32. 2012
    ..As a test for thermodynamic properties, we have computed hydration free energies and chloroform-to-water partition coefficients of nucleobases using the AMBER-99, AMBER-gaff, CHARMM-27, GROMOS-45a4/53a6 and ..
  24. ncbi Radiation induced decomposition of methyl tert-butyl ether in water in presence of chloroform: kinetic modelling
    Ahmed A Basfar
    Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P O Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
    Water Res 39:2085-95. 2005
    The destruction of methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in water in the presence of chloroform has been studied using 60Co gamma irradiation...
  25. ncbi The safety and effectiveness of a chloroform/methanol extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (T2) plus methotrexate in treating rheumatoid arthritis
    Wen Zhang
    Dpartment of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
    J Clin Rheumatol 16:375-8. 2010
    The objective of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the chloroform/methanol extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (T2) plus methotrexate (MTX) in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  26. ncbi Predictors of personal air concentrations of chloroform among US adults in NHANES 1999-2000
    Anne M Riederer
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 19:248-59. 2009
    Volunteer studies suggest that showering/bathing with chlorinated tap water contributes to daily chloroform inhalation exposure for the majority of US adults...
  27. ncbi Microbial degradation of chloroform
    M Cappelletti
    Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Italy
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:1395-409. 2012
    b>Chloroform (CF) is largely produced by both anthropogenic and natural sources. It is detected in ground and surface water sources and it represents the most abundant halocarbon in the atmosphere...
  28. pmc Effects of isoflurane, halothane, and chloroform on the interactions and lateral organization of lipids in the liquid-ordered phase
    Serhan Turkyilmaz
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    Langmuir 27:14380-5. 2011
    ..combination with Monte Carlo simulations, have been used to investigate the action of isoflurane, halothane, and chloroform on the compactness and lateral organization of cholesterol-rich bilayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-..
  29. ncbi Chloroform in indoor swimming-pool air: monitoring and modeling coupled with the effects of environmental conditions and occupant activities
    H T Hsu
    Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No 91 Hsueh Shih Rd, Taichung, Taiwan
    Water Res 43:3693-704. 2009
    Human exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools has been recognized as a potential health concern...
  30. pmc Phospholipid complexation of general anesthetics in fluid bilayers
    Serhan Turkyilmaz
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    Langmuir 26:5309-11. 2010
    ..derived from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in the presence of varying concentrations of chloroform. This analysis has yielded a fundamentally new, molecular-level view of the interaction of general anesthetics ..
  31. ncbi Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa in experimental animal models
    Malaya Gupta
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India
    Biol Pharm Bull 26:1342-4. 2003
    ..In mice, carrageenan peritonitis test was performed for the extract by oral administration. The chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa (CEBL) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect at the dose 50, 100 and 200 ..
  32. pmc Modulation of TRPC5 cation channels by halothane, chloroform and propofol
    Y M Bahnasi
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 153:1505-12. 2008
    ..g. Gd3+) and phospholipids (e.g. lysophosphatidylcholine: LPC). Here we report the effects of inhalational (halothane and chloroform) and intravenous (propofol) general anaesthetics upon TRPC5.
  33. ncbi Formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes between bile acids and lidocaine in the lidocaine transfer from an aqueous phase to chloroform
    Mihalj Posa
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
    Eur J Pharm Sci 34:281-92. 2008
    ..the rate constant of the decrease of lidocaine concentration in the aqueous phase during its transfer to the chloroform solution of a bile acid...
  34. ncbi Determining the structure of α-phenylethyl isocyanide in chloroform by VCD spectroscopy and DFT calculations--simple case or challenge?
    Christian Merten
    Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen, Germany
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:11635-41. 2010
    ..theoretical and experimental study of the vibrational circular dichroism of (S)-α-phenylethyl isocyanide in chloroform. The structure in solution is investigated systematically by density functional theory calculations starting ..
  35. ncbi Inclusion complexes of cryptophane-E with dichloromethane and chloroform: A thermodynamic and kinetic study using the 1D-EXSY NMR method
    Sahar Nikkhou Aski
    Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Magn Reson Chem 46:1135-40. 2008
    Complexation equilibria and kinetics of exchange of chloroform and dichloromethane molecules between the cavity of cryptophane-E and bulk solution were investigated using NMR methods...
  36. ncbi Bioassay-guided fractionation and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of fractions of chloroform extract of Artemisia maciverae Linn
    A C Ene
    Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
    Acta Trop 112:288-94. 2009
    In the search for new plant-derived anti-malarial compounds, chromatographic fractions of chloroform extract of whole plants of Artemisia maciverae were tested in vivo using chloroquine resistant and chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium ..
  37. ncbi Antinociceptive effects of a chloroform extract and the alkaloid dicentrine isolated from fruits of Ocotea puberula
    Deise Prehs Montrucchio
    Departamento de Farmacia, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
    Planta Med 78:1543-8. 2012
    The present work describes the chemical characterization of a chloroform fraction (CF) obtained from an extract of Ocotea puberula (Lauraceae) fruits, and preliminary antinociceptive analysis of CF and the alkaloid dicentrine, isolated ..
  38. ncbi Comparative quantification of sphingolipids and analogs in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography after chloroform extraction
    Paul Andréani
    Institute for Immunology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625 Hanover, Germany
    Anal Biochem 358:239-46. 2006
    ..were efficiently isolated from biological samples such as cells, tissues, serum, plasma, and media by simple chloroform extraction...
  39. ncbi Halogen bonded complexes between volatile anaesthetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane) and formaldehyde: a theoretical study
    Wiktor Zierkiewicz
    Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50 370 Wrocław, Poland
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:5105-13. 2011
    The structures and intermolecular interactions in the halogen bonded complexes of anaesthetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane and isoflurane) with formaldehyde were studied by ab initio MP2 and CCSD(T) methods...
  40. ncbi Influence of chloroform in liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases in lipid membranes
    Ramon Reigada
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Phys Chem B 115:2527-35. 2011
    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the influence of chloroform in two different lipid membranes: one representative of a liquid-disordered phase and another one mixed with cholesterol and representative of a liquid-ordered ..
  41. ncbi Riboflavin- and cobalamin-mediated biodegradation of chloroform in a methanogenic consortium
    Claudia Guerrero-Barajas
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, P O Box 210011, Tucson, Arizona 85721 0011, USA
    Biotechnol Bioeng 89:539-50. 2005
    b>Chloroform (CF) is an important priority pollutant contaminating groundwater. Reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms is a promising strategy towards the remediation of CF...
  42. pmc Loosening and reorganization of fluid phospholipid bilayers by chloroform
    Serhan Turkyilmaz
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:5068-9. 2009
    ..Similar mixing experiments that were carried out in the presence of chloroform showed a leveling effect, where moderate sterol-phospholipid affinity was observed in all cases...
  43. ncbi Desorption behavior of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in contaminated low organic carbon aquifer sediments
    Robert G Riley
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, United States
    Chemosphere 79:807-13. 2010
    Slow release behavior of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and chloroform (CHCl(3)) in low organic carbon (<0.1%) deep aquifer sediments was quantified by 1-D column desorption studies with intact cores...
  44. ncbi Amelioration of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death by chloroform fraction of bay leaves (Laurus nobilis)
    Eun Young Cho
    Natural Product Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:2029-35. 2010
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Laurus nobilis chloroform fraction (LNCF) protects against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage...
  45. ncbi Dissolving efficacy of eucalyptus and orange oil, xylol and chloroform solvents on different root canal sealers
    J Martos
    Department of Semiology and Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    Int Endod J 44:1024-8. 2011
    To evaluate the solubility of five root canal sealers in orange oil, eucalyptol, xylol and chloroform solvents.
  46. ncbi NMR investigation of guest-host complex between chloroform and cryptophane C
    Z Takacs
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Magn Reson Chem 48:623-9. 2010
    Guest-host complex between cryptophane C, possessing two non-equivalent caps, and chloroform is investigated by NMR spectroscopy...
  47. ncbi Suppression of pulmonary host defenses and enhanced susceptibility to respiratory bacterial infection in mice following inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene and chloroform
    MaryJane K Selgrade
    Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    J Immunotoxicol 7:350-6. 2010
    ..Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform are among 33 hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S...
  48. ncbi Growth arrest and induction of apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell death by, Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human ovarian carcinoma Caov-3 cells
    Kheng Leong Ooi
    School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia
    J Ethnopharmacol 128:92-9. 2010
    ....
  49. ncbi A phenol-chloroform protocol for extracting DNA from ancient samples
    Ross Barnett
    Department of Archaeology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 840:13-9. 2012
    ..Here, we describe the phenol-chloroform method for extracting aDNA from any tissue type...
  50. ncbi Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Solanum nigrum chloroform extract in animal models
    Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria
    Faculty of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Universiti Industri Selangor, Jalan Zirkon A7 A, Seksyen 7, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
    Yakugaku Zasshi 126:1171-8. 2006
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.
  51. ncbi Three-dimensional structure of (1-71)bacterioopsin solubilized in methanol/chloroform and SDS micelles determined by 15N-1H heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy
    K V Pervushin
    Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
    Eur J Biochem 219:571-83. 1994
    ..fragment C2 (residues 1-71) of bacterioopsin from Halobacterium halobium, solubilized in a mixture of methanol/chloroform (1:1, by vol.) and 0...
  52. pmc Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Nalamolu Koteswara Rao
    Pharmacology Division, GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India
    BMC Complement Altern Med 6:17. 2006
    ..In the present investigation, the chloroform extract of T...
  53. ncbi Reverse dosimetry: interpreting trihalomethanes biomonitoring data using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling
    Yu Mei Tan
    CIIT Centers for Health Research, Center for Human Health Assessment, 6 Davis Drive, P O Box 12137, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2137, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17:591-603. 2007
    ..The present study used an existing PBPK model for chloroform as a generic framework to develop PBPK models for other trihalomethanes (THMs)...
  54. ncbi Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effects of methanol, chloroform and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea less leaf
    E O Iwalewa
    Department of Pharmacology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria
    J Ethnopharmacol 86:229-34. 2003
    The chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of Vernonia cinerea (Asteraceae; Less) leaf (100, 200 and 400mg/kg intraperitoneally) were tested in: acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, carrageenin-induced oedema and brewer's yeast-..
  55. ncbi Chloroform extract of deer antler inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption
    Yin Ji Li
    Division of Molecular Life Sciences and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Ethnopharmacol 113:191-8. 2007
    ..b>Chloroform extract (CE-C) of deer antler inhibited osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow cultures stimulated by ..
  56. ncbi Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus
    Nirmal K Lohiya
    Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
    Asian J Androl 10:298-306. 2008
    To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys.
  57. pmc Saturation mutagenesis of toluene ortho-monooxygenase of Burkholderia cepacia G4 for Enhanced 1-naphthol synthesis and chloroform degradation
    Lingyun Rui
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269 3222, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:3246-52. 2004
    ..was performed at position A106 with Escherichia coli TG1/pBS(Kan)TOMV106A to improve TOM activity for both chloroform degradation and naphthalene oxidation...
  58. ncbi The antimicrobial effect of chloroform on Enterococcus faecalis after gutta-percha removal
    Scott W Edgar
    Department of Endodontology, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Endod 32:1185-7. 2006
    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of chloroform on Enterococcus faecalis when used as a gutta-percha solvent during endodontic retreatment...
  59. ncbi Mutagenicity of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA/pKM101 and WP2/pKM101, using a gas exposure method
    Akihiro Araki
    Mutagenicity Test Division, Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Hadano, Kanagawa, Japan
    Environ Mol Mutagen 43:128-33. 2004
    The volatile solvents carbon tetrachloride and chloroform are carcinogens that are often reported as nonmutagenic in bacterial mutagenicity assays...
  60. ncbi Effectiveness of rotary and hand files in gutta-percha and sealer removal using chloroform or chlorhexidine gel
    Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno
    Department of Endodontics, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Braz Dent J 17:139-43. 2006
    ..K3 rotary files and hand files for removal of gutta-percha and sealer from obturated root canals using either chloroform or chlorhexidine as solvents...
  61. ncbi Hepatoprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. I. Protection when given twenty-four hours after chloroform or bromobenzene
    R C Lind
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 27:342-7. 1999
    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been reported to protect against hepatotoxicity resulting from chloroform (CHCl3) or bromobenzene (BB) when given 10 hr after the toxicant...
  62. ncbi Singlet oxygen production upon two-photon excitation of TiO2 in chloroform
    Wenbing Li
    Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, 1400 J R Lynch Street, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
    Chemphyschem 10:1789-93. 2009
    ..By employing (1)O(2) as a probe, we have established an efficient and simple method to elucidate the nature of TiO(2) photoexcitation...
  63. ncbi Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and glutathione depletion induce secondary genotoxicity in liver cells via oxidative stress
    Emma J Beddowes
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    Toxicology 187:101-15. 2003
    ..b>Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride are rodent carcinogens with characteristics as described above...
  64. ncbi Antagonism of inhalant and volatile anesthetic enhancement of glycine receptor function
    M J Beckstead
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:24959-64. 2001
    ..curves of the volatile anesthetic enflurane constructed in the presence and absence of ethanol, chloroform, or toluene were consistent with competition for a common binding pocket on these receptors...
  65. ncbi Effect of chloroform on dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid-induced hypomethylation and expression of the c-myc gene and on their promotion of liver and kidney tumors in mice
    M A Pereira
    Department of Pathology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
    Carcinogenesis 22:1511-9. 2001
    b>Chloroform, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are mouse liver carcinogens that are chlorine disinfection by-products found in drinking water...
  66. ncbi Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey
    N K Lohiya
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
    Asian J Androl 4:17-26. 2002
    To evaluate the antifertility activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds by oral administration in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus.
  67. ncbi Apoptotic effects of Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human breast carcinoma T-47D cells mediated by c-myc-, p53-, and caspase-3-dependent pathways
    Kheng Leong Ooi
    School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
    Integr Cancer Ther 9:73-83. 2010
    The chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced a significant growth inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells as compared with other extracts with an EC(50) value of 3.8 microg/mL...
  68. ncbi Time dependence of chloroform-induced metabolic alterations in the liver and kidney of B6C3F1 mice
    S Rossi
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Comparative Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Viale Regina Elena 299 00161, Rome, Italy
    Arch Toxicol 73:387-93. 1999
    ..In the liver no biochemical changes were produced up to a week after chloroform treatment...
  69. pmc The relationship between water concentrations and individual uptake of chloroform: a simulation study
    Heather J Whitaker
    Small Area Health Statistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    Environ Health Perspect 111:688-94. 2003
    We simulated the relationship between water chloroform concentrations and chloroform uptake in pregnant women to assess the potential extent of exposure measurement error in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to water ..
  70. ncbi A comparison of the effectiveness of chloroform and eucalyptus oil in dissolving root canal sealers
    Edgar Schafer
    Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Munster, Germany
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 93:611-6. 2002
    The solubility of 8 different root canal sealers in chloroform and in eucalyptus oil was compared.
  71. ncbi Dose-dependent liver tissue repair after chloroform plus trichloroethylene binary mixture
    Sathanandam S Anand
    Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, LA 71209, USA
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 96:436-44. 2005
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that liver tissue repair induced by exposure to chloroform (CHCl(3))+trichloroethylene binary mixture (BM) is dose-dependent similar to that elicited by exposure to these ..
  72. ncbi Comparative efficacy and immunogenicity of Q fever chloroform:methanol residue (CMR) and phase I cellular (Q-Vax) vaccines in cynomolgus monkeys challenged by aerosol
    David M Waag
    Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch, Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Vaccine 20:2623-34. 2002
    Preliminary evidence gathered in rodents and livestock suggested that a phase I chloroform:methanol residue (CMR) extracted vaccine was safe and efficacious in protecting these animals from challenge with the obligate phagolysosomal ..
  73. ncbi DNA extraction and quantitation of forensic samples using the phenol-chloroform method and real-time PCR
    Silvano Köchl
    Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    Methods Mol Biol 297:13-30. 2005
    ..The phenol-chloroform method is a sensitive method for the extraction of DNA from a wide variety of forensic samples, although it is ..
  74. ncbi Construction of recombinant Nitrosomonas europaea expressing green fluorescent protein in response to co-oxidation of chloroform
    Barbara O Gvakharia
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82:1179-85. 2009
    ..europaea in response to oxidation of chloroform and chloromethane. In N...
  75. ncbi Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of the temperature-dependent dermal absorption of chloroform by humans following bath water exposures
    R A Corley
    Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, Chemical Dosimetry, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Toxicol Sci 53:13-23. 2000
    The kinetics of chloroform in the exhaled breath of human volunteers exposed skin-only via bath water (concentrations < 100 ppb) were analyzed using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model...
  76. ncbi Reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and metabolism correspond to acute chloroform toxicity of in vitro hepatocytes
    Sean Hartig
    Vanderbilt University, Department of Chemical Engineering, VU Station B, Box 351604, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37235 1604, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 25:310-7. 2005
    b>Chloroform is a non-genotoxic compound that is present in drinking water and ambient air as a result of water chlorination but whose carcinogenic mechanism in humans is unknown...
  77. pmc Evaluation of chloroform/methanol extraction to facilitate the study of membrane proteins of non-model plants
    Annelies Vertommen
    Division of Crop Biotechnics, Department of Biosystems, K U Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Planta 231:1113-25. 2010
    ..In this study, protein extraction in a mixture of chloroform and methanol in combination with gel electrophoresis is evaluated as a method to study membrane proteins in non-..
  78. ncbi Removal of chloroform from biodegradable therapeutic microspheres by radiolysis
    S W Zielhuis
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Pharm 315:67-74. 2006
    ..microspheres are loaded with holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) and prepared by a solvent evaporation method using chloroform. After preparation the microspheres (Ho-PLLA-MS) are activated by neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor...
  79. ncbi RNA extraction from various recalcitrant plant tissues with a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment
    Yuji Suzuki
    Laboratory of Plant Environmental Responses, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:1951-3. 2008
    ..using a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment from recalcitrant plant tissues such as tree leaves (pine, Norway spruce, ginkgo, Japanese cedar, rose)..
  80. ncbi Foldamer dynamics expressed via Markov state models. I. Explicit solvent molecular-dynamics simulations in acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water
    Sidney P Elmer
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, California 94305 5080, USA
    J Chem Phys 123:114902. 2005
    ..polyphenylacetylene (pPA) 12-mer in explicit solvent for four common organic and aqueous solvents: acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water. The solvent quality has a dramatic effect on the time scales in which pPA 12-mers fold...
  81. ncbi Cation dependence of chloride ion complexation by open-chained receptor molecules in chloroform solution
    Robert Pajewski
    Department of Chemistry, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 127:18281-95. 2005
    ..Significant differences are apparent in complexation strengths when the heptapeptide chain is shortened or lengthened or when the relative position of proline within the heptapeptide is varied...
  82. ncbi A case of acute toxic hepatitis after suicidal chloroform and dichloromethane ingestion
    Hoon Kim
    Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361 763, South Korea
    Am J Emerg Med 26:1073.e3-6. 2008
    b>Chloroform and dichloromethane are halogenated hydrocarbons that have been used as a potent anesthetic agent or a general industrial solvent...
  83. ncbi Protective effect of a 43 kD protein from the leaves of the herb, Cajanus indicus L on chloroform induced hepatic-disorder
    Ayantika Ghosh
    Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93 1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009, India
    J Biochem Mol Biol 39:197-207. 2006
    ..Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 43 kD protein isolated from the leaves of this herb against chloroform induced hepatotoxicity...
  84. ncbi Probabilistic human health risk assessment for quarterly exposure to high chloroform concentrations in drinking-water distribution network of the Province of Quebec, Canada
    Stephane Buteau
    Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 73:1626-44. 2010
    ..The resulting absorbed doses were compared to short-term reference values for chloroform, used as surrogate for THM, by calculating risk quotients (RQ)...
  85. ncbi A comparison of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of fish tissues following lipid extractions with non-polar and traditional chloroform/methanol solvent systems
    John M Logan
    Large Pelagics Research Center, Zoology Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:1081-6. 2008
    ..1-12.5). In order to compare delta(13)C and delta(15)N values from traditional chloroform/methanol extractions with non-polar solvent alternatives, we analyzed samples following (1) no treatment, (2) ..
  86. ncbi Bayesian estimation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in a mode-of-action-based cancer risk assessment for chloroform
    Kai H Liao
    Center for Human Health Assessment, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Risk Anal 27:1535-51. 2007
    b>Chloroform is a carcinogen in rodents and its carcinogenicity is secondary to events associated with cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation...
  87. ncbi Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration
    Sathanandam S Anand
    Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, 700 University Avenue, Sugar Hall 306, Monroe, LA 71209 0495, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 213:267-81. 2006
    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic ..
  88. ncbi Mechanisms of chloroform-induced hepatotoxicity: oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes
    Angela S Burke
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 70:1936-45. 2007
    The role of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and oxidative stress in chloroform toxicity was determined in freshly isolated female B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes...
  89. ncbi HPLC and anti-inflammatory studies of the flavonoid rich chloroform extract fraction of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves
    Mun Fei Yam
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Molecules 15:4452-66. 2010
    ..Active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was fractionated into three fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method...
  90. ncbi A protocol for combined delipidation and subfractionation of membrane proteins using organic solvents
    Bernd Schröder
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Philipps University Marburg, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Anal Biochem 357:144-6. 2006
  91. pmc Global transcriptional response of Nitrosomonas europaea to chloroform and chloromethane
    Barbara O Gvakharia
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:3440-5. 2007
    Upon exposure of Nitrosomonas europaea to chloroform (7 microM, 1 h), transcripts for 175 of 2,460 genes were found at higher levels in treated cells than in untreated cells and transcripts for 501 genes were found at lower levels...
  92. pmc Diagnostic radiopacity and hepatotoxicity following chloroform ingestion: a case report
    S H Choi
    Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
    Emerg Med J 23:394-5. 2006
    ..Diagnostic imaging can help in the management of toxicologic emergencies. The authors report on a patient who presented to the emergency department with coma and suppressed respirations after ingestion of an unknown substance...
  93. ncbi The metabolic rate constants and specific activity of human and rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 2E1 toward toluene and chloroform
    John C Lipscomb
    U S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 67:537-53. 2004
    b>Chloroform (CHCl3) is a near-ubiquitous environmental contaminant, a by-product of the disinfection of drinking water sources and a commercially important compound...
  94. ncbi Biologically motivated computational modeling of chloroform cytolethality and regenerative cellular proliferation
    Yu Mei Tan
    CIIT Centers for Health Research, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 75:192-200. 2003
    b>Chloroform is a nongenotoxic-cytotoxic carcinogen in rodents. As such, events related to cytotoxicity are the driving force for cancer induction...
  95. ncbi Chloroform: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis
    M E Meek
    Existing Substances Division, Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 5:283-334. 2002
    b>Chloroform has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act...
  96. ncbi Glutathione S-transferase-mediated mutagenicity of trihalomethanes in Salmonella typhimurium: contrasting results with bromodichloromethane off chloroform
    R A Pegram
    Experimental Toxicology Division, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 144:183-8. 1997
    ..Among the THMs, chloroform (CHCl3) generally occurs at the highest concentration in finished water, but the concentrations of each of the ..
  97. ncbi Binding of the volatile anesthetic chloroform to albumin demonstrated using tryptophan fluorescence quenching
    J S Johansson
    Department of Anesthesia and the Johnson Research Foundation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:17961-5. 1997
    ..intrinsic protein fluorescence quenching approach to monitor anesthetic-protein complexation is reported using chloroform. Chloroform quenches the steady-state tryptophan fluorescence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a concentration-..
  98. ncbi Tissue repair plays pivotal role in final outcome of liver injury following chloroform and allyl alcohol binary mixture
    Sathanandam S Anand
    Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:1123-32. 2003
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction profile of chloroform (CHCl(3))+allyl alcohol (AA) binary mixture (BM)-induced acute hepatotoxic response...
  99. ncbi Metabolism of chloroform by cytochrome P450 2E1 is required for induction of toxicity in the liver, kidney, and nose of male mice
    A A Constan
    Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709 2137, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 160:120-6. 1999
    b>Chloroform is a nongenotoxic-cytotoxic liver and kidney carcinogen and nasal toxicant in some strains and sexes of rodents...
  100. ncbi A simple and efficient Triton X-100 boiling and chloroform extraction method of RNA isolation from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
    Kidon Sung
    US Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, Division of Microbiology, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 229:97-101. 2003
    ..The method provides a rapid, reliable, and simple tool for the isolation of good quality RNA suitable for various molecular biology experiments...
  101. ncbi In vitro assessment of the effect of halogenated hydrocarbons: chloroform, dichloromethane, and dibromoethane on embryonic development of the rat
    P D Brown-Woodman
    Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, N S W, Australia
    Teratology 57:321-33. 1998
    ..In the present study three of these solvents--chloroform, dichloromethane, and dibromoethane--were examined for embryotoxic/teratogenic potential using rat embryo ..

Research Grants54

  1. Genome-wide measurement of bacterial transcriptional regulatory states
    Peter L Freddolino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lysates, using the fact that these complexes partition to the organic-aqueous interphase during phenol-chloroform extraction. High throughput sequencing is used to reveal the locations of DNA-bound TFs...
  2. Production of Pilot Scale Libraries of Marine Natural Products
    Amy E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..All compounds provided will meet the MLSMR's criteria of 10 mg, >90% purity and solubility in either chloroform:methanol 9:1 or DMSO...
  3. SBIR TOPIC 257, "INSTRUMENTS AND DEVICES THAT PRESERVE MOLECULAR PROFILES IN TUM
    George Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the technology by integrating it with currently available processing methods like guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform (TRIzol) extraction of RNA/DNA...
  4. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING MACROMOLECULES IN AGING BRAIN
    ERIC BRUNNGRABER; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Human brain tissue from neurological normal human patients are extracted with chloroform-methanol or tetrahydrofuran to recover the gangliosides...
  5. PROTON TRANSLOCATING SECTOR OF E COLI H+ ATPASE
    ROBERT FILLINGAME; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We have shown that subunit c folds in a chloroform-methanol-H2O solvent much like it is predicted to fold in situ...
  6. TRICHLOROETHYLENE BAIT-AND-SWITCH IMMUNOASSAY
    Robert Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The halogenated solvents, which include vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene,1,2 dichloroethane and chloroform, are a significant source of contamination at Superfund Sites...
  7. TRICHLOROETHYLENE CAPTURE IMMUNOASSAY
    Robert Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..applicant): The halogenated solvents, which include vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane and chloroform, are a significant source of contamination at Superfund Sites...
  8. Innovative molecular cytogenetic techniques for early leukemia/lymphoma detection
    JOE LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The method includes subtracting hybridized biotin-labeled repetitive-sequence DNA complex with phenol and chloroform and a second subtraction using avidin labeled magnetic beads...
  9. PNEUMOCOCCAL CELL SURFACE PROTECTION ELICITING MOLECULES
    LARRY MCDANIEL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Pretreating the CWE with pronase or chloroform- butanol extracting prior to immunization eliminated its ability to elicit protection, thus indicating that the ..
  10. ETHANOL AND THE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANES
    Nathan Janes; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..transfer protein (PITP) is enhanced by the presence of clinical concentrations of ethanol or chloroform. We found that PITP activity is exquisitely sensitive to membrane structure (curvature) in ethanol's absence-..
  11. Manufacture and Supply of Hyperpolarized Chloroform for Use as an NMR Solvent
    NEAL KALECHOFSKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is a scalable approach that works on all non zero spin nuclei--in particular, chloroform and other liquids commonly used as solvents in NMR experiments and/or to mimic certain in vivo conditions so as ..
  12. HEPATOPROTECTIVE MECHANISMS OF DMSO
    A Gandolfi; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..preliminary studies, DMSO has been shown to reverse the hepatotoxicity produced by halothane, bromobenzene, and chloroform when administered up to 24 hr after the toxicant exposure...
  13. Safe Alternative Solvents for Antibiotics Extraction
    Jennifer Clark; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The solvents used for penicillin extraction include methyl isobutyl ketone, amyl acetate, butyl acetate, and chloroform. These solvents are toxic, irritants, volatile, and extremely flammable...
  14. Novel Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer
    CHENDIL DAMODARAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Earlier, we reported that the chloroform fraction of Rasagenthi Lehyam (cRL), an herbal preparation, is effective for the treatment of PCa (Ranga et al...
  15. Trihalomethane Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
    MATTHEW ROSS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..While some progress has been made with chloroform (CHCl3), human data fro brominated THMs (BrTHMs) is nonexistent...
  16. TOXIC LIVER INJURY: CA2+, PLA2, PROTEASES & EICONSANOIDS
    ERIC GLENDE; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..and other agents known to alter calcium homeostasis and stimulate PLA2 activity including bromotrichloromethane, chloroform, and vinylidene chloride...
  17. BILE SALT SYSTEMS--INTERACTIONS AND CATALYSIS
    EMORY ADAMS; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The interaction of esters of bile acids with cholesterol in chloroform solutions will be studied by vapor pressure osmometry; from studies of this kind, we can determine what type of ..
  18. Primordial germ cell development in C elegans
    INGRID D AGOSTINO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..mRNAs that bind to PIE-1 should co-IP, and can then be isolated by phenol/chloroform extraction...
  19. AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN COLLAGEN AND HYALURONIC ACID
    EIJI FUJIMORI; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Hyaluronic acid (HA) from rooster comb, after chloroform treatment to remove proteins, exhibited no detectable UV absorption, but was degraded by UV (254nm) light, ..
  20. HYDROPHOBIC SELF-ASSEMBLY
    Lyle Isaacs; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..non-covalent interaction in water, much as hydrogen bonds and metal-ligand interactions are now used in chloroform. We work with a model system that comprises a series of water soluble self-complementary facial amphiphiles and ..
  21. THE ROLE OF SULFATIDES IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    Xianlin Han; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Mechanisms of prostate cancer prevention by lycopene
    Richard van Breemen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These human studies will provide vital information for the design of future clinical trials investigating the chemoprevention of prostate cancer by lycopene. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Mechanisms Causing Cryptorchidism and Fetal Transformation of Testicular Cells
    D N Rao Veeramachaneni; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Results will clarify the interaction of genetics and EDAs as cause of cryptorchidism. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Light activated bioactive substrate release
    RICHARD GIVENS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Combined Chemoprevention Using a Nanotechnology-based Therapeutic System
    Sunil Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. LIPID METABOLISM IN FAT CELLS
    Wen Guo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, these studies will provide new insights into the stress-induced regulation of lipogenesis in adipocytes, a potentially important avenue for modulating energy balance. ..
  27. Centrifugal Precipitation Chromatography for Biotechnology
    Martha Knight; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..New manufacturing techniques will be applied to make an improved instrument for introduction on the market. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Antimicrobial Lipids within the Oral Cavity
    PHILIP WESLEY WERTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  29. GLYCOSIDASES AS RELATED TO SPHINGOLIPIDOSES
    Yu Teh Li; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our ultimate goal is to produce recombinant enzymes and make these biomedically useful glycosidases available to investigators in various fields. ..
  30. Smokers and PREPs: Measurement of Inhaled and Exhaled Tobacco Smoke Particulate
    Sydney Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  31. Investigating the Molecular Mechanism of Hexose-induced Stress in Lens and Retina
    Peter F Kador; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, these studies should help identify new drug targets for the treatment of these diabetic complications. ..
  32. Chemical Models of Protein beta-Sheet Interactions
    James Nowick; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These insights and new compounds may eventually pave the way to new drugs to treat diseases and improve human health. ..
  33. GABA(A) Receptor Modulation via the beta subunit
    Andrew Jenkins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, it is hoped that the characterization of the new modulatory binding site will provide us with a new target for treating neuropsychiatric diseases. ..
  34. Multifunctional Antioxidants as Anti-Cataract Agents
    Peter Kador; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Fetal Basis of Sexual Dysfunction: Brain Differentiation
    D N Rao Veeramachaneni; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By using a relevant and yet practical animal model the proposed studies will advance the knowledge base in pollutant-induced sexual/erectile dysfunction, an area pivotal to reproductive health/success in humans. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. HPLC time-of-flight mass spectrometer for accurate mass measurements
    Richard van Breemen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..to natural product chemists and synthetic organic chemists in the user community who rely upon rapid analyses of their compounds in order to advance with their NIH-funded research programs [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. EXERCISE, LIPOLYSIS AND FAT OXIDATION
    Robert Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF HUMAN RETINAL LIPOFUSCIN
    ELIZABETH GAILLARD; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Information from these studies may allow for the development of protocols to slow down or stop the processes that lead to irreversible damage to the human retina ..
  39. MUSCLE PROTEIN METABOLISM AND NUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY
    Robert Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies will provide the metabolic basis for the formulation of a nutritional supplement that should optimally stimulate net muscle protein synthesis. ..
  40. MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION TOF MASS SPECTROMETER
    Richard van Breemen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. 600 MHZ NMR SPECTROMETER
    Mark Girvin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF TISSUE DAMAGE IN SWL
    James McAteer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. Structure of the Glycine Receptor's Alcohol Binding Site
    INGRID LOBO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. The Bioavilaibility of Folate in Humans
    Richard van Breemen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our new LC-MS-MS assay and the use of 13C-labeled folate species will provide new and more detailed information on the uptake, metabolism, and bioavailability of folates than has been possible previously. ..
  45. 2D-HPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometer for Proteomics
    Richard van Breemen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Overall, the proposed 2D mu LC-MS/MS instrument will complement the existing proteomics resources on campus and will enhance the current research of NIH-funded users by providing analytical capabilities currently unavailable on campus. ..
  46. Dermatopharmacokinetics: In Vivo Analysis of Solvents
    Karla Thrall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To evaluate the kinetics and dermal bioavailability of ethylbenzene, styrene, and toluene vapor using F344 rats. ..
  47. Non-Enzymatic Cell Lysis/Protein Digestion Proteomics
    Franco Basile; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Advantages anticipated from these studies include the ability to perform high throughput sample preparation for proteomic measurements and its direct effect on the rapid diagnosis of microbial related diseases. ..
  48. Structure and regulation of the ATP synthase
    David Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. Anesthetic Binding Sites on Three-Helix Bundle Proteins
    Jonas Johansson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A precise structural description of the anesthetic binding site on this model system will allow a focused search of the Protein Data Bank for potential binding sites on existing- and future entries. ..
  50. STUDIES OF ADULT BRAIN NEUROPOIESIS
    Dennis Steindler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Altering Fate of Hematopoietic and Neural Stem Cells
    Dennis Steindler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Amino Acids and Muscle Protein Synthesis
    Robert Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. 2006 Drinking Water Disinection By-Product (DBP) Gordon Conference
    Susan Richardson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Issues to be covered include new reproductive/developmental toxicological issues, human exposure, chemistry of formation, and remaining cancer issues. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. EXERCISE EFFECTS ON PROTEIN METABOLISM
    Robert Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The results of this study will also contribute to our understanding of the mechanism whereby nutritional intake affects muscle protein metabolism. ..