Summary: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Publications161 found, 100 shown here
- The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climateGuus J M Velders
Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P O Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4814-9. 2007....
- The CFC to HFA transition and its impact on pulmonary drug developmentChet L Leach
Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
Respir Care 50:1201-8. 2005The terms of the Montreal Protocol have eliminated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting agents from commercial use, with the exemption of their use as propellants in metered-dose inhalers...
- Stratospheric ozone depletionF Sherwood Rowland
Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:769-90. 2006..The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations...
- Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalersDieter Hochrainer
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany
J Aerosol Med 18:273-82. 2005..5 sec; pMDIs, 0.15-0.36 sec). These characteristics should result in improved lung and reduced oropharyngeal deposition, and are likely to simplify coordination of inhaler actuation and inhalation compared with pMDIs...
- An overview of environmental hazards and exposure risk of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)Wen Tien Tsai
Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
Chemosphere 61:1539-47. 2005Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are being used as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that cause significantly stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming...
- Hematopoietic and reproductive toxicity of 2-bromopropane, a recently introduced substitute for chlorofluorocarbonsY Kim
Industrial Health Research Institute, Korea Industrial Safety Corporation, Incheon, South Korea
Toxicol Lett 108:309-13. 1999..HCFCs), whose toxicity has scarcely been known, have recently been introduced as main substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
- The delivery of chlorofluorocarbon-propelled versus hydrofluoroalkane-propelled beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol to the mechanically ventilated patient: a laboratory studyJolyon P Mitchell
Trudell Medical International, London, Ontario, Canada
Respir Care 48:1025-32. 2003....
- Effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on surrogate inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthmaG P Currie
Asthma and Allergy Research Group Department of Pathology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
Allergy 58:602-7. 2003..We wished to examine the effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on different commonly used inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthma...
- The rejuvenated pressurised metered dose inhalerJohn Bell
Stewart Erl Associates, Loughborough, UK
Expert Opin Drug Deliv 4:215-34. 2007....
- Withdrawal of albuterol inhalers containing chlorofluorocarbon propellantsLeslie Hendeles
College of Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pulmonary Division, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0486, USA
N Engl J Med 356:1344-51. 2007
- Aerosol therapy: assume nothing and require dataPaula J Anderson
Respir Care 48:1016-8. 2003
- Budesonide Modulite: improving the changeover to CFC-free treatmentsH Magnussen
Hospital Grosshansdorf, Center for Pneumology andThoracic Surgery, Wohren damm 80, Grosshansdorf 22927, Germany
Respir Med 97:S1-3. 2003
- Moving from CFC aerosol to HFA aerosol or dry powder inhalers: what do patients think?Thomas K Hartung
Respiratory Department, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK
Respiration 69:314-9. 2002..It is uncertain whether these new formulations with different properties are acceptable to patients. Similarly, switching a patient to a dry powder inhaler (DPI) carries the risk of non-acceptance...
- History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIsPaula J Anderson
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock Arkansas 72205, USA
Respir Care 50:1139-50. 2005....
- Extra-fine particles improve lung delivery of inhaled steroids in infants: a study in an upper airway modelHettie M Janssens
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Sophia Childrens Hospital Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Chest 123:2083-8. 2003..Aim: To compare the dose delivered to the lungs of HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP at different breathing patterns using an upper airway model of an infant...
- Differential anti-inflammatory effects of large and small particle size inhaled corticosteroids in asthmaD Menzies
Asthma and Allergy Research Group, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
Allergy 62:661-7. 2007..There is little data comparing their effects on inflammation. We have evaluated the effects of HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP on pulmonary and systemic markers of asthmatic inflammation...
- Albuterol inhalersNicholas J Gross
N Engl J Med 356:2749; author reply 2749. 2007
- Effects on lung function, symptoms, and bronchial hyperreactivity of low-dose inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate given with HFA-134a or CFC propellantA Woodcock
North West Lung Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
J Aerosol Med 15:407-14. 2002..Further studies are needed using higher doses in moderate to severe asthma to confirm these preliminary findings...
- Local versus total systemic bioavailability of beclomethasone dipropionate CFC and HFA metered dose inhaler formulationsLester I Harrison
3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minnesota 55144, USA
J Aerosol Med 15:401-6. 2002..It is recommended that this parameter be considered whenever deposition and pharmacokinetic data for two formulations of the same inhaled substance are compared...
- Budesonide administered using chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered-dose inhalers: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical equivalenceD Singh
Respiratory Pharmacology, South Manchester University Hospitals Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 45:485-95. 2007..However, there is a need to ensure that pMDIs with these novel propellants are as effective and safe as their older counterparts...
- Part III: Location of asthma inflammation and the distal airways: clinical implicationsMonica Kraft
Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airway Center, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Curr Med Res Opin 23:S21-7. 2007..Due to their highly targeted delivery systems, newer HFA-based formulations have the potential to effectively treat asthma at reduced doses...
- Bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of an HFA pMDI vs. a CFC pMDI and a DPI containing formoterol in asthma patientsS J Langley
North West Lung Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
Respiration 72:35-7. 2005..In conclusion, Modulite HFA formoterol was found to be an effective and well tolerated treatment in patients with asthma, with comparable efficacy to current formoterol preparations...
- Safety and efficacy of HFA-134a beclomethasone dipropionate extra-fine aerosol over six monthsLouis Philippe Boulet
Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie, l Université Laval, Hopital Laval, Sainte Foy, Quebec
Can Respir J 11:123-30. 2004..To compare the systemic safety and efficacy of hydrofluoroalkane beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) extra-fine aerosol 800 microg/day with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-BDP 1500 microg/day...
- Comparative improvement of asthma symptoms and expiratory flows after corticosteroid treatment: a method to assess the effect of corticosteroids on large vs. small airways?Louis Philippe Boulet
Institut de cardiologie et de pneumologie de l Hôpital Laval, 2725 Chemin Sainte Foy, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 4G5
Respir Med 100:496-502. 2006..This may suggest that this ratio is not useful for evaluating the effect of corticosteroids on small airways, or that extrafine HFA-BDP acts at the level of large- to moderate-caliber airways to produce most of its beneficial effect...
- Hydrofluoroalkane-134A beclomethasone or chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone: effect on small airways in poorly controlled asthmaTorpong Thongngarm
Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1400 Jackson St, Denver, CO 80206, USA
J Asthma 42:257-63. 2005....
- Effects of mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler and beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in asthmatic subjectsGeorge P Chrousos
First Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Agia Sophia Children s Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
Chest 128:70-7. 2005..The effect of MF-DPI, 400 microg qd, on the HPA axis was compared to that of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) using hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants via metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) twice daily...
- Pharmacodynamic equivalence study of CFC-free and CFC-containing procaterol hydrochloride metered-dose inhalersM Kawai
Department of Respiratory Disease, Kouseikai Takaori Hospital Medical Corporation, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 27:555-8. 2005..0507 to 0.0039 (L) for mean AUC (FEV1)/h and -0.056 to 0.026 (L) for mean peak FEV1, both within the acceptance criteria of -0.15 to 0.15 (L). Meptin [HFA] was therefore assessed as being equivalent to the current Meptin [CFC]...
- Propellant-driven metered-dose inhalers for pulmonary drug deliveryHugh D C Smyth
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Pharmacy, NC 27599, USA
Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2:53-74. 2005..The ability to succeed in these areas will be largely determined by the willingness to invest in fundamental research of pMDI technologies...
- CFC Phase-Out and the Chiesi SolutionG Huchon
faculté de médecine Paris 5, Service de Pneumologie et Reanimation, hôpital de l Hôtel dieu, Paris, France
Respiration 72:1-2. 2005
- Development and performance of a new hydrofluoroalkane (HFA 134a)-based metered dose inhaler (MDI) of salmeterolI D Peyron
Inhalation Product Development, GlaxoSmithKline, 23 Rue Lavoisier, Z I no 2, Evreux, 27000, France
Respir Med 99:S20-30. 2005..0 microg. Comparability in aerosol characteristics was also demonstrated when the salmeterol HFA inhaler was tested using a large volume spacer (Volumatic)...
- Comparison of the systemic pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol delivered by CFC propellant and non-CFC propellant metered dose inhalers in healthy subjectsRodger Kempsford
Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Greenford Road, Greenford, Middlesex UB6 0HE, UK
Respir Med 99:S11-9. 2005..These data indicate that the salmeterol HFA MDI would not be associated with a significantly different pharmacodynamic, safety and tolerability profile compared with the salmeterol CFC MDI...
- Clinical comparability between the CFC and HFA budesonide pressurised metered-dose inhalers in paediatric patients with asthma: a randomised controlled trialA Escribano
Unidad de Neumologia Infantil, Servicio de Pediatria, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Curr Med Res Opin 22:1085-92. 2006....
- Efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol HFA 134A MDI in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthmaDavid S Pearlman
Colorado Allergy and Asthma Centers, P C, Denver, Colorado 80230, USA
J Asthma 41:797-806. 2004..g., bronchoconstriction), with FSC results in greater overall improvements in asthma control compared with treatment of either individual component alone...
- Comparison of bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of a single dose of formoterol delivered by hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon aerosols and dry powder in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studyC M Houghton
Medicines Evaluation Unit, North West Lung Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
Br J Clin Pharmacol 58:359-66. 2004..Modulite is a HFA formulation technology that has been designed to provide stable and uniform dose delivery of HFA-based formulations to enable an easy transition from CFC to HFA inhalers...
- Hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone versus chlorofluorocarbon-beclomethasone delivery in neonatal modelsC H Cole
The Floating Hospital for Children, Tufts New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F417-8. 2004..The delivery of hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone was significantly greater in each simulation...
- The influence of formulation and spacer device on the in vitro performance of solution chlorofluorocarbon-free propellant-driven metered dose inhalersHugh D C Smyth
School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
AAPS PharmSciTech 5:E7. 2004..High propellant concentrations had the advantage of fine particle doses that were independent of the device setup and significantly lowered sampling inlet deposition when no spacer was used...
- Medical aerosol propellant interference with infrared anaesthetic gas monitorsP D Levin
The Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Hebrew University Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
Br J Anaesth 92:865-9. 20041,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane is a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) that is replacing chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) as a medical aerosol propellant in an attempt to reduce damage to the ozone layer...
- Short-term growth and adrenal function in children with asthma treated with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane-134aO D Wolthers
Children s Clinic Randers, Randers, Denmark
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17:613-9. 2006..Though non-inferiority between BDP HFA and CFC 100 microg twice daily in terms of effects on LLGR was not found, equivalence was suggested by comparisons of LLGR during run-in and active treatments and by HPA function measures...
- Equivalent efficacy and safety of a new HFA-134a formulation of BDP compared with the conventional CFC in adult asthmaticsP B Anderson
Chest Clinic, Northern General NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 12:107-13. 2002..In conclusion, the BDP-HFA 134a formulation proved to be statistically equivalent to the standard BDP CFC product over 12 weeks in adult patients with mild to moderate asthma...
- [Influence of changing from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) to hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-BDP on pulmonary function in asthmatic children]Yukinori Yoshida
Department of Pediatrics, Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Disease
Arerugi 56:1502-9. 2007..We studied the influence of the changing from CFC-BDP to HFA-BDP on pulmonary function in asthmatic children...
- Growth, systemic safety, and efficacy during 1 year of asthma treatment with different beclomethasone dipropionate formulations: an open-label, randomized comparison of extrafine and conventional aerosols in childrenSøren Pedersen
paediatrisk afdeling, Kolding Sygehus, Kolding, Denmark
Pediatrics 109:e92. 2002....
- Change in the air. Banning CFC-driven inhalers could levy a toll on asthma sufferersEmily Harrison
Sci Am 299:20, 22. 2008
- Deposition and pharmacokinetics of flunisolide delivered from pressurized inhalers containing non-CFC and CFC propellantsJ Richards
Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd, Ruddington, Nottingham, United Kingdom
J Aerosol Med 14:197-208. 2001....
- Single-dose study to compare the pharmacokinetics of HFA flunisolide and CFC flunisolideArno Nolting
Department of Pharmacokinetics, Forest Laboratories Incorporated, Harborside Financial Center, Plaza Three, Suite 602, Jersey City, New Jersey 07311, USA
J Pharm Sci 91:424-32. 2002....
- Optimizing aerosol delivery by pressurized metered-dose inhalersBruce K Rubin
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1081, USA
Respir Care 50:1191-200. 2005..In this manuscript we discuss ways to optimize the use of medications given via pMDI and examine recent changes in pMDI technology that will make drug delivery more efficient and consistent...
- Lung deposition of hydrofluoroalkane-134a beclomethasone is greater than that of chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone and chlorofluorocarbon beclomethasone : a cross-over study in healthy volunteersChet L Leach
3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, MN, USA
Chest 122:510-6. 2002..To compare the lung deposition of radiolabeled hydrofluoroalkane-134a beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) with chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone propionate (CFC-FP) and chlorofluorocarbon beclomethasone (CFC-BDP)...
- Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosol therapy with pressurised metered-dose inhalers through plastic spacersA A Chuffart
Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Children's Hospital, , Switzerland
Swiss Med Wkly 131:14-8. 2001..Using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination leads to a significantly improved bronchodilator response...
- Therapeutic ratio of hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon formulations of fluticasone propionateStephen J Fowler
Asthma and Allergy Research Group, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
Chest 122:618-23. 2002..To compare the therapeutic ratio of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrofluoroalkane-134a (HFA) formulations of fluticasone propionate (FP)...
- Clinical studies in asthmatics with a new non-extra fine HFA formulation of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP Modulite)J Bousquet
Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
Respir Med 96:S17-27. 2002..In conclusion, the results of the clinical studies with BDP Modulite show that this new HFA formulation allows a seamless transition to CFC-free BDP, thus simplifying the changeover...
- [Neurotoxicity of organic solvents--recent findings]Masato Matsuoka
Department of Hygiene and Public Health I, Tokyo Women s Medical University, 8 1 Kawada cho, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8666, Japan
Brain Nerve 59:591-6. 2007..The substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons, 2-bromopropane and 1-bromopropane were shown to have the peripheral nerve toxicity in the experimental ..
- DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropaneMark Toraason
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
Mutat Res 603:1-14. 20061-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propyl bromide) (CAS No. 106-94-5) is an alternative to ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons that has a variety of potential applications as a degreasing agent for metals and electronics, and as a solvent vehicle ..
- Special article: general anesthetic gases and the global environmentYumiko Ishizawa
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street Gray Bigelow 444, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Anesth Analg 112:213-7. 2011..anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally...
- Cardiotoxicity of Freon among refrigeration services workers: comparative cross-sectional studyLaila M E Sabik
Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University, Egypt
Environ Health 8:31. 2009Freon includes a number of gaseous, colorless chlorofluorocarbons. Although freon is generally considered to be a fluorocarbon of relatively low toxicity; significantly detrimental effects may occur upon over exposure...
- Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF (2)CF (2)OCH (3)) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (CF (3)CF (2)CF (2)CH (2)OH): kinetic rate coefficients and temperature dependence of reactions with chlorine atomsYolanda Díaz-de-Mera
Facultad Químicas, Departamento Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda Camilo Jose Cela 10, E 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 15:584-91. 2008..In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2)...
- Atmospheric emissions and attenuation of non-methane organic compounds in cover soils at a French landfillC Scheutz
Institute of Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet Building 115, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
Waste Manag 28:1892-908. 2008..included primarily alkanes (C(2)-C(10)), alkenes (C(2)-C(4)), halogenated hydrocarbons (including (hydro)chlorofluorocarbons ((H)CFCs)), and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs)...
- Non-positive autoimmune responses against CYP2E1 in refrigeration mechanics exposed to halogenated hydrocarbonsSara Gunnare
Work Environment Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Sci Total Environ 383:90-7. 2007..HFCs and HCFCs have replaced the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in e.g. refrigeration installations and air-conditioning systems...
- Innovations and perspectives of metered dose inhalers in pulmonary drug deliveryM Keller
SkyePharma AG, Eptingerstrasse 51, CH 4132, Muttenz, Switzerland
Int J Pharm 186:81-90. 1999The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has spurred the development of alternative pulmonary drug delivery systems to pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs), such as dry powder inhalers and pocket size nebulizers...
- Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environmentPieter J Aucamp
Ptersa, PO Box 915751, Faerie Glen, 0043, South Africa
Photochem Photobiol Sci 6:319-30. 2007..The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field...
- Computer simulations of propofol infusions for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogsK E Joubert
Veterinary Anaesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care Services, PO Box 1898, Lonehill, 2062 South Africa
J S Afr Vet Assoc 80:2-9. 2009The volatile anaesthetic agents halothane, isoflurane and enflurane are all chlorofluorocarbons and according to international treaties, their emission into the atmosphere will be prohibited from the year 2030...
- [Investigation of toxicity through human cases and animal experiments--study of bromopropanes]Gaku Ichihara
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa Ku, Nagoya 466 8550, Japan
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi 60:405-10. 2005..We investigated the toxicity of 2-bromopropane used as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons in the factory in animal experiments, and clarified that exposure to 2-bromopropane depletes spermatogenic ..
- The expanding role of aerosols in systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccinationBeth L Laube
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
Respir Care 50:1161-76. 2005..This expansion has been driven by the Montreal protocol and the need to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from traditional metered-dose inhalers, by the need for delivery devices and formulations that can ..
- Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emissionVeerasamy Sejian
Adaptation Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Biochemistry, Central Sheep and Wool Research Insitute, Avikanagar, Via Jaipur, Rajasthan, 304501, India
Int J Biometeorol 55:1-16. 2011..While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing...
- The origin of stable halogenated compounds in volcanic gasesMatthias Frische
SFB 574, Christian Albrechts University, 24148 Kiel, Germany
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13:406-13. 2006..present new and comprehensive evidence regarding the existence and relevance of a volcanic contribution of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons (bromine containing halo(hydro)..
- Simultaneous determination of CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in seawater samples using a purge and trap gas-chromatographic systemSerena Massolo
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Talanta 80:959-66. 2009We have optimized the analytical parameters of a homemade instrument for the simultaneous measurement of the chlorofluorocarbons CCl(2)F(2) (CFC-12), CCl(3)F (CFC-11) and C(2)Cl(3)F(3) (CFC-113) in seawater...
- Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and sensitization to dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12)A J Bircher
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Contact Dermatitis 31:41-4. 1994Despite the widespread use of ethyl chloride as a local anesthetic and chlorofluorocarbons as propellants in medical and cosmetic aerosols, contact allergy to these 2 gases is rare...
- Hyperexcitability and changes in activities of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 1-bromopropaneYukiko Fueta
The First Department of Medical Technology, School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, 807 8555, Kitakyushu, Japan
Life Sci 72:521-9. 2002Chronic inhalation of 1-bromopropane (1-BP), a substitute of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, has been suspected of having central neurotoxicity (Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 101 (1999) 199; Journal of Occupational Health 44 (..
- Our changing atmosphere: evidence based on long-term infrared solar observations at the Jungfraujoch since 1950R Zander
Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liege, Belgium
Sci Total Environ 391:184-95. 2008..agricultural fertilisers and the industrial production of chlorine-bearing compounds such as the chlorofluorocarbons and hydro-chlorofluorocarbons...
- A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, single-dose, efficacy crossover trial comparing formoterol-HFA (pMDI) versus formoterol-DPI (Aerolizer) and placebo (pMDI or Aerolizer) in asthmatic patientsJ Bousquet
Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
Respiration 72:6-12. 2005b>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have traditionally been used as propellants in pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs), which are often used to deliver drugs to the lungs for the treatment of reversible obstructive airways diseases...
- Characterization of the spray velocities from a pressurized metered-dose inhalerBrian Michael Crosland
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 22:85-97. 2009..Over the past decade, pMDIs have been modified in several ways to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons in their manufacture while increasing efficacy...
- Accumulation of trifluoroacetate in seasonal wetlands in CaliforniaT M Cahill
Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
Environ Sci Technol 35:820-5. 2001..the hydro(chloro)fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs) that have largely replaced the stratospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
- Evaluation of the Plazlyte Sterilization System at the Richmond Hospital, Richmond, B.CR Wilson
Richmond Hospital, British Columbia
J Healthc Mater Manage 12:34, 37-40. 1994Ethylene oxide mixed with chlorofluorocarbons has been the sterilant of choice for heat- and pressure-sensitive instruments and equipment in most Canadian and U.S. healthcare facilities...
- Effect of the moisture content in aerosol on the spray performance of Stmerin D HFA preparationsSaburo Murata
Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc, 2 1 6 Kashima, Osaka 532 8514 Japan
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 54:1276-80. 2006Stmerin D, a pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI) for treatment of asthma, contains CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) as a propellant...
- Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors: laboratory studies on rates and kinetics in unsaturated alluvial sandPatrick Höhener
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, ENAC ISTE LPE, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
J Contam Hydrol 66:93-115. 2003..MTBE, n-pentane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were not visibly degraded...
- Identifying the molecular origin of global warmingPartha P Bera
NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA
J Phys Chem A 113:12694-9. 2009..b>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known ..
- Inhaled drug delivery: a practical guide to prescribing inhaler devicesP Ernst
Respiratory Division, Montreal General Hospital McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Can Respir J 5:180-3. 1998..Available pMDIs are to be gradually phased out due to their use of atmospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as propellants...
- Clinical effectiveness of low-temperature sterilization technologiesW A Rutala
University of North Carolina School of Medicine, the Department of Hospital Epidemiology, UNC Hospitals, Chapel Hill 27599 7030, USA
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 19:798-804. 1998The elimination of chlorofluorocarbons by the Clean Air Act has led to the development of alternative technologies for low-temperature sterilization in the healthcare setting, including 100% ethylene oxide, ethylene oxide with other ..
- Influence of propellant composition on drug delivery from a pressurized metered-dose inhalerR O Williams
College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 1074, USA
Drug Dev Ind Pharm 24:763-70. 1998Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as non-ozone-depleting propellants for pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs)...
- Land-use controls on sources and fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater of an agricultural area revealed by multiple environmental tracersDong Chan Koh
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 92 Gwahang no, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305 350, Republic of Korea
J Contam Hydrol 118:62-78. 2010..including δ²H and δ¹⁸O values of water, δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O values of nitrate, Cl/Br ratios and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
- Reviewing the technical designs for experiments with ultraviolet-B radiation and impact on photosynthesis, DNA and secondary metabolismChenping Xu
Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
J Integr Plant Biol 52:377-87. 2010..this spectral region increases due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, which results from increases of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere...
- Global increases in ultraviolet B radiation: potential impacts on amphibian development and metamorphosisM C Croteau
Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
Physiol Biochem Zool 81:743-61. 2008..result of stratospheric ozone depletion caused by the emission of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) such as chlorofluorocarbons. Despite international agreements to phase out harmful ODSs, these substances are persistent, and even ..
- Advances in adult asthma diagnosis and treatment and health outcomes, education, delivery, and quality in 2008Andrea J Apter
Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:35-40. 2009..New, more costly propellants are replacing ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. An association of asthma with pneumococcal disease has been observed...
- Effects of ultraviolet radiation on plant cellsF Hollósy
Department of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry, Semmelweis University Budapest, Puskin u 9, 1088 Budapest, Hungary
Micron 33:179-97. 2002..to concern that the stratospheric ozone layer is being depleted as a result of contamination with man-made chlorofluorocarbons. Concomitantly, the amounts of solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface is increasing...
- Microbiological evaluation of reused catheter guides in a Brazilian hospitalMônica Valero Da Silva
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia
PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 60:356-65. 2006..After each use, the catheter guides had been sterilized with a mixture of ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbons (12:88)...
- Occupational health survey on workers exposed to 2-bromopropane at low concentrationsG Ichihara
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
Am J Ind Med 35:523-31. 1999..the reproductive and hematopoietic toxicity of 2-bromopropane introduced into workplaces as an alternative to ozone-layer depleting chlorofluorocarbons. We aimed to clarify the dose-effect relationship of 2-bromopropane in workers.
- Spatial- and time-explicit human damage modeling of ozone depleting substances in life cycle impact assessmentJaap Struijs
Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Environ Sci Technol 44:204-9. 2010..Characterization factors are provided for the emissions of five chlorofluorocarbons, three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, three (bromine-containing) halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform,..
- Analysis of anions in hydrofluoro ethers by ion chromatographyJohn C Hulteen
3M Environmental Laboratory, St Paul, MN, USA
J Chromatogr A 1039:119-22. 2004..It is also a good solvent replacement for CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) and chlorinated solvents because they have a ..
- CCl(4) dissociation on the ice I(h) surface: an excess electron mediated processSomesh Kr Bhattacharya
Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera, 34014 Trieste, Italy
Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:13034-6. 2010Dissociation of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is a heterogeneous process that takes place mainly on the surface of ice particles...
- Background monitoring and long-range transport of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, KoreaJ Kim
Applied Meteorology Research Laboratory, Meterological Research Institute, Seoul, Korea
Environ Monit Assess 70:47-56. 2001..Recent trends of these two chlorofluorocarbons at Kosan, Korea were concordant with those of the northern hemispheric background monitored unit at Mauna ..
- Conversion of a CFCs, HFCs and HCFCs waste mixture via reaction with methaneWenfeng Han
Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
J Hazard Mater 184:696-703. 2010..as a treatment option for waste mixtures of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and as a potential route for the synthesis of CH(2)=CF(2) (VDF)...
- O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gasesMunkhbayar Baasandorj
Earth System Research Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA
J Phys Chem A 117:2434-45. 2013..study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); ..
- Application of magnetic resonance imaging to the investigation of the diffusivity of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluorethane in two polymersM Mayele
Institut für Technische Thermodynamik und Kältetechnik, Universitat Karlsruhe TH, Kaiserstr 12, D 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
Appl Spectrosc 58:338-43. 2004..are increasingly used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pump applications as substitutes for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that are believed to be responsible for ozone depletion in the ..
- Modulite: a means of designing the aerosols generated by pressurized metered dose inhalersD Ganderton
Vectura Ltd, Bath, U K
Respir Med 96:S3-8. 2002..These principles are exemplified by designing an HFA-propelled beclometasone dipropionate product which closely matches existing products which use chlorofluorocarbons.
- QTAIM charge-charge flux-dipole flux interpretation of electronegativity and potential models of the fluorochloromethane mean dipole moment derivativesArnaldo F Silva
Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
J Phys Chem A 115:12572-81. 2011..Substitution effects of the hydrogen, fluorine, and chlorine atoms on the charge and dipole flux QTAIM contributions are found to be additive for the mean dipole derivatives of the fluorochloromethanes...
- Anharmonic force field and vibrational dynamics of CH2F2 up to 5000 cm(-1) studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and state-of-the-art ab initio calculationsNicola Tasinato
Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nano sistemi, Universita Ca Foscari Venezia, Calle Larga S Marta 2137, I 30123 Venezia, Italy
J Chem Phys 136:214302. 2012..used in refrigerant mixtures as a replacement of the more environmentally hazardous, ozone depleting, chlorofluorocarbons. On the other hand, presenting strong vibration-rotation bands in the 9 μm atmospheric window, it is a ..
- The inhalers of the future? A review of dry powder devices on the market todayIan J Smith
Meridica, Cambridge Technology Centre, Melbourn, Royston, Herts SG8 6DQ, UK
Pulm Pharmacol Ther 16:79-95. 2003International agreements to ban the use of environmentally damaging chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have signalled an end to the traditional CFC-propelled pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) which has long been the mainstay of topical ..
- Characteristics of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted from a municipal waste treatment facilityKi Hyun Kim
Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Chemosphere 89:1384-9. 2012The emission concentrations of several chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were measured from a municipal waste treatment facility (located in Seoul, Republic of Korea) to investigate the emission characteristics of CFCs in the urban environment...
- Control of interface nanoscale structure created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor depositionSomeswara R Peri
Institute of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, 170 University Avenue, Akron, Ohio 44325 3909, United States
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:3375-83. 2011..The thickness of the low cross-link density region at the air interface plays an important role in determining the width of the interface built with a layer subsequently deposited atop the first...
- Diffusive partitioning tracer test for nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) detection in the vadose zoneDavid Werner
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, ENAC ISTE LPE, Lausanne
Environ Sci Technol 36:1592-9. 2002..A mixture of chlorofluorocarbons as gaseous tracers is injected into the vadose zone to form a point source at the injection point...
- Fluticasone propionate 100 microg bid using a non-CFC propellant, HFA 134a, in asthmatic childrenBrian Lyttle
Department of Paediatrics, Children s Hospital of Western Ontario, London, Canada
Can Respir J 10:103-9. 2003Secondary to phasing out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the fluticasone propionate (FP) pressurized metered-dose inhaler has been formulated in a nonozone-depleting propellant, hydrofluoralkane (HFA) 134a.
- Perspectives on the PQRI Extractables and Leachables "Safety Thresholds and Best Practices" Recommendations for Inhalation Drug ProductsDaniel L Norwood
International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science IPAC RS 1500 K Street, NW, Suite 1100 Washington, DC 20005 1209
PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 67:413-29. 2013..presents the history and evolution of this recommendation document starting from the propellant changeover (chlorofluorocarbons to hydrofluorocarbons) in metered dose inhaler drug products, which helped prompt interest in inhalation ..
- Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)Tobias Schmidt
Institut fur Toxikologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Versbacher Str 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 268:343-51. 2013..The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals...
- Asthma Treatment with a Novel Drug Aerosol GeneratorWilliam Shen; Fiscal Year: 2004..Traditional MDIs using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) will soon be phased out due to CFCs' ozone-depleting effect; a new class of propellants is being ..
- Literacy and improving patient-clinician encounters for AsthmaAndrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2007..others, and participating in relevant research working groups, I will create a team of expert collaborators in health and literacy, education, bioenqineerinq (directed at behavior measurement), and behavioral medicine (End of Abstract) ..
- ASTHMA CLINICAL RESEARCH NETWORK (ACRN)Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Development of a Highly Efficient Personal Sampler to collect Viable BioaerosolsYung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010..The new device will not only be beneficial in occupational settings, but may also have future potential in high risk areas such as those following any possible biological attack. ..
- Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Remodeling and AsthmaMonica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2007..This proposal will also determine whether PDGF inhibition could provide important adjuvant therapy for the treatment of severe asthmatics by limiting structural changes that result from activity of this pathway. ..
- Individualized Interventions to Improve Asthma AdherenceAndrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2007..We will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of PS. ..
- Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & DynamicsPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2007..The research will bridge the experimental and theoretical understanding of anesthetic effects on channel proteins, thereby facilitating the future design of new and novel anesthetic drugs that are more specific with fewer side effects. ..
- ANESTHETIC SITES IN TRANSMEMBRANE PEPTIDES BY NMRPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2006..These new studies will eventually help to close the ever-widening gulf between a plethora of sequence-based characterizations of channel function and a dearth of high-resolution structural and dynamical information. ..
- NOCTURNAL ASTHMA: LINKING INFLAMMATION AND REMODELINGMonica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & DynamicsPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & DynamicsPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Development of a Personal Sampler for NanoparticlesYung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010..It can be used to assess personal exposure to nanoparticles in terms of mass concentration and physicochemical characteristics. ..
- Anesthetic Sites in Transmembrance Peptides by NMRPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2010..The research will eventually lead to better design of safer and more effective new anesthetic drugs. ..
- Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Remodeling and AsthmaMonica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2010..This proposal will also determine whether PDGF inhibition could provide important adjuvant therapy for the treatment of severe asthmatics by limiting structural changes that result from activity of this pathway. ..
- Individualized Interventions to Improve Asthma AdherenceAndrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2009..We will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of PS. ..
- Anesthetic Sites in Transmembrance Peptides by NMRPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2009..The research will eventually lead to better design of safer and more effective new anesthetic drugs. ..
- Development of a Highly Efficient Personal Sampler to collect Viable BioaerosolsYung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2009..The new device will not only be beneficial in occupational settings, but may also have future potential in high risk areas such as those following any possible biological attack. ..
- Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Remodeling and AsthmaMonica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2009..This proposal will also determine whether PDGF inhibition could provide important adjuvant therapy for the treatment of severe asthmatics by limiting structural changes that result from activity of this pathway. ..
- Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & DynamicsPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- INHALED STEROID ADHERENCE IN MODERATE & SEVERE ASTHMAAndrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2004..Upon the foundation of my prior clinical experience and education, this training program is designed to equip me with the additional skills and research experience necessary to become a fully independent investigator. ..
- CONTROL OF IGE MEDIATED PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HUMANSStephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- THE MODULATION OF INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN THE LUNGStephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 1993..In addition, they will provide crucial information needed in order to develop novel strategies for the treatment of asthma using antiinflammatory agents...
- ANESTHETIC SITES IN TRANSMEMBRANE PEPTIDES BY NMRPei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Inhalation Dosimetry/Exposure Index of Fiber AerosolYung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2006..Sampling devices based on this size-selection definition can be developed in the future for improved assessment of worker exposure. ..
- Harvard University Health Services Research Training Gr*Milton Weinstein; Fiscal Year: 2007..This proposal will allow the next generation of these investigators to continue to address evolving issues in health services research. ..