chlorofluorocarbons

Summary

Summary: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate
    Guus J M Velders
    Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P O Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4814-9. 2007
  2. ncbi The CFC to HFA transition and its impact on pulmonary drug development
    Chet L Leach
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Respir Care 50:1201-8. 2005
  3. pmc Stratospheric ozone depletion
    F Sherwood Rowland
    Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:769-90. 2006
  4. ncbi Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalers
    Dieter Hochrainer
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany
    J Aerosol Med 18:273-82. 2005
  5. ncbi An overview of environmental hazards and exposure risk of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
    Wen Tien Tsai
    Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
    Chemosphere 61:1539-47. 2005
  6. ncbi Hematopoietic and reproductive toxicity of 2-bromopropane, a recently introduced substitute for chlorofluorocarbons
    Y Kim
    Industrial Health Research Institute, Korea Industrial Safety Corporation, Incheon, South Korea
    Toxicol Lett 108:309-13. 1999
  7. ncbi The delivery of chlorofluorocarbon-propelled versus hydrofluoroalkane-propelled beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol to the mechanically ventilated patient: a laboratory study
    Jolyon P Mitchell
    Trudell Medical International, London, Ontario, Canada
    Respir Care 48:1025-32. 2003
  8. ncbi Effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on surrogate inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthma
    G P Currie
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group Department of Pathology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Allergy 58:602-7. 2003
  9. ncbi The rejuvenated pressurised metered dose inhaler
    John Bell
    Stewart Erl Associates, Loughborough, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 4:215-34. 2007
  10. ncbi Withdrawal of albuterol inhalers containing chlorofluorocarbon propellants
    Leslie Hendeles
    College of Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pulmonary Division, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0486, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:1344-51. 2007

Detail Information

Publications161 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate
    Guus J M Velders
    Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P O Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4814-9. 2007
    ....
  2. ncbi The CFC to HFA transition and its impact on pulmonary drug development
    Chet L Leach
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Respir Care 50:1201-8. 2005
    The terms of the Montreal Protocol have eliminated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting agents from commercial use, with the exemption of their use as propellants in metered-dose inhalers...
  3. pmc Stratospheric ozone depletion
    F Sherwood Rowland
    Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:769-90. 2006
    ..The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations...
  4. ncbi Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalers
    Dieter Hochrainer
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany
    J Aerosol Med 18:273-82. 2005
    ..5 sec; pMDIs, 0.15-0.36 sec). These characteristics should result in improved lung and reduced oropharyngeal deposition, and are likely to simplify coordination of inhaler actuation and inhalation compared with pMDIs...
  5. ncbi An overview of environmental hazards and exposure risk of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
    Wen Tien Tsai
    Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
    Chemosphere 61:1539-47. 2005
    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are being used as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that cause significantly stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming...
  6. ncbi Hematopoietic and reproductive toxicity of 2-bromopropane, a recently introduced substitute for chlorofluorocarbons
    Y Kim
    Industrial Health Research Institute, Korea Industrial Safety Corporation, Incheon, South Korea
    Toxicol Lett 108:309-13. 1999
    ..HCFCs), whose toxicity has scarcely been known, have recently been introduced as main substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
  7. ncbi The delivery of chlorofluorocarbon-propelled versus hydrofluoroalkane-propelled beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol to the mechanically ventilated patient: a laboratory study
    Jolyon P Mitchell
    Trudell Medical International, London, Ontario, Canada
    Respir Care 48:1025-32. 2003
    ....
  8. ncbi Effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on surrogate inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthma
    G P Currie
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group Department of Pathology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Allergy 58:602-7. 2003
    ..We wished to examine the effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on different commonly used inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthma...
  9. ncbi The rejuvenated pressurised metered dose inhaler
    John Bell
    Stewart Erl Associates, Loughborough, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 4:215-34. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi Withdrawal of albuterol inhalers containing chlorofluorocarbon propellants
    Leslie Hendeles
    College of Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pulmonary Division, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0486, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:1344-51. 2007
  11. ncbi Aerosol therapy: assume nothing and require data
    Paula J Anderson
    Respir Care 48:1016-8. 2003
  12. ncbi Budesonide Modulite: improving the changeover to CFC-free treatments
    H Magnussen
    Hospital Grosshansdorf, Center for Pneumology andThoracic Surgery, Wohren damm 80, Grosshansdorf 22927, Germany
    Respir Med 97:S1-3. 2003
  13. ncbi Moving from CFC aerosol to HFA aerosol or dry powder inhalers: what do patients think?
    Thomas K Hartung
    Respiratory Department, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK
    Respiration 69:314-9. 2002
    ..It is uncertain whether these new formulations with different properties are acceptable to patients. Similarly, switching a patient to a dry powder inhaler (DPI) carries the risk of non-acceptance...
  14. ncbi History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIs
    Paula J Anderson
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock Arkansas 72205, USA
    Respir Care 50:1139-50. 2005
    ....
  15. ncbi Extra-fine particles improve lung delivery of inhaled steroids in infants: a study in an upper airway model
    Hettie M Janssens
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Sophia Childrens Hospital Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Chest 123:2083-8. 2003
    ..Aim: To compare the dose delivered to the lungs of HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP at different breathing patterns using an upper airway model of an infant...
  16. ncbi Differential anti-inflammatory effects of large and small particle size inhaled corticosteroids in asthma
    D Menzies
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Allergy 62:661-7. 2007
    ..There is little data comparing their effects on inflammation. We have evaluated the effects of HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP on pulmonary and systemic markers of asthmatic inflammation...
  17. ncbi Albuterol inhalers
    Nicholas J Gross
    N Engl J Med 356:2749; author reply 2749. 2007
  18. ncbi Effects on lung function, symptoms, and bronchial hyperreactivity of low-dose inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate given with HFA-134a or CFC propellant
    A Woodcock
    North West Lung Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    J Aerosol Med 15:407-14. 2002
    ..Further studies are needed using higher doses in moderate to severe asthma to confirm these preliminary findings...
  19. ncbi Local versus total systemic bioavailability of beclomethasone dipropionate CFC and HFA metered dose inhaler formulations
    Lester I Harrison
    3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minnesota 55144, USA
    J Aerosol Med 15:401-6. 2002
    ..It is recommended that this parameter be considered whenever deposition and pharmacokinetic data for two formulations of the same inhaled substance are compared...
  20. ncbi Budesonide administered using chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered-dose inhalers: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical equivalence
    D Singh
    Respiratory Pharmacology, South Manchester University Hospitals Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 45:485-95. 2007
    ..However, there is a need to ensure that pMDIs with these novel propellants are as effective and safe as their older counterparts...
  21. ncbi Part III: Location of asthma inflammation and the distal airways: clinical implications
    Monica Kraft
    Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airway Center, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 23:S21-7. 2007
    ..Due to their highly targeted delivery systems, newer HFA-based formulations have the potential to effectively treat asthma at reduced doses...
  22. ncbi Bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of an HFA pMDI vs. a CFC pMDI and a DPI containing formoterol in asthma patients
    S J Langley
    North West Lung Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Respiration 72:35-7. 2005
    ..In conclusion, Modulite HFA formoterol was found to be an effective and well tolerated treatment in patients with asthma, with comparable efficacy to current formoterol preparations...
  23. ncbi Safety and efficacy of HFA-134a beclomethasone dipropionate extra-fine aerosol over six months
    Louis Philippe Boulet
    Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie, l Université Laval, Hopital Laval, Sainte Foy, Quebec
    Can Respir J 11:123-30. 2004
    ..To compare the systemic safety and efficacy of hydrofluoroalkane beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) extra-fine aerosol 800 microg/day with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-BDP 1500 microg/day...
  24. ncbi Comparative improvement of asthma symptoms and expiratory flows after corticosteroid treatment: a method to assess the effect of corticosteroids on large vs. small airways?
    Louis Philippe Boulet
    Institut de cardiologie et de pneumologie de l Hôpital Laval, 2725 Chemin Sainte Foy, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 4G5
    Respir Med 100:496-502. 2006
    ..This may suggest that this ratio is not useful for evaluating the effect of corticosteroids on small airways, or that extrafine HFA-BDP acts at the level of large- to moderate-caliber airways to produce most of its beneficial effect...
  25. ncbi Hydrofluoroalkane-134A beclomethasone or chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone: effect on small airways in poorly controlled asthma
    Torpong Thongngarm
    Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1400 Jackson St, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    J Asthma 42:257-63. 2005
    ....
  26. ncbi Effects of mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler and beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in asthmatic subjects
    George P Chrousos
    First Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Agia Sophia Children s Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
    Chest 128:70-7. 2005
    ..The effect of MF-DPI, 400 microg qd, on the HPA axis was compared to that of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) using hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants via metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) twice daily...
  27. ncbi Pharmacodynamic equivalence study of CFC-free and CFC-containing procaterol hydrochloride metered-dose inhalers
    M Kawai
    Department of Respiratory Disease, Kouseikai Takaori Hospital Medical Corporation, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 27:555-8. 2005
    ..0507 to 0.0039 (L) for mean AUC (FEV1)/h and -0.056 to 0.026 (L) for mean peak FEV1, both within the acceptance criteria of -0.15 to 0.15 (L). Meptin [HFA] was therefore assessed as being equivalent to the current Meptin [CFC]...
  28. ncbi Propellant-driven metered-dose inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery
    Hugh D C Smyth
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Pharmacy, NC 27599, USA
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2:53-74. 2005
    ..The ability to succeed in these areas will be largely determined by the willingness to invest in fundamental research of pMDI technologies...
  29. ncbi CFC Phase-Out and the Chiesi Solution
    G Huchon
    faculté de médecine Paris 5, Service de Pneumologie et Reanimation, hôpital de l Hôtel dieu, Paris, France
    Respiration 72:1-2. 2005
  30. ncbi Development and performance of a new hydrofluoroalkane (HFA 134a)-based metered dose inhaler (MDI) of salmeterol
    I D Peyron
    Inhalation Product Development, GlaxoSmithKline, 23 Rue Lavoisier, Z I no 2, Evreux, 27000, France
    Respir Med 99:S20-30. 2005
    ..0 microg. Comparability in aerosol characteristics was also demonstrated when the salmeterol HFA inhaler was tested using a large volume spacer (Volumatic)...
  31. ncbi Comparison of the systemic pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol delivered by CFC propellant and non-CFC propellant metered dose inhalers in healthy subjects
    Rodger Kempsford
    Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Greenford Road, Greenford, Middlesex UB6 0HE, UK
    Respir Med 99:S11-9. 2005
    ..These data indicate that the salmeterol HFA MDI would not be associated with a significantly different pharmacodynamic, safety and tolerability profile compared with the salmeterol CFC MDI...
  32. ncbi Clinical comparability between the CFC and HFA budesonide pressurised metered-dose inhalers in paediatric patients with asthma: a randomised controlled trial
    A Escribano
    Unidad de Neumologia Infantil, Servicio de Pediatria, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Curr Med Res Opin 22:1085-92. 2006
    ....
  33. ncbi Efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol HFA 134A MDI in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma
    David S Pearlman
    Colorado Allergy and Asthma Centers, P C, Denver, Colorado 80230, USA
    J Asthma 41:797-806. 2004
    ..g., bronchoconstriction), with FSC results in greater overall improvements in asthma control compared with treatment of either individual component alone...
  34. pmc Comparison of bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of a single dose of formoterol delivered by hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon aerosols and dry powder in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
    C M Houghton
    Medicines Evaluation Unit, North West Lung Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 58:359-66. 2004
    ..Modulite is a HFA formulation technology that has been designed to provide stable and uniform dose delivery of HFA-based formulations to enable an easy transition from CFC to HFA inhalers...
  35. pmc Hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone versus chlorofluorocarbon-beclomethasone delivery in neonatal models
    C H Cole
    The Floating Hospital for Children, Tufts New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F417-8. 2004
    ..The delivery of hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone was significantly greater in each simulation...
  36. pmc The influence of formulation and spacer device on the in vitro performance of solution chlorofluorocarbon-free propellant-driven metered dose inhalers
    Hugh D C Smyth
    School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AAPS PharmSciTech 5:E7. 2004
    ..High propellant concentrations had the advantage of fine particle doses that were independent of the device setup and significantly lowered sampling inlet deposition when no spacer was used...
  37. ncbi Medical aerosol propellant interference with infrared anaesthetic gas monitors
    P D Levin
    The Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Hebrew University Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
    Br J Anaesth 92:865-9. 2004
    1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane is a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) that is replacing chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) as a medical aerosol propellant in an attempt to reduce damage to the ozone layer...
  38. ncbi Short-term growth and adrenal function in children with asthma treated with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane-134a
    O D Wolthers
    Children s Clinic Randers, Randers, Denmark
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17:613-9. 2006
    ..Though non-inferiority between BDP HFA and CFC 100 microg twice daily in terms of effects on LLGR was not found, equivalence was suggested by comparisons of LLGR during run-in and active treatments and by HPA function measures...
  39. ncbi Equivalent efficacy and safety of a new HFA-134a formulation of BDP compared with the conventional CFC in adult asthmatics
    P B Anderson
    Chest Clinic, Northern General NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 12:107-13. 2002
    ..In conclusion, the BDP-HFA 134a formulation proved to be statistically equivalent to the standard BDP CFC product over 12 weeks in adult patients with mild to moderate asthma...
  40. ncbi [Influence of changing from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) to hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-BDP on pulmonary function in asthmatic children]
    Yukinori Yoshida
    Department of Pediatrics, Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Disease
    Arerugi 56:1502-9. 2007
    ..We studied the influence of the changing from CFC-BDP to HFA-BDP on pulmonary function in asthmatic children...
  41. ncbi Growth, systemic safety, and efficacy during 1 year of asthma treatment with different beclomethasone dipropionate formulations: an open-label, randomized comparison of extrafine and conventional aerosols in children
    Søren Pedersen
    paediatrisk afdeling, Kolding Sygehus, Kolding, Denmark
    Pediatrics 109:e92. 2002
    ....
  42. ncbi Change in the air. Banning CFC-driven inhalers could levy a toll on asthma sufferers
    Emily Harrison
    Sci Am 299:20, 22. 2008
  43. ncbi Deposition and pharmacokinetics of flunisolide delivered from pressurized inhalers containing non-CFC and CFC propellants
    J Richards
    Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd, Ruddington, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Aerosol Med 14:197-208. 2001
    ....
  44. ncbi Single-dose study to compare the pharmacokinetics of HFA flunisolide and CFC flunisolide
    Arno Nolting
    Department of Pharmacokinetics, Forest Laboratories Incorporated, Harborside Financial Center, Plaza Three, Suite 602, Jersey City, New Jersey 07311, USA
    J Pharm Sci 91:424-32. 2002
    ....
  45. ncbi Optimizing aerosol delivery by pressurized metered-dose inhalers
    Bruce K Rubin
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1081, USA
    Respir Care 50:1191-200. 2005
    ..In this manuscript we discuss ways to optimize the use of medications given via pMDI and examine recent changes in pMDI technology that will make drug delivery more efficient and consistent...
  46. ncbi Lung deposition of hydrofluoroalkane-134a beclomethasone is greater than that of chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone and chlorofluorocarbon beclomethasone : a cross-over study in healthy volunteers
    Chet L Leach
    3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, MN, USA
    Chest 122:510-6. 2002
    ..To compare the lung deposition of radiolabeled hydrofluoroalkane-134a beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) with chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone propionate (CFC-FP) and chlorofluorocarbon beclomethasone (CFC-BDP)...
  47. ncbi Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosol therapy with pressurised metered-dose inhalers through plastic spacers
    A A Chuffart
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Children's Hospital, , Switzerland
    Swiss Med Wkly 131:14-8. 2001
    ..Using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination leads to a significantly improved bronchodilator response...
  48. ncbi Therapeutic ratio of hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon formulations of fluticasone propionate
    Stephen J Fowler
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Chest 122:618-23. 2002
    ..To compare the therapeutic ratio of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrofluoroalkane-134a (HFA) formulations of fluticasone propionate (FP)...
  49. ncbi Clinical studies in asthmatics with a new non-extra fine HFA formulation of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP Modulite)
    J Bousquet
    Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
    Respir Med 96:S17-27. 2002
    ..In conclusion, the results of the clinical studies with BDP Modulite show that this new HFA formulation allows a seamless transition to CFC-free BDP, thus simplifying the changeover...
  50. ncbi [Neurotoxicity of organic solvents--recent findings]
    Masato Matsuoka
    Department of Hygiene and Public Health I, Tokyo Women s Medical University, 8 1 Kawada cho, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8666, Japan
    Brain Nerve 59:591-6. 2007
    ..The substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons, 2-bromopropane and 1-bromopropane were shown to have the peripheral nerve toxicity in the experimental ..
  51. ncbi DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropane
    Mark Toraason
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
    Mutat Res 603:1-14. 2006
    1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propyl bromide) (CAS No. 106-94-5) is an alternative to ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons that has a variety of potential applications as a degreasing agent for metals and electronics, and as a solvent vehicle ..
  52. doi Special article: general anesthetic gases and the global environment
    Yumiko Ishizawa
    Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street Gray Bigelow 444, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Anesth Analg 112:213-7. 2011
    ..anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally...
  53. pmc Cardiotoxicity of Freon among refrigeration services workers: comparative cross-sectional study
    Laila M E Sabik
    Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University, Egypt
    Environ Health 8:31. 2009
    Freon includes a number of gaseous, colorless chlorofluorocarbons. Although freon is generally considered to be a fluorocarbon of relatively low toxicity; significantly detrimental effects may occur upon over exposure...
  54. doi Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF (2)CF (2)OCH (3)) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (CF (3)CF (2)CF (2)CH (2)OH): kinetic rate coefficients and temperature dependence of reactions with chlorine atoms
    Yolanda Díaz-de-Mera
    Facultad Químicas, Departamento Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda Camilo Jose Cela 10, E 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 15:584-91. 2008
    ..In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2)...
  55. ncbi Atmospheric emissions and attenuation of non-methane organic compounds in cover soils at a French landfill
    C Scheutz
    Institute of Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet Building 115, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Waste Manag 28:1892-908. 2008
    ..included primarily alkanes (C(2)-C(10)), alkenes (C(2)-C(4)), halogenated hydrocarbons (including (hydro)chlorofluorocarbons ((H)CFCs)), and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs)...
  56. ncbi Non-positive autoimmune responses against CYP2E1 in refrigeration mechanics exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons
    Sara Gunnare
    Work Environment Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Sci Total Environ 383:90-7. 2007
    ..HFCs and HCFCs have replaced the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in e.g. refrigeration installations and air-conditioning systems...
  57. ncbi Innovations and perspectives of metered dose inhalers in pulmonary drug delivery
    M Keller
    SkyePharma AG, Eptingerstrasse 51, CH 4132, Muttenz, Switzerland
    Int J Pharm 186:81-90. 1999
    The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has spurred the development of alternative pulmonary drug delivery systems to pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs), such as dry powder inhalers and pocket size nebulizers...
  58. ncbi Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment
    Pieter J Aucamp
    Ptersa, PO Box 915751, Faerie Glen, 0043, South Africa
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 6:319-30. 2007
    ..The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field...
  59. ncbi Computer simulations of propofol infusions for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs
    K E Joubert
    Veterinary Anaesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care Services, PO Box 1898, Lonehill, 2062 South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 80:2-9. 2009
    The volatile anaesthetic agents halothane, isoflurane and enflurane are all chlorofluorocarbons and according to international treaties, their emission into the atmosphere will be prohibited from the year 2030...
  60. ncbi [Investigation of toxicity through human cases and animal experiments--study of bromopropanes]
    Gaku Ichihara
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa Ku, Nagoya 466 8550, Japan
    Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi 60:405-10. 2005
    ..We investigated the toxicity of 2-bromopropane used as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons in the factory in animal experiments, and clarified that exposure to 2-bromopropane depletes spermatogenic ..
  61. ncbi The expanding role of aerosols in systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccination
    Beth L Laube
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Respir Care 50:1161-76. 2005
    ..This expansion has been driven by the Montreal protocol and the need to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from traditional metered-dose inhalers, by the need for delivery devices and formulations that can ..
  62. doi Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission
    Veerasamy Sejian
    Adaptation Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Biochemistry, Central Sheep and Wool Research Insitute, Avikanagar, Via Jaipur, Rajasthan, 304501, India
    Int J Biometeorol 55:1-16. 2011
    ..While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing...
  63. ncbi The origin of stable halogenated compounds in volcanic gases
    Matthias Frische
    SFB 574, Christian Albrechts University, 24148 Kiel, Germany
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13:406-13. 2006
    ..present new and comprehensive evidence regarding the existence and relevance of a volcanic contribution of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons (bromine containing halo(hydro)..
  64. doi Simultaneous determination of CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in seawater samples using a purge and trap gas-chromatographic system
    Serena Massolo
    Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
    Talanta 80:959-66. 2009
    We have optimized the analytical parameters of a homemade instrument for the simultaneous measurement of the chlorofluorocarbons CCl(2)F(2) (CFC-12), CCl(3)F (CFC-11) and C(2)Cl(3)F(3) (CFC-113) in seawater...
  65. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and sensitization to dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12)
    A J Bircher
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
    Contact Dermatitis 31:41-4. 1994
    Despite the widespread use of ethyl chloride as a local anesthetic and chlorofluorocarbons as propellants in medical and cosmetic aerosols, contact allergy to these 2 gases is rare...
  66. ncbi Hyperexcitability and changes in activities of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 1-bromopropane
    Yukiko Fueta
    The First Department of Medical Technology, School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, 807 8555, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Life Sci 72:521-9. 2002
    Chronic inhalation of 1-bromopropane (1-BP), a substitute of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, has been suspected of having central neurotoxicity (Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 101 (1999) 199; Journal of Occupational Health 44 (..
  67. ncbi Our changing atmosphere: evidence based on long-term infrared solar observations at the Jungfraujoch since 1950
    R Zander
    Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liege, Belgium
    Sci Total Environ 391:184-95. 2008
    ..agricultural fertilisers and the industrial production of chlorine-bearing compounds such as the chlorofluorocarbons and hydro-chlorofluorocarbons...
  68. ncbi A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, single-dose, efficacy crossover trial comparing formoterol-HFA (pMDI) versus formoterol-DPI (Aerolizer) and placebo (pMDI or Aerolizer) in asthmatic patients
    J Bousquet
    Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
    Respiration 72:6-12. 2005
    b>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have traditionally been used as propellants in pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs), which are often used to deliver drugs to the lungs for the treatment of reversible obstructive airways diseases...
  69. doi Characterization of the spray velocities from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler
    Brian Michael Crosland
    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 22:85-97. 2009
    ..Over the past decade, pMDIs have been modified in several ways to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons in their manufacture while increasing efficacy...
  70. ncbi Accumulation of trifluoroacetate in seasonal wetlands in California
    T M Cahill
    Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 35:820-5. 2001
    ..the hydro(chloro)fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs) that have largely replaced the stratospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
  71. ncbi Evaluation of the Plazlyte Sterilization System at the Richmond Hospital, Richmond, B.C
    R Wilson
    Richmond Hospital, British Columbia
    J Healthc Mater Manage 12:34, 37-40. 1994
    Ethylene oxide mixed with chlorofluorocarbons has been the sterilant of choice for heat- and pressure-sensitive instruments and equipment in most Canadian and U.S. healthcare facilities...
  72. ncbi Effect of the moisture content in aerosol on the spray performance of Stmerin D HFA preparations
    Saburo Murata
    Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc, 2 1 6 Kashima, Osaka 532 8514 Japan
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 54:1276-80. 2006
    Stmerin D, a pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI) for treatment of asthma, contains CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) as a propellant...
  73. ncbi Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors: laboratory studies on rates and kinetics in unsaturated alluvial sand
    Patrick Höhener
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, ENAC ISTE LPE, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Contam Hydrol 66:93-115. 2003
    ..MTBE, n-pentane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were not visibly degraded...
  74. doi Identifying the molecular origin of global warming
    Partha P Bera
    NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA
    J Phys Chem A 113:12694-9. 2009
    ..b>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known ..
  75. ncbi Inhaled drug delivery: a practical guide to prescribing inhaler devices
    P Ernst
    Respiratory Division, Montreal General Hospital McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Can Respir J 5:180-3. 1998
    ..Available pMDIs are to be gradually phased out due to their use of atmospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as propellants...
  76. ncbi Clinical effectiveness of low-temperature sterilization technologies
    W A Rutala
    University of North Carolina School of Medicine, the Department of Hospital Epidemiology, UNC Hospitals, Chapel Hill 27599 7030, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 19:798-804. 1998
    The elimination of chlorofluorocarbons by the Clean Air Act has led to the development of alternative technologies for low-temperature sterilization in the healthcare setting, including 100% ethylene oxide, ethylene oxide with other ..
  77. ncbi Influence of propellant composition on drug delivery from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler
    R O Williams
    College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 1074, USA
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 24:763-70. 1998
    Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as non-ozone-depleting propellants for pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs)...
  78. doi Land-use controls on sources and fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater of an agricultural area revealed by multiple environmental tracers
    Dong Chan Koh
    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 92 Gwahang no, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305 350, Republic of Korea
    J Contam Hydrol 118:62-78. 2010
    ..including δ²H and δ¹⁸O values of water, δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O values of nitrate, Cl/Br ratios and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
  79. doi Reviewing the technical designs for experiments with ultraviolet-B radiation and impact on photosynthesis, DNA and secondary metabolism
    Chenping Xu
    Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    J Integr Plant Biol 52:377-87. 2010
    ..this spectral region increases due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, which results from increases of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere...
  80. doi Global increases in ultraviolet B radiation: potential impacts on amphibian development and metamorphosis
    M C Croteau
    Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
    Physiol Biochem Zool 81:743-61. 2008
    ..result of stratospheric ozone depletion caused by the emission of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) such as chlorofluorocarbons. Despite international agreements to phase out harmful ODSs, these substances are persistent, and even ..
  81. pmc Advances in adult asthma diagnosis and treatment and health outcomes, education, delivery, and quality in 2008
    Andrea J Apter
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:35-40. 2009
    ..New, more costly propellants are replacing ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. An association of asthma with pneumococcal disease has been observed...
  82. ncbi Effects of ultraviolet radiation on plant cells
    F Hollósy
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry, Semmelweis University Budapest, Puskin u 9, 1088 Budapest, Hungary
    Micron 33:179-97. 2002
    ..to concern that the stratospheric ozone layer is being depleted as a result of contamination with man-made chlorofluorocarbons. Concomitantly, the amounts of solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface is increasing...
  83. ncbi Microbiological evaluation of reused catheter guides in a Brazilian hospital
    Mônica Valero Da Silva
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia
    PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 60:356-65. 2006
    ..After each use, the catheter guides had been sterilized with a mixture of ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbons (12:88)...
  84. ncbi Occupational health survey on workers exposed to 2-bromopropane at low concentrations
    G Ichihara
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    Am J Ind Med 35:523-31. 1999
    ..the reproductive and hematopoietic toxicity of 2-bromopropane introduced into workplaces as an alternative to ozone-layer depleting chlorofluorocarbons. We aimed to clarify the dose-effect relationship of 2-bromopropane in workers.
  85. doi Spatial- and time-explicit human damage modeling of ozone depleting substances in life cycle impact assessment
    Jaap Struijs
    Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Environ Sci Technol 44:204-9. 2010
    ..Characterization factors are provided for the emissions of five chlorofluorocarbons, three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, three (bromine-containing) halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform,..
  86. ncbi Analysis of anions in hydrofluoro ethers by ion chromatography
    John C Hulteen
    3M Environmental Laboratory, St Paul, MN, USA
    J Chromatogr A 1039:119-22. 2004
    ..It is also a good solvent replacement for CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) and chlorinated solvents because they have a ..
  87. ncbi CCl(4) dissociation on the ice I(h) surface: an excess electron mediated process
    Somesh Kr Bhattacharya
    Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera, 34014 Trieste, Italy
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:13034-6. 2010
    Dissociation of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is a heterogeneous process that takes place mainly on the surface of ice particles...
  88. ncbi Background monitoring and long-range transport of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea
    J Kim
    Applied Meteorology Research Laboratory, Meterological Research Institute, Seoul, Korea
    Environ Monit Assess 70:47-56. 2001
    ..Recent trends of these two chlorofluorocarbons at Kosan, Korea were concordant with those of the northern hemispheric background monitored unit at Mauna ..
  89. doi Conversion of a CFCs, HFCs and HCFCs waste mixture via reaction with methane
    Wenfeng Han
    Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
    J Hazard Mater 184:696-703. 2010
    ..as a treatment option for waste mixtures of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and as a potential route for the synthesis of CH(2)=CF(2) (VDF)...
  90. doi O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases
    Munkhbayar Baasandorj
    Earth System Research Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA
    J Phys Chem A 117:2434-45. 2013
    ..study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); ..
  91. ncbi Application of magnetic resonance imaging to the investigation of the diffusivity of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluorethane in two polymers
    M Mayele
    Institut für Technische Thermodynamik und Kältetechnik, Universitat Karlsruhe TH, Kaiserstr 12, D 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Appl Spectrosc 58:338-43. 2004
    ..are increasingly used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pump applications as substitutes for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that are believed to be responsible for ozone depletion in the ..
  92. ncbi Modulite: a means of designing the aerosols generated by pressurized metered dose inhalers
    D Ganderton
    Vectura Ltd, Bath, U K
    Respir Med 96:S3-8. 2002
    ..These principles are exemplified by designing an HFA-propelled beclometasone dipropionate product which closely matches existing products which use chlorofluorocarbons.
  93. doi QTAIM charge-charge flux-dipole flux interpretation of electronegativity and potential models of the fluorochloromethane mean dipole moment derivatives
    Arnaldo F Silva
    Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    J Phys Chem A 115:12572-81. 2011
    ..Substitution effects of the hydrogen, fluorine, and chlorine atoms on the charge and dipole flux QTAIM contributions are found to be additive for the mean dipole derivatives of the fluorochloromethanes...
  94. doi Anharmonic force field and vibrational dynamics of CH2F2 up to 5000 cm(-1) studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and state-of-the-art ab initio calculations
    Nicola Tasinato
    Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nano sistemi, Universita Ca Foscari Venezia, Calle Larga S Marta 2137, I 30123 Venezia, Italy
    J Chem Phys 136:214302. 2012
    ..used in refrigerant mixtures as a replacement of the more environmentally hazardous, ozone depleting, chlorofluorocarbons. On the other hand, presenting strong vibration-rotation bands in the 9 μm atmospheric window, it is a ..
  95. ncbi The inhalers of the future? A review of dry powder devices on the market today
    Ian J Smith
    Meridica, Cambridge Technology Centre, Melbourn, Royston, Herts SG8 6DQ, UK
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 16:79-95. 2003
    International agreements to ban the use of environmentally damaging chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have signalled an end to the traditional CFC-propelled pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) which has long been the mainstay of topical ..
  96. doi Characteristics of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted from a municipal waste treatment facility
    Ki Hyun Kim
    Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Chemosphere 89:1384-9. 2012
    The emission concentrations of several chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were measured from a municipal waste treatment facility (located in Seoul, Republic of Korea) to investigate the emission characteristics of CFCs in the urban environment...
  97. doi Control of interface nanoscale structure created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
    Someswara R Peri
    Institute of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, 170 University Avenue, Akron, Ohio 44325 3909, United States
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:3375-83. 2011
    ..The thickness of the low cross-link density region at the air interface plays an important role in determining the width of the interface built with a layer subsequently deposited atop the first...
  98. ncbi Diffusive partitioning tracer test for nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) detection in the vadose zone
    David Werner
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, ENAC ISTE LPE, Lausanne
    Environ Sci Technol 36:1592-9. 2002
    ..A mixture of chlorofluorocarbons as gaseous tracers is injected into the vadose zone to form a point source at the injection point...
  99. ncbi Fluticasone propionate 100 microg bid using a non-CFC propellant, HFA 134a, in asthmatic children
    Brian Lyttle
    Department of Paediatrics, Children s Hospital of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Can Respir J 10:103-9. 2003
    Secondary to phasing out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the fluticasone propionate (FP) pressurized metered-dose inhaler has been formulated in a nonozone-depleting propellant, hydrofluoralkane (HFA) 134a.
  100. doi Perspectives on the PQRI Extractables and Leachables "Safety Thresholds and Best Practices" Recommendations for Inhalation Drug Products
    Daniel L Norwood
    International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science IPAC RS 1500 K Street, NW, Suite 1100 Washington, DC 20005 1209
    PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 67:413-29. 2013
    ..presents the history and evolution of this recommendation document starting from the propellant changeover (chlorofluorocarbons to hydrofluorocarbons) in metered dose inhaler drug products, which helped prompt interest in inhalation ..
  101. doi Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)
    Tobias Schmidt
    Institut fur Toxikologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Versbacher Str 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 268:343-51. 2013
    ..The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals...

Research Grants70

  1. Asthma Treatment with a Novel Drug Aerosol Generator
    William Shen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Traditional MDIs using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) will soon be phased out due to CFCs' ozone-depleting effect; a new class of propellants is being ..
  2. Literacy and improving patient-clinician encounters for Asthma
    Andrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..others, and participating in relevant research working groups, I will create a team of expert collaborators in health and literacy, education, bioenqineerinq (directed at behavior measurement), and behavioral medicine (End of Abstract) ..
  3. ASTHMA CLINICAL RESEARCH NETWORK (ACRN)
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  4. Development of a Highly Efficient Personal Sampler to collect Viable Bioaerosols
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The new device will not only be beneficial in occupational settings, but may also have future potential in high risk areas such as those following any possible biological attack. ..
  5. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Remodeling and Asthma
    Monica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This proposal will also determine whether PDGF inhibition could provide important adjuvant therapy for the treatment of severe asthmatics by limiting structural changes that result from activity of this pathway. ..
  6. Individualized Interventions to Improve Asthma Adherence
    Andrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of PS. ..
  7. Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & Dynamics
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The research will bridge the experimental and theoretical understanding of anesthetic effects on channel proteins, thereby facilitating the future design of new and novel anesthetic drugs that are more specific with fewer side effects. ..
  8. ANESTHETIC SITES IN TRANSMEMBRANE PEPTIDES BY NMR
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These new studies will eventually help to close the ever-widening gulf between a plethora of sequence-based characterizations of channel function and a dearth of high-resolution structural and dynamical information. ..
  9. NOCTURNAL ASTHMA: LINKING INFLAMMATION AND REMODELING
    Monica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & Dynamics
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & Dynamics
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Development of a Personal Sampler for Nanoparticles
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It can be used to assess personal exposure to nanoparticles in terms of mass concentration and physicochemical characteristics. ..
  13. Anesthetic Sites in Transmembrance Peptides by NMR
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The research will eventually lead to better design of safer and more effective new anesthetic drugs. ..
  14. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Remodeling and Asthma
    Monica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal will also determine whether PDGF inhibition could provide important adjuvant therapy for the treatment of severe asthmatics by limiting structural changes that result from activity of this pathway. ..
  15. Individualized Interventions to Improve Asthma Adherence
    Andrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of PS. ..
  16. Anesthetic Sites in Transmembrance Peptides by NMR
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The research will eventually lead to better design of safer and more effective new anesthetic drugs. ..
  17. Development of a Highly Efficient Personal Sampler to collect Viable Bioaerosols
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The new device will not only be beneficial in occupational settings, but may also have future potential in high risk areas such as those following any possible biological attack. ..
  18. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Remodeling and Asthma
    Monica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal will also determine whether PDGF inhibition could provide important adjuvant therapy for the treatment of severe asthmatics by limiting structural changes that result from activity of this pathway. ..
  19. Anesthetic Effects on Ion Channel Structures & Dynamics
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. INHALED STEROID ADHERENCE IN MODERATE & SEVERE ASTHMA
    Andrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Upon the foundation of my prior clinical experience and education, this training program is designed to equip me with the additional skills and research experience necessary to become a fully independent investigator. ..
  21. CONTROL OF IGE MEDIATED PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HUMANS
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  22. THE MODULATION OF INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN THE LUNG
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In addition, they will provide crucial information needed in order to develop novel strategies for the treatment of asthma using antiinflammatory agents...
  23. ANESTHETIC SITES IN TRANSMEMBRANE PEPTIDES BY NMR
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  24. Inhalation Dosimetry/Exposure Index of Fiber Aerosol
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Sampling devices based on this size-selection definition can be developed in the future for improved assessment of worker exposure. ..
  25. Harvard University Health Services Research Training Gr*
    Milton Weinstein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This proposal will allow the next generation of these investigators to continue to address evolving issues in health services research. ..