Summary: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate
    Guus J M Velders
    Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P O Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4814-9. 2007
  2. ncbi The CFC to HFA transition and its impact on pulmonary drug development
    Chet L Leach
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Respir Care 50:1201-8. 2005
  3. pmc Stratospheric ozone depletion
    F Sherwood Rowland
    Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:769-90. 2006
  4. ncbi Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalers
    Dieter Hochrainer
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany
    J Aerosol Med 18:273-82. 2005
  5. ncbi An overview of environmental hazards and exposure risk of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
    Wen Tien Tsai
    Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
    Chemosphere 61:1539-47. 2005
  6. ncbi Hematopoietic and reproductive toxicity of 2-bromopropane, a recently introduced substitute for chlorofluorocarbons
    Y Kim
    Industrial Health Research Institute, Korea Industrial Safety Corporation, Incheon, South Korea
    Toxicol Lett 108:309-13. 1999
  7. ncbi Safety and efficacy of HFA-134a beclomethasone dipropionate extra-fine aerosol over six months
    Louis Philippe Boulet
    Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie, l Université Laval, Hopital Laval, Sainte Foy, Quebec
    Can Respir J 11:123-30. 2004
  8. ncbi Aerosol therapy: assume nothing and require data
    Paula J Anderson
    Respir Care 48:1016-8. 2003
  9. ncbi Change in the air. Banning CFC-driven inhalers could levy a toll on asthma sufferers
    Emily Harrison
    Sci Am 299:20, 22. 2008
  10. ncbi Effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on surrogate inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthma
    G P Currie
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group Department of Pathology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Allergy 58:602-7. 2003

Detail Information

Publications190 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate
    Guus J M Velders
    Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P O Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4814-9. 2007
  2. ncbi The CFC to HFA transition and its impact on pulmonary drug development
    Chet L Leach
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Respir Care 50:1201-8. 2005
    The terms of the Montreal Protocol have eliminated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting agents from commercial use, with the exemption of their use as propellants in metered-dose inhalers...
  3. pmc Stratospheric ozone depletion
    F Sherwood Rowland
    Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361:769-90. 2006
    ..The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations...
  4. ncbi Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalers
    Dieter Hochrainer
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany
    J Aerosol Med 18:273-82. 2005
    ..5 sec; pMDIs, 0.15-0.36 sec). These characteristics should result in improved lung and reduced oropharyngeal deposition, and are likely to simplify coordination of inhaler actuation and inhalation compared with pMDIs...
  5. ncbi An overview of environmental hazards and exposure risk of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
    Wen Tien Tsai
    Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
    Chemosphere 61:1539-47. 2005
    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are being used as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that cause significantly stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming...
  6. ncbi Hematopoietic and reproductive toxicity of 2-bromopropane, a recently introduced substitute for chlorofluorocarbons
    Y Kim
    Industrial Health Research Institute, Korea Industrial Safety Corporation, Incheon, South Korea
    Toxicol Lett 108:309-13. 1999
    ..HCFCs), whose toxicity has scarcely been known, have recently been introduced as main substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
  7. ncbi Safety and efficacy of HFA-134a beclomethasone dipropionate extra-fine aerosol over six months
    Louis Philippe Boulet
    Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie, l Université Laval, Hopital Laval, Sainte Foy, Quebec
    Can Respir J 11:123-30. 2004
    ..To compare the systemic safety and efficacy of hydrofluoroalkane beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) extra-fine aerosol 800 microg/day with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-BDP 1500 microg/day...
  8. ncbi Aerosol therapy: assume nothing and require data
    Paula J Anderson
    Respir Care 48:1016-8. 2003
  9. ncbi Change in the air. Banning CFC-driven inhalers could levy a toll on asthma sufferers
    Emily Harrison
    Sci Am 299:20, 22. 2008
  10. ncbi Effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on surrogate inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthma
    G P Currie
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group Department of Pathology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Allergy 58:602-7. 2003
    ..We wished to examine the effects of low dose fluticasone/salmeterol combination on different commonly used inflammatory markers in moderate persistent asthma...
  11. ncbi Short-term growth and adrenal function in children with asthma treated with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane-134a
    O D Wolthers
    Children s Clinic Randers, Randers, Denmark
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17:613-9. 2006
    ..Though non-inferiority between BDP HFA and CFC 100 microg twice daily in terms of effects on LLGR was not found, equivalence was suggested by comparisons of LLGR during run-in and active treatments and by HPA function measures...
  12. ncbi Extra-fine particles improve lung delivery of inhaled steroids in infants: a study in an upper airway model
    Hettie M Janssens
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Sophia Childrens Hospital Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Chest 123:2083-8. 2003
    ..Aim: To compare the dose delivered to the lungs of HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP at different breathing patterns using an upper airway model of an infant...
  13. ncbi Medical aerosol propellant interference with infrared anaesthetic gas monitors
    P D Levin
    The Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Hebrew University Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel
    Br J Anaesth 92:865-9. 2004
    1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane is a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) that is replacing chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) as a medical aerosol propellant in an attempt to reduce damage to the ozone layer...
  14. ncbi Effects on lung function, symptoms, and bronchial hyperreactivity of low-dose inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate given with HFA-134a or CFC propellant
    A Woodcock
    North West Lung Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    J Aerosol Med 15:407-14. 2002
    ..Further studies are needed using higher doses in moderate to severe asthma to confirm these preliminary findings...
  15. ncbi Local versus total systemic bioavailability of beclomethasone dipropionate CFC and HFA metered dose inhaler formulations
    Lester I Harrison
    3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minnesota 55144, USA
    J Aerosol Med 15:401-6. 2002
    ..It is recommended that this parameter be considered whenever deposition and pharmacokinetic data for two formulations of the same inhaled substance are compared...
  16. ncbi Equivalent efficacy and safety of a new HFA-134a formulation of BDP compared with the conventional CFC in adult asthmatics
    P B Anderson
    Chest Clinic, Northern General NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 12:107-13. 2002
    ..In conclusion, the BDP-HFA 134a formulation proved to be statistically equivalent to the standard BDP CFC product over 12 weeks in adult patients with mild to moderate asthma...
  17. ncbi Clinical studies in asthmatics with a new non-extra fine HFA formulation of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP Modulite)
    J Bousquet
    Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
    Respir Med 96:S17-27. 2002
    ..In conclusion, the results of the clinical studies with BDP Modulite show that this new HFA formulation allows a seamless transition to CFC-free BDP, thus simplifying the changeover...
  18. ncbi Therapeutic ratio of hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon formulations of fluticasone propionate
    Stephen J Fowler
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Chest 122:618-23. 2002
    ..To compare the therapeutic ratio of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrofluoroalkane-134a (HFA) formulations of fluticasone propionate (FP)...
  19. ncbi Lung deposition of hydrofluoroalkane-134a beclomethasone is greater than that of chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone and chlorofluorocarbon beclomethasone : a cross-over study in healthy volunteers
    Chet L Leach
    3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, MN, USA
    Chest 122:510-6. 2002
    ..To compare the lung deposition of radiolabeled hydrofluoroalkane-134a beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) with chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone propionate (CFC-FP) and chlorofluorocarbon beclomethasone (CFC-BDP)...
  20. ncbi Moving from CFC aerosol to HFA aerosol or dry powder inhalers: what do patients think?
    Thomas K Hartung
    Respiratory Department, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK
    Respiration 69:314-9. 2002
    ..It is uncertain whether these new formulations with different properties are acceptable to patients. Similarly, switching a patient to a dry powder inhaler (DPI) carries the risk of non-acceptance...
  21. pmc The influence of formulation and spacer device on the in vitro performance of solution chlorofluorocarbon-free propellant-driven metered dose inhalers
    Hugh D C Smyth
    School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AAPS PharmSciTech 5:E7. 2004
    ..High propellant concentrations had the advantage of fine particle doses that were independent of the device setup and significantly lowered sampling inlet deposition when no spacer was used...
  22. pmc Hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone versus chlorofluorocarbon-beclomethasone delivery in neonatal models
    C H Cole
    The Floating Hospital for Children, Tufts New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F417-8. 2004
    ..The delivery of hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone was significantly greater in each simulation...
  23. ncbi Withdrawal of albuterol inhalers containing chlorofluorocarbon propellants
    Leslie Hendeles
    College of Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pulmonary Division, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0486, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:1344-51. 2007
  24. ncbi Clinical comparability between the CFC and HFA budesonide pressurised metered-dose inhalers in paediatric patients with asthma: a randomised controlled trial
    A Escribano
    Unidad de Neumologia Infantil, Servicio de Pediatria, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Curr Med Res Opin 22:1085-92. 2006
  25. ncbi Propellant-driven metered-dose inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery
    Hugh D C Smyth
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Pharmacy, NC 27599, USA
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2:53-74. 2005
    ..The ability to succeed in these areas will be largely determined by the willingness to invest in fundamental research of pMDI technologies...
  26. ncbi Differential anti-inflammatory effects of large and small particle size inhaled corticosteroids in asthma
    D Menzies
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Allergy 62:661-7. 2007
    ..There is little data comparing their effects on inflammation. We have evaluated the effects of HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP on pulmonary and systemic markers of asthmatic inflammation...
  27. ncbi Pharmacodynamic equivalence study of CFC-free and CFC-containing procaterol hydrochloride metered-dose inhalers
    M Kawai
    Department of Respiratory Disease, Kouseikai Takaori Hospital Medical Corporation, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 27:555-8. 2005
    ..0507 to 0.0039 (L) for mean AUC (FEV1)/h and -0.056 to 0.026 (L) for mean peak FEV1, both within the acceptance criteria of -0.15 to 0.15 (L). Meptin [HFA] was therefore assessed as being equivalent to the current Meptin [CFC]...
  28. ncbi History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIs
    Paula J Anderson
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock Arkansas 72205, USA
    Respir Care 50:1139-50. 2005
  29. ncbi Comparative improvement of asthma symptoms and expiratory flows after corticosteroid treatment: a method to assess the effect of corticosteroids on large vs. small airways?
    Louis Philippe Boulet
    Institut de cardiologie et de pneumologie de l Hôpital Laval, 2725 Chemin Sainte Foy, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 4G5
    Respir Med 100:496-502. 2006
    ..This may suggest that this ratio is not useful for evaluating the effect of corticosteroids on small airways, or that extrafine HFA-BDP acts at the level of large- to moderate-caliber airways to produce most of its beneficial effect...
  30. ncbi Hydrofluoroalkane-134A beclomethasone or chlorofluorocarbon fluticasone: effect on small airways in poorly controlled asthma
    Torpong Thongngarm
    Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1400 Jackson St, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    J Asthma 42:257-63. 2005
  31. ncbi Effects of mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler and beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in asthmatic subjects
    George P Chrousos
    First Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Agia Sophia Children s Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
    Chest 128:70-7. 2005
    ..The effect of MF-DPI, 400 microg qd, on the HPA axis was compared to that of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) using hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants via metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) twice daily...
  32. ncbi Bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of an HFA pMDI vs. a CFC pMDI and a DPI containing formoterol in asthma patients
    S J Langley
    North West Lung Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Respiration 72:35-7. 2005
    ..In conclusion, Modulite HFA formoterol was found to be an effective and well tolerated treatment in patients with asthma, with comparable efficacy to current formoterol preparations...
  33. ncbi Budesonide administered using chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered-dose inhalers: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical equivalence
    D Singh
    Respiratory Pharmacology, South Manchester University Hospitals Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 45:485-95. 2007
    ..However, there is a need to ensure that pMDIs with these novel propellants are as effective and safe as their older counterparts...
  34. ncbi [Influence of changing from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) to hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-BDP on pulmonary function in asthmatic children]
    Yukinori Yoshida
    Department of Pediatrics, Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Disease
    Arerugi 56:1502-9. 2007
    ..We studied the influence of the changing from CFC-BDP to HFA-BDP on pulmonary function in asthmatic children...
  35. ncbi Efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol HFA 134A MDI in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma
    David S Pearlman
    Colorado Allergy and Asthma Centers, P C, Denver, Colorado 80230, USA
    J Asthma 41:797-806. 2004
    ..g., bronchoconstriction), with FSC results in greater overall improvements in asthma control compared with treatment of either individual component alone...
  36. pmc Comparison of bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of a single dose of formoterol delivered by hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon aerosols and dry powder in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
    C M Houghton
    Medicines Evaluation Unit, North West Lung Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 58:359-66. 2004
    ..Modulite is a HFA formulation technology that has been designed to provide stable and uniform dose delivery of HFA-based formulations to enable an easy transition from CFC to HFA inhalers...
  37. ncbi Growth, systemic safety, and efficacy during 1 year of asthma treatment with different beclomethasone dipropionate formulations: an open-label, randomized comparison of extrafine and conventional aerosols in children
    Søren Pedersen
    paediatrisk afdeling, Kolding Sygehus, Kolding, Denmark
    Pediatrics 109:e92. 2002
  38. ncbi Deposition and pharmacokinetics of flunisolide delivered from pressurized inhalers containing non-CFC and CFC propellants
    J Richards
    Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd, Ruddington, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Aerosol Med 14:197-208. 2001
  39. ncbi Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosol therapy with pressurised metered-dose inhalers through plastic spacers
    A A Chuffart
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Children's Hospital, , Switzerland
    Swiss Med Wkly 131:14-8. 2001
    ..Using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination leads to a significantly improved bronchodilator response...
  40. ncbi Part III: Location of asthma inflammation and the distal airways: clinical implications
    Monica Kraft
    Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airway Center, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 23:S21-7. 2007
    ..Due to their highly targeted delivery systems, newer HFA-based formulations have the potential to effectively treat asthma at reduced doses...
  41. ncbi The delivery of chlorofluorocarbon-propelled versus hydrofluoroalkane-propelled beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol to the mechanically ventilated patient: a laboratory study
    Jolyon P Mitchell
    Trudell Medical International, London, Ontario, Canada
    Respir Care 48:1025-32. 2003
  42. ncbi [Neurotoxicity of organic solvents--recent findings]
    Masato Matsuoka
    Department of Hygiene and Public Health I, Tokyo Women s Medical University, 8 1 Kawada cho, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8666, Japan
    Brain Nerve 59:591-6. 2007
    ..The substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons, 2-bromopropane and 1-bromopropane were shown to have the peripheral nerve toxicity in the experimental ..
  43. ncbi Special article: general anesthetic gases and the global environment
    Yumiko Ishizawa
    Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street Gray Bigelow 444, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Anesth Analg 112:213-7. 2011
    ..anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally...
  44. ncbi DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropane
    Mark Toraason
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
    Mutat Res 603:1-14. 2006
    1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propyl bromide) (CAS No. 106-94-5) is an alternative to ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons that has a variety of potential applications as a degreasing agent for metals and electronics, and as a solvent vehicle ..
  45. pmc Cardiotoxicity of Freon among refrigeration services workers: comparative cross-sectional study
    Laila M E Sabik
    Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University, Egypt
    Environ Health 8:31. 2009
    Freon includes a number of gaseous, colorless chlorofluorocarbons. Although freon is generally considered to be a fluorocarbon of relatively low toxicity; significantly detrimental effects may occur upon over exposure...
  46. ncbi Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF (2)CF (2)OCH (3)) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (CF (3)CF (2)CF (2)CH (2)OH): kinetic rate coefficients and temperature dependence of reactions with chlorine atoms
    Yolanda Díaz-de-Mera
    Facultad Químicas, Departamento Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda Camilo Jose Cela 10, E 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 15:584-91. 2008
    ..In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2)...
  47. ncbi Atmospheric emissions and attenuation of non-methane organic compounds in cover soils at a French landfill
    C Scheutz
    Institute of Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet Building 115, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Waste Manag 28:1892-908. 2008
    ..included primarily alkanes (C(2)-C(10)), alkenes (C(2)-C(4)), halogenated hydrocarbons (including (hydro)chlorofluorocarbons ((H)CFCs)), and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs)...
  48. ncbi Non-positive autoimmune responses against CYP2E1 in refrigeration mechanics exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons
    Sara Gunnare
    Work Environment Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Sci Total Environ 383:90-7. 2007
    ..HFCs and HCFCs have replaced the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in e.g. refrigeration installations and air-conditioning systems...
  49. ncbi Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment
    Pieter J Aucamp
    Ptersa, PO Box 915751, Faerie Glen, 0043, South Africa
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 6:319-30. 2007
    ..The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field...
  50. ncbi The expanding role of aerosols in systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccination
    Beth L Laube
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Respir Care 50:1161-76. 2005
    ..This expansion has been driven by the Montreal protocol and the need to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from traditional metered-dose inhalers, by the need for delivery devices and formulations that can ..
  51. ncbi The origin of stable halogenated compounds in volcanic gases
    Matthias Frische
    SFB 574, Christian Albrechts University, 24148 Kiel, Germany
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13:406-13. 2006
    ..present new and comprehensive evidence regarding the existence and relevance of a volcanic contribution of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons (bromine containing halo(hydro)..
  52. ncbi Simultaneous determination of CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in seawater samples using a purge and trap gas-chromatographic system
    Serena Massolo
    Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
    Talanta 80:959-66. 2009
    We have optimized the analytical parameters of a homemade instrument for the simultaneous measurement of the chlorofluorocarbons CCl(2)F(2) (CFC-12), CCl(3)F (CFC-11) and C(2)Cl(3)F(3) (CFC-113) in seawater...
  53. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and sensitization to dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12)
    A J Bircher
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
    Contact Dermatitis 31:41-4. 1994
    Despite the widespread use of ethyl chloride as a local anesthetic and chlorofluorocarbons as propellants in medical and cosmetic aerosols, contact allergy to these 2 gases is rare...
  54. ncbi Hyperexcitability and changes in activities of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 1-bromopropane
    Yukiko Fueta
    The First Department of Medical Technology, School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka 1 1, Yahatanishi ku, 807 8555, Kitakyushu, Japan
    Life Sci 72:521-9. 2002
    Chronic inhalation of 1-bromopropane (1-BP), a substitute of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, has been suspected of having central neurotoxicity (Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 101 (1999) 199; Journal of Occupational Health 44 (..
  55. ncbi Our changing atmosphere: evidence based on long-term infrared solar observations at the Jungfraujoch since 1950
    R Zander
    Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liege, Belgium
    Sci Total Environ 391:184-95. 2008
    ..agricultural fertilisers and the industrial production of chlorine-bearing compounds such as the chlorofluorocarbons and hydro-chlorofluorocarbons...
  56. ncbi Characterization of the spray velocities from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler
    Brian Michael Crosland
    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 22:85-97. 2009
    ..Over the past decade, pMDIs have been modified in several ways to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons in their manufacture while increasing efficacy...
  57. ncbi Accumulation of trifluoroacetate in seasonal wetlands in California
    T M Cahill
    Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 35:820-5. 2001
    ..the hydro(chloro)fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs) that have largely replaced the stratospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
  58. ncbi Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors: laboratory studies on rates and kinetics in unsaturated alluvial sand
    Patrick Höhener
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, ENAC ISTE LPE, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Contam Hydrol 66:93-115. 2003
    ..MTBE, n-pentane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were not visibly degraded...
  59. ncbi Evaluation of the Plazlyte Sterilization System at the Richmond Hospital, Richmond, B.C
    R Wilson
    Richmond Hospital, British Columbia
    J Healthc Mater Manage 12:34, 37-40. 1994
    Ethylene oxide mixed with chlorofluorocarbons has been the sterilant of choice for heat- and pressure-sensitive instruments and equipment in most Canadian and U.S. healthcare facilities...
  60. ncbi Effect of the moisture content in aerosol on the spray performance of Stmerin D HFA preparations
    Saburo Murata
    Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc, 2 1 6 Kashima, Osaka 532 8514 Japan
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 54:1276-80. 2006
    Stmerin D, a pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI) for treatment of asthma, contains CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) as a propellant...
  61. ncbi Identifying the molecular origin of global warming
    Partha P Bera
    NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA
    J Phys Chem A 113:12694-9. 2009
    ..b>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known ..
  62. ncbi Inhaled drug delivery: a practical guide to prescribing inhaler devices
    P Ernst
    Respiratory Division, Montreal General Hospital McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Can Respir J 5:180-3. 1998
    ..Available pMDIs are to be gradually phased out due to their use of atmospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as propellants...
  63. ncbi Clinical effectiveness of low-temperature sterilization technologies
    W A Rutala
    University of North Carolina School of Medicine, the Department of Hospital Epidemiology, UNC Hospitals, Chapel Hill 27599 7030, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 19:798-804. 1998
    The elimination of chlorofluorocarbons by the Clean Air Act has led to the development of alternative technologies for low-temperature sterilization in the healthcare setting, including 100% ethylene oxide, ethylene oxide with other ..
  64. ncbi Influence of propellant composition on drug delivery from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler
    R O Williams
    College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 1074, USA
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 24:763-70. 1998
    Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) are used to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as non-ozone-depleting propellants for pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs)...
  65. ncbi Land-use controls on sources and fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater of an agricultural area revealed by multiple environmental tracers
    Dong Chan Koh
    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 92 Gwahang no, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305 350, Republic of Korea
    J Contam Hydrol 118:62-78. 2010
    ..including δ²H and δ¹⁸O values of water, δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O values of nitrate, Cl/Br ratios and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)...
  66. ncbi Reviewing the technical designs for experiments with ultraviolet-B radiation and impact on photosynthesis, DNA and secondary metabolism
    Chenping Xu
    Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    J Integr Plant Biol 52:377-87. 2010
    ..this spectral region increases due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, which results from increases of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere...
  67. ncbi Spatial- and time-explicit human damage modeling of ozone depleting substances in life cycle impact assessment
    Jaap Struijs
    Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Environ Sci Technol 44:204-9. 2010
    ..Characterization factors are provided for the emissions of five chlorofluorocarbons, three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, three (bromine-containing) halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform,..
  68. ncbi Analysis of anions in hydrofluoro ethers by ion chromatography
    John C Hulteen
    3M Environmental Laboratory, St Paul, MN, USA
    J Chromatogr A 1039:119-22. 2004
    ..It is also a good solvent replacement for CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) and chlorinated solvents because they have a ..
  69. ncbi Background monitoring and long-range transport of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea
    J Kim
    Applied Meteorology Research Laboratory, Meterological Research Institute, Seoul, Korea
    Environ Monit Assess 70:47-56. 2001
    ..Recent trends of these two chlorofluorocarbons at Kosan, Korea were concordant with those of the northern hemispheric background monitored unit at Mauna ..
  70. ncbi Conversion of a CFCs, HFCs and HCFCs waste mixture via reaction with methane
    Wenfeng Han
    Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
    J Hazard Mater 184:696-703. 2010 a treatment option for waste mixtures of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and as a potential route for the synthesis of CH(2)=CF(2) (VDF)...
  71. ncbi Effects of ultraviolet radiation on plant cells
    F Hollósy
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry, Semmelweis University Budapest, Puskin u 9, 1088 Budapest, Hungary
    Micron 33:179-97. 2002 concern that the stratospheric ozone layer is being depleted as a result of contamination with man-made chlorofluorocarbons. Concomitantly, the amounts of solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface is increasing...
  72. ncbi Microbiological evaluation of reused catheter guides in a Brazilian hospital
    Mônica Valero Da Silva
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia
    PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 60:356-65. 2006
    ..After each use, the catheter guides had been sterilized with a mixture of ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbons (12:88)...
  73. ncbi Occupational health survey on workers exposed to 2-bromopropane at low concentrations
    G Ichihara
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    Am J Ind Med 35:523-31. 1999
    ..the reproductive and hematopoietic toxicity of 2-bromopropane introduced into workplaces as an alternative to ozone-layer depleting chlorofluorocarbons. We aimed to clarify the dose-effect relationship of 2-bromopropane in workers.
  74. pmc Pharmacokinetics of chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler formulations of beclomethasone dipropionate
    B J Lipworth
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 48:866-8. 1999
    ..To compare the pharmacokinetic profile of Beclazone (beclomethasone dipropionate) in its chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based and CFC-free formulations...
  75. ncbi A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, single-dose, efficacy crossover trial comparing formoterol-HFA (pMDI) versus formoterol-DPI (Aerolizer) and placebo (pMDI or Aerolizer) in asthmatic patients
    J Bousquet
    Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
    Respiration 72:6-12. 2005
    b>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have traditionally been used as propellants in pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs), which are often used to deliver drugs to the lungs for the treatment of reversible obstructive airways diseases...
  76. ncbi Rainwater trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in Guangzhou, South China: levels, wet deposition fluxes and source implication
    Qiaoyun Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China Guangzhou Institute of Measuring and Testing Technology, Guangzhou 510663, China
    Sci Total Environ 468:272-9. 2014
    ..Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs/HFCs) as replacements of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are precursors of TFA in the atmosphere, their contribution to rainwater TFA is a concern as their ..
  77. ncbi Innovations and perspectives of metered dose inhalers in pulmonary drug delivery
    M Keller
    SkyePharma AG, Eptingerstrasse 51, CH 4132, Muttenz, Switzerland
    Int J Pharm 186:81-90. 1999
    The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has spurred the development of alternative pulmonary drug delivery systems to pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs), such as dry powder inhalers and pocket size nebulizers...
  78. ncbi The rejuvenated pressurised metered dose inhaler
    John Bell
    Stewart Erl Associates, Loughborough, UK
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 4:215-34. 2007
  79. ncbi Single-dose study to compare the pharmacokinetics of HFA flunisolide and CFC flunisolide
    Arno Nolting
    Department of Pharmacokinetics, Forest Laboratories Incorporated, Harborside Financial Center, Plaza Three, Suite 602, Jersey City, New Jersey 07311, USA
    J Pharm Sci 91:424-32. 2002
  80. ncbi [Investigation of toxicity through human cases and animal experiments--study of bromopropanes]
    Gaku Ichihara
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa Ku, Nagoya 466 8550, Japan
    Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi 60:405-10. 2005
    ..We investigated the toxicity of 2-bromopropane used as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons in the factory in animal experiments, and clarified that exposure to 2-bromopropane depletes spermatogenic ..
  81. pmc Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements
    W Dekant
    Department of Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Environ Health Perspect 104:75-83. 1996
    b>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere...
  82. ncbi Desflurane and the nonimmobilizer 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane suppress learning by a mechanism independent of the level of unconditioned stimulation
    J M Sonner
    Department of Anesthesia, University of California San Francisco 94143 0464, USA
    Anesth Analg 87:200-5. 1998
    ..We conclude that suppression of learning and memory by desflurane and 2N does not result from decreased sensitivity to the unconditioned stimulus (the footshock) and that the potency of 2N is consistent with its lipophilicity...
  83. ncbi Selective inactivation of rat and bovine olfactory cytochrome P450 by three haloethanes
    S Marini
    Istituto di Mutagenesi e Differenziamento, CNR, Area della Ricerca-Via Moruzzi, Via Svezia 10, 56124 Pisa, Italy
    Toxicol Lett 124:83-90. 2001
    ..The present results therefore suggest that CYP2A, the major isoform expressed in the olfactory tissue of mammals, may be particularly prone to catalyze the reductive metabolism of halothane both in anaerobic and aerobic conditions...
  84. ncbi Flashing liquid jets and two-phase droplet dispersion II. Comparison and validation of droplet size and rainout formulations
    Henk Witlox
    DNV Software, London, UK
    J Hazard Mater 142:797-809. 2007
    ..The rainout calculations by the dispersion model have been validated against a subset of the CCPS experiments (flashing jets of water, CFC-11, chlorine, cyclohexane, monomethylamine)...
  85. pmc Structural consequences of anesthetic and nonimmobilizer interaction with gramicidin A channels
    P Tang
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Biophys J 76:2346-50. 1999
    ..The results are consistent with the notion that anesthetics cause functional change of the channel by interacting with the amphipathic domains at the peptide-lipid-water interface...
  86. ncbi Development and performance of a new hydrofluoroalkane (HFA 134a)-based metered dose inhaler (MDI) of salmeterol
    I D Peyron
    Inhalation Product Development, GlaxoSmithKline, 23 Rue Lavoisier, Z I no 2, Evreux, 27000, France
    Respir Med 99:S20-30. 2005
    ..0 microg. Comparability in aerosol characteristics was also demonstrated when the salmeterol HFA inhaler was tested using a large volume spacer (Volumatic)...
  87. pmc Distinctly different interactions of anesthetic and nonimmobilizer with transmembrane channel peptides
    P Tang
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Biophys J 77:739-46. 1999
  88. ncbi Human halothane metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and cytochromes P(450)2A6 and P(450)3A4
    E D Kharasch
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 55:853-9. 2000
    ..This investigation tested the hypotheses that halothane causes lipid peroxidation in humans in vivo, and that CYP2A6 or CYP3A4 inhibition can diminish halothane metabolism...
  89. ncbi Asthma control with extrafine-particle hydrofluoroalkane-beclometasone vs. large-particle chlorofluorocarbon-beclometasone: a real-world observational study
    N Barnes
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, London Chest Hospital, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 41:1521-32. 2011
  90. ncbi Budesonide Modulite: improving the changeover to CFC-free treatments
    H Magnussen
    Hospital Grosshansdorf, Center for Pneumology andThoracic Surgery, Wohren damm 80, Grosshansdorf 22927, Germany
    Respir Med 97:S1-3. 2003
  91. pmc Advances in adult asthma diagnosis and treatment and health outcomes, education, delivery, and quality in 2008
    Andrea J Apter
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:35-40. 2009
    ..New, more costly propellants are replacing ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. An association of asthma with pneumococcal disease has been observed...
  92. ncbi Neoantigen formation and clastogenic action of HCFC-123 and perchloroethylene in human MCL-5 cells
    I N White
    MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
    Toxicol Lett 124:129-38. 2001
    ..These results show that even though both saturated and unsaturated halocarbons can result in neoantigen formation, there is a marked difference in the specificity of the CYP enzymes involved in their metabolic activation...
  93. ncbi Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission
    Veerasamy Sejian
    Adaptation Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Biochemistry, Central Sheep and Wool Research Insitute, Avikanagar, Via Jaipur, Rajasthan, 304501, India
    Int J Biometeorol 55:1-16. 2011
    ..While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing...
  94. ncbi A Desulfitobacterium strain isolated from human feces that does not dechlorinate chloroethenes or chlorophenols
    B A van de Pas
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Arch Microbiol 175:389-94. 2001
    ..In contrast to described Desulfitobacterium strains, the newly isolated strain has not been isolated from a polluted environment and did not use chloroethenes or chlorophenols as electron acceptor...
  95. doi Spontaneous electric fields in films of CF3Cl, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3
    Andrew Cassidy
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:108-13. 2013
    Data are presented showing the spontaneous formation of electric fields within solid films of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CF(3)Cl, CF(2)Cl(2) and CFCl(3) as a function of film deposition temperature from 40 K and above...
  96. ncbi Pd-catalyzed arylation of chlorotrifluoroethylene using arylboronic acids
    Tetsuya Yamamoto
    Catalysis Group, Sagami Chemical Research Institute, 2743 1 Hayakawa, Ayase, Kanagawa 252 1193, Japan
    Org Lett 14:3454-7. 2012
    ..The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of chlorotrifluoroethylene and arylboronic acids proceeds in the presence of a base and H(2)O to provide α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in satisfactory yields...
  97. ncbi UV-B damages eyes of barnacle larvae and impairs their photoresponses and settlement success
    W L Chiang
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong
    Environ Sci Technol 37:1089-92. 2003
    ..The fact that enhanced UV-B radiation can induce ocular damage and subsequent phototactic impairment in barnacle larvae suggests that UV-B may also cause similar damage to other zooplankton species...
  98. ncbi The lifetime of CFC substitutes studied by a network trained with chaotic mapping modified genetic algorithm and DFT calculations
    Q Lu
    State Key Laboratory of Chemo Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P R China
    SAR QSAR Environ Res 15:279-92. 2004
    The hydrohaloalkanes have attracted much attention as potential substitutes of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that deplete the ozone layer and lead to great high global warming...
  99. ncbi Computer simulations of propofol infusions for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs
    K E Joubert
    Veterinary Anaesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care Services, PO Box 1898, Lonehill, 2062 South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 80:2-9. 2009
    The volatile anaesthetic agents halothane, isoflurane and enflurane are all chlorofluorocarbons and according to international treaties, their emission into the atmosphere will be prohibited from the year 2030...
  100. ncbi Acetylcholine receptors and thresholds for convulsions from flurothyl and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane
    Edmond I Eger
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Anesth Analg 95:1611-5, table of contents. 2002
    ..00091 atm and 0.062 atm for flurothyl and 2N, respectively) that approximate those that produce convulsions (0.0015 atm and 0.04 atm)...
  101. ncbi Global increases in ultraviolet B radiation: potential impacts on amphibian development and metamorphosis
    M C Croteau
    Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
    Physiol Biochem Zool 81:743-61. 2008
    ..result of stratospheric ozone depletion caused by the emission of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) such as chlorofluorocarbons. Despite international agreements to phase out harmful ODSs, these substances are persistent, and even ..

Research Grants11

  1. Inhalation Dosimetry/Exposure Index of Fiber Aerosol
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Sampling devices based on this size-selection definition can be developed in the future for improved assessment of worker exposure. ..
  2. Asthma Treatment with a Novel Drug Aerosol Generator
    William Shen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Traditional MDIs using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) will soon be phased out due to CFCs' ozone-depleting effect; a new class of propellants is being ..
    EDMOND EGER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Remodeling and Asthma
    Monica Kraft; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal will also determine whether PDGF inhibition could provide important adjuvant therapy for the treatment of severe asthmatics by limiting structural changes that result from activity of this pathway. ..
  5. Individualized Interventions to Improve Asthma Adherence
    Andrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of PS. ..
    Pei Tang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The results of this investigation will lead to a new paradigm for the analysis and interpretation of general anesthetic action on neuronal proteins. ..
  7. Harvard University Health Services Research Training Gr*
    Milton Weinstein; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This proposal will allow the next generation of these investigators to continue to address evolving issues in health services research. ..
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Andrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Upon the foundation of my prior clinical experience and education, this training program is designed to equip me with the additional skills and research experience necessary to become a fully independent investigator. ..
  11. Development of a Highly Efficient Personal Sampler to collect Viable Bioaerosols
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The new device will not only be beneficial in occupational settings, but may also have future potential in high risk areas such as those following any possible biological attack. ..