- Vilanterol trifenatate, a novel inhaled long-acting beta2 adrenoceptor agonist, is well tolerated in healthy subjects and demonstrates prolonged bronchodilation in subjects with asthma and COPD
Respiratory and Immuno Inflammation Medicine Development Centre, GlaxoSmithKline R and D, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, UK
Pulm Pharmacol Ther 26:256-64. 2013
..VI produced a rapid and prolonged bronchodilation over 24 h suggesting the potential for once daily administration...
- Headspace liquid-phase microextraction of chlorobenzenes in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture detection
Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Republic of Singapore 117543
Anal Chem 75:98-103. 2003
..microsyringe barrel was used as an extraction interface in headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) of chlorobenzenes. Some common organic solvents with different vapor pressures (9.33-12 918.9 Pa) were studied as extractants...
- Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of long-acting beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists incorporating metabolic inactivation: an antedrug approach
Panayiotis A Procopiou
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, United Kingdom
J Med Chem 53:4522-30. 2010
..Crystalline salts of 13f (vilanterol) were identified that had suitable properties for inhaled administration. A proposed binding mode for 13f to the beta(2)-receptor is presented...
- Efficacy and optimal dosing interval of the long-acting beta₂ agonist, vilanterol, in persistent asthma: a randomised trial
Carolina Research, Respiratory Medicine, Orangeburg, SC 29118 2040, USA
Respir Med 106:1110-5. 2012
..The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three once-daily doses and one twice-daily dose of VI used concurrently with ICS in adult patients (≥18 years) with persistent asthma. Safety was also assessed...
- 28-Day safety and tolerability of umeclidinium in combination with vilanterol in COPD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
S Carolina Pharmaceutical Research, Spartanburg, SC, USA
Pulm Pharmacol Ther 25:465-71. 2012
..The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of repeat dosing of UMEC and VI in combination once daily for 28 days in patients with COPD...
- Headspace single-drop microextraction for the analysis of chlorobenzenes in water samples
Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, PO Box 99, E 03080, Alicante, Spain
J Chromatogr A 1089:25-30. 2005
..Overall, headspace SDME proved to be a rapid, simple and sensitive technique for the analysis of chlorobenzenes in water samples, representing an excellent alternative to traditional and other, recently introduced, methods.
- 24-h duration of the novel LABA vilanterol trifenatate in asthma patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids
Krefting Research Centre, University of Gothenburg, Box 424, SE 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
Eur Respir J 40:570-9. 2012
..5-50 μg resulted in prolonged bronchodilation of at least 24 h with good tolerability in asthma patients receiving ICS. Based on the overall efficacy and adverse event profile from this study, the optimum dose of VI appears to be 25 μg...
- Safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and vilanterol alone and in combination: a randomized crossover trial
Dennis L Kelleher
Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e50716. 2012
- Degradation of chlorobenzenes by a strain of Acidovorax avenae isolated from a polluted aquifer
Magdalena V Monferran
Universidad Nacional de Cordoba CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dep Bioquímica Clínica CIBICI, Haya de La Torre esq, Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina
Chemosphere 61:98-106. 2005
..avenae could use a catabolic pathway, via ARHDO system, leading to the formation of chlorocatecols during the first steps of biodegradation, with further chloride release and subsequent paths that showed complete substrate consumption...
- Dechlorination of chlorobenzenes by a culture containing bacterium DF-1, a PCB dechlorinating microorganism
Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425 2230, USA
Environ Sci Technol 36:3290-4. 2002
..This is the first report of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates both PCBs and CBs and the first identification of an organism that can dechlorinate a CB with more than four chlorines...
- Mechanism of PCBs formation from the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes
P Y Liu
Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China
Chemosphere 43:783-5. 2001
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were formed by pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes in a HCl atmosphere. Varieties of substituted chlorobenzenes were used as model compounds to optimize the condensation reaction...
- Biomineralisation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in soils by an adapted microbial population
GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, D 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
Environ Pollut 127:395-401. 2004
..Additional nutrition sources ((NH4)2HPO4) increased the mineralisation rates in the first days significantly in the contaminated soil. In the soil from the contaminated site high amounts of non extractable 14C-residues were formed...
- Tissue-dependent distribution and accumulation of chlorobenzenes by vegetables in urban area
College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China
Environ Int 31:855-60. 2005
..vegetables from three growing sites in Hangzhou city, Zhejiang Province, were studied for the levels of four chlorobenzenes(CBs): o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB), p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), m-dichlorobenzene (m-DCB), and 1,2,4-..
- Posetic quantitative superstructure/activity relationships (QSSARs) for chlorobenzenes
Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Galveston, Texas 77551, USA
J Chem Inf Model 45:870-9. 2005
..These differences show that more reliable predictions can be obtained by using a consensus prediction that combines data from the three posetic models...
- Computational framework for predictive biodegradation
Stacey D Finley
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
Biotechnol Bioeng 104:1086-97. 2009
..This work demonstrates that BNICE can be applied to generate novel pathways to degrade xenobiotic compounds that are thermodynamically feasible alternatives to known biodegradation routes and attractive targets for metabolic engineering...
- Correlations between experimental and predicted equilibrium distribution coefficient of chlorobenzene and chlorophenol compounds in soil-water systems using partial solubility parameters
Ching Guang Jaw
Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
J Environ Sci Health B 42:97-105. 2007
..The integral distribution equilibrium equation can exactly describe the distribution behavior of nonionic compound of chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols in soil-water systems.
- Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of monochlorobenzene in water
Hsin Hsu Huang
Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan
J Hazard Mater 156:186-93. 2008
..The simulation results derived from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was suggested that the interaction between Cl(-) ions and TiO(2) surface tended to lower the released amount of Cl(-) ions...
- Wetland plant uptake of desorption-resistant organic compounds from sediments
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Gordon A and Mary Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
Environ Sci Technol 40:3229-36. 2006
..The potential implications of the existence of a finite, desorption-resistant pool of contaminants on phytoremediation of sediments are discussed...
- Resistant sorption of in situ chlorobenzenes and a polychlorinated biphenyl in river Rhine suspended matter
Th E M ten Hulscher
Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment, RIZA, P O Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad, The Netherlands
Chemosphere 49:1231-8. 2002
The desorption kinetics of in situ chlorobenzenes (dichlorobenzenes, pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene) and 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB-28) were measured with a gas-purge technique for river Rhine suspended matter sampled in ..
- Absorption and adsorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants to diesel and hexane soot
Thanh H Nguyen
Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Environ Sci Technol 40:2958-64. 2006
- Investigation of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2--polyoxometalate systems
R R Ozer
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208, USA
Environ Sci Technol 35:3242-6. 2001
..0818, 0.152, 0.421, and 0.638 min(-1), respectively. An analysis of deltaG for electron transfer from the conduction band of TiO2 to POMs in this study shows that the electron transfer takes place even when it is endothermic...
- Slow and very slow desorption of organic compounds from sediment: influence of sorbate planarity
Paul C M Van Noort
Institute for Inland Water Management and Wastewater Treatment RIZA, PO Box 17, 8200 AA, Lelystad, The Netherlands
Water Res 37:2317-22. 2003
The kinetics of desorption of in situ chlorobenzenes, PAHs, and PCBs from four different sediments was studied employing Tenax beads as an infinite sink for sorbates. Rate constants for slow desorption were 2.9+/-0...
- Emission characteristics of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and PAHs from polyvinylchloride combustion at various temperatures
Kyung Seop Kim
Environmental Analysis Team, Korea Testing Laboratory, Seoul, South Korea
J Air Waste Manag Assoc 54:555-62. 2004
..For some PAHs, chlorobenzenes, and PCDD/Fs, a mathematical equation between the gas and solid phase and the reciprocal temperature in ..
- Rate-limited desorption of volatile organic compounds from soils and implications for the remediation of a Louisiana Superfund site
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, USA
Environ Monit Assess 75:87-105. 2002
..Possible mechanisms describing these rates and implications for the site clean up are discussed...
- Temperature effects on very slow desorption of native chlorobenzenes from sediment to water
Th E M ten Hulscher
Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment, P O Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad, The Netherlands
Environ Toxicol Chem 23:1634-9. 2004
The temperature dependence of the kinetics of very slow desorption of eight chlorobenzenes was studied in laboratory batch experiments on a field-contaminated sediment from Lake Ketelmeer, The Netherlands...
- Titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic degradation of monochlorobenzene in aqueous phase
Hsin Hsu Huang
Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan
Chemosphere 71:398-405. 2008
..The suppressed mineralization of MCB at solution pH 11 was ascribed to the lack of adsorption. A simplified 2-step consecutive kinetic model was used to simulate the mineralization...
- Catalytic reduction of chlorobenzenes with Pd/Fe nanoparticles: reactive sites, catalyst stability, particle aging, and regeneration
Bao Wei Zhu
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Republic of Singapore
Environ Sci Technol 41:7523-9. 2007
..Reactivity of the aged Pd/Fe could be only partially restored after HCI treatment, while regeneration with the NaBH4 reduction method could not restore its activity, although zerovalent state of the iron was reinstated...
- [Dechlorination of p-dichlorobenzene by metallic catalytic reduction technology]
Xin Hua Xu
Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Huan Jing Ke Xue 25:97-101. 2004
..Dechlorination ratios were affected by reaction temperature, initial pH, Pd ratio and the addition of Pd/Fe. Chlorobenzene represented stable partially dechlorinated intermediates in the generation of benzene...
- Electrokinetic movement of multiple chlorobenzenes in contaminated soils in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin
Song Hu Yuan
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
J Environ Sci (China) 19:968-76. 2007
This study investigated the electrokinetic (EK) behavior of multiple chlorobenzenes, including 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (i-TeCB), and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in contaminated clayed soils...
- Quantification of contaminant sorption-desorption time scales from batch experiments
Jeffrey A Cunningham
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA
Environ Toxicol Chem 24:2160-6. 2005
..Further applications and limitations of the method are discussed...
- History-dependent sorption in humic acids and a lignite in the context of a polymer model for natural organic matter
Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504 1106, USA
Environ Sci Technol 38:5853-62. 2004
..The results show that nonlinear and irreversible behavior may be expected for macromolecular forms of NOM that are in a glassy state and emphasize the case that NOM is not a passive sorbent but may be physically altered by the sorbate...
- Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation
Thanh H Nguyen
Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Environ Sci Technol 38:3595-603. 2004
..Independent analysis of extractable hydrocarbons suggests that absorption into a native hydrocarbon phase was not a major component of sorption...
- Correlation of gas chromatographic properties of chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls with the occurrence of reductive dechlorination by untamed microorganisms
I M Chen
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, ROC
Chemosphere 45:223-9. 2001
To understand the dechlorination ability of chlorobenzenes (CBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by untamed microorganisms under anaerobic condition and to correlate gas chromatographic properties with the occurrence of reductive ..
- By-side chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols in technical chlorobiphenyl formulations of Aroclor 1268, Chlorofen, Clophen T 64, Kanechlor 600, and Kanechlor 1000
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 41:35-46. 2006
..Then, 2,4,6-TrCPh was the most abundant congener in Kanechlor 600, while 2,4,5-TrCPh was the most abundant congener in Kanechlor 1000...
- Vertical profile of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, other PCBs, PAHs, chlorobenzenes, DDX, HCHs, organotin compounds and chlorinated ethers in dated sediment/soil cores from flood-plains of the river Elbe, Germany
Institut für Hygiene und Umwelt, Marckmannstr 129 b, D 20539 Hamburg, Germany
Chemosphere 67:592-603. 2007
- Elaboration of new formulations to remove micropollutants in MSWI flue gas
University of Liege, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Bat B6a, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
Chemosphere 56:745-56. 2004
..Tests carried out on an industrial scale, demonstrated that this product enables to reach the current norm concerning dioxins and furans emissions...
- Effect of heavy metals on the sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to wood charcoal
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210093, PR China
Environ Sci Technol 41:2536-41. 2007
..The results of the present study showed that the presence of coexisting heavy metals greatly affects sorption of organic pollutants on BC and thereby their fate and transport...
- ORC-GAC-Fe0 system for the remediation of trichloroethylene and monochlorobenzene contaminated aquifer: 1. Adsorption and degradation
Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
J Environ Sci (China) 16:108-12. 2004
..Cis-DCE is the main chlorinated product, which can be cumulated in the system, not only depending on the formation rate and its decaying rate, but also the initial concentration of TCE...
- [Characteristics and effect factors for sorption of trichlorobenzene on sediment in Huaihe River (Jiangsu reach)]
Li jie Jing
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Huan Jing Ke Xue 26:83-7. 2005
- The influence of the rigidity of geosorbent organic matter on non-ideal sorption behaviors of chlorinated benzenes
Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Water Res 39:2599-610. 2005
..filling domain for a given sorbent was closely correlated with the extent to which the sorbent's affinity for chlorobenzenes exceeded predictions from a linear free energy relationship...
- An infrared and X-ray spectroscopic study of the reactions of 2-chlorophenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and chlorobenzene with model cuO/silica fly ash surfaces
Steven L Alderman
Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
Environ Sci Technol 39:7396-401. 2005
..The implication is that chlorinated benzenes may form 10 times more chlorophenolate precursors to PCDD/Fs than chlorinated phenols in combustion systems...
- Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans from soot of benzene and o-dichlorobenzene combustion
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Ricketts Building, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 3590, USA
Environ Sci Technol 38:5196-200. 2004
- Formation of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers from condensation of chlorophenols with chlorobenzenes
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P O Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 15:84-8. 2008
..It was speculated that the condensation of chlorophenols with chlorobenzenes occurred via PCDEs to form polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)...
- Catalytic dechlorination kinetics of p-dichlorobenzene over Pd/Fe catalysts
Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Academic Building 10, Yuquan Campus, Hangzhou 310027, People s Republic of China
Chemosphere 58:1135-40. 2005
..0 kJ mol-1 at the temperature range of 287-313 K...
- Bacterial community dynamics during biostimulation and bioaugmentation experiments aiming at chlorobenzene degradation in groundwater
D F Wenderoth
Department for Environmental Microbiology, GBF German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Mascheroder Weg 1, D 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
Microb Ecol 46:161-76. 2003
..e., biostimulation and bioaugmentation, for groundwater contaminated with chlorobenzenes. The biodegradative potential was stimulated either by the supply of electron acceptors (air, (NO3-), to ..
- Cometabolic degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds
Department of Remediation Research, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig Halle, PO Box 2, Leipzig D 04301, Germany
J Biotechnol 102:93-8. 2003
..Over a period of 4 months, the stability of the biological system was monitored regularly by analyzing the sMMO activity as well as by classical microbiological and molecular biological methods...
- Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene at a former industrial contaminated site
Interuniversity Centre of Environmental Monitoring Research CIMA, University of Genoa, Via Cadorna, 7, 17100 Savona, Italy
Environ Sci Technol 39:2920-6. 2005
..In this case, the risk is distributed over a large proportion of the site, while the local risk of hot spots was low, showing that risk characterization based exclusively on soil concentrations might be insufficient...
- Estimation of microbial reductive transformation rates for chlorinated benzenes and phenols using a quantitative structure-activity relationship approach
Caroline L Tebes-Stevens
Ecosystems Research Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
Environ Toxicol Chem 23:1600-9. 2004
..The peer-reviewed literature was screened carefully to ensure that all rate constant data were representative of environmentally relevant conditions...
- An in situ toxicity identification evaluation method Part II: Field validation
G Allen Burton
Institute for Environmental Quality, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435, USA
Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2851-5. 2004
..PAHs) (Little Scioto River, OH, USA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Dicks Creek, OH, USA), and chlorobenzenes (Sebasticook River, ME, USA). Both the iTIE and the U.S. EPA TIE methods used Daphnia magna in 24-h exposures...
- Combustion of chlorinated VOC on nanostructured chromia aerogel as catalyst and catalyst support
Chemical Engineering Department, The Blechner Center for Industrial Catalysis and Process Development, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
Environ Sci Technol 39:6845-50. 2005
..5%Pt/Al2O3, respectively. The effects of Pt, Au, Mn, and Ce additives on the performance of CrOOH aerogel in combustion of chlorinated VOC were analyzed related to the materials structure...
- Catalytic destruction of 1,2-dichlorobenzene on V2O5-WO3/Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst
Technical University of Lodz, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Wolczanska 175, 90 924 Lodz, Poland
Chemosphere 67:S150-4. 2007
..Additionally, in this study the kinetics of 1,2-dichlorobenzene decomposition was determined, specifying the order of reaction and dependence of the decomposition rate constant on temperature, using a simple power-rate law model...
- Crystal structure of the F87W/Y96F/V247L mutant of cytochrome P-450cam with 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene bound and further protein engineering for the oxidation of pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene
Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of Biological Science and Technology and Ministry of Education Laboratory of Protein Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
J Biol Chem 277:37519-26. 2002
..0 min(-1). Both substrates are oxidized to pentachlorophenol, which is degraded by micro-organisms. In principle, the F87W/Y96F/L244A/V247L mutant could have applications in the bioremediation of polychlorinated benzenes...
- Structure relationship for catalytic dechlorination rate of dichlorobenzenes in water
Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People s Republic of China
Chemosphere 58:1497-502. 2005
..The presented data show the catalytic reduction using Pd/Fe as a catalyst is a fast and easy approach for the dechlorination of DCBs...
- Catalytic dechlorination of monochlorobenzene with a new type of nanoscale Ni(B)/Fe(B) bimetallic catalytic reductant
Institute of New Catalytic Materials Science, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China
Chemosphere 72:53-8. 2008
..The electroless plating method improve the efficiency of the Ni(2+) in the solution. Dechlorination takes place with the existence of nanoscale Ni(B)/Fe(B) bimetallic catalytic reductant via a pseudo-first-order reaction...
- The behavior of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols in wet scrubbing system of municipal solid waste incinerator
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshidahon machi, Sakyo ku, 606 8501 Kyoto, Japan
Chemosphere 53:153-61. 2003
..concentrations in scrubbing water and at the outlet gas of WS, PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs) and chlorophenols (CPs) concentrations in various media around WS were investigated at two MSWIs...
- Electrochemical reduction of organohalogen compound by noble metal sintered electrode
Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0006, Japan
Chemosphere 56:187-93. 2004
..A PdO sintered electrode had an especially high selectivity for meta-position (m-position) dechlorination. The results suggest that dechlorination is an electrocatalytic reduction in this cation supply system...
- Efficiency of 1,4-dichlorobenzene degradation in water under photolysis, photocatalysis on TiO2 and sonolysis
Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica and Center of Excellence CIMAINA, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Golgi 19, I 20133 Milano, Italy
J Hazard Mater 153:1136-41. 2008
..under sonophotocatalytic conditions. The efficiency of the employed advanced oxidation techniques in 1,4-DCB degradation is discussed also in relation to their energy consumption, which might be decisive for their practical application...
- Fe(III) homogeneous photocatalysis for the removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene in aqueous solution by means UV lamp and solar light
Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Facolta di Ingegneria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, P le V Tecchio, 80 80125 Napoli, Italy
Water Res 40:3785-92. 2006
..58-3.78 Lmol(-1)s(-1) and 0.69-0.78 Lmol(-1)s(-1) for the systems irradiated by UV lamp and sunlight, respectively...
- Catalytic reduction of chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds in contaminated water
Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China
J Hazard Mater 123:89-93. 2005
..The results show that no other intermediates were generated besides Cl-, benzene and chlorobenzene during dechlorination of o-dichlorobenzene...
- Adequate model complexity for scenario analysis of VOC stripping in a trickling filter
BIOMATH Department, University of Gent, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Water Sci Technol 43:29-38. 2001
..However, immediately after an air flow rate change, quite high flux and concentration peaks of VOCs can be expected. These phenomena are of major importance for the design of an off-gas treatment facility...
- Advanced oxidation degradation of dichlorobenzene in water by the UV/H2O2 process
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, PR China
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 40:751-65. 2005
..According to this, the pathway and mechanism of UV/H2O2 photocatalytic degradation of O-DCB were deduced and led...
- Conditioning-annealing studies of natural organic matter solids linking irreversible sorption to irreversible structural expansion
Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Program, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
Environ Sci Technol 40:170-8. 2006
..The results provide compelling evidence for the glassy, nonequilibrium nature of natural organic matter solids and for irreversible structural expansion as a cause of irreversible sorption...
- Effects of competitor and natural organic matter characteristics on the equilibrium sorption of 1,2-dichlorobenzene in soil and shale
Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry Graduate Group and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Environ Sci Technol 38:5863-70. 2004
..All of the chlorobenzenes were more effective competitors than phenanthrene...
- Mineralization of desorption-resistant 1,4-dichlorobenzene in wetland soils
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
Environ Toxicol Chem 22:2312-22. 2003
- A thermodynamically based method to quantify true sorption hysteresis
Department of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Program, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8286, USA
J Environ Qual 34:1063-72. 2005
..The TII allows quantification of hysteresis as a function of sorbate-sorbent combination, concentration, time, and other variables...
- [Sorption and desorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) by different type of coal]
Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China
Huan Jing Ke Xue 25:145-9. 2004
..The observed sorptive differences among the three coals are explained viathe structural and chemical heterogeneity of kerogen...
- Sorption and cosorption of organic contaminant on surfactant-modified soils
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, People's Republic of China
Chemosphere 43:1095-102. 2001
..The results suggest that HDTMA-modified soil is a highly effective sorbent for chlorobenzene and multiple organic compounds did not impede the uptake of chlorobenzene...
- Mechanistic analysis on the influence of humidity on photocatalytic decomposition of gas-phase chlorobenzene
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ont, Canada N2L 3G1
Chemosphere 68:546-53. 2007
..The multiple-layered film of water retards/prevents CB from reaching the reactive TiO(2) surface or contacting radical species in the boundary layer...
- Complete removal of chlorinated aromatic compounds from oils by channel-type gamma-cyclodextrin assembly
Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Anal Chem 80:317-20. 2008
- Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic
P F Hoekstra
Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G2W1
Environ Pollut 122:423-33. 2003
..compounds (Sigma CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (Sigma HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) > or = chlorobenzenes (Sigma ClBz) > DDT-related isomers (Sigma DDT)...
- Levels of metals, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs in soils of a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area: temporal trend
Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Rovira i Virgili University, San Lorenzo 21, 43201 Reus, Spain
Chemosphere 66:267-76. 2007
- Elucidating the routes of exposure for organic chemicals in the earthworm, Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta)
Department of Theoretical Biology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, NL 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Environ Sci Technol 37:3399-404. 2003
..The rate constant across the skin decreases with K(ow) but was generally higher than data derived from water-only exposure. The relationship with hydrophobicity was less clear for the rate constant across the gut wall...
- Dynamic root uptake model for neutral lipophilic organics
Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby
Environ Toxicol Chem 21:203-6. 2002
..approach was tested against experimental uptake data of benzo[a]pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes from soil into carrots. Measured concentrations in carrot peels were up to 100 times higher than in the core...
- Chlorobenzenes, chlorinated pesticides, coplanar chlorobiphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in Greenland biota
Department of Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde, Denmark
Sci Total Environ 331:157-75. 2004
This paper summarises the levels and composition of chlorobenzenes, chlorinated pesticides, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the chlorinated compounds octachlorostyrene (OCS), hexachlorocyclobutadiene (HCBD) and pentachloro-..
- Bioaccumulation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in seals, fishes and invertebrates from the White Sea, Russia
National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6
Sci Total Environ 306:111-31. 2003
..DDT)- and chlordane (CHL) related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) isomers and chlorobenzenes (CBz) were determined in blubber of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded ..
- Seasonal and temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus), 1990-2001
Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Sci Total Environ 331:107-24. 2004
..organochlorine (OC) contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)) were determined in adipose tissue of 92 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled between 1999 and 2001 in ..
- Organochlorines and trace elements in upland game birds harvested in Canada
Birgit M Braune
National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3
Sci Total Environ 363:60-9. 2006
..Breast muscle was analysed for organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane-related compounds, DDT metabolites, mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs) and trace ..
- Organochlorines and mercury in waterfowl harvested in Canada
Birgit M Braune
National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Environ Monit Assess 114:331-59. 2006
Samples of breast muscle from 32 species of waterfowl collected from 123 sites across Canada were analyzed for chlorobenzenes (CBz), chlordane-related compounds (CHL), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), DDT, mirex, dieldrin, PCBs and mercury...
- Formation of chlorinated and brominated dioxins and other organohalogen compounds at the pilot incineration plant VERONA
Oko Institut e V, Elisabethenstr 55 57, D 64283 Darmstadt, Germany
Chemosphere 54:49-59. 2004
..Furthermore, it became apparent that the congeners of the chlorophenols and of the chlorobenzenes, measured in various incineration stages, do not correlate closely with the dioxin concentrations after the ..
- Development of pressurized subcritical water extraction combined with stir bar sorptive extraction for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes in soils
Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Germany
J Chromatogr A 1124:82-90. 2006
..aldehyde, endosulfan and ensodulfan sulphate) and DDX compounds (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT) as well as chlorobenzenes in soils has been developed...
- Temporal and spatial trends of persistent organochlorines in Greenland walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus)
D C Muir
Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington ON, Canada
Sci Total Environ 245:73-86. 2000
..organochlorines [PCBs, DDT and chlordane related compounds, dieldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), chlorobenzenes] were determined in blubber of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in 1978 and 1988 from the ..
- Human exposure to contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet
Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Sci Total Environ 331:189-206. 2004
..polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and toxaphene in the major species and tissues consumed by Greenlanders...
- Contaminant residues in seabird eggs from the Canadian Arctic. Part I. Temporal trends 1975-1998
B M Braune
Canadian Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Research Centre, 100 Gamelin Boulevard, Hull, Quebec, Canada K1A 0H3
Environ Pollut 114:39-54. 2001
..Concentrations of sigma PCB, sigma DDT and total chlorobenzenes decreased over time for all three species and there was a shift in the PCB congener pattern as the ..
- Contaminant residue levels in arctic wolves (Canis lupus) from the Yukon Territory, Canada
Gamberg Consulting, Whitehorse, Canada
Sci Total Environ 243:329-38. 1999
..While most organochlorines were not present at detectable levels in wolf liver, some chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and sigma PCB were present at low levels...
- Spatial trends and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in marine zooplankton from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic
Paul F Hoekstra
Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Environ Toxicol Chem 21:575-83. 2002
..gt; sigma hexachlorcyclohexane (HCH) > sigma DDT > sigma chlordane-related compounds (CHLOR) > sigma chlorobenzenes (ClBz). The dominant analyte was alpha-HCH in all water and zooplankton samples...
- Influences of chlorine content on emission of HCl and organic compounds in waste incineration using fluidized beds
M Y Wey
Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC
Waste Manag 28:406-15. 2008
..The concentrations of chlorophenols (CPs)/chlorobenzenes (CBs) increased with chlorine contents. No LTL existed for HCl regardless of whether CaO was added...
- Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends
B M Braune
National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Carleton University Raven Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3
Sci Total Environ 351:4-56. 2005
..b>Chlorobenzenes and endosulfan were among the few OCs to show increases during this period while summation operatorHCH ..
- Part-per-trillion determination of chlorobenzenes in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined gas chromatography-electron capture detection
Reyhaneh Rahnama Kozani
School of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Talanta 72:387-93. 2007
..DLLME) combined gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD), for the determination of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in water samples, has been described...
- Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 reductively dechlorinates diverse chlorinated aromatic pollutants
Donna E Fennell
Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
Environ Sci Technol 38:2075-81. 2004
..1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl, 1,2,3,4-tetrachloronaphthalene, various chlorobenzenes, or a mixture of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol to determine the dehalogenation ability. D...
- Compound-class specific estimation of solid organic compound vapour pressure and aqueous solubility from simple molecular structure descriptors and the temperature of melting
Paul C M Van Noort
Deltares, P O Box 85467, 3508 AL Utrecht, The Netherlands
Chemosphere 77:838-41. 2009
..2 log units. For PAHs, chlorobenzenes, and PCBs used in the present study, aqueous solubility estimated from the regression equations taking the ..
- Body burdens and tissue concentrations of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) vary during seasonal fasts
S C Polischu
Office of the Vice President Research, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
Environ Pollut 118:29-39. 2002
..Adipose tissue, plasma, and milk samples were analysed for sum of chlorobenzenes (sigma-ClBzs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigma-HCHs), chlordanes (sigma-CHLORs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ..
- Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from Barrow, Alaska
P F Hoekstra
Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, ON, Canada
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42:497-507. 2002
..isomers (SigmaHCHs; 203 ng/g) >or= chlordanes and related isomers (SigmaCHLOR; 183 ng/g) > chlorobenzenes (SigmaCIBz; 106 ng/g). In liver, SigmaHCH (9...
- Spatial differences in persistent organochlorine pollutant concentrations between the Bering and Chukchi Seas (1993)
W M Strachan
Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ont
Mar Pollut Bull 43:132-42. 2001
..These samples were analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides, 11 chlorobenzenes and 113 PCB congeners...
- Development of a high-throughput method for the determination of organochlorinated compounds, nitromusks and pyrethroid insecticides in indoor dust
Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis de Alimentarios, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain
J Chromatogr A 1174:112-24. 2007
..b>Chlorobenzenes are a family of compounds used as intermediates in the production of a wide range of household consumer ..
- Concentrations of selected organochlorines and chlorobenzenes in the serum of former Love Canal residents, Niagara Falls, New York
Christine L Kielb
New York State Department of Health CEH, 547 River Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA
Environ Res 110:220-5. 2010
..This study measured concentrations of selected organochlorines and chlorinated benzenes in archived serum samples collected from former Love Canal residents...
- Halogenated methyl-phenyl ethers (anisoles) in the environment: determination of vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, Henry's law constants, and gas/water- (Kgw), n-octanol/water- (Kow) and gas/n-octanol (Kgo) partition coefficients
Fresenius J Anal Chem 371:598-606. 2001
..a non-polar phase and by RP-HPLC (Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography) on a C18 phase with chlorobenzenes as reference standards...
- Historical contamination of Yukon Lake sediments by PCBs and organochlorine pesticides: influence of local sources and watershed characteristics
D F Rawn
Environment Canada, Commercial Chemicals Evaluation Branch, Hull, Quebec
Sci Total Environ 280:17-37. 2001
..Levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigmaHCH), chlordane-related compounds (sigmaCHL), and chlorobenzenes (sigmaCBz) were in the low ng g(-1) (dw) range in all lake sediments, similar to concentrations previously ..
- Dissolved PCBs, PAHs, and HCB in pore waters and overlying waters of contaminated harbor sediments
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P O Box 59, 1790 AB Texel, The Netherlands
Environ Sci Technol 37:4213-20. 2003
..Sediment-water partition coefficients for PAHs were higher than for PCBs and chlorobenzenes by approximately 1 order of magnitude...
- Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China
Ce Hui Mo
Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
J Hazard Mater 152:1208-13. 2008
..w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons (<900 microg kg(-1) d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations...
- Is chemical contamination responsible for the decline of the copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi), an endangered fish species, in Canada?
Yves de Lafontaine
St Lawrence Centre, Environment Canada, Montreal, Quebec
Sci Total Environ 298:25-44. 2002
..specimens from the Richelieu River were analyzed for trace metals, organochlorine pesticides, chlorobenzenes, PAHs, PCBs, dioxins and furans...
- Modeling the formation of PCDD/F in solid waste incinerators
B R Stanmore
Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés des Solides Divisés, UMR 2392 CNRS, Ecole des Mines d Albi Carmaux, France
Chemosphere 47:565-73. 2002
..PCDD formation is governed by the concentration of chlorophenols and PCDF by that of chlorophenols and chlorobenzenes. The result is more complete system which distinguishes between the gas and solid phase contributions to the I-..