tetraethylammonium

Summary

Summary: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity
    D A Doyle
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 280:69-77. 1998
  2. ncbi PIP(2) activates KCNQ channels, and its hydrolysis underlies receptor-mediated inhibition of M currents
    Hailin Zhang
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Neuron 37:963-75. 2003
  3. pmc BK potassium channels facilitate high-frequency firing and cause early spike frequency adaptation in rat CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells
    Ning Gu
    Institute of Basal Medicine, Department of Physiology and Centre of Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, University of Oslo, PB 1103 Blindern, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    J Physiol 580:859-82. 2007
  4. ncbi Fictive locomotor patterns generated by tetraethylammonium application to the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro
    G Taccola
    Neurobiology, CNR INFM Unit and SPINAL Program, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste, Italy
    Neuroscience 137:659-70. 2006
  5. ncbi Vasorelaxant effect of taurine is diminished by tetraethylammonium in rat isolated arteries
    Long Gang Niu
    Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Xinjiannanlu 56, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi Province, PR China
    Eur J Pharmacol 580:169-74. 2008
  6. ncbi Insulin increases the density of potassium channels in white adipocytes: possible role in adipogenesis
    M P Ramirez-Ponce
    Departamento de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Avenida Sanchez Pizjuan 4, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
    J Endocrinol 174:299-307. 2002
  7. pmc Contribution of the Kv3.1 potassium channel to high-frequency firing in mouse auditory neurones
    L Y Wang
    Departments of Pharmacology, Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Physiol 509:183-94. 1998
  8. ncbi Stoichiometry of expressed KCNQ2/KCNQ3 potassium channels and subunit composition of native ganglionic M channels deduced from block by tetraethylammonium
    Jennifer K Hadley
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:5012-9. 2003
  9. pmc Kv2 subunits underlie slowly inactivating potassium current in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons
    D Guan
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, 855 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    J Physiol 581:941-60. 2007
  10. pmc Differential tetraethylammonium sensitivity of KCNQ1-4 potassium channels
    J K Hadley
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London
    Br J Pharmacol 129:413-5. 2000

Detail Information

Publications211 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity
    D A Doyle
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 280:69-77. 1998
    ..The architecture of the pore establishes the physical principles underlying selective K+ conduction...
  2. ncbi PIP(2) activates KCNQ channels, and its hydrolysis underlies receptor-mediated inhibition of M currents
    Hailin Zhang
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Neuron 37:963-75. 2003
    ..Finally, native or recombinant channels inhibited by muscarinic agonists can be activated by PIP(2). Our data strongly suggest that PIP(2) acts as a membrane-diffusible second messenger to regulate directly the activity of KCNQ currents...
  3. pmc BK potassium channels facilitate high-frequency firing and cause early spike frequency adaptation in rat CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells
    Ning Gu
    Institute of Basal Medicine, Department of Physiology and Centre of Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, University of Oslo, PB 1103 Blindern, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    J Physiol 580:859-82. 2007
    ....
  4. ncbi Fictive locomotor patterns generated by tetraethylammonium application to the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro
    G Taccola
    Neurobiology, CNR INFM Unit and SPINAL Program, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste, Italy
    Neuroscience 137:659-70. 2006
    ..The present electrophysiological investigation examined whether the broad spectrum potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium could generate locomotor-like patterns...
  5. ncbi Vasorelaxant effect of taurine is diminished by tetraethylammonium in rat isolated arteries
    Long Gang Niu
    Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Xinjiannanlu 56, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi Province, PR China
    Eur J Pharmacol 580:169-74. 2008
    ..BaCl(2), a K(IR) blocker), and 100 nM iberiotoxin (a BK(Ca) blocker), but was nearly abolished by 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA, a non-selective potassium channel blocker)...
  6. ncbi Insulin increases the density of potassium channels in white adipocytes: possible role in adipogenesis
    M P Ramirez-Ponce
    Departamento de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Avenida Sanchez Pizjuan 4, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
    J Endocrinol 174:299-307. 2002
    ..These results suggest that insulin increases the density of K(v) and that these channels may be necessary for the normal growth of white adipocytes in culture...
  7. pmc Contribution of the Kv3.1 potassium channel to high-frequency firing in mouse auditory neurones
    L Y Wang
    Departments of Pharmacology, Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Physiol 509:183-94. 1998
    ..displayed rapid activation and deactivation kinetics, and was selectively blocked by a low concentration of tetraethylammonium (TEA; 1 mM). 4...
  8. ncbi Stoichiometry of expressed KCNQ2/KCNQ3 potassium channels and subunit composition of native ganglionic M channels deduced from block by tetraethylammonium
    Jennifer K Hadley
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:5012-9. 2003
    ..rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons, by comparing the block of these currents produced by tetraethylammonium (TEA) with the block of currents generated by a tandem KCNQ3/2 construct...
  9. pmc Kv2 subunits underlie slowly inactivating potassium current in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons
    D Guan
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, 855 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    J Physiol 581:941-60. 2007
    ..1 subunits. Compared with Kv2.1 currents in expression systems, the Kv2.1 current in neocortical pyramidal cells activated and inactivated at relatively negative potentials and was very sensitive to holding potential...
  10. pmc Differential tetraethylammonium sensitivity of KCNQ1-4 potassium channels
    J K Hadley
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London
    Br J Pharmacol 129:413-5. 2000
    ..of a tyrosine residue, just downstream of the pore signature sequence GYG, determines sensitivity to tetraethylammonium (TEA). The KCNQ family of channels has a variety of amino acid residues in the equivalent position...
  11. ncbi Differential expression of intrinsic membrane currents in defined cell types of the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
    Sayamwong E Hammack
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:638-56. 2007
    ..The functional relevance of each cell type is discussed in relation to prior anatomical studies, as well as how these currents may interact to modulate neuronal activity within the BNST(ALG)...
  12. ncbi Gating currents from a nonconducting mutant reveal open-closed conformations in Shaker K+ channels
    E Perozo
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California 90024
    Neuron 11:353-8. 1993
    ..Application of internal tetraethylammonium (an open channel blocker) induced Off charge immobilization for large depolarizations, suggesting that the ..
  13. ncbi Nitric oxide induces apoptosis by activating K+ channels in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells
    Stefanie Krick
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, 200 W Arbor Dr, San Diego, CA 92103 8382, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 282:H184-93. 2002
    ..The resulting increase in K+ efflux leads to cytosolic K+ loss and eventual apoptosis volume decrease and apoptosis. NO-induced apoptosis may also be related to mitochondrial membrane depolarization in PASMC...
  14. ncbi Functional influence of N-glycosylation in OCT2-mediated tetraethylammonium transport
    Ryan M Pelis
    Dept of Physiology, College of Medicine, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F1118-26. 2006
    ..The N71Q, N96Q, and N112Q mutants had a higher affinity ( approximately 2-fold) for tetraethylammonium (TEA)...
  15. ncbi Multi-state, 4-aminopyridine-sensitive ion channels in human spermatozoa
    Y Gu
    MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Division of Medicine, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College School of Medicine, W12 0NN, London, UK
    Dev Biol 274:308-17. 2004
    ..Combined application of patch clamp and pharmacological investigation of mature sperm cells and will permit rapid advances in our understanding the role of ion channels in sperm function...
  16. pmc Arrangement of Kv1 alpha subunits dictates sensitivity to tetraethylammonium
    Ahmed Al-Sabi
    International Centre for Neurotherapeutics, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
    J Gen Physiol 136:273-82. 2010
    ..Unprecedentedly, external application of the pore-blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) differentially inhibited the adjacent versus diagonal subunit arrangements, with diagonal constructs ..
  17. ncbi Mutations stabilizing an open conformation within the external region of the permeation pathway of the potassium channel KcsA
    D Meuser
    Angewandte Genetik der Mikroorganismen, FB Biologie/Chemie, , Germany
    Eur Biophys J 30:385-91. 2001
    ..Based on the relative positions of the blocker tetraethylammonium within the electric field, the external entryways of the channels are concluded to have similar dimensions...
  18. ncbi Salvianolic acid B, an aqueous component of danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), relaxes rat coronary artery by inhibition of calcium channels
    Francis F Y Lam
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
    Eur J Pharmacol 553:240-5. 2006
    ..1+/-123.8 mictog/ml and 160.3+/-25.9 microg/ml. On the other hand, a potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10 mM) shifted their concentration-response curves by 1.7 and 2.9 folds...
  19. ncbi The internal quaternary ammonium receptor site of Shaker potassium channels
    K L Choi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    Neuron 10:533-41. 1993
    ..Several mutations in the P region affect tetraethylammonium binding but have minimal effects on longer blockers, suggesting that the hydrophobic tail contributes to ..
  20. pmc Tetraethylammonium block of water flux in Aquaporin-1 channels expressed in kidney thin limbs of Henle's loop and a kidney-derived cell line
    Andrea J Yool
    Dept of Physiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA
    BMC Physiol 2:4. 2002
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 0...
  21. pmc U-type inactivation of Kv3.1 and Shaker potassium channels
    K G Klemic
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Biophys J 81:814-26. 2001
    ..We introduce the term U-type inactivation for the mechanism that is dominant in Kv2.1 and Kv3.1. U-type inactivation also makes a major but previously unrecognized contribution to slow inactivation of Shaker...
  22. ncbi Mechanisms of tetraethylammonium ion block in the KcsA potassium channel
    V B Luzhkov
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 596, S-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden
    FEBS Lett 495:191-6. 2001
    We report results from automated docking and microscopic molecular dynamics simulations of the tetraethylammonium (TEA) complexes with KcsA...
  23. ncbi Melatonin inhibits tetraethylammonium-sensitive potassium channels of rod ON type bipolar cells via MT2 receptors in rat retina
    X F Yang
    Institutes of Brain Science, Institute of Neurobiology and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China
    Neuroscience 173:19-29. 2011
    ..Electrophysiologically, application of melatonin selectively inhibited the tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ current component, but did not show any effect on the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive ..
  24. pmc A cation-pi interaction between extracellular TEA and an aromatic residue in potassium channels
    Christopher A Ahern
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Gen Physiol 128:649-57. 2006
    Open-channel blockers such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) have a long history as probes of the permeation pathway of ion channels...
  25. ncbi Blocker protection in the pore of a voltage-gated K+ channel and its structural implications
    D del Camino
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 403:321-5. 2000
    ..This bend would occur at a Pro-X-Pro sequence that is highly conserved in Kv channels, near the site of activation gating...
  26. ncbi Molecular basis of gating charge immobilization in Shaker potassium channels
    F Bezanilla
    Department of Physiology, UCLA School of Medicine 90024
    Science 254:679-83. 1991
    ..The gating transitions between closed states of the channel appear not to be independent, suggesting that the channel subunits interact during activation...
  27. ncbi Mutations affecting internal TEA blockade identify the probable pore-forming region of a K+ channel
    G Yellen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Science 251:939-42. 1991
    ..A useful probe for the pore of potassium-selective channels is the organic ion tetraethylammonium (TEA), which binds with millimolar affinity to the intracellular opening of the pore and blocks potassium ..
  28. pmc An electrostatic interaction between TEA and an introduced pore aromatic drives spring-in-the-door inactivation in Shaker potassium channels
    Christopher A Ahern
    Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
    J Gen Physiol 134:461-9. 2009
    ..with the native V438 inactivate very slowly, and the canonical foot-in-the-door effect of extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) is not only absent, but the time course of slow inactivation is accelerated by TEA...
  29. ncbi Test of blockers of AQP1 water permeability by a high-resolution method: no effects of tetraethylammonium ions or acetazolamide
    Rikke Søgaard
    Nordic Centre for Water Imbalance Related Disorders, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Blegdamsvej 3C, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark
    Pflugers Arch 456:285-92. 2008
    ..In contrast to previous reports based on slower and less sensitive assays, we found no effects of tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) and acetazolamide on Lp...
  30. ncbi Transcellular transport of creatinine in renal tubular epithelial cell line LLC-PK1
    Yumiko Urakami
    Department of Pharmacy, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 20:200-5. 2005
    ..Creatinine is excreted into urine via tubular secretion in addition to glomerular filtration. In the present study, characteristics of the creatinine transport in renal epithelial cells were investigated...
  31. ncbi Tetraethylammonium binding to the outer mouth of the KcsA potassium channel: implications for ion permeation
    Leonardo Guidoni
    INFM Democritos Center for Molecular Simulations and International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Via Beirut 4, 1 34014 Trieste, Italy
    J Recept Signal Transduct Res 22:315-31. 2002
    Extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA+) inhibits the current carried out by K+ ions in potassium channels...
  32. pmc Affinity and location of an internal K+ ion binding site in shaker K channels
    J Thompson
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Gen Physiol 117:373-84. 2001
    ..These results lead to a refined picture of the number and location of ion binding sites at the inner end of the pore in Shaker K channels...
  33. pmc Kinetics of inward-rectifier K+ channel block by quaternary alkylammonium ions. dimension and properties of the inner pore
    D Guo
    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Gen Physiol 117:395-406. 2001
    ..These observations argue that between the intracellular solution and the QA-binding locus, there exists a constricted pathway, whose dimension ( approximately 9 A) is comparable to that of a K+ ion with a single H2O shell...
  34. pmc Slow gating charge immobilization in the human potassium channel Kv1.5 and its prevention by 4-aminopyridine
    D Fedida
    Department of Physiology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    J Physiol 494:377-87. 1996
    ..5 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was studied using 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA-Cl). 2...
  35. pmc Functional identification of ion binding sites at the internal end of the pore in Shaker K+ channels
    Jill Thompson
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA
    J Physiol 549:107-20. 2003
    ..These results provide information on the fine-structure of ion interactions with the inner end of the pore in K+ channels...
  36. pmc Evidence for sequential ion-binding loci along the inner pore of the IRK1 inward-rectifier K+ channel
    Hyeon Gyu Shin
    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvasnia, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Gen Physiol 126:123-35. 2005
    ..For technical simplicity, we used tetraethylammonium (TEA) as an initial probe to test whether the corresponding residue in IRK1, F254, forms the shallower site...
  37. pmc Pharmacological evidence for the activation of potassium channels as the mechanism involved in the hypotensive and vasorelaxant effect of dioclein in rat small resistance arteries
    S F Cortes
    Laboratório de Farmacologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Farmacologia ICB Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais 31270 901, Belo Horizonte Brazil
    Br J Pharmacol 133:849-58. 2001
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium (10 mM) and BaCl(2) (1 mM) increased the IC(50) for dioclein-induced vasorelaxation without affecting the ..
  38. ncbi Role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the fate determination of embryonic stem cells
    Sze Ying Ng
    Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    J Cell Physiol 224:165-77. 2010
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), a K(v) blocker, attenuated cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner...
  39. pmc Stepwise contribution of each subunit to the cooperative activation of BK channels by Ca2+
    Xiaowei Niu
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101 6430, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11441-6. 2002
    ..Although this model described well the major features of the experimental data, some differences between the observed and predicted results indicated that additional factors not included in the model also contribute to the cooperativity...
  40. pmc Tail end of the s6 segment: role in permeation in shaker potassium channels
    Shinghua Ding
    Department of Physiology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Gen Physiol 120:87-97. 2002
    ..These results indicate that S6(T) residues have an influence on the conformation of the open activation gate, reflected in both the stability of the open state and the energy barriers it presents to ions...
  41. ncbi ERG K+ currents regulate pacemaker activity in ICC
    Yaohui Zhu
    Intestinal Disease Research Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 285:G1249-58. 2003
    ..E-4031 also inhibited tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive outward current indicating that the ERG K+ current is operating at depolarizing potentials...
  42. ncbi Evidence for the mechanisms underlying the effects of pimaradienoic acid isolated from the roots of Viguiera arenaria on rat aorta
    Carlos R Tirapelli
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Pharmacology 70:31-8. 2004
    ..However, the relaxant responses induced by PA on Phe-pre-contracted rings were unaffected by tetraethylammonium (1 and 5 mmol/l). PA also relaxed KCl-pre-contracted rings with intact (97.44 +/- 3...
  43. pmc Rapid intracellular TEA block of the KcsA potassium channel
    Esin Kutluay
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Biophys J 88:1018-29. 2005
    Intracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) inhibition was studied at the single-channel level in the KcsA potassium channel reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers...
  44. ncbi Quantitative analysis of voltage-gated potassium currents from primary equine (Equus caballus) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) articular chondrocytes
    A Mobasheri
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZJ, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289:R172-80. 2005
    ..of equine chondrocyte Kv currents showed them to be powerfully inhibited by the potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine but not by dendrotoxin-I. Immunohistochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies to Kv1...
  45. pmc Characterization of the Kv channels of mouse carotid body chemoreceptor cells and their role in oxygen sensing
    M Teresa Pérez-García
    Universidad de Valladolid y Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Valladolid, Spain
    J Physiol 557:457-71. 2004
    ..This report represents the first functional and molecular characterization of Kv channels in mouse CB chemoreceptor cells, and strongly suggests that O(2)-sensitive Kv channels in this preparation belong to the Kv3 subfamily...
  46. ncbi Structural determinants of the regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 by the modulatory α-subunit Kv9.3
    Daniel Kerschensteiner
    Max Planck Institut fur experimentelle Medizin, Molekulare Biologie Neuronaler Signale, Hermann Rein Strasse 3, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:18154-61. 2003
    ..1 can be distinguished by the sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium and extracellular potassium and lead to the same inactivated conformation. The functional properties of Kv2...
  47. ncbi Tethered blockers as molecular 'tape measures' for a voltage-gated K+ channel
    R O Blaustein
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 7:309-11. 2000
    ..We show that in a Shaker K+ channel, the extracellular ends of S1 and S3 are approximately 30 ¿ from the tetraethylammonium (TEA) blocking site at the external opening of the pore...
  48. ncbi Altered excitability of intestinal neurons in primary culture caused by acute oxidative stress
    Fivos Vogalis
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    J Neurophysiol 89:3039-50. 2003
    ..Our results indicate that acute oxidative stress has neuron- and conductance-specific actions in intestinal neurons that may underlie pathophysiological conditions...
  49. pmc Activation and block of mouse muscle-type nicotinic receptors by tetraethylammonium
    Gustav Akk
    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University St Louis, Campus Box 8054, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Physiol 551:155-68. 2003
    ..studied the activation and inhibition of the mouse muscle adult-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and related quaternary ammonium derivatives...
  50. ncbi Structural basis of TEA blockade in a model potassium channel
    Michael J Lenaeus
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 12:454-9. 2005
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) blocks ion conduction through potassium channels in a voltage-dependent manner from both sides of the ..
  51. pmc Binding of a gating modifier toxin induces intersubunit cooperativity early in the Shaker K channel's activation pathway
    Jon T Sack
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    J Gen Physiol 128:119-32. 2006
    ..A lack of competition with either agitoxin or tetraethylammonium indicates that BrMT binds channel subunits outside of the external pore region in an allosterically ..
  52. ncbi Quaternary ammonium compounds as water channel blockers. Specificity, potency, and site of action
    Frank J M Detmers
    Department of Physiology, Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 281:14207-14. 2006
    ..Here, we determined the specificity, potency, and binding site of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block Aquaporin water permeability...
  53. ncbi Primary structure and functional expression of the apical organic cation transporter from kidney epithelial LLC-PK1 cells
    D Gründemann
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 366, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 272:10408-13. 1997
    ..OCT2p-mediated uptake of the prototypical organic cation [14C]tetraethylammonium ([14C]TEA) into 293 cells was saturable...
  54. ncbi Effects of tetraethylammonium on Kx channels and simulated light response in rod photoreceptors
    Xiao Dong Liu
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Ann Biomed Eng 32:1428-42. 2004
    ..For example, the effects of a conventional blocker of potassium channels, tetraethylammonium (TEA), on Kx channels have not been extensively studied...
  55. pmc Mechanism underlying slow kinetics of the OFF gating current in Shaker potassium channel
    A Melishchuk
    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Biophys J 80:2167-75. 2001
    ..the side chain at position 470 makes it possible for the mutant channel, unlike native Shaker, to close with tetraethylammonium (TEA+) or the long-chain TEA-derivative C10+ trapped inside the channel...
  56. pmc External TEA block of shaker K+ channels is coupled to the movement of K+ ions within the selectivity filter
    Jill Thompson
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Gen Physiol 122:239-46. 2003
    ....
  57. pmc Extracellular blockade of K(+) channels by TEA: results from molecular dynamics simulations of the KcsA channel
    S Crouzy
    , 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9, France
    J Gen Physiol 118:207-18. 2001
    ....
  58. pmc Inactivation and pharmacological properties of sqKv1A homotetramers in Xenopus oocytes cannot account for behavior of the squid "delayed rectifier" K(+) conductance
    Henry H Jerng
    Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California 93950, USA
    Biophys J 82:3022-36. 2002
    ..These results suggest that important structural differences between sqKv1A homotetramers and native squid channels are likely to exist around the external and internal mouths of the pore...
  59. pmc Control of outer vestibule dynamics and current magnitude in the Kv2.1 potassium channel
    Payam Andalib
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
    J Gen Physiol 120:739-55. 2002
    ..Moreover, the insensitivity of Kv2.1 current magnitude to changes in K+ driving force promotes a more uniform modulation of current over a wide range of membrane potentials by the K+-dependent regulation of outer vestibule conformation...
  60. ncbi Effects of tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine on the plateau potential of circular myometrium from the pregnant rat
    D W Wilde
    Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
    Biol Reprod 38:836-45. 1988
    ..To examine mechanisms underlying the plateau, we studied the effects of potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on membrane potentials in CM from rats on gestation Days 14, 15, 16, 21 (..
  61. ncbi Ecstasy and methamphetamine elicit action potential bursts via different mechanisms in a central snail neuron
    Pei Lin Lin
    Department of Anesthesiology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Neurotoxicology 31:26-41. 2010
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the delayed rectifying K(+) current (I(KD)), did not elicit bursts at a ..
  62. ncbi Activation of pre- and postsynaptic protein kinase C during tetraethylammonium-induced long-term potentiation in the CA1 field of the hippocampus
    G M Ramakers
    Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Lett 286:53-6. 2000
    b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) induces a form of long-term potentiation (LTP) that is independent on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation (LTP(K)). LTP(K) may be a suitable chemical model to study molecular mechanisms underlying LTP...
  63. pmc Status of the intracellular gate in the activated-not-open state of shaker K+ channels
    Donato Del Camino
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Gen Physiol 126:419-28. 2005
    ..only after opening, remaining trapped in closed channels, and that in the open state it competes with tetraethylammonium for binding...
  64. pmc The external TEA binding site and C-type inactivation in voltage-gated potassium channels
    Payam Andalib
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
    Biophys J 87:3148-61. 2004
    The location of the tetraethylammonium (TEA) binding site in the outer vestibule of K+ channels, and the mechanism by which external TEA slows C-type inactivation, have been considered well-understood...
  65. pmc Separation of P/C- and U-type inactivation pathways in Kv1.5 potassium channels
    Harley T Kurata
    Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver B C V6T 1Z3, Canada
    J Physiol 568:31-46. 2005
    ..Collectively, these data distinguish between open-state and closed-state inactivation, and suggest the presence of multiple possible mechanisms of inactivation coexisting in Kv1 channels...
  66. ncbi Number of K(Ca) channels underlying spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) in mudpuppy cardiac neurons
    F S Scornik
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    J Neurophysiol 85:54-60. 2001
    ....
  67. ncbi The influence of surface charges on quaternary ammonium block of shaker K+ channels
    C C Quinn
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Membr Biol 182:233-43. 2001
    ..We examined the ionic strength dependence of extracellular block of Shaker K+ channels by tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) and by a trivalent quaternary ammonium ion, gallamine3+...
  68. ncbi Structure-activity relationship for extracellular block of K+ channels by tetraalkylammonium ions
    Victor B Luzhkov
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 596, SE 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
    FEBS Lett 554:159-64. 2003
    ..In agreement with experiment the Et4N+ blocker shows several kcal/mol better binding than the other tetraalkylammonium ions...
  69. pmc Two stable, conducting conformations of the selectivity filter in Shaker K+ channels
    Jill Thompson
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA
    J Gen Physiol 125:619-29. 2005
    ..Our analysis further suggests that the four K(+) sites in the selectivity filter are spaced between 20 and 25% of the membrane electric field...
  70. pmc Ryanoid modification of the cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor channel results in relocation of the tetraethylammonium binding site
    B Tanna
    Department of Cardiac Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom
    J Gen Physiol 117:385-94. 2001
    ....
  71. ncbi Interaction between tetraethylammonium and permeant cations at the inactivation gate of the HERG potassium channel
    Hirofumi Shimizu
    Department of Physiology, Fukui Medical University, Fukui, 910 1193 Japan
    Jpn J Physiol 53:25-34. 2003
    ..related gene product (HERG) channel is a form of C-type inactivation and is decelerated by external tetraethylammonium (TEA) and potassium...
  72. ncbi Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates the oxygen sensing type I (glomus) cells of rat carotid bodies via reduction of a background TASK-like K+ current
    Fenglian Xu
    Department of Pharmacology and Center for Neurosciences, 9 70 Medical Science Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Neurochem 101:1284-93. 2007
    ..In the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), PACAP reduced a background K(+) current...
  73. ncbi [Changes of potassium channel activity of hindlimb arterial smooth muscle cells in tail-suspended rats]
    Zhao Jun Fu
    Space Med Med Eng (Beijing) 16:253-6. 2003
    ....
  74. ncbi Potassium channels in human umbilical artery cells
    Veronica Milesi
    Anatomía y Fisiología, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
    J Soc Gynecol Investig 10:339-46. 2003
    ..To identify K+ channels of smooth muscle of human umbilical artery using the patch-clamp technique and to study their effect on resting tone of umbilical artery rings...
  75. ncbi Maturation of spiking activity in trout retinal ganglion cells coincides with upregulation of Kv3.1- and BK-related potassium channels
    Jutta Henne
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Osnabruck, Osnabruck, Germany
    J Neurosci Res 75:44-54. 2004
    ..This was accompanied by the occurrence of a highly tetraethylammonium (TEA)- and quinine-sensitive delayed rectifier current, which gradually masked a rapidly inactivating A-type ..
  76. ncbi The functional difference between transient and sustained K+ currents on the action potentials in tetrodotoxin-resistant adult rat trigeminal ganglion neurons
    Shinki Yoshida
    Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Brain Res 1152:64-74. 2007
    ..05-50 mM), which inhibited the I(A) by 50%, was 0.7 mM. That for tetraethylammonium (TEA, 0.02-20 mM) to inhibit 50% of I(K) was 1.5 mM. In the current-clamp mode, we used 0...
  77. ncbi Amyloid beta-protein fragment 31-35 suppresses delayed rectifying potassium channels in membrane patches excised from hippocampal neurons in rats
    Jin Shun Qi
    Department of Neurobiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001, PR China
    Synapse 51:165-72. 2004
    ....
  78. ncbi Biophysical properties and metabolic regulation of a TASK-like potassium channel in rat carotid body type 1 cells
    Beatrice A Williams
    University Laboratory of Physiology, Parks Rd, Oxford 0X1 3PT, UK
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 286:L221-30. 2004
    ....
  79. ncbi Postdecentralization plasticity of voltage-gated K+ currents in glandular sympathetic neurons in rats
    Bartłomiej Szulczyk
    The Medical University of Warsaw, The Faculty of Medicine, Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26 28, Warsaw 00 927, Poland
    Eur J Neurosci 18:43-52. 2003
    ..3 pA/pF. We suggest that the upregulation of voltage-gated time-dependently-inactivated K(+) currents and their faster recovery from inactivation serve to restrain the activity of glandular sympathetic neurons after decentralization...
  80. ncbi Predominant expression of Kv1.3 voltage-gated K+ channel subunit in rat prostate cancer cell lines: electrophysiological, pharmacological and molecular characterisation
    S P Fraser
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Pflugers Arch 446:559-71. 2003
    ..Thus, the currents were blocked by 4-aminopyridine, tetraethylammonium, verapamil, margatoxin, and charybdotoxin, with highly similar IC(50)s for given blockers...
  81. ncbi State-dependent enhancement of subthreshold A-type potassium current by 4-aminopyridine in tuberomammillary nucleus neurons
    Alexander C Jackson
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 27:10785-96. 2007
    ..Ramp-evoked current at subthreshold voltages was unaffected by 10 mM tetraethylammonium and likely represents I(A), because its voltage dependence overlaps that of I(A) activation (midpoint near -..
  82. ncbi Effects of leucine-enkephalin on potassium currents in neurons in the rat respiratory center in vitro
    A N Inyushkin
    Samara State University, 1 Academician Pavlov Street, 443011 Samara, Russia
    Neurosci Behav Physiol 37:739-46. 2007
    ....
  83. ncbi Functional characterization of voltage-gated K+ channels in mouse pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells
    Eun A Ko
    Div of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Dept of Medicine, Univ of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, MC 0725, La Jolla, CA 92093 0725, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293:C928-37. 2007
    ..Whole cell I(K(V)) were very sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA), as 1 mM TEA decreased the current amplitude by 32% while it took 10 mM 4-AP to decrease I(K(V)) by a ..
  84. pmc Tetraethylammonium (TEA) increases the inactivation time constant of the transient K+ current in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons
    Ludovic Alvado
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
    Brain Res 1221:24-9. 2008
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is frequently used to inhibit delayed rectifier K(+) currents (I(DR)) during electrophysiological ..
  85. ncbi Reduction of voltage-operated potassium currents by levetiracetam: a novel antiepileptic mechanism of action?
    Michael Madeja
    Institute for Physiology, University Munster, Robert Koch Str 27a, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Neuropharmacology 45:661-71. 2003
    ..This suggests that a reduction of potassium currents may contribute to the antiepileptic effect(s) of levetiracetam...
  86. ncbi [Changes in potassium channel currents of prostate epithelial cell of old rats and significance thereof]
    Zhi Guo Tang
    Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 87:842-6. 2007
    ..To investigate the potassium channel currents and response thereof to the blocker of potassium channel in epithelium of prostate of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
  87. ncbi Effects of static magnetic fields on the voltage-gated potassium channel currents in trigeminal root ganglion neurons
    Jie Fei Shen
    Department of Prosthodontics, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No 14, Section 3, People s South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China
    Neurosci Lett 415:164-8. 2007
    ..The mechanism underlying the different effects of SMF on the I(K,A) and I(K,V) inactivation was also discussed...
  88. ncbi Potassium currents in primary cultured astrocytes from the rat corpus callosum
    Daniel Reyes-Haro
    Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, Mexico
    J Neurocytol 34:411-20. 2005
    ..the current had a transient component and a sustained component, which were blocked by 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, respectively; and both had a reversal potential of -66 mV, indicating that they were carried by K(+) ions...
  89. ncbi Serotonin depolarizes the membrane potential in rat mesenteric artery myocytes by decreasing voltage-gated K+ currents
    Young Min Bae
    Artificial Muscle Research Center, College of Medicine, Konkuk University 322 Danwol dong, Choongju 380 701, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 347:468-76. 2006
    ..In the presence of tetraethylammonium (1mM), 5-HT caused Em depolarization similar to the control condition...
  90. ncbi Complex expression and localization of inactivating Kv channels in cultured hippocampal astrocytes
    Lane K Bekar
    Department of Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, Rm B39 Health Sciences Bldg, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E5, Canada
    J Neurophysiol 93:1699-709. 2005
    ..However, this study suggests that they enable astrocytes to respond rapidly with membrane voltage oscillations to high-frequency incoming signals, possibly synchronizing astrocyte function to neuronal activity...
  91. pmc A-type potassium current in retinal arteriolar smooth muscle cells
    Mary K McGahon
    Centre of Vision Sciences, The Queen s University of Belfast, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Royal Victoria Hospital, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BA, Northern Ireland
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:3281-7. 2005
    ..The goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the A-type K(+) current in retinal microvascular smooth muscle (MVSM) and to examine its role in modulating membrane potential and cellular contractility...
  92. ncbi Ca2+-activated K+-current density is correlated with soma size in rat vestibular-afferent neurons in culture
    Agenor Limon
    Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla, Mexico
    J Neurophysiol 94:3751-61. 2005
    ....
  93. ncbi Potassium currents in isolated statocyst neurons and RPeD1 in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis
    Manabu Sakakibara
    Laboratory of Neurobiological Engineering, Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of High Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 94:3884-92. 2005
    ..I(A) in hair cells is also smaller in amplitude than in RPeD1 and is activated at more depolarized potentials. In like manner, I(KV) is smaller in hair cells and is activated at more depolarized potentials than in RPeD1...
  94. ncbi Orexins cause depolarization via nonselective cationic and K+ channels in isolated locus coeruleus neurons
    Yoshinaka Murai
    Department of Oral Functional Science Physiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 8586, Japan
    Neurosci Res 51:55-65. 2005
    ..These results suggest that ORX-A/B increase the firing frequency of LC neurons through the depolarization probably produced by both augmentation of the nonselective cationic conductance and inhibition of the sustained K+ conductance...
  95. ncbi Modulation of the voltage-dependent K+ current by intracellular Mg2+ in rat aortic smooth muscle cells
    Paolo Tammaro
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, U K
    Cardiovasc Res 65:387-96. 2005
    ..However, potential targets and mechanisms of action of Mg2+i in the cardiovascular system remain poorly understood. We therefore investigated the effect of Mg2+i on the voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels in rat aortic myocytes (RAMs)...
  96. ncbi A-type voltage-gated K+ currents influence firing properties of isolectin B4-positive but not isolectin B4-negative primary sensory neurons
    Amaresh Vydyanathan
    Department of Anesthesiology, H187, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:3401-9. 2005
    ..In contrast, IB4-negative neurons exhibited a larger proportion of tetraethylammonium-sensitive Kv currents...
  97. ncbi Homogeneous distribution of large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels on soma and apical dendrite of rat neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons
    Narimane Benhassine
    Institute of Physiology, University of Bern, Buhlplatz 5, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 21:914-26. 2005
    ..Their activation might modulate the shape of sodium and calcium action potentials, their propagation along the dendrite, and thereby the electrotonic distance between the somatic and dendritic action potential initiation zones...
  98. ncbi Biophysical characterization of whole-cell currents in O2-sensitive neurons from the rat glossopharyngeal nerve
    V A Campanucci
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
    Neuroscience 132:437-51. 2005
    ..The voltage-dependent outward K+ currents were sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 mM) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 2 mM)...
  99. ncbi Adenosine stimulates depolarization and rise in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] in type I cells of rat carotid bodies
    Fenglian Xu
    Dept of Pharmacology and Center for Neurosciences, Univ of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290:C1592-8. 2006
    ..The adenosine response was attenuated by anandamide but not by tetraethylammonium. Our results suggest that adenosine, acting via the adenylate cyclase and PKA pathways, inhibits the TASK-1 ..
  100. ncbi Sodium-activated potassium conductance participates in the depolarizing afterpotential following a single action potential in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells
    Xinhuai Liu
    Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
    Brain Res 1023:185-92. 2004
    ..Similarly, extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 mM), 4-aminopyridine (3-10 mM) increased DAP and shifted the DAP10 reversal potential to a ..
  101. ncbi Postnatal development of carotid body glomus cell response to hypoxia
    M J Wasicko
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Children s Center, Baltimore, MD, United States
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 154:356-71. 2006
    ..These results support the hypothesis that postnatal maturation of glomus cell O(2) sensitivity involves developmental regulation of the expression and/or O(2)-sensitivity of background ionic conductances...

Research Grants66

  1. Topical use of TEAC to treat cutaneous viral infection
    David Osborne; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The objectives of this proposal are to develop marketable, topical formulations of tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) for the treatment of human papillomavirus-induced common warts...
  2. INCREASED ACTION POTENTIAL DURATION & CARDIAC INOTROPHY
    David Lathrop; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..potential duration and developed force produced by these new compounds are similar to those produced by tetraethylammonium (TEA), which is known to reduce outward membrane potassium currents, and by veratridine and ATX II, which ..
  3. Expression of MRP2 and OCTI Transporters in the Kidney
    JOHN WELBORN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Renal pathways for the secretion of OCs (such as tetraethylammonium, TEA) have also received considerable attention...
  4. Maturation and myogenic reactivity of cerebral arteries
    John Buchholz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Wall thickness was similar between groups. In a separate series of experiments, the contractile effect of tetraethylammonium (TEA; a KCa channel blocker) was determined in cerebral arteries from neonatal and adult mice...
  5. THE STATE OF WATER AND SOLUTES IN MITOCHONDRIA
    Keith Garlid; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The exchanger is released by swelling, by anions with high affinites for Mg ions, by Ca ions uptake and by tetraethylammonium uptake...
  6. ION CHANNELS AND AMYLOID-INDUCED CELL DEATH
    LUIS COLOM; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In striking contrast to SN48 cells, the vulnerable SN56 cells express a tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive delayed rectifier K+ current (IK), which is up-regulated by exposure to AB prior to cell ..
  7. Topical use of TEAC to treat cutaneous viral infection
    Karl Beutner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) is a known nicotinic ganglion blocker and potassium channel blocker that has demonstrated ..
  8. LEUKOTRIENE-MEDIATED AIRWAY CHOLINERGIC HYPERRESPONSIVE
    CHRISTOPHER MURLAS; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Ca++-dependent excitation-contraction coupling will be evaluated in muscle preparations stimulated by tetraethylammonium. To investigate possible pharmacomechanical leukotriene effects on muscarinic contraction that may be ..
  9. THE EXCITABLE MEMBRANE AND BEHAVIOR IN PARAMECIUM
    Bruce Byrne; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Two paranoiac stocks, fna fast-1, and a tetraethylammonium-insensitive stock, have less well-organized and/or smaller plaques than wild-type; two other paranoiac ..
  10. Role of MRP2 and MRP4 in renal organic anion excretion
    RYAN PELIS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. The Physiological Roles of K Channels in Fluid Secretion
    TED B BEGENISICH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The physiological roles of the two channels will be probed with various physiological measurements of mice deficient in the expression of the two K channelgenes. ..
  12. Renal Inner Medulla: Integrated Structure and Function
    WILLIAM DANTZLER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. BILIARY SECRETORY PATHWAYS IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS
    Won Kyoo Cho; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Volume Regulatory Pathways in Cystic Fibrosis Mice
    Won Kyoo Cho; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Development and study of specific Kir channel inhibitors
    Zhe Lu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. MECHANISMS OF PERMEATION IN INWARD RECTIFIER K+ CHANNELS
    Zhe Lu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..For example, G-protein gated inward-rectifier K+ channels mediate the regulation of heart rate by vagal nerve, and ATP-sensitive inward-rectifier K+ channels are important during cardiac ischemia. (End of Abstract) ..
  17. HYPERTENSION: CONTRIBUTION OF ARTERIAL WALL CHANGES
    Robert Cox; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will define a novel therapeutic target for antihypertensive drug development based upon the mechanism(s) of Ca2+-Kv channel modulation. ..
  18. MOLECULAR ORGANIZATION OF RENAL ORGANIC CATION TRANSPORT
    Stephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will be essential for development of models that accurately predict and, ideally, preempt unwanted interactions of cationic drugs in both the kidney and liver. ..
  19. Molecular Organization or Renal Organic Anion Transport
    Stephen H Wright; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. RENAL TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC CHELATORS OF HEAVY METALS
    Stephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed studies will result in a new, general model of the cellular strategy for secretion of a diverse array of xenobiotic OAs, and a more specific understanding of the action of heavy metal chelators on renal cells. ..
  21. Ion Regulation of Kv Channel Gating and Permeation
    Carol Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The second aim will test whether ions in the selectivity filter modulate the movement of voltage sensors. These studies will entail measurements of kinetics and voltage dependence of gating currents in HEK cells. ..
  22. STRUCTURAL BASIS OF ION CHANNEL FUNCTION IN AQUAPORIN-1
    W Stamer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Discovery of the fundamental properties of AQP1 channels may open opportunities for therapeutic intervention in human diseases involving fluid and salt imbalance in the brain and other organs. ..
  23. Astrocyte Regulation of GABA at Neonatal Synapses
    Angelique Bordey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These data will also be important for understanding pathological mechanisms affecting astrocytic transporters and GABA signaling. ..
  24. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF ION TRANSPORT BY THE NA, K-PUMP
    Joshua Berlin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Regulation of Renal Xenobiotic Transport by Estrogens
    Stephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  26. Molecular Physiology of Voltage-gated Ion Channels
    Richard Horn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed studies should help in the design of therapeutic drugs to treat a variety of malfunctions in excitability. ..
  27. MAST CELL NERVE INTERACTIONS IN AIRWAYS
    Bradley J Undem; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results may also shed new light on the complex pathophysiology of allergic airway diseases, i.e., asthma, and ultimately suggest new therapeutic strategies for treatment of these complex disorders. ..
  28. C elegans:a model to study intestinal water-soluble vitamins transport in vivo
    HAMID SAID; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Blood Brain Barrier Physiology and HIV Dementia
    HOWARD GENDELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The data acquired could provide new insights and therapeutic intervention strategies for monocyte BBB trafficking during progressive HIV-1 infection in brain tissue. ..
  30. Sustained Release Pulmonary Delivery for Improved Cystic Fibrosis Treatment
    Hugh Smyth; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These R03 feasibility studies, initiate a long term goal of applying drug delivery approaches to CF therapy. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Endothelial Function in the Cerebral Circulation
    Frank Faraci; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies should provide new insight into mechanisms of cerebral vascular protection during hypertension. ..
  32. GI MUCOSAL BARRIER IN HEALTH AND SURGICAL DISEASE
    Susan Hagen; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. PULMONARY VASODILATION AND GUANYLATE CYCLASE REGULATION
    Michael S Wolin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  34. IMAGING BETA CELL FUNCTION WITH BIOSENSORS
    Louis Philipson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies will provide new understanding of islet cell biology that will benefit clinical strategies to preserve and maintain functional 13-cell mass. ..
  35. INTRACELLULAR STUDY OF ETHANOL EFFECTS ON BRAIN NEURONS
    Sarah Appel; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Ethanol excitation is completely blocked by quinidine, but not by the other K channel blockers apamin, tetraethylammonium, barium or cesium...
  36. Instrument for Determining Intramolecular Interactions
    GARY GLISH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These experiments will be complemented with condensed phase experiments in an attempt to determine if there is a correlation between structures in solution and in the gas phase. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Retinal Inhibitory Glycine Receptors
    Malcolm Slaughter; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Another is to characterize GABA receptor antagonists which interact with the glycine receptor. These specific aims are a necessary first step in unraveling inhibitory synapses in retina. ..
  38. Mechanism/regulation of human intestinal thiamin uptake
    HAMID SAID; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This should ultimately assist us in the designing of effective strategies to optimize thiamin body homeostasis in conditions associated with thiamin deficiency and sub-optimal levels. ..
  39. The Role of Aquaporins in Taste
    KRISTINA WATSON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, basic taste preferences will be characterized in these animals as well as responses to changes in osmolarity with and without the addition of tastants using short-term and long-term testing methods. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Training Program in Neurovirology
    HOWARD GENDELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  41. Ion Transport Mechanisms in Type I Fibrocytes
    Zhijun Shen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  42. GABA action on subventricular zone progenitors
    Angelique Bordey; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Data from these studies will provide the first fundamental insight into the physiology of SVZ cells in situ and exposes a novel concept of cell migration governed by an interplay between GABARs and GABA transporters...
  43. ASTROCYTE MEDIATED LTP
    Jian Kang; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  44. ALTERED KCa CHANNEL EXPRESSION IN DEVELOPING CEREBELLUM
    ANDREA YOOL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The rat provides a useful model for studying postnatal cerebellar development and neuropathological damage, and may provide insights into methods to manipulate developmental abnormalities in the cerebellum. ..
  45. MICROVASCULAR TRANSPORT IN THE RENAL MEDULLA
    THOMAS PALLONE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Exchange of albumin and middle molecular weight solutes will also be simulated. ..
  46. INSTRUMENTATION FOR BIOMOLECULES ANALYSIS
    GARY GLISH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition to optimizing the interface of MALDI with the ion trap, work will be performed to better understand the physico-chemical aspects of MS/MS of ions from biological molecules. ..
  47. NEURONAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN HIV DEMENTIA
    HOWARD GENDELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  48. SYMPATHETIC EXCITATORY RESPONSE AT BIRTH
    JEFFREY SEGAR; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  49. 20-HETE IN NO-MEDIATED REGULATION OF RENAL FUNCTION
    Adebayo Oyekan; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  50. NO-CGMP INHIBITION OF UROGENITAL SMOOTH MUSCLE
    Christopher Rembold; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  51. Cocaine and Apoptosis in the Developing Heart
    Lubo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such an understanding has obvious clinical implications because the increasing information has pointed to an important role of apoptosis in cardiovascular diseases. ..
  52. Retinal Inputs to the Mammalian Circadian Pacemaker
    KWOON WONG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These experiments may enable a better understanding of how the mammalian circadian pacemaker is regulated, which in turn may lead to better therapies and workplace policies combating/preventing jet lag problems. ..
  53. Structural Analysis of Voltage-gated Potassium Channels
    ROBERT BLAUSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy
    Lubo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Such an understanding has obvious clinical implications because the maladaptation of uterine circulation to pregnancy is associated with fetal developmental abnormalities and maternal cardiovascular disorders. ..
  55. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF GABAERGIC SYNAPSES BY KARS
    Jian Kang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The KAR-mediated modulation of GABAergic synapses provides a fundamental new mechanism for glutamate-mediated interaction between excitatory and inhibitory synapses. ..
  56. MECHANISMS AND FUNCTIONS OF ASTROCYTE CALCIUM SIGNALING
    Andrew Charles; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  57. THE ROLE OF A NOVEL GENE, NNAL, IN NEURONAL REGENERATION
    PETER MACLEISH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The health relatedness is to understand the molecular cascades required for successful regeneration so that effective treatment strategies can be designed to treat patients suffering from neural injury. ..
  58. P20-Mediated Suppression of Vascular Force
    Christopher Rembold; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Many current treatments target smooth muscle to reduce tone. It is possible that targeting the force suppression pathway (i.e. p20) might provide comparable benefits. ..
  59. Actions of Ethanol on Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
    Gustav Akk; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results from the experiments will be used to examine the mechanism and structural requirements in the ethanol-mediated modulation of the GABAA receptor function. ..
  60. Developmental Neuroscience Research Program
    PETER MACLEISH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. NEURONAL ORGANIZATION OF BASAL GANGLIA
    Charles Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This latter will allow us to determine whether there is an actual mismatch between physiological and anatomical estimates of connectivity (i.e. non-functional synaptic connections). ..
  62. High Performance Computer System for Molecular Modeling
    Benoit Roux; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  63. Methods & Noninvasive PK Study to Improve Iontophoresis
    S Kevin Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It will be a great benefit to the public if an effective drug delivery system such as ocular iontophoresis can replace injections and systemic administration for drug delivery to the back of the eye. ..
  64. VASOMOTOR CONTROL OF DESCENDING VASA RECTA
    THOMAS PALLONE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  65. Calcium Signaling in Vasa Recta Endothelium
    THOMAS PALLONE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will test whether DVR contractions to norepinephrine, Angll and KCI are increased, measure NO production and assess effects of OH on endothelial and pericyte Ca2+ signaling. ..