Genomes and Genes
Summary: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Publications203 found, 100 shown here
- Blocker protection in the pore of a voltage-gated K+ channel and its structural implicationsD del Camino
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 403:321-5. 2000..This bend would occur at a Pro-X-Pro sequence that is highly conserved in Kv channels, near the site of activation gating...
- The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivityD A Doyle
Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 280:69-77. 1998..The architecture of the pore establishes the physical principles underlying selective K+ conduction...
- Stoichiometry of expressed KCNQ2/KCNQ3 potassium channels and subunit composition of native ganglionic M channels deduced from block by tetraethylammoniumJennifer K Hadley
Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
J Neurosci 23:5012-9. 2003..rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons, by comparing the block of these currents produced by tetraethylammonium (TEA) with the block of currents generated by a tandem KCNQ3/2 construct...
- Melatonin inhibits tetraethylammonium-sensitive potassium channels of rod ON type bipolar cells via MT2 receptors in rat retinaX F Yang
Institutes of Brain Science, Institute of Neurobiology and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China
Neuroscience 173:19-29. 2011..Electrophysiologically, application of melatonin selectively inhibited the tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ current component, but did not show any effect on the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive ..
- Contribution of the Kv3.1 potassium channel to high-frequency firing in mouse auditory neuronesL Y Wang
Departments of Pharmacology, Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
J Physiol 509:183-94. 1998..displayed rapid activation and deactivation kinetics, and was selectively blocked by a low concentration of tetraethylammonium (TEA; 1 mM). 4...
- Kv2 subunits underlie slowly inactivating potassium current in rat neocortical pyramidal neuronsD Guan
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, 855 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
J Physiol 581:941-60. 2007..1 subunits. Compared with Kv2.1 currents in expression systems, the Kv2.1 current in neocortical pyramidal cells activated and inactivated at relatively negative potentials and was very sensitive to holding potential...
- Mechanisms of tetraethylammonium ion block in the KcsA potassium channelV B Luzhkov
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 596, S-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden
FEBS Lett 495:191-6. 2001We report results from automated docking and microscopic molecular dynamics simulations of the tetraethylammonium (TEA) complexes with KcsA...
- Differential expression of intrinsic membrane currents in defined cell types of the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalisSayamwong E Hammack
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
J Neurophysiol 98:638-56. 2007..The functional relevance of each cell type is discussed in relation to prior anatomical studies, as well as how these currents may interact to modulate neuronal activity within the BNST(ALG)...
- Slow gating charge immobilization in the human potassium channel Kv1.5 and its prevention by 4-aminopyridineD Fedida
Department of Physiology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
J Physiol 494:377-87. 1996..5 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was studied using 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA-Cl). 2...
- Differential tetraethylammonium sensitivity of KCNQ1-4 potassium channelsJ K Hadley
Department of Pharmacology, University College London
Br J Pharmacol 129:413-5. 2000..of a tyrosine residue, just downstream of the pore signature sequence GYG, determines sensitivity to tetraethylammonium (TEA). The KCNQ family of channels has a variety of amino acid residues in the equivalent position...
- An electrostatic interaction between TEA and an introduced pore aromatic drives spring-in-the-door inactivation in Shaker potassium channelsChristopher A Ahern
Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
J Gen Physiol 134:461-9. 2009..with the native V438 inactivate very slowly, and the canonical foot-in-the-door effect of extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) is not only absent, but the time course of slow inactivation is accelerated by TEA...
- Test of blockers of AQP1 water permeability by a high-resolution method: no effects of tetraethylammonium ions or acetazolamideRikke Søgaard
Nordic Centre for Water Imbalance Related Disorders, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Blegdamsvej 3C, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark
Pflugers Arch 456:285-92. 2008..In contrast to previous reports based on slower and less sensitive assays, we found no effects of tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) and acetazolamide on Lp...
- Multi-state, 4-aminopyridine-sensitive ion channels in human spermatozoaY Gu
MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Division of Medicine, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College School of Medicine, W12 0NN, London, UK
Dev Biol 274:308-17. 2004..Combined application of patch clamp and pharmacological investigation of mature sperm cells and will permit rapid advances in our understanding the role of ion channels in sperm function...
- Gating currents from a nonconducting mutant reveal open-closed conformations in Shaker K+ channelsE Perozo
Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California 90024
Neuron 11:353-8. 1993..Application of internal tetraethylammonium (an open channel blocker) induced Off charge immobilization for large depolarizations, suggesting that the ..
- Affinity and location of an internal K+ ion binding site in shaker K channelsJ Thompson
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
J Gen Physiol 117:373-84. 2001..These results lead to a refined picture of the number and location of ion binding sites at the inner end of the pore in Shaker K channels...
- Fictive locomotor patterns generated by tetraethylammonium application to the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitroG Taccola
Neurobiology, CNR INFM Unit and SPINAL Program, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste, Italy
Neuroscience 137:659-70. 2006..The present electrophysiological investigation examined whether the broad spectrum potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium could generate locomotor-like patterns...
- PIP(2) activates KCNQ channels, and its hydrolysis underlies receptor-mediated inhibition of M currentsHailin Zhang
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10029, USA
Neuron 37:963-75. 2003..Finally, native or recombinant channels inhibited by muscarinic agonists can be activated by PIP(2). Our data strongly suggest that PIP(2) acts as a membrane-diffusible second messenger to regulate directly the activity of KCNQ currents...
- Tetraethylammonium binding to the outer mouth of the KcsA potassium channel: implications for ion permeationLeonardo Guidoni
INFM Democritos Center for Molecular Simulations and International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Via Beirut 4, 1 34014 Trieste, Italy
J Recept Signal Transduct Res 22:315-31. 2002Extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA+) inhibits the current carried out by K+ ions in potassium channels...
- Control of outer vestibule dynamics and current magnitude in the Kv2.1 potassium channelPayam Andalib
Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
J Gen Physiol 120:739-55. 2002..Moreover, the insensitivity of Kv2.1 current magnitude to changes in K+ driving force promotes a more uniform modulation of current over a wide range of membrane potentials by the K+-dependent regulation of outer vestibule conformation...
- Mutations stabilizing an open conformation within the external region of the permeation pathway of the potassium channel KcsAD Meuser
Angewandte Genetik der Mikroorganismen, FB Biologie/Chemie, , Germany
Eur Biophys J 30:385-91. 2001..Based on the relative positions of the blocker tetraethylammonium within the electric field, the external entryways of the channels are concluded to have similar dimensions...
- Extracellular blockade of K(+) channels by TEA: results from molecular dynamics simulations of the KcsA channelS Crouzy
, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9, France
J Gen Physiol 118:207-18. 2001....
- Effects of tetraethylammonium on Kx channels and simulated light response in rod photoreceptorsXiao Dong Liu
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Ann Biomed Eng 32:1428-42. 2004..For example, the effects of a conventional blocker of potassium channels, tetraethylammonium (TEA), on Kx channels have not been extensively studied...
- The internal quaternary ammonium receptor site of Shaker potassium channelsK L Choi
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
Neuron 10:533-41. 1993..Several mutations in the P region affect tetraethylammonium binding but have minimal effects on longer blockers, suggesting that the hydrophobic tail contributes to ..
- U-type inactivation of Kv3.1 and Shaker potassium channelsK G Klemic
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
Biophys J 81:814-26. 2001..We introduce the term U-type inactivation for the mechanism that is dominant in Kv2.1 and Kv3.1. U-type inactivation also makes a major but previously unrecognized contribution to slow inactivation of Shaker...
- Mutations affecting internal TEA blockade identify the probable pore-forming region of a K+ channelG Yellen
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
Science 251:939-42. 1991..A useful probe for the pore of potassium-selective channels is the organic ion tetraethylammonium (TEA), which binds with millimolar affinity to the intracellular opening of the pore and blocks potassium ..
- Mechanism underlying slow kinetics of the OFF gating current in Shaker potassium channelA Melishchuk
Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
Biophys J 80:2167-75. 2001..the side chain at position 470 makes it possible for the mutant channel, unlike native Shaker, to close with tetraethylammonium (TEA+) or the long-chain TEA-derivative C10+ trapped inside the channel...
- Kinetics of inward-rectifier K+ channel block by quaternary alkylammonium ions. dimension and properties of the inner poreD Guo
Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
J Gen Physiol 117:395-406. 2001..These observations argue that between the intracellular solution and the QA-binding locus, there exists a constricted pathway, whose dimension ( approximately 9 A) is comparable to that of a K+ ion with a single H2O shell...
- External TEA block of shaker K+ channels is coupled to the movement of K+ ions within the selectivity filterJill Thompson
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
J Gen Physiol 122:239-46. 2003....
- Functional identification of ion binding sites at the internal end of the pore in Shaker K+ channelsJill Thompson
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA
J Physiol 549:107-20. 2003..These results provide information on the fine-structure of ion interactions with the inner end of the pore in K+ channels...
- Pharmacological evidence for the activation of potassium channels as the mechanism involved in the hypotensive and vasorelaxant effect of dioclein in rat small resistance arteriesS F Cortes
Laboratório de Farmacologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Farmacologia ICB Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais 31270 901, Belo Horizonte Brazil
Br J Pharmacol 133:849-58. 2001..b>Tetraethylammonium (10 mM) and BaCl(2) (1 mM) increased the IC(50) for dioclein-induced vasorelaxation without affecting the ..
- Evidence for sequential ion-binding loci along the inner pore of the IRK1 inward-rectifier K+ channelHyeon Gyu Shin
Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvasnia, 3700 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Gen Physiol 126:123-35. 2005..For technical simplicity, we used tetraethylammonium (TEA) as an initial probe to test whether the corresponding residue in IRK1, F254, forms the shallower site...
- Activation of pre- and postsynaptic protein kinase C during tetraethylammonium-induced long-term potentiation in the CA1 field of the hippocampusG M Ramakers
Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Neurosci Lett 286:53-6. 2000b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) induces a form of long-term potentiation (LTP) that is independent on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation (LTP(K)). LTP(K) may be a suitable chemical model to study molecular mechanisms underlying LTP...
- Role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the fate determination of embryonic stem cellsSze Ying Ng
Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
J Cell Physiol 224:165-77. 2010..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), a K(v) blocker, attenuated cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner...
- Effects of tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine on the plateau potential of circular myometrium from the pregnant ratD W Wilde
Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
Biol Reprod 38:836-45. 1988..To examine mechanisms underlying the plateau, we studied the effects of potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on membrane potentials in CM from rats on gestation Days 14, 15, 16, 21 (..
- Stepwise contribution of each subunit to the cooperative activation of BK channels by Ca2+Xiaowei Niu
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101 6430, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11441-6. 2002..Although this model described well the major features of the experimental data, some differences between the observed and predicted results indicated that additional factors not included in the model also contribute to the cooperativity...
- Tail end of the s6 segment: role in permeation in shaker potassium channelsShinghua Ding
Department of Physiology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
J Gen Physiol 120:87-97. 2002..These results indicate that S6(T) residues have an influence on the conformation of the open activation gate, reflected in both the stability of the open state and the energy barriers it presents to ions...
- ERG K+ currents regulate pacemaker activity in ICCYaohui Zhu
Intestinal Disease Research Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 285:G1249-58. 2003..E-4031 also inhibited tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive outward current indicating that the ERG K+ current is operating at depolarizing potentials...
- Evidence for the mechanisms underlying the effects of pimaradienoic acid isolated from the roots of Viguiera arenaria on rat aortaCarlos R Tirapelli
Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Pharmacology 70:31-8. 2004..However, the relaxant responses induced by PA on Phe-pre-contracted rings were unaffected by tetraethylammonium (1 and 5 mmol/l). PA also relaxed KCl-pre-contracted rings with intact (97.44 +/- 3...
- Rapid intracellular TEA block of the KcsA potassium channelEsin Kutluay
Department of Biochemistry, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
Biophys J 88:1018-29. 2005Intracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) inhibition was studied at the single-channel level in the KcsA potassium channel reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers...
- Quantitative analysis of voltage-gated potassium currents from primary equine (Equus caballus) and elephant (Loxodonta africana) articular chondrocytesA Mobasheri
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZJ, United Kingdom
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289:R172-80. 2005..of equine chondrocyte Kv currents showed them to be powerfully inhibited by the potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine but not by dendrotoxin-I. Immunohistochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies to Kv1...
- Characterization of the Kv channels of mouse carotid body chemoreceptor cells and their role in oxygen sensingM Teresa Pérez-García
Universidad de Valladolid y Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Valladolid, Spain
J Physiol 557:457-71. 2004..This report represents the first functional and molecular characterization of Kv channels in mouse CB chemoreceptor cells, and strongly suggests that O(2)-sensitive Kv channels in this preparation belong to the Kv3 subfamily...
- Vasorelaxant effect of taurine is diminished by tetraethylammonium in rat isolated arteriesLong Gang Niu
Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Xinjiannanlu 56, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi Province, PR China
Eur J Pharmacol 580:169-74. 2008..BaCl(2), a K(IR) blocker), and 100 nM iberiotoxin (a BK(Ca) blocker), but was nearly abolished by 10 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA, a non-selective potassium channel blocker)...
- Binding of a gating modifier toxin induces intersubunit cooperativity early in the Shaker K channel's activation pathwayJon T Sack
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
J Gen Physiol 128:119-32. 2006..A lack of competition with either agitoxin or tetraethylammonium indicates that BrMT binds channel subunits outside of the external pore region in an allosterically ..
- Activation and block of mouse muscle-type nicotinic receptors by tetraethylammoniumGustav Akk
Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University St Louis, Campus Box 8054, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Physiol 551:155-68. 2003..studied the activation and inhibition of the mouse muscle adult-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and related quaternary ammonium derivatives...
- Structural determinants of the regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 by the modulatory α-subunit Kv9.3Daniel Kerschensteiner
Max Planck Institut fur experimentelle Medizin, Molekulare Biologie Neuronaler Signale, Hermann Rein Strasse 3, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
J Biol Chem 278:18154-61. 2003..1 can be distinguished by the sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium and extracellular potassium and lead to the same inactivated conformation. The functional properties of Kv2...
- Inactivation and pharmacological properties of sqKv1A homotetramers in Xenopus oocytes cannot account for behavior of the squid "delayed rectifier" K(+) conductanceHenry H Jerng
Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California 93950, USA
Biophys J 82:3022-36. 2002..These results suggest that important structural differences between sqKv1A homotetramers and native squid channels are likely to exist around the external and internal mouths of the pore...
- Structural basis of TEA blockade in a model potassium channelMichael J Lenaeus
Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 12:454-9. 2005..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) blocks ion conduction through potassium channels in a voltage-dependent manner from both sides of the ..
- Quaternary ammonium compounds as water channel blockers. Specificity, potency, and site of actionFrank J M Detmers
Department of Physiology, Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
J Biol Chem 281:14207-14. 2006..Here, we determined the specificity, potency, and binding site of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block Aquaporin water permeability...
- Primary structure and functional expression of the apical organic cation transporter from kidney epithelial LLC-PK1 cellsD Gründemann
Department of Pharmacology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 366, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
J Biol Chem 272:10408-13. 1997..OCT2p-mediated uptake of the prototypical organic cation [14C]tetraethylammonium ([14C]TEA) into 293 cells was saturable...
- Altered excitability of intestinal neurons in primary culture caused by acute oxidative stressFivos Vogalis
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
J Neurophysiol 89:3039-50. 2003..Our results indicate that acute oxidative stress has neuron- and conductance-specific actions in intestinal neurons that may underlie pathophysiological conditions...
- Tethered blockers as molecular 'tape measures' for a voltage-gated K+ channelR O Blaustein
Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA
Nat Struct Biol 7:309-11. 2000..We show that in a Shaker K+ channel, the extracellular ends of S1 and S3 are approximately 30 ¿ from the tetraethylammonium (TEA) blocking site at the external opening of the pore...
- Transcellular transport of creatinine in renal tubular epithelial cell line LLC-PK1Yumiko Urakami
Department of Pharmacy, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 20:200-5. 2005..Creatinine is excreted into urine via tubular secretion in addition to glomerular filtration. In the present study, characteristics of the creatinine transport in renal epithelial cells were investigated...
- Status of the intracellular gate in the activated-not-open state of shaker K+ channelsDonato Del Camino
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Gen Physiol 126:419-28. 2005..only after opening, remaining trapped in closed channels, and that in the open state it competes with tetraethylammonium for binding...
- The external TEA binding site and C-type inactivation in voltage-gated potassium channelsPayam Andalib
Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
Biophys J 87:3148-61. 2004The location of the tetraethylammonium (TEA) binding site in the outer vestibule of K+ channels, and the mechanism by which external TEA slows C-type inactivation, have been considered well-understood...
- A cation-pi interaction between extracellular TEA and an aromatic residue in potassium channelsChristopher A Ahern
Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
J Gen Physiol 128:649-57. 2006Open-channel blockers such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) have a long history as probes of the permeation pathway of ion channels...
- Separation of P/C- and U-type inactivation pathways in Kv1.5 potassium channelsHarley T Kurata
Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver B C V6T 1Z3, Canada
J Physiol 568:31-46. 2005..Collectively, these data distinguish between open-state and closed-state inactivation, and suggest the presence of multiple possible mechanisms of inactivation coexisting in Kv1 channels...
- Two stable, conducting conformations of the selectivity filter in Shaker K+ channelsJill Thompson
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA
J Gen Physiol 125:619-29. 2005..Our analysis further suggests that the four K(+) sites in the selectivity filter are spaced between 20 and 25% of the membrane electric field...
- Ryanoid modification of the cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor channel results in relocation of the tetraethylammonium binding siteB Tanna
Department of Cardiac Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom
J Gen Physiol 117:385-94. 2001....
- The influence of surface charges on quaternary ammonium block of shaker K+ channelsC C Quinn
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
J Membr Biol 182:233-43. 2001..We examined the ionic strength dependence of extracellular block of Shaker K+ channels by tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) and by a trivalent quaternary ammonium ion, gallamine3+...
- Structure-activity relationship for extracellular block of K+ channels by tetraalkylammonium ionsVictor B Luzhkov
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 596, SE 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
FEBS Lett 554:159-64. 2003..In agreement with experiment the Et4N+ blocker shows several kcal/mol better binding than the other tetraalkylammonium ions...
- Number of K(Ca) channels underlying spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) in mudpuppy cardiac neuronsF S Scornik
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
J Neurophysiol 85:54-60. 2001....
- Interaction between tetraethylammonium and permeant cations at the inactivation gate of the HERG potassium channelHirofumi Shimizu
Department of Physiology, Fukui Medical University, Fukui, 910 1193 Japan
Jpn J Physiol 53:25-34. 2003..related gene product (HERG) channel is a form of C-type inactivation and is decelerated by external tetraethylammonium (TEA) and potassium...
- Tetraethylammonium block of water flux in Aquaporin-1 channels expressed in kidney thin limbs of Henle's loop and a kidney-derived cell lineAndrea J Yool
Dept of Physiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA
BMC Physiol 2:4. 2002..b>Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 0...
- Voltage-dependent K+ currents in rat cardiac dorsal root ganglion neuronsR Rola
The Medical University of Warsaw, The Faculty of Medicine, Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26 28, 00 927, Warsaw, Poland
Neuroscience 119:181-91. 2003..4-Aminopiridyne (4-AP) (10 mM) and tetraethylammonium (TEA) (100 mM) produced 98% and 92% reductions of I(Af) current, respectively and 27% and 66% of I(As) ..
- Amyloid beta-protein fragment 31-35 suppresses delayed rectifying potassium channels in membrane patches excised from hippocampal neurons in ratsJin Shun Qi
Department of Neurobiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001, PR China
Synapse 51:165-72. 2004....
- Maturation of spiking activity in trout retinal ganglion cells coincides with upregulation of Kv3.1- and BK-related potassium channelsJutta Henne
Department of Neurobiology, University of Osnabruck, Osnabruck, Germany
J Neurosci Res 75:44-54. 2004..This was accompanied by the occurrence of a highly tetraethylammonium (TEA)- and quinine-sensitive delayed rectifier current, which gradually masked a rapidly inactivating A-type ..
- Postdecentralization plasticity of voltage-gated K+ currents in glandular sympathetic neurons in ratsBartłomiej Szulczyk
The Medical University of Warsaw, The Faculty of Medicine, Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26 28, Warsaw 00 927, Poland
Eur J Neurosci 18:43-52. 2003..3 pA/pF. We suggest that the upregulation of voltage-gated time-dependently-inactivated K(+) currents and their faster recovery from inactivation serve to restrain the activity of glandular sympathetic neurons after decentralization...
- PACAP inhibits delayed rectifier potassium current via a cAMP/PKA transduction pathway: evidence for the involvement of I k in the anti-apoptotic action of PACAPY A Mei
Department of Physiology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
Eur J Neurosci 19:1446-58. 2004..medium, and this long-term depolarizing effect of PACAP was mimicked by the I(K) specific blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)...
- Predominant expression of Kv1.3 voltage-gated K+ channel subunit in rat prostate cancer cell lines: electrophysiological, pharmacological and molecular characterisationS P Fraser
Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Pflugers Arch 446:559-71. 2003..Thus, the currents were blocked by 4-aminopyridine, tetraethylammonium, verapamil, margatoxin, and charybdotoxin, with highly similar IC(50)s for given blockers...
- Tetraethylammonium (TEA) increases the inactivation time constant of the transient K+ current in suprachiasmatic nucleus neuronsLudovic Alvado
Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
Brain Res 1221:24-9. 2008..b>Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is frequently used to inhibit delayed rectifier K(+) currents (I(DR)) during electrophysiological ..
- Role of 20-HETE in the hypoxia-induced activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channel currents in rat cerebral arterial muscle cellsDebebe Gebremedhin
Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H107-20. 2008..identified a voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent 238 +/- 21-pS unitary K(+) currents that are inhibitable by tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM) or iberiotoxin (100 nM)...
- Reduction of voltage-operated potassium currents by levetiracetam: a novel antiepileptic mechanism of action?Michael Madeja
Institute for Physiology, University Munster, Robert Koch Str 27a, 48149 Munster, Germany
Neuropharmacology 45:661-71. 2003..This suggests that a reduction of potassium currents may contribute to the antiepileptic effect(s) of levetiracetam...
- State-dependent enhancement of subthreshold A-type potassium current by 4-aminopyridine in tuberomammillary nucleus neuronsAlexander C Jackson
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Neurosci 27:10785-96. 2007..Ramp-evoked current at subthreshold voltages was unaffected by 10 mM tetraethylammonium and likely represents I(A), because its voltage dependence overlaps that of I(A) activation (midpoint near -..
- Potassium channels in human umbilical artery cellsVeronica Milesi
Anatomía y Fisiología, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
J Soc Gynecol Investig 10:339-46. 2003..To identify K+ channels of smooth muscle of human umbilical artery using the patch-clamp technique and to study their effect on resting tone of umbilical artery rings...
- Biophysical properties and metabolic regulation of a TASK-like potassium channel in rat carotid body type 1 cellsBeatrice A Williams
University Laboratory of Physiology, Parks Rd, Oxford 0X1 3PT, UK
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 286:L221-30. 2004....
- [Changes of potassium channel activity of hindlimb arterial smooth muscle cells in tail-suspended rats]Zhao Jun Fu
Space Med Med Eng (Beijing) 16:253-6. 2003....
- Determinants of renal microvascular response to ACh: afferent and efferent arteriolar actions of EDHFXuemei Wang
Smooth Muscle Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 282:F124-32. 2002..Ba (100 micromol/l), tetraethylammonium (1 mmol/l), and ouabain (3 mmol/l) had no effect, arguing against a role of an inward rectifier K channel, ..
- [Changes in potassium channel currents of prostate epithelial cell of old rats and significance thereof]Zhi Guo Tang
Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 87:842-6. 2007..To investigate the potassium channel currents and response thereof to the blocker of potassium channel in epithelium of prostate of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
- Effects of leucine-enkephalin on potassium currents in neurons in the rat respiratory center in vitroA N Inyushkin
Samara State University, 1 Academician Pavlov Street, 443011 Samara, Russia
Neurosci Behav Physiol 37:739-46. 2007....
- Potassium currents in primary cultured astrocytes from the rat corpus callosumDaniel Reyes-Haro
Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, Mexico
J Neurocytol 34:411-20. 2005..the current had a transient component and a sustained component, which were blocked by 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, respectively; and both had a reversal potential of -66 mV, indicating that they were carried by K(+) ions...
- Serotonin depolarizes the membrane potential in rat mesenteric artery myocytes by decreasing voltage-gated K+ currentsYoung Min Bae
Artificial Muscle Research Center, College of Medicine, Konkuk University 322 Danwol dong, Choongju 380 701, Republic of Korea
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 347:468-76. 2006..In the presence of tetraethylammonium (1mM), 5-HT caused Em depolarization similar to the control condition...
- Orexins cause depolarization via nonselective cationic and K+ channels in isolated locus coeruleus neuronsYoshinaka Murai
Department of Oral Functional Science Physiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 8586, Japan
Neurosci Res 51:55-65. 2005..These results suggest that ORX-A/B increase the firing frequency of LC neurons through the depolarization probably produced by both augmentation of the nonselective cationic conductance and inhibition of the sustained K+ conductance...
- Modulation of the voltage-dependent K+ current by intracellular Mg2+ in rat aortic smooth muscle cellsPaolo Tammaro
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, U K
Cardiovasc Res 65:387-96. 2005..However, potential targets and mechanisms of action of Mg2+i in the cardiovascular system remain poorly understood. We therefore investigated the effect of Mg2+i on the voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels in rat aortic myocytes (RAMs)...
- A-type voltage-gated K+ currents influence firing properties of isolectin B4-positive but not isolectin B4-negative primary sensory neuronsAmaresh Vydyanathan
Department of Anesthesiology, H187, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
J Neurophysiol 93:3401-9. 2005..In contrast, IB4-negative neurons exhibited a larger proportion of tetraethylammonium-sensitive Kv currents...
- Complex expression and localization of inactivating Kv channels in cultured hippocampal astrocytesLane K Bekar
Department of Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, Rm B39 Health Sciences Bldg, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E5, Canada
J Neurophysiol 93:1699-709. 2005..However, this study suggests that they enable astrocytes to respond rapidly with membrane voltage oscillations to high-frequency incoming signals, possibly synchronizing astrocyte function to neuronal activity...
- Homogeneous distribution of large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels on soma and apical dendrite of rat neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neuronsNarimane Benhassine
Institute of Physiology, University of Bern, Buhlplatz 5, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Eur J Neurosci 21:914-26. 2005..Their activation might modulate the shape of sodium and calcium action potentials, their propagation along the dendrite, and thereby the electrotonic distance between the somatic and dendritic action potential initiation zones...
- Biophysical characterization of whole-cell currents in O2-sensitive neurons from the rat glossopharyngeal nerveV A Campanucci
Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
Neuroscience 132:437-51. 2005..The voltage-dependent outward K+ currents were sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 mM) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 2 mM)...
- Postnatal development of carotid body glomus cell response to hypoxiaM J Wasicko
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Children s Center, Baltimore, MD, United States
Respir Physiol Neurobiol 154:356-71. 2006..These results support the hypothesis that postnatal maturation of glomus cell O(2) sensitivity involves developmental regulation of the expression and/or O(2)-sensitivity of background ionic conductances...
- A-type potassium current in retinal arteriolar smooth muscle cellsMary K McGahon
Centre of Vision Sciences, The Queen s University of Belfast, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Royal Victoria Hospital, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BA, Northern Ireland
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:3281-7. 2005..The goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the A-type K(+) current in retinal microvascular smooth muscle (MVSM) and to examine its role in modulating membrane potential and cellular contractility...
- Potassium currents in isolated statocyst neurons and RPeD1 in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalisManabu Sakakibara
Laboratory of Neurobiological Engineering, Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of High Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan
J Neurophysiol 94:3884-92. 2005..I(A) in hair cells is also smaller in amplitude than in RPeD1 and is activated at more depolarized potentials. In like manner, I(KV) is smaller in hair cells and is activated at more depolarized potentials than in RPeD1...
- Sodium-activated potassium conductance participates in the depolarizing afterpotential following a single action potential in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cellsXinhuai Liu
Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
Brain Res 1023:185-92. 2004..Similarly, extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 mM), 4-aminopyridine (3-10 mM) increased DAP and shifted the DAP10 reversal potential to a ..
- Identification of native rat cerebellar granule cell currents due to background K channel KCNK5 (TASK-2)Joseph F Cotten
Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, Room s 261, Box 0542, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 128:112-20. 2004..by extracellular, alkaline pH and cytoplasmic arachidonic acid (10-20 microM) and inhibited by cytoplasmic tetraethylammonium (TEA; 1 mM)...
- Demonstration of calcium-activated transient outward chloride current and delayed rectifier potassium currents in Swine atrial myocytesGui Rong Li
Department of Medicine Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, L8 01, Laboratory Block, Faculty of Medicine Building, The University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR, China
J Mol Cell Cardiol 36:495-504. 2004..I(Kur) was resistant to tetraethylammonium, but sensitive to inhibition by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (IC(50) = 71.7 +/- 3.5 micromol/l)...
- [Inhibition of voltage-gated K+ current in rat intrapulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells by endothelin-1]Zai wen Fan
Pulmonary Disease Laboratory of Ministry of Health of China, Affiliated Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
Yao Xue Xue Bao 39:9-12. 2004..To investigate the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the physiological and pathophysiological regulating mechanisms of voltage-gated K+ current (IKV) inhibition in rat intrapulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)...
- Kv3 K+ channels enable burst output in rat cerebellar Purkinje cellsB E McKay
Neuroscience Research Group, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4 N1
Eur J Neurosci 20:729-39. 2004..Kv3 currents were differentiated from other tetraethylammonium-sensitive currents to establish their role in Purkinje cells under physiological conditions with current-..
- Properties of Xenopus Kv1.10 channels expressed in HEK293 cellsMark Fry
Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
J Neurobiol 60:227-35. 2004..Consistent with this, either increasing the external concentration of K+ or external application of tetraethylammonium caused a decrease in the rate of inactivation. Pharmacologically, XKv1...
- Functional characterization of voltage-gated K+ channels in mouse pulmonary artery smooth muscle cellsEun A Ko
Div of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Dept of Medicine, Univ of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, MC 0725, La Jolla, CA 92093 0725, USA
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293:C928-37. 2007..Whole cell I(K(V)) were very sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA), as 1 mM TEA decreased the current amplitude by 32% while it took 10 mM 4-AP to decrease I(K(V)) by a ..
- Adenosine stimulates depolarization and rise in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] in type I cells of rat carotid bodiesFenglian Xu
Dept of Pharmacology and Center for Neurosciences, Univ of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290:C1592-8. 2006..The adenosine response was attenuated by anandamide but not by tetraethylammonium. Our results suggest that adenosine, acting via the adenylate cyclase and PKA pathways, inhibits the TASK-1 ..
- Characterization of the ion channel currents in single myocytes of the guinea pig prostateRichard J Lang
Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia
J Urol 172:1179-87. 2004..We characterized membrane ionic currents underlying the action potential in single myocytes freshly isolated from the stroma of the guinea pig prostate...
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates the oxygen sensing type I (glomus) cells of rat carotid bodies via reduction of a background TASK-like K+ currentFenglian Xu
Department of Pharmacology and Center for Neurosciences, 9 70 Medical Science Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
J Neurochem 101:1284-93. 2007..In the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), PACAP reduced a background K(+) current...
- The functional difference between transient and sustained K+ currents on the action potentials in tetrodotoxin-resistant adult rat trigeminal ganglion neuronsShinki Yoshida
Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Brain Res 1152:64-74. 2007..05-50 mM), which inhibited the I(A) by 50%, was 0.7 mM. That for tetraethylammonium (TEA, 0.02-20 mM) to inhibit 50% of I(K) was 1.5 mM. In the current-clamp mode, we used 0...
Research Grants108 found, 100 shown here
- Topical use of TEAC to treat cutaneous viral infectionDavid Osborne; Fiscal Year: 2006..The objectives of this proposal are to develop marketable, topical formulations of tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) for the treatment of human papillomavirus-induced common warts...
- INTRACELLULAR STUDY OF ETHANOL EFFECTS ON BRAIN NEURONSMark S Brodie; Fiscal Year: 2010..Ethanol excitation is completely blocked by quinidine, but not by the other K channel blockers apamin, tetraethylammonium, barium or cesium...
- INTRACELLULAR STUDY OF ETHANOL EFFECTS ON BRAIN NEURONSMark Brodie; Fiscal Year: 2009..Ethanol excitation is completely blocked by quinidine, but not by the other K channel blockers apamin, tetraethylammonium, barium or cesium...
- Maturation and myogenic reactivity of cerebral arteriesJohn Buchholz; Fiscal Year: 2005..Wall thickness was similar between groups. In a separate series of experiments, the contractile effect of tetraethylammonium (TEA; a KCa channel blocker) was determined in cerebral arteries from neonatal and adult mice...
- Maturation and myogenic reactivity of cerebral arteriesGREG GEARY; Fiscal Year: 2003..Wall thickness was similar between groups. In a separate series of experiments, the contractile effect of tetraethylammonium (TEA; a KCa channel blocker) was determined in cerebral arteries from neonatal and adult mice...
- K+ CHANNEL EXPRESSION IN PANCREATIC BETA-CELLSLouis H Philipson; Fiscal Year: 2010..Surprisingly the Kv2.1-/- islets remain sensitive to tetraethylammonium, a blocker of Kv channels and Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa)...
- K+ CHANNEL EXPRESSION IN PANCREATIC BETA-CELLSLouis H Philipson; Fiscal Year: 2010..Surprisingly the Kv2.1-/- islets remain sensitive to tetraethylammonium, a blocker of Kv channels and Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa)...
- Role of MRP2 and MRP4 in renal organic anion excretionRYAN PELIS; Fiscal Year: 2007..Importantly, these studies will provide a view of the potential role of luminal events in drug-drug interactions and the development of nephrotoxicity, making it important work for improving overall health. ..
- MOLECULAR ORGANIZATION OF RENAL ORGANIC CATION TRANSPORTStephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- RENAL TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC CHELATORS OF HEAVY METALSStephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2004..The proposed studies will result in a new, general model of the cellular strategy for secretion of a diverse array of xenobiotic OAs, and a more specific understanding of the action of heavy metal chelators on renal cells. ..
- Molecular Organization or Renal Organic Anion TransportStephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Moleculer Organization of Renal Organic Cation TransportStephen H Wright; Fiscal Year: 2010..The results of these studies will help predict and, ideally, preempt unwanted drug-drug interactions in both the kidney and liver, and can be expected to assist in development of programs of rational drug design. ..
- Molecular Organization or Renal Organic Anion TransportStephen H Wright; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- HYPERTENSION--CONTRIBUTION OF ARTERIAL WALL CHANGESRobert Cox; Fiscal Year: 2001..In addition, these studies will provide a new molecular target for genetic linkage studies in hypertension as well as new potential therapeutic targets. ..
- Molecular Organization or Renal Organic Anion TransportStephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- Molecular Organization of the Organic cation-Proton Exchanger, MATE1STEPHEN H contact WRIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2010..The results of these studies will help predict and, ideally, preempt unwanted drug-drug interactions in both the kidney and liver, and can be expected to assist in development of programs of structure-based rational drug design. ..
- Moleculer Organization of Renal Organic Cation TransportStephen Wright; Fiscal Year: 2007..Application of the information gained through these studies holds the promise of predicting potential drug-interactions and the basis of genetic differences in renal secretion of cationic xenobiotics. ..
- HYPERTENSION: CONTRIBUTION OF ARTERIAL WALL CHANGESRobert Cox; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will define a novel therapeutic target for antihypertensive drug development based upon the mechanism(s) of Ca2+-Kv channel modulation. ..
- Cerebellar NeurogensisAngelique Bordey; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Actions of Ethanol on Ligand-Gated Ion ChannelsGustav Akk; Fiscal Year: 2006..The results from the experiments will be used to examine the mechanism and structural requirements in the ethanol-mediated modulation of the GABAA receptor function. ..
- PLASTICITY AT A CRAYFISH NEUROMUSCULAR SYNAPSEJen Wei Lin; Fiscal Year: 1999..Changes in calcium cooperativity add a new facet to our thinking of synaptic plasticity. ..
- Glial Cell Function on SVZ NeurogenesisAngelique Bordey; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Epithelial Na Channels and Regulation of Na ExcretionLAWRENCE PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2009..The work described in this proposal will elucidate how these control mechanisms work and will enhance our understanding of how hypertension develops and impact how it is treated. ..
- CONFERENCE PROGRAM FOR YOUNG MINORITY SCIENTISTSPETER MACLEISH; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Developmental Neuroscience Research ProgramPETER MACLEISH; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Methods & Noninvasive PK Study to Improve IontophoresisS Kevin Li; Fiscal Year: 2010..It will be a great benefit to the public if an effective drug delivery system such as ocular iontophoresis can replace injections and systemic administration for drug delivery to the back of the eye. ..
- CORE C: IMAGING CORECharles J Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2009..There will not be any significant change in the level of effort for key personnel in the next budget period. The estimated unobligated balance will not be greater than 25% of the current year's budget. ..
- Epithelial Na Channels and Regulation of Na ExcretionLawrence G Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2010..The work described in this proposal will elucidate how these control mechanisms work and will enhance our understanding of how hypertension develops and impact how it is treated. ..
- MEMBRANE PROCESSES MEDIATING NACL REABSORPTIONLAWRENCE PALMER; Fiscal Year: 1991..This project will increase the understanding of the importance process of NaCl reabsorption by epithelia, defects in which have been implicated in such diseases as cystic fibrosis, congestive heart failure and diarrhea...
- NEURONAL ORGANIZATION OF BASAL GANGLIACharles Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2003..This latter will allow us to determine whether there is an actual mismatch between physiological and anatomical estimates of connectivity (i.e. non-functional synaptic connections). ..
- COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF ION CHANNELSBenoit Roux; Fiscal Year: 2004..In addition, the calculations are used to characterize various microscopic factors which cannot easily be accessed experimentally, but are essential for understanding the molecular determinants of channel function. ..
- High Performance Computer System for Molecular ModelingBenoit Roux; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Biogenesis of Voltage-Gated K+ ChannelsCarol Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2007..3 will be made and studied. The experiments will employ a range of techniques, including biochemical and electrophysiological assays in Xenopus oocytes and microsomal membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
- Methods to Control Transdermal lontophoresis VariabilityS Kevin Li; Fiscal Year: 2003..Our results will also advance the knowledge of the transport mechanisms and the barrier properties of the skin pathways during iontophoresis for future strategy development to enhance iontophoretic transport. ..
- NEOSTRIATAL CHOLINERGIC INTERNEURONS FIRING PATTERNSCharles Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..