ambroxol

Summary

Summary: A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Simultaneous determination of roxithromycin and ambroxol hydrochloride in a new tablet formulation by liquid chromatography
    Meiling Qi
    Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, PR China
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 35:1287-91. 2004
  2. ncbi Oral sustained delivery of ambroxol from in situ-gelling pectin formulations
    Wataru Kubo
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science University of Hokkaido, Ishikari Tohbetsu, Hokkaido 061 0293, Japan
    Int J Pharm 271:233-40. 2004
  3. ncbi Mucoactive agents for airway mucus hypersecretory diseases
    Duncan F Rogers
    Airway Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom
    Respir Care 52:1176-93; discussion 1193-7. 2007
  4. ncbi Spectrophotometric estimation of ambroxol and cetirizine hydrochloride from tablet dosage form
    N M Gowekar
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune 3
    Pak J Pharm Sci 20:250-1. 2007
  5. ncbi [Determination of ambroxol and clenbuterol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS method]
    Nan Lin
    Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
    Yao Xue Xue Bao 42:308-13. 2007
  6. pmc Identification and characterization of ambroxol as an enzyme enhancement agent for Gaucher disease
    Gustavo H B Maegawa
    Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Biol Chem 284:23502-16. 2009
  7. ncbi Characterization of the ERAD process of the L444P mutant glucocerebrosidase variant
    Inna Bendikov-Bar
    Department of Cell Research and Immunology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978, Israel
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 46:4-10. 2011
  8. ncbi Inhibition of inflammatory responses by ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, in a murine model of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide
    Xiao Su
    Research Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai, PR China
    Intensive Care Med 30:133-40. 2004
  9. ncbi Pilot study using ambroxol as a pharmacological chaperone in type 1 Gaucher disease
    Ari Zimran
    Gaucher Clinic, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Hadassah Medical School, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 50:134-7. 2013
  10. ncbi Inhibition of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant and TTX-sensitive neuronal Na(+) channels by the secretolytic ambroxol
    Thomas Weiser
    Department CNS Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma KG, Ingelheim, Germany
    Mol Pharmacol 62:433-8. 2002

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications148 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Simultaneous determination of roxithromycin and ambroxol hydrochloride in a new tablet formulation by liquid chromatography
    Meiling Qi
    Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, PR China
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 35:1287-91. 2004
    ..and accurate liquid chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of roxithromycin and ambroxol hydrochloride in a new tablet formulation...
  2. ncbi Oral sustained delivery of ambroxol from in situ-gelling pectin formulations
    Wataru Kubo
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science University of Hokkaido, Ishikari Tohbetsu, Hokkaido 061 0293, Japan
    Int J Pharm 271:233-40. 2004
    ..0 and 1.5%, w/v) to rats were evaluated as vehicles for the sustained release of the expectorant drug ambroxol hydrochloride...
  3. ncbi Mucoactive agents for airway mucus hypersecretory diseases
    Duncan F Rogers
    Airway Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom
    Respir Care 52:1176-93; discussion 1193-7. 2007
    ..are a longstanding and popular therapeutic option, and numerous compounds (eg, N-acetylcysteine, erdosteine, and ambroxol) are available for clinical use worldwide...
  4. ncbi Spectrophotometric estimation of ambroxol and cetirizine hydrochloride from tablet dosage form
    N M Gowekar
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune 3
    Pak J Pharm Sci 20:250-1. 2007
    Fixed dose combination tablets containing ambroxol HCl and cetirizine HCl are clinically used as mucolytic and antiallergic...
  5. ncbi [Determination of ambroxol and clenbuterol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS method]
    Nan Lin
    Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
    Yao Xue Xue Bao 42:308-13. 2007
    b>Ambroxol and clenbuterol were extracted from human plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, ambroxol was separated on a Zorbax XDB-C18 column and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ..
  6. pmc Identification and characterization of ambroxol as an enzyme enhancement agent for Gaucher disease
    Gustavo H B Maegawa
    Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Biol Chem 284:23502-16. 2009
    ..b>Ambroxol (ABX), a drug used to treat airway mucus hypersecretion and hyaline membrane disease in newborns, was identified ..
  7. ncbi Characterization of the ERAD process of the L444P mutant glucocerebrosidase variant
    Inna Bendikov-Bar
    Department of Cell Research and Immunology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978, Israel
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 46:4-10. 2011
    ..The mutant protein undergoes polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Recently Ambroxol, a known expectorant, was identified as a pharmacological chaperone for mutant GCase...
  8. ncbi Inhibition of inflammatory responses by ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, in a murine model of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide
    Xiao Su
    Research Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai, PR China
    Intensive Care Med 30:133-40. 2004
    The aim of this study is to investigate whether ambroxol inhibits inflammatory responses in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury (ALI).
  9. ncbi Pilot study using ambroxol as a pharmacological chaperone in type 1 Gaucher disease
    Ari Zimran
    Gaucher Clinic, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Hadassah Medical School, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 50:134-7. 2013
    The purpose of this pilot was to assess the tolerability and efficacy of ambroxol as a pharmacological chaperone in patients with symptomatic, type 1 Gaucher disease who present with measurable disease parameters but are not receiving ..
  10. ncbi Inhibition of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant and TTX-sensitive neuronal Na(+) channels by the secretolytic ambroxol
    Thomas Weiser
    Department CNS Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma KG, Ingelheim, Germany
    Mol Pharmacol 62:433-8. 2002
    b>Ambroxol has a long history for the treatment of airway diseases because of its beneficial effects on surfactant synthesis and mucus-modifying properties...
  11. ncbi Block of sensory neuronal Na+ channels by the secreolytic ambroxol is associated with an interaction with local anesthetic binding sites
    Andreas Leffler
    Department of Anesthesiology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Pharmacol 630:19-28. 2010
    ..The secreolytic ambroxol reduces pain-related behavior in rodents and alleviates pain in humans...
  12. pmc Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells
    Jeanclare Seagrave
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    Respir Res 13:98. 2012
    ..We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC.
  13. ncbi In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of ambroxol
    V Stetinova
    Institute of Experimental Biopharmaceutics, Joint Research Center of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and PRO MED CS Praha a s, Heyrovského 1207, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
    Clin Exp Med 4:152-8. 2004
    In addition to a mucolytic action, ambroxol has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant effects of ambroxol were studied both in vitro and in vivo...
  14. ncbi Simultaneous high-throughput determination of clenbuterol, ambroxol and bromhexine in pharmaceutical formulations by HPLC with potentiometric detection
    Grzegorz Bazylak
    Faculty of Science and Biomedicine, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp RUCA, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 32:887-903. 2003
    Potentiometric detection of clenbuterol, ambroxol and bromhexine in marketed pharmaceuticals was described in six isocratic HPLC systems...
  15. ncbi Efficacy and safety of ambroxol lozenges in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat. EBM-based clinical documentation
    Christian de Mey
    ACPS Applied Clinical Pharmacology Services, Mainz Kastel, Germany
    Arzneimittelforschung 58:557-68. 2008
    ..the evidence from randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials (RCT) with the local anaesthetic ambroxol (CAS 23828-92-4) in the treatment of sore throat is being reviewed...
  16. ncbi Ambroxol: a CNS drug?
    Thomas Weiser
    Department of Medical Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co, KG, Ingelheim, Germany
    CNS Neurosci Ther 14:17-24. 2008
    For almost three decades ambroxol has been used in the therapy of airway diseases. In 2002, ambroxol lozenges were marketed for the treatment of sore throat making use of its local anesthetic effect...
  17. ncbi Ambroxol alleviates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury by antioxidant and antiapoptotic pathways
    K Jiang
    Department of General Surgery, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China
    Transplant Proc 45:2439-45. 2013
    ..The use of ambroxol, which acts as a mucolytic agent, provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
  18. pmc Ambroxol as a pharmacological chaperone for mutant glucocerebrosidase
    Inna Bendikov-Bar
    Department of Cell Research and Immunology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    Blood Cells Mol Dis 50:141-5. 2013
    ..b>Ambroxol, a known expectorant, is one such chaperone...
  19. ncbi The chaperone activity and toxicity of ambroxol on Gaucher cells and normal mice
    Zhuo Luan
    Division of Child Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36 1 Nishi cho, Yonago, Japan
    Brain Dev 35:317-22. 2013
    ..Recently, ambroxol, an FDA-approved drug used to treat airway mucus hypersecretion and hyaline membrane disease in newborns, was ..
  20. ncbi Local anaesthetic properties of ambroxol hydrochloride lozenges in view of sore throat. Clinical proof of concept
    Alexander Schutz
    Ear, Nose and Throat Institute, Stuttgart, Germany
    Arzneimittelforschung 52:194-9. 2002
    ..The present study was conducted to explore whether the test compound is going to show clinical relevance and is a suitable medication for the relief of these symptoms...
  21. ncbi Efficacy and tolerability of ambroxol hydrochloride lozenges in sore throat. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials regarding the local anaesthetic properties
    Jürgen Fischer
    Clinic Norderney, LVA Westfalen, Norderney
    Arzneimittelforschung 52:256-63. 2002
    Two confirmatory clinical trials were performed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of ambroxol lozenges at doses of 20 mg and 30 mg relative to placebo in relieving the symptoms of sore throat of at least moderately severe ..
  22. ncbi Protective effect of ambroxol against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats
    Qiao Ming Zhi
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Jinling Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University, PR China
    Intern Med 50:1879-87. 2011
    To evaluate the possible therapeutic effect of ambroxol on pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.
  23. ncbi Ambroxol, a Nav1.8-preferring Na(+) channel blocker, effectively suppresses pain symptoms in animal models of chronic, neuropathic and inflammatory pain
    Wolfram Gaida
    Department of CNS Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, D 88397 Biberach, Germany
    Neuropharmacology 49:1220-7. 2005
    ..Recently, the secretolytic ambroxol was found to preferentially inhibit Nav1.8 channels...
  24. ncbi Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form
    P S Jain
    R C Patel College of Pharmacy, Karwand Naka, Shirpur Dist Dhule 425 405 M S India
    J Chromatogr Sci 48:45-8. 2010
    ..precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated...
  25. ncbi Effect of ambroxol on ion transport -- a model study
    Danuta I Kosik-Bogacka
    Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
    Med Sci Monit 8:BR236-41. 2002
    Effect on ambroxol on reflexive physiological reactions of isolated frog skin was studied with electrophysiological methods designed to assess ion currents occurring in epithelial tissues or organs...
  26. ncbi The protective effects of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and influence on production of transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha
    De Hong Xia
    Jiangyin Hospital of Medical College, Southeast University, 214400, Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, People s Republic of China
    Med Oncol 27:697-701. 2010
    The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of ambroxol on radiation lung injury and the expression of transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in plasma...
  27. ncbi Pharmacokinetic properties of single-dose loratadine and ambroxol alone and combined in tablet formulations in healthy men
    José Villacampa
    Department of Pharmaceutical Development, Schering Plough, S A de C V, Mexico City, Mexico
    Clin Ther 25:2225-32. 2003
    ..The most frequent symptoms are throat soreness and cough; therefore, a new formulation combining loratadine and ambroxol hydrochloride was designed to treat these 2 major symptoms...
  28. ncbi Simultaneous determination of multi drug components Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride by validated RP-HPLC method in liquid dosage form
    Jainendra Kumar Jain
    KM College of Pharmacy, Madurai 625107, Tamilnadu, India
    Pak J Pharm Sci 21:151-8. 2008
    ..e., Theophylline, Etofylline, Guaiphenesine and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in a liquid dosage form...
  29. ncbi Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment
    Carola Seifart
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 203:27-35. 2005
    b>Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency...
  30. ncbi The effect of taste masking agents on in situ gelling pectin formulations for oral sustained delivery of paracetamol and ambroxol
    Shozo Miyazaki
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science University of Hokkaido, Ishikari Tohbetsu, Hokkaido 061 0293, Japan
    Int J Pharm 297:38-49. 2005
    ..properties of in situ gelling pectin formulations and on the in vitro and in vivo release of paracetamol and ambroxol from these formulations...
  31. ncbi Determination of ambroxol in human plasma using LC-MS/MS
    Hohyun Kim
    Department of Pharmacokinetics, Seoul Clinical Laboratories, Seoul Medical Science Institute, 7 14 Dongbinggo Dong, Yongsan gu, Seoul 140 809, South Korea
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 32:209-16. 2003
    ..chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of ambroxol in human plasma...
  32. ncbi Determination of ambroxol hydrochloride, methylparaben and benzoic acid in pharmaceutical preparations based on sequential injection technique coupled with monolithic column
    Dalibor Satinsky
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovskeho 1203, Hradec Kralove 500 05, Czech Republic
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 40:287-93. 2006
    ..In this contribution, a new separation method for simultaneous determination of ambroxol, methylparaben and benzoic acid was developed based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography ..
  33. ncbi Effect of twelve-months therapy with oral ambroxol in preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD. Double-blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled study (the AMETHIST Trial)
    Mario Malerba
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, 1 Divisione di Medicina, University of Brescia, Spedali Civili, P le Spedali Civili, 25100 Brescia, Italy
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 17:27-34. 2004
    ..double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter parallel-group study was to evaluate the effect of long-term ambroxol treatment in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  34. ncbi Determination of ambroxol or bromhexine in pharmaceuticals by capillary isotachophoresis
    M Pospisilova
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Heyrovskeho, Czech Republic
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 24:421-8. 2001
    Expectorant drugs ambroxol (AX) and bromhexine (BX) were determined by capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) with conductimetric detection...
  35. ncbi Upregulation of AQP3 and AQP5 induced by dexamethasone and ambroxol in A549 cells
    Yong Ben
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, No 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 20032, China
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 161:111-8. 2008
    ..In the airways, AQP3 and AQP4 facilitate water transport. Dexamethasone and ambroxol are often used to treat patients with pulmonary diseases accompanied by airway hypersecretion...
  36. ncbi High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ambroxol in the presence of different preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations
    J E Koundourellis
    Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University, Thessaloniki, Greece
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 23:469-75. 2000
    A high-performance chromatographic method is described for simultaneous determination of ambroxol in the presence of different preservatives in syrups...
  37. ncbi Validation of an HPLC method for the quantification of ambroxol hydrochloride and benzoic acid in a syrup as pharmaceutical form stress test for stability evaluation
    M Heinänen
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 24:1005-10. 2001
    A method is described for ambroxol, trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino) cyclohexanol hydrochloride, and benzoic acid separation by HPLC with UV detection at 247 nm in a syrup as pharmaceutical presentation...
  38. ncbi Ambroxol-induced modification of ion transport in human airway Calu-3 epithelia
    Isao Hasegawa
    Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 343:475-82. 2006
    b>Ambroxol is often used as a mucolytic agent in various lung diseases. However, it is unclear how ambroxol acts on bronchial epithelial cells...
  39. ncbi Recurrent acute rhinosinusitis: a single blind clinical study of N-acetylcysteine vs ambroxol associated to corticosteroid therapy
    A Macchi
    Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Insubria, Varese, Hospital of Varese, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 25:207-17. 2012
    ..The primary aim of the medical treatment is to reduce the number of acute episodes and thus to increase the time between the exacerbations, allowing a good quality of life without necessitating surgical procedure...
  40. ncbi Ambroxol as an inhibitor of nitric oxide-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase
    I S Severina
    Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 10 Pogodinskaya Str, 119832, Moscow, Russia
    Eur J Pharmacol 407:61-4. 2000
    The influence of ambroxol on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase was investigated. Ambroxol in the concentration range from 0...
  41. ncbi Ambroxol in the 21st century: pharmacological and clinical update
    Mario Malerba
    University of Brescia, Department of Internal Medicine, 1 degrees Divisione di Medicina, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Pzza Spedali Civili 1, 25100 Brescia, Italy
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4:1119-29. 2008
    Belonging to the group of expectorants, ambroxol is an active substance with a long history that influences parameters considered to be the basis for the physiological production and the transport of the bronchial mucus...
  42. pmc Antinociceptive effect of ambroxol in rats with neuropathic spinal cord injury pain
    Aldric T Hama
    The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97:249-55. 2010
    ..b>Ambroxol has previously demonstrated antinociceptive effects in rat chronic pain models and has also shown to potently ..
  43. ncbi Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ambroxol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: validation and application to pharmacokinetic study
    Aidong Wen
    Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an 710032, China
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 48:829-34. 2008
    A rapid, simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and ambroxol in human plasma using clenbuterol as internal standard (IS)...
  44. ncbi Development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride and azithromycin in tablet dosage form
    K A Shaikh
    P G Department of Chemistry, Sir Sayyed College, P B No 89, Roshan Gate, Aurangabad 431001, M S, India
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 48:1481-4. 2008
    ..and accurate reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride and azithromycin in tablet formulations...
  45. ncbi Ambroxol reduces LPS toxicity mediated by induction of alkaline phosphatases in rat lung
    Iwao Koyama
    Department of Medical Technology, Junior College, Saitama Medical School, Moroyama, Iruma, Saitama, Japan
    Clin Biochem 37:688-93. 2004
    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) have been suggested to detoxify lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by dephosphorylation. Ambroxol, a bronchial expectorant, is known to accelerate the secretion of pulmonary surfactant particles including AP molecules as ..
  46. ncbi Quantitative determination of ambroxol in tablets by derivative UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC
    Zafer Dinçer
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Gazi University, Etiler, Ankara 06330, Turkey
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 31:867-72. 2003
    A derivative UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of ambroxol in tablets was developed. Determination of ambroxol in tablets was conducted by using first-order derivative UV spectrophotometric method at 255 nm (n = 5)...
  47. ncbi Ambroxol inhibits peroxynitrite-induced damage of alpha1-antiproteinase and free radical production in activated phagocytic cells
    Chung Soo Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul, South Korea
    Pharmacol Toxicol 91:140-9. 2002
    The present study examined the effect of ambroxol on toxic action of peroxynitrite and the respiratory burst in activated phagocytic cells...
  48. ncbi Ambroxol suppresses influenza-virus proliferation in the mouse airway by increasing antiviral factor levels
    B Yang
    Division of Enzyme Chemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, The University of Tokushima, Japan
    Eur Respir J 19:952-8. 2002
    The protective effect of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent which has antioxidant properties and stimulates the release of pulmonary surfactant, against influenza-virus proliferation in the airway was investigated in mice...
  49. ncbi Effects of N-acetylcysteine and ambroxol on the production of IL-12 and IL-10 in human alveolar macrophages
    M Aihara
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University Faculty of Medicine, Gunma, Japan
    Respiration 67:662-71. 2000
    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (AMB) have recently been proposed as possible therapeutic agents in the treatment of pulmonary disorders. IL-12 plays an important role in host resistance to infection and the development of Th-1 cells...
  50. ncbi Depressant effects of ambroxol and erdosteine on cytokine synthesis, granule enzyme release, and free radical production in rat alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide
    Yoon Young Jang
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul 156 756, South Korea
    Pharmacol Toxicol 92:173-9. 2003
    The present study examined the effects of ambroxol and erdosteine, bronchial expectorants, on the cytokine synthesis, granule enzyme release, and free radical production in rat alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide...
  51. ncbi Effect of early ambroxol treatment on lung functions in mechanically ventilated preterm newborns who subsequently developed a bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)
    G Schmalisch
    Department of Neonatology Charité, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
    Respir Med 94:378-84. 2000
    ..In a randomized trial in 102 preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) it has been shown that early Ambroxol treatment (30 mg kg(-1) over the first 5 days) significantly reduces the incidence of RDS-associated ..
  52. ncbi [Ambroxol]
    Oznur Akkoca Yildiz
    Ankara Universitesi Tip Fakültesi Göğüs Hastaliklari Anabilim Dali, Ankara, Turkiye
    Tuberk Toraks 54:3-14. 2006
  53. ncbi Proteases essential for human influenza virus entry into cells and their inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents
    Hiroshi Kido
    Division of Enzyme Chemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, The University of Tokushima, Kuramoto cho 3 18 15, Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
    Curr Pharm Des 13:405-14. 2007
    ..We also found that ambroxol, a mucolytic and anti-oxidant agent, up-regulates the levels of endogenous protease inhibitory compounds in the ..
  54. ncbi Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of roxithromycin and ambroxol hydrochloride in human plasma by LC-MS/MS
    Tai jun Hang
    Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, PR China
    Clin Chim Acta 382:20-4. 2007
    Although roxithromycin and ambroxol HCl were often administered concomitantly for the treatment of respiratory infections, the pharmacokinetic interactions between them have not been reported...
  55. ncbi Determination of ambroxol in an automated multi-pumping pulsed flow system
    João L M Santos
    REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4050 047 Porto, Portugal
    Anal Sci 21:461-4. 2005
    ..flow methodology exploiting the multi-pumping approach was developed for the spectrophotometric determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations...
  56. ncbi Determination of roxithromycin in rat lung tissue by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Peng Wang
    Shenyang Pharmtech Institute of Pharmaceuticals, Shenyang 110016, China
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 39:618-23. 2005
    ..The present study demonstrates that the concentration of roxithromycin in rat lung tissues can be significantly increased by ambroxol when they are formulated in combination.
  57. ncbi Direct, non-destructive quantitative measurement of an active pharmaceutical ingredient in an intact capsule formulation using Raman spectroscopy
    Jaejin Kim
    Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133 791, South Korea
    Anal Chim Acta 598:280-5. 2007
    The active pharmaceutical ingredient (ambroxol) in an intact capsule formulation has been non-destructively quantified using Raman spectroscopy...
  58. ncbi [Protective effects of ambroxol on lung injury during cardiacpulmonary bypass in patients undergoing valve replacement]
    Hai yang Zhou
    Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 29:723-4. 2004
  59. ncbi [Ambroxol-induced toxicoderma]
    N Saad
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 133:181-2. 2006
  60. ncbi Development of treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
    Masanori Shiratori
    Intern Med 41:1090-1. 2002
  61. ncbi Safety and usage pattern of an over-the-counter ambroxol cough syrup: a community pharmacy-based cohort study
    M Schulz
    Center for Drug Information and Pharmacy Practice, ABDA Federal Union of German Associations of Pharmacists, Berlin, Germany
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 44:409-21. 2006
    Mucoactive substances such as ambroxol, available in several countries as over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, are used for the treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis.
  62. ncbi [Clinical observation on Biyan Qingdu Granule and ambroxol hydrochloride in treating secretory otitis media]
    Ying Guo
    Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2:277, 291. 2004
  63. ncbi [Mucolytics in acute and chronic respiratory tract disorders. II. Uses for treatment and antioxidant properties]
    Maciej Kupczyk
    Klinika Pneumonologii i Alergologii Instytutu Medycyny Wewnetrznej Akademii Medycznej w Łodzi
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 12:248-52. 2002
    ..Mucolytic agents such as Ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine are able to alter the secretion of mucus and its physical properties which results in ..
  64. ncbi [Effect of ambroxol on lipid peroxidation in homogenates of the human placenta]
    D Chlubek

    Ginekol Pol 72:804-8. 2001
    ..Cells and tissues are protected against toxic lipid peroxides by antioxidants. Ambroxol was found to be equipotent to well-known antioxidants in protecting lipids from peroxidative attack in lungs...
  65. ncbi [Atelectasis following cesarean section. Personal experience]
    A D'Ettore
    Dipartimento Clinico di Emergenza Ostetrica e Ginecologica e Medicina della Riproduzione, Urologia, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
    Minerva Ginecol 54:185-7. 2002
    ..The inhibition of cough's reflex causes retention of secretions with consequent bronchial obstruction and atelectasis. Personal experience in 6 cases of atelectasis following cesarean section is reported...
  66. ncbi Enhanced resistance to Sendai virus infection in DBA/2J mice with a botanical drug combination (Sinupret)
    M Schmolz
    EDI GmbH, Reutlingen, Germany
    Int Immunopharmacol 1:1841-8. 2001
    ..o.), and two active controls, the chemical secretolytic ambroxol (p.o.) and the immunomodulator Muramyldipeptide (MDP, i.v.) were used...
  67. ncbi [Efficacy of combined drug therapy using a macrolide antibiotic and an antihistamine for adult patients with chronic paranasal sinusitis]
    Tsutomu Ueda
    Jpn J Antibiot 56:162-5. 2003
  68. ncbi [The effect of inhaled ambroxol treatment on clinical symptoms and chosen parameters of ventilation in patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients]
    K Jahnz-Rozyk
    Klinika Chorób Wewnetrznych, Pneumonologii i Alergologii IMW CSK WAM w Warszawie
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 11:239-43. 2001
    ..placebo controlled comparative study of the clinical symptoms and chosen parameters of ventilation of inhaled ambroxol in patients hospitalized with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  69. ncbi [A near-infrared diffuse reflectance analysis method for the noninvasive quantitative analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride tablets]
    Mei Ling Sun
    Center for Instrumental Analysis, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
    Yao Xue Xue Bao 39:60-3. 2004
    To develop a near-infrared diffuse reflectance analysis (NIRDRA) method for rapid noninvasive quantitative determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in half-finished product particles and non-blister-packed, blistered tablets.
  70. ncbi Modulating effects of mucoregulating drugs on the attachment of Haemophilus influenzae
    C T Ndour
    Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 852-8102, Japan
    Microb Pathog 30:121-7. 2001
    ..In the present study we describe the effects of two mucoregulating drugs, S-carboxymethylcysteine (S-CMC) and ambroxol, on the attachment of NTHI to pharyngeal epithelial cells. There was a significant (P < 0.0001, < 0...
  71. ncbi [Comparison of the effect of ambroxol and dexamethasone on the expression of pulmonary surfactant proteins in the fetal rat lungs]
    Xue ming Fu
    Department of Neonatology, Children s Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 42:450-3. 2004
    To investigate the effects of maternally administered dexamethasone and ambroxol on the mRNA levels of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B and SP-C) expression in fetal rat lungs at gestational age day 19.
  72. ncbi Activity of some mucolytics against bacterial adherence to mammalian cells
    Mohamed M Hafez
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 158:97-112. 2009
    ..Preliminary screening for antiadherent activity showed that ambroxol, bromhexine, ammonium chloride, and ammonium acetate but neither guaiphenesin nor carbocysteine significantly ..
  73. ncbi A simple micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method for the quantitative analysis of organic expectorants
    Yu Ting Lin
    Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Electrophoresis 29:3524-30. 2008
    ..chromatographic method is described for the separation and quantification of five expectorant drugs, including ambroxol (AMB), bromhexine (BRM), carbocysteine, guaiacol and guaifenesin...
  74. ncbi Current perspectives on the prevention and management of chronic lung disease in preterm infants
    Prakesh S Shah
    Department of Paediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Paediatr Drugs 5:463-80. 2003
    ..alpha-1 antitrypsin, superoxide dismutase, tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), allopurinol, ambroxol, inositol, inhaled bronchodilators, and fluid restriction...
  75. ncbi Effect of Tanreqing Injection on treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with Chinese medicine syndrome of retention of phlegm and heat in Fei
    Wen Li
    Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
    Chin J Integr Med 16:131-7. 2010
    ..To explore the effect of Tanreqing Injection (TRQI) on the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) with Chinese medicine syndrome of retention of phlegm and heat in Fei (RPHF)...
  76. pmc The predictive value of asthma medications to identify individuals with asthma--a study in German general practices
    W Himmel
    Department of General Practice, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Br J Gen Pract 51:879-83. 2001
    ..For asthma treatment, the frequently applied ratio of anti-inflammatory to bronchodilator drugs may, however, be misleading if the specificity of a drug for the treatment of asthma, compared with other diseases, is unknown...
  77. pmc Effect of carbocysteine on cough reflex to capsaicin in asthmatic patients
    Yoshihisa Ishiura
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Wajima Municipal Hospital, Wajima, Japan
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 55:504-10. 2003
    ..This study was designed to investigate the clinical effect of carbocysteine for cough sensitivity in patients with bronchial asthma...
  78. ncbi Adenosine increases human platelet levels of cGMP through nitric oxide: possible role in its antiaggregating effect
    Giovanni Anfossi
    Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Azienda Ospedaliera S Luigi, I 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy
    Thromb Res 105:71-8. 2002
    ..activity), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, nitric synthase inhibitor), ionomycin (calcium ionophore), and ambroxol (2-amino-3,5-dibromo-N-[trans-4-hydroxycyclohexyl]benzylamine, inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent ..
  79. ncbi [Lipoid pneumonia following attempted suicide by intravenous injection of lamp oil]
    S M Perings
    Klinik fur Kardiologie, Pneumologie und Angiologie, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf
    Med Klin (Munich) 96:685-8. 2001
    ..However, intoxication following an intravenous injection leading to a lipoid pneumonia after an attempted suicide is a rare finding...
  80. ncbi Herbal medicines for the treatment of COPD: a systematic review
    R Guo
    Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter EX2 4NT, UK
    Eur Respir J 28:330-8. 2006
    ..A single trial compared a herbal medicine (Hedera helix leaf extract) with a conventional treatment (ambroxol tablet) and reported no significant difference between groups...
  81. ncbi YM-40461 improves airway clearance in guinea pigs with induced subacute bronchitis
    A Kimoto
    Institute for Drug Discovery Research, Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 23:1441-4. 2000
    ..1 mg/kg p.o. At a dose of 10 mg/kg p.o., YM-40461 restored MCT to the control level (98.0% recovery). Ambroxol, bromhexine and salbutamol also improved MCT, but were far less effective than YM-40461...
  82. ncbi A method for studying expectorant action in the mouse by measurement of tracheobronchial phenol red secretion
    G Coppi
    Proter Research Laboratories, Opera, Milano, Italy
    Farmaco 44:541-5. 1989
    ..the same activity for N-acetylcysteine, Tiopronine, SF-1284 and S-carboxymethylcysteine, and a lower activity for Ambroxol and Sobrerol...
  83. ncbi [Gentleness in ENT: optimalization of drug therapy]
    J Sternon

    Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 43:373-9. 1989
    ..5. Optimalization of nonmorphinic oral analgesics with acetaminophen (in monotherapy or in association) and morphinic ones by anticipative and repetitive administration...
  84. pmc Preparation and evaluation of microencapsulated fast melt tablets of ambroxol hydrochloride
    S Jacob
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, S Bhagwan Singh PG Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Research, Balawala, Dehradun 248 161, India
    Indian J Pharm Sci 71:276-84. 2009
    ..Present work assessed the potential of a natural polysaccharide, pectin to mask the bitter taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a fast disintegrating dosage ..
  85. ncbi Colorimetric and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mucolytic drug ambroxol through ion-pair formation with iron and thiocyanate
    Abdulkadir Levent
    Yuzuncu Yil University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Van, Turkey
    Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 13:675-82. 2010
    ..and atomic absorption spectrometric methods have been developed for the determination of mucolytic drug Ambroxol. These procedures depend upon the reaction of iron(III) metal ion with the drug in the presence of thiocyanate ..
  86. ncbi Development and validation of an efficient HPLC method for quantification of voriconazole in plasma and microdialysate reflecting an important target site
    Franziska Simmel
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmacy, Martin Luther Universitaet Halle Wittenberg, Wolfgang Langenbeck Str 4, 06120, Halle, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 392:479-88. 2008
    ..7 to +107%) for both matrices. Of the 36 drug products typically co-administered with voriconazole, none except ambroxol interfered with its peak signal, and this interference was successfully managed...
  87. ncbi [Effect of ambroxol on lung development of rat models with nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia]
    Ying li Qiao
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 201102, China
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 90:2420-3. 2010
    To investigate the effects of ambroxol on rat models with nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and its potential mechanism.
  88. ncbi [Management of extensive burn accompanying severe inhalation injury]
    Xue wen Qiu
    Department of Burns, Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
    Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao 24:597-9. 2004
    ..To review our clinical experiences in the treatment of extensive burn accompanied by severe inhalation injury...
  89. ncbi Flow injection analysis using carbon film resistor electrodes for amperometric determination of ambroxol
    Fabiana S Felix
    Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508 000 Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Talanta 76:128-33. 2008
    Flow injection analysis (FIA) using a carbon film sensor for amperometric detection was explored for ambroxol analysis in pharmaceutical formulations...
  90. ncbi Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor and pulmonary surfactant serve as principal defenses against influenza A virus infection in the airway and chemical agents up-regulating their levels may have therapeutic potential
    Hiroshi Kido
    Division of Enzyme Chemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, The University of Tokushima, Kuramoto cho 3 18 15, Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
    Biol Chem 385:1029-34. 2004
    ..One of these compounds, ambroxol, is a mucolytic and anti-oxidant agent that stimulates the release of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor and ..
  91. ncbi Effects of certain antioxidants on lipid peroxidation process in lung homogenates of L thyroxine-receiving rats
    Joanna A Wiktorska
    Department of Endocrine Disorders and Bone Metabolism, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 31:137-46. 2010
    ..A possible role of antioxidants in thyreotoxicosis was investigated. We examined the parameters of lipid peroxidation (LPO): conjugated dienes (CD), malondialdehyde (MDA), Schiff bases (SB) in lung homogenates of male Wistar rats...
  92. ncbi Meta-analysis of high doses of ambroxol treatment for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome based on randomized controlled trials
    Xiangdong Wu
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Institute of Critical Care Medicine, The First Hospital Affiliated to Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China
    J Clin Pharmacol 54:1199-206. 2014
    This study seeks to evaluate the potential benefits of high doses of ambroxol treatment for acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by conducting a meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
  93. ncbi Neltenexine tablets in smoking and non-smoking patients with COPD. A double-blind, randomised, controlled study versus placebo
    C Cattaneo
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Stradella Hospital, Stradella, Pavia, Italy
    Minerva Med 92:277-84. 2001
    ....
  94. ncbi Oral neltenexine in patients with obstructive airways diseases: an open, randomised, controlled comparison versus sobrerol
    G Fadda
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Alivesi Hospital, Ospedali Riuniti di Sassari, Ittiri (Sassari, Italy
    Minerva Med 92:269-75. 2001
    BACKGROUND: The synthetic mucolytic neltene-xine is an amide derivative of ambroxol and thiophencarboxylic acid...
  95. ncbi Depressant effect of ambroxol on stimulated functional responses and cell death in rat alveolar macrophages exposed to silica in vitro
    Young Ki Kim
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul, South Korea
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:629-37. 2002
    The present study examined the effect of ambroxol on free radical production, granule enzyme release, and cell death in silica-activated rat alveolar macrophages...
  96. ncbi 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant
    Toshiyuki Matsunaga
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501 1196, Japan
    Cell Tissue Res 347:407-17. 2012
    ..Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ...
  97. ncbi Determination of ambroxol in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ESI)
    Fenli Su
    Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology Institute, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, PR China
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 853:364-8. 2007
    A rapid, sensitive and specific method to determination of ambroxol in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ESI) was described...
  98. ncbi The influence of ambroxol and capsaicin on the isolated rabbit bladder wall
    Tomasz Drewa
    Department of Tissue Engineering, Chair of Medical Biology, L Rydygier Medical College Bydgoszcz, N Copernicus University, Torun, Poland
    Acta Pol Pharm 62:399-403. 2005
    ..b>Ambroxol can suppress reflexes such as the cough or the corneal reflex which are connected to stimulation of C fibre ..
  99. ncbi Effects of ambroxol on Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation
    Hernandez Delgadillo Rene
    Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
    Mycoses 57:228-32. 2014
    ..objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro fungicidal activity as well as the antibiofilm activity of ambroxol (AMB) against C. albicans growth...
  100. ncbi [Impact of treatment with low dose roxithromycin on stable bronchiectasis]
    Ji Feng Liu
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China
    Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 35:824-7. 2012
    ..To investigate the impact of treatment with low dose roxithromycin on clinical symptoms and CT scores in patients with stable bronchiectasis...
  101. ncbi Glucocorticoids, antioxidants and staurosporine modulate the adherence between monocytes and malaria infected erythrocytes
    J P Goldring
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Natal Pietermaritzburg, Scottsville, South Africa
    Inflamm Res 48:657-61. 1999
    ..The adherence of malaria parasitised red cells to monocytes was determined after monocytes were treated with dexamethasone, cortisol, ambroxol, danazol, probucol and staurosporine.

Research Grants2

  1. Preclinical Development of a Novel and Effective Treatment for Cough
    Blake M Paterson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Antitussive synergy of MMT in combination with other agents (menthol and ambroxol) will also be evaluated...
  2. Diesel Exhaust Particle Modulation of Inflammation
    Jeanclare Seagrave; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....