Genomes and Genes
Summary: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
Publications173 found, 100 shown here
- Occurrence of nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants and nonylphenol carboxylic acids in wastewater in JapanK Komori
Water Environment Research Group, Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Water Sci Technol 53:27-33. 2006..removal efficiency for the short EO chain NPnEO was less significant than the long EO chain NPnEO, suggesting that the degradation rate of the short EO chain NPnEO was lower than that of the long EO chain NPnEO in the wastewater treatment..
- Use of florbetapir-PET for imaging beta-amyloid pathologyChristopher M Clark
Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
JAMA 305:275-83. 2011..The ability to identify and quantify brain β-amyloid could increase the accuracy of a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease...
- Folate-functionalized polymeric micelles for tumor targeted delivery of a potent multidrug-resistance modulator FG020326Xiaoqiang Yang
BME Center, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
J Biomed Mater Res A 86:48-60. 2008..The in vitro Rhodamine 123 efflux experiment using MDR KB(v200) cells revealed that when cells were pretreated with folate-attached and FG020326-loaded micelles, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux function was significantly inhibited...
- Whole-body biodistribution and brain PET imaging with [18F]AV-45, a novel amyloid imaging agent--a pilot studyKun Ju Lin
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan
Nucl Med Biol 37:497-508. 2010..This pilot study reports the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of [(18)F]AV-45 in human subjects...
- Crystal structure of a carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis with anti-Prelog stereospecificityRongzhen Zhang
Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education and School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, People s Republic of China
Protein Sci 17:1412-23. 2008..This latter result provides a new example of a protein engineering approach to modify the coenzyme specificity in SCR and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in general...
- Optimization of automated radiosynthesis of [18F]AV-45: a new PET imaging agent for Alzheimer's diseaseYajing Liu
Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Beijing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100875, PR China
Nucl Med Biol 37:917-25. 2010..We report herein an optimal [(18)F]fluorination, de-protection condition and fully automated radiosynthesis of [(18)F]AV-45 ([(18)F]5) on a radiosynthesis module (BNU F-A2)...
- In vivo imaging of amyloid deposition in Alzheimer disease using the radioligand 18F-AV-45 (florbetapir [corrected] F 18)Dean F Wong
Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 0807, USA
J Nucl Med 51:913-20. 2010..Here we present the results of a clinical trial with (E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine ((18)F-AV-45 or florbetapir [corrected] F 18)...
- Preclinical properties of 18F-AV-45: a PET agent for Abeta plaques in the brainSeok Rye Choi
Avid Radiopharmaceutical Inc, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
J Nucl Med 50:1887-94. 2009..E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine ((18)F-AV-45) is such as an agent currently in phase III clinical studies for PET of Abeta plaques in the brain...
- The effect of a combination of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride and 2% 2-phenoxyethanol (octenisept) on wound healing in pigs in vivo and its in vitro percutaneous permeation through intact and barrier disrupted porcine skinJessica Stahl
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, Germany
Int Wound J 7:62-9. 2010..Phenoxyethanol permeates through intact porcine skin in amounts of 11.3% and through barrier disrupted skin in amounts of 43.9%..
- Toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether: impact on testicular gene expressionGargi Bagchi
Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Int J Androl 31:269-74. 2008..Finally, given the effects of EGME on multiple genes and signalling pathways in the testis, mixture studies combining EGME, or MAA, with other testicular toxicants may help identify toxicities that are aggravated by EGME exposure...
- Use of 2% 2-phenoxyethanol and 0.1% octenidine as antiseptic in premature newborn infants of 23-26 weeks gestationC Buhrer
Departmenmt of Neonatology, Charite Medical Center, Virchow Hospital, Berlin, Germany
J Hosp Infect 51:305-7. 2002..2-Phenoxyethanol is readily absorbed by the newborn's skin but apparently undergoes extensive oxidative metabolization to 2-phenoxyacetic acid...
- Exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether: clinical and cytogenetic findingsRanda A El-Zein
Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
Arch Environ Health 57:371-6. 2002..The study characterizes EGME as a human teratogen, as indicated by the prevalence of characteristic dysmorphic features and persistent cytogenetic damage in individuals exposed in utero to this chemical...
- Hepatic effects of 2-butoxyethanol in rodentsAngela M Siesky
Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS 1021, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
Toxicol Sci 70:252-60. 2002....
- Mechanisms of 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemangiosarcomasStacy M Corthals
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Division of Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 46202, USA
Toxicol Sci 92:378-86. 2006..These events coupled together provide the events necessary for the induction of hemangiosarcomas by 2-butoxyethanol...
- Effects of male reproductive toxicants on gene expression in rat testesTamio Fukushima
Worldwide Safety Sciences, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Nagoya Laboratories, Pfizer Japan Inc, Aichi
J Toxicol Sci 30:195-206. 2005..These data suggest that cDNA microarray is a useful technique for evaluation of primary testicular toxicity. Furthermore, we propose the above 3 spermatogenesis-related genes as potential biomarkers of testicular toxicity...
- Association of liver hemangiosarcoma and secondary iron overload in B6C3F1 mice--the National Toxicology Program experienceAbraham Nyska
Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 9998, USA
Toxicol Pathol 32:222-8. 2004..The reason for the sex-increased susceptibility for development of hemangiosarcoma is unknown but may be due to a hormone-related, reduced antioxidative defensive capacity through modulation of the activities of antioxidative enzymes...
- Effects of 2-butoxyethanol on hepatic oxidative damageJoungjoa Park
Division of Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS 1021, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Toxicol Lett 126:19-29. 2002....
- Mode of action of butoxyethanol-induced mouse liver hemangiosarcomas and hepatocellular carcinomasJ E Klaunig
Indiana School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS 547, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Toxicol Lett 156:107-15. 2005....
- Review of the genotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanolB M Elliott
Central Toxicology Laboratory, Zeneca Ltd, Cheshire, UK
Mutat Res 387:89-96. 1997....
- Rat pachytene spermatocytes down-regulate a polo-like kinase and up-regulate a thiol-specific antioxidant protein, whereas sertoli cells down-regulate a phosphodiesterase and up-regulate an oxidative stress protein after exposure to methoxyethanol and metV Syed
Center for Research on Reproduction and Women s Health and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia 19104, USA
Endocrinology 139:3503-11. 1998....
- Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 11) Two- or four-week repeated-dose studies and fertility study of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in female ratsTetsushi Dodo
Drug Safety Research Laboratories Kakamigahara, Eisai Co, Ltd, Kakamigahara shi, Gifu, Japan
J Toxicol Sci 34:SP121-8. 2009..It is concluded that a repeated-dose toxicity study with a treatment period for 2 weeks or longer is sufficient for evaluation of ovarian toxicity induced by EGME...
- A characterization of selected endocrine disruptor compounds in a Portuguese wastewater treatment plantR Mauricio
Dep de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Universidade Nova de Lisboa Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Quinta da Torre 2825, Monte da Caparica, Portugal
Environ Monit Assess 118:75-87. 2006..The results are also useful since the wastewater treatment plant is located in a Mediterranean region, which results in an effluent with its own characteristics...
- Environmental fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates--a reviewGuang Guo Ying
CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, SA, Australia
Environ Int 28:215-26. 2002..8 microg/kg NP in muscle tissue. APEs degraded faster in the water column than in sediment. Aerobic conditions facilitate easier further biotransformation of APE metabolites than anaerobic conditions...
- Occurrence of alkylphenolic substances in a Great Lakes coastal marsh, Cootes Paradise, ON, CanadaT Mayer
National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada
Environ Pollut 147:683-90. 2007..9 to 6.3 microg g(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate AP concentrations in tissue of benthic invertebrates under real environmental conditions...
- Simplified determination of lipophilic metabolites of nonylphenol ethoxylates: method development and application in aqueous samples from Buenos Aires, ArgentinaPaola A Babay
Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av General Paz 1499, San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires B1650KNA, Argentina
J Environ Monit 10:443-52. 2008..The elevated concentrations found for the estrogenic metabolites of NPnEO are in accordance with an unrestricted use of this class of non-ionic surfactants in the country...
- Radiolytic decomposition of multi-class surfactants and their biotransformation products in sewage treatment plant effluentsM Petrovic
ICREA Catalan Institution for Research and Advance Studies, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
Chemosphere 66:114-22. 2007..Radiolytic treatment applied was also very effective in removing PEGs formed as by-products from APEO degradation, as well as in decomposing other surfactants, such as linear LAS, AS and AES...
- Steroid estrogens, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater contaminants in groundwater affected by a residential septic system on Cape Cod, MAChristopher H Swartz
Silent Spring Institute, Newton, Massachusetts 02148, USA
Environ Sci Technol 40:4894-902. 2006..The results suggest that there is the potential for migration of these OWC, which are unregulated and not routinely monitored, in groundwater...
- Modeling aggregate exposures to glycol ethers from use of commercial floor productsMichael Koontz
GEOMET Technologies, LLC, Flag Pond, Tennessee, USA
Int J Toxicol 25:95-107. 2006....
- Nonylphenol ethoxylates and other additives in aircraft deicers, antiicers, and waters receiving airport runoffSteven R Corsi
U S Geological Survey Environmental Studies Section, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562, USA
Environ Sci Technol 37:4031-7. 2003..04 microg/L at the upstream reference, 0.98 and 7.67 microg/L at outfalls, and 3.89 microg/L in the receiving stream). The field data suggest that NP is generated through degradation of NPnEO from airport runoff...
- Determination of 4-nonylphenol and 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates in river sediments by microwave assisted solvent extractionValeria Croce
CNR IRSA, via Mornera 25, 1 20047 Brugherio MI, Italy
Ann Chim 93:297-304. 2003....
- Treatability of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in on-site wastewater disposal systemsBrent E Huntsman
Terran Corporation, Dayton, OH 45430 1061, USA
Water Environ Res 78:2397-404. 2006..Rapid and systematic degradation of NPE in on-site wastewater disposal systems was documented...
- Selection and characterization of aerobic bacteria capable of degrading commercial mixtures of low-ethoxylated nonylphenolsD Di Gioia
DICASM, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna, Italy
J Appl Microbiol 104:231-42. 2008..Isolation and characterization of new bacterial strains capable of degrading nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO) with a low ethoxylation degree, which are particularly recalcitrant to biodegradation...
- Development and evaluation of a microemulsion formulation for transdermal delivery of terbinafineS Baboota
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard Hamdard University, New Delhi 1100 62, India
PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 61:276-85. 2007..05). Microbiological studies of TB in microemulsion showed better anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus as compared to marketed product (P < 0.05)...
- Electrochemical treatment of the pollutants generated in an ink-manufacturing processP Canizares
Department of Chemical Engineering, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Campus Universitario s n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
J Hazard Mater 146:552-7. 2007..These results suggest an important role of the mediated electrochemical processes on the overall performance of the reaction system...
- Liquid spray formulations of xibornol by using self-microemulsifying drug delivery systemsM Cirri
Dip Scienze Farmaceutiche, Polo Scientifico di Sesto Fiorentino, via U Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
Int J Pharm 340:84-91. 2007....
- Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central Mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetlandMarco A Belmont
Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada
Environ Toxicol Chem 25:29-35. 2006..These data indicate that construction of low-cost and technologically simple treatment wetlands may be one solution to reducing the impacts of contaminants from domestic sewage in developing countries, such as Mexico...
- Estuarine and coastal zone marine pollution by the nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylates endocrine disrupters: is there a potential ecotoxicological problem?Uri Zoller
Faculty of Science and Science Education, Chemistry, Haifa University, Oranim, Kiryat Tivon, 36006, Israel
Environ Int 32:269-72. 2006..6%, 84.7% and 76.9%, respectively, between the 8th and 28th days of exposure. Apparently, there is a potential APEOs-related ecotoxicological health risk problem...
- 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylates, and other 4-alkylphenols in water and shellfish from rivers flowing into lake BiwaT Tsuda
Shiga Prefectural Kusatsu Public Health Center, 13 75, Kusatsu 3, Kusatsu, Shiga 525 0034, Japan
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 68:126-31. 2002
- Analysis of organic pollutants in sewage sludges from the Valencian community (Spain)M F Gomez-Rico
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Alicante, 03080, Alicante, Spain
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52:306-16. 2007..At the same time, it was seen that the higher values of organic pollutants belonged to digested sludges...
- Simultaneous sonication-assisted extraction, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates and polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge from wastewater treatment plantsI Aparicio
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Seville, c Virgen de Africa 7, E 41011 Seville, Spain
Anal Chim Acta 584:455-61. 2007..4 to 10.6 microg kg(-1) for PCBs in dried sludge. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Seville (South Spain)...
- The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethersMatthew J Traynor
Toxicology Unit, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability and Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 218:128-34. 2007....
- Is the permeability coefficient Kp a reliable tool in percutaneous absorption studies?Gintautas Korinth
Institute and Out Patient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Erlangen Nuremberg, Schillerstrasse 25 29, 91054, Erlangen, Germany
Arch Toxicol 79:155-9. 2005..The results of our experiments showed that the permeability coefficient Kp was not able to adjust the flux of BE to the concentration. This is in agreement with the evaluation of Kp from BE data described in the literature...
- Simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalate esters and nonylphenols in sedimentsL Bartolome
Kimika Analitikoaren Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta kutxatila, E 48080 Bilbao, Spain
J Chromatogr A 1068:229-36. 2005..This method is currently used in the study of the distribution of those organic contaminants in the estuaries of the Bay of Biscay (Spain)...
- Poly(ester urethane)s consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and poly(ethylene glycol) as candidate biomaterials: characterization and mechanical property studyXu Li
Institute of Materials Research and Engineering IMRE, National University of Singapore, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602
Biomacromolecules 6:2740-7. 2005..Young's modulus and the stress at break increased with increasing PHB segment length or PEG segment length, whereas the strain at break increased with increasing PEG segment length or decreasing PHB segment length...
- Nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in river water, drinking water,and fish tissues in the area of Chongqing, ChinaBing Shao
College of Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing, China
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:467-73. 2005..1 to 2.7 microg/L) in drinking water in July. Fish samples taken in December 2000 contained 4-NP of approximately 1.9 microg/g and NPEOs of 0.4-48.3 microg/g, with the highest concentration level found in liver...
- Atmospheric concentrations and air-sea exchanges of nonylphenol, tertiary octylphenol and nonylphenol monoethoxylate in the North SeaZhiyong Xie
Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Max Planck Street 1, D 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
Environ Pollut 142:170-80. 2006..These results suggest that the air-sea vapour exchange is an important process that intervenes in the mass balance of alkylphenols in the North Sea...
- Characterization of aircraft deicer and anti-icer components and toxicity in airport snowbanks and snowmelt runoffSteven R Corsi
U S Geological Survey, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562, USA
Environ Sci Technol 40:3195-202. 2006..Organic markers suggest ADAF additives as a possible explanation for this increased toxicity. Results indicate that glycol cannot be used as a surrogate for fate and transport of other ADAF components...
- Daily intake of 4-nonylphenol in TaiwaneseYu Yu Lu
Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Shi Pai, Taipei, Taiwan
Environ Int 33:903-10. 2007..8+/-116.2 ng/g). This study suggested that the average daily NP intake in Taiwan is 4-fold and 8.5-fold higher than daily intake in Germany and New Zealand, respectively and rice was the major source of NP intake...
- Seasonal variation of hydrophobic organic contaminant concentrations in the water-column of the Seine Estuary and their transfer to a planktonic species Eurytemora affinis (Calanoïd, copepod). Part 2: Alkylphenol-polyethoxylatesK Cailleaud
Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM UMR 5255 CNRS, Laboratoire de Physico Toxico Chimie de l Environnement LPTC, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence, France
Chemosphere 70:281-7. 2007..High concentrations of NP1EO and NP were detected in all copepod samples, ranging from 3423 to 6406ngg(-1). This study is the first to report high levels of endocrine disruptors in estuarine copepods...
- Seasonal changes in nonylphenol ethoxylates and their metabolites in water and sediment of urban river polluted by nonylphenolMamoru Motegi
Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kisaimachi Kitasakitamagun, Saitama 347 0115, Japan
Environ Sci 14:109-28. 2007..The surveyed results suggested that some point emission sources of nonylphenolic compounds were located in the river basin between the first sampling site and the second sampling site...
- Identification and quantitation of nonylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol in fish tissues from MichiganT L Keith
Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824-1311, USA
Environ Sci Technol 35:10-3. 2001..NPE1 was detectable in some samples but at concentrations less than the method detection limit (16.8 ng/g). Concentrations of NPE2 and NPE3 in all samples were less than their respective MDLs of 18.2 and 20.6 ng/g...
- Preparation and drug loading of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) micelles through the evaporation of a cosolvent azeotropeKaren K Jette
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
Pharm Res 21:1184-91. 2004..The aim of this work was to study the assembly, drug loading, and stability of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) micelles...
- Vertical distribution of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sedimentary core from the Beipaiming Channel, North ChinaFen Jin
State Key Lab of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
J Environ Sci (China) 19:353-7. 2007..Finally, the concentrations of NP and NPEOs were related to the total organic carbon (TOC) (p < 0.001), suggesting that TOC was an important factor for vertical distribution of NPEOs and NP from the Beipaiming Channel...
- Globotriose- and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated self-assembled monolayers: surface forces, wetting, and surfactant adsorptionEva Blomberg
Department of Chemistry, Surface Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Langmuir 22:10038-46. 2006....
- Adsorption of aqueous alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants by mesoporous carbon CMK-3Guangming Liu
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People s Republic of China
J Colloid Interface Sci 302:47-53. 2006..N2 adsorption results showed that the adsorption of NPE led to a decrease in the mesopore volume of CMK-3. However, the pore width of NPE-loaded CMK-3 was found to be identical to that of CMK-3...
- Preparation and evaluation of SEDDS and SMEDDS containing carvedilolLanlan Wei
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shen Yang Pharmaceutical University, Shen Yang, P R China
Drug Dev Ind Pharm 31:785-94. 2005..The developed SEDDS formulations significantly improved the oral bioavailability of carvedilol significantly, and the relative oral bioavailability of SEDDS compared with commercially available tablets was 413%...
- Effect of vehicles and enhancers on the topical delivery of cyclosporin AHongzhuo Liu
School of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Wen Hua RD NO 103, Shenyang 110016, People s Republic of China
Int J Pharm 311:182-6. 2006..The present study suggests that the suspension of 40% ethanol containing 0.5% drug can more effectively enhance the topical delivery of CysA after skin pre-treatment with 10% menthol or 0.05% SLS...
- Determination of sex hormones and nonylphenol ethoxylates in the aqueous matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plantsMar Esperanza
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 0071, USA
Environ Sci Technol 38:3028-35. 2004..Levels of E3 in the liquid phase were low, and no clear conclusions could be drawn concerning its removal...
- Treatment of diglyme containing wastewater by advanced oxidation--process design and optimisationD Grossmann
, Fachbereich Ingenieurwissenschaften, , Halle/Saale, Germany
Water Sci Technol 44:287-93. 2001..The ozone/H2O2 process might offer a viable alternative in cases where the oxidation step is followed by biological wastewater treatment, so that biodegradability is aimed at...
- Octyl and nonylphenol ethoxylates and carboxylates in wastewater and sediments by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometryJorge E Loyo-Rosales
Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Chemosphere 68:2118-27. 2007....
- Combination of surfactant solubilization with permanganate oxidation for DNAPL remediationZhaohui Li
Geosciences Department, University of Wisconsin Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144, USA
Water Res 42:605-14. 2008..The 3-D tank test showed that the MnO2 precipitation front formed more quickly when 1% SDS was present, which further confirmed the observation from the column study...
- Aerobic biodegradation behavior of nonylphenol polyethoxylates and their metabolites in the presence of organic matterShinya Hayashi
Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 06, Sendai 980 8579, Japan
Environ Sci Technol 39:5626-33. 2005..Organic materials such as those given above apparently play a significant role in the formation of the carboxylated metabolites of NPnEOs...
- Cutaneous metabolism of glycol ethersDavid J Lockley
Skin Toxicology Group, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
Arch Toxicol 79:160-8. 2005..e. ADH1, ALDH1) and longer chain alcohols (i.e. ADH3, ADH4, ALDH1), respectively. Treatment with a general inducing agent such as dexamethasone enhanced ethanol and 2-BE metabolism suggesting induction of multiple ADH isoforms...
- Transdermal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine: effects of vehicles and penetration enhancersYoung Ah Cho
College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea
Drug Dev Ind Pharm 30:557-64. 2004..The highest enhancing effect was attained with 10% caprylic acid in PG; the permeation flux was 113.6 +/- 17.5 microg/cm2/h. The lag time of KT was reduced as the concentration of fatty acids increased except for caprylic acid...
- [Evaluation of percutaneous absorption: preliminary results of a study performed in the framework of the European project EDETOX]F Larese
UCO Medicina del Lavoro, Universita di Trieste, Via della Pieta 19, 34129 Trieste, Italy
G Ital Med Lav Ergon 24:200-1. 2002
- Factors affecting the extent of dermal absorption of solvent vapours: a human volunteer studyK Jones
Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK
Ann Occup Hyg 47:145-50. 2003..As for the first study, the extent of dermal absorption was determined by biological monitoring to measure the resultant body burden of the chemical...
- Percutaneous absorption of 5 glycol ethers through human skin in vitroM Venier
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Toxicol In Vitro 18:665-71. 2004..57 h...
- Effects of experimental conditions on absorption of glycol ethers through human skin in vitroSimon C Wilkinson
Skin Toxicology Unit, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, The Medical School, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 75:519-27. 2002..To determine effects of experimental variables on the dermal absorption of 2-ethoxyethanol (EE), 2-butoxyethanol (BE) and 1-methoxy-2-propanol (M2P) through human skin in vitro...
- Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling of human exposure to 2-butoxyethanolS J Franks
Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton S17 9JN, UK
Toxicol Lett 162:164-73. 2006....
- Preparation, evaluation, and NMR characterization of vinpocetine microemulsion for transdermal deliveryL Hua
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, PR China
Drug Dev Ind Pharm 30:657-66. 2004..The microemulsion was stable after storing more than 12 months at 25 degrees C. The irritation study showed that the optimized microemulsion was a nonirritant transdermal delivery system...
- Protein adsorption on oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers: The molecular basis for nonfouling behaviorLingyan Li
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA
J Phys Chem B 109:2934-41. 2005..e., fibrinogen and lysozyme) adsorb more on the densely packed SAMs prepared from mixed ethanol and water solutions, while EG6OH-SAMs generally resist protein adsorption regardless of the assembly solvent used...
- A simple method for the determination of trace levels of alkylphenolic compounds in fish tissue using pressurized fluid extraction, solid phase cleanup, and high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detectionSeema Datta
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
J Agric Food Chem 50:1350-4. 2002..Tissue concentrations of NP and NP ethoxylates determined in fish from various locations of the Great Lakes region ranged from 18 to 2075 ng/g, wet weight...
- Contact angle, WAXS, and SAXS analysis of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers obtained via Azotobacter vinelandii UWDKerry J Townsend
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899, USA
Biotechnol Prog 21:959-64. 2005..The significant decrease of the contact angle and corresponding increase in surface tension, as well as significant decrease in cell adhesion, suggest the presence of hydrophilic PEG and DEG within the hydrophobic surface...
- Separation of nonylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresisPaola A Babay
Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Chromatogr A 1116:277-85. 2006..This was demonstrated by the different peak distribution patterns observed for NPnEO compounds with n = 7.5 and 10, respectively...
- Alignment and assembly of adsorbed collagen molecules induced by anisotropic chemical nanopatternsFrédéric A Denis
Unite de Chimie des Interfaces, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2 18, 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
Small 1:984-91. 2005..This chemical guidance effect due to self-confinement of proteins upon adsorption may bring novel and valuable applications, specifically in biomaterials science and cell growth control...
- All-trans-retinoic acid release from core-shell type nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymerYoung Il Jeong
Brain Tumor Research Laboratory, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501 746, Korea
Int J Pharm 273:95-107. 2004..Cytotoxicity of atRA against U87MG, U251MG and U343MG cell lines were increased by nanoencapsulation while empty nanoparticles of CE diblock copolymer were not significantly affected...
- Reactions of oxalyl chloride with 1,2-cycloalkanediols in the presence of triethylamineTaisuke Itaya
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Japan
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 50:83-6. 2002..of triethylamine at 0 degrees C has been shown analogous to that obtained for 1,2-disubstituted acyclic ethylene glycols 1: cis-1,2-cyclooctanediol (9f) produced the cyclic oxalate 14f as the major product, while trans-1,2-..
- Radiolabeling and targeting of lipidic nanocapsules for applications in radioimmunotherapyE Jestin
INSERM, U 601, University of Nantes, Nantes, France
Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 51:51-60. 2007....
- Effect of molecular weight and end-group nature on the solubility of ethylene oxide oligomers in 2H, 3H-decafluoropentane and its fully fluorinated analogue, perfluoropentaneMarie Cote
School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
J Pharm Pharmacol 60:593-9. 2008..Over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, dihydroxyl end-capped poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that was strongly molecular weight dependent...
- Dual regulation of a polyethylene glycol degradative operon by AraC-type and GalR-type regulators in Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida strain 103Jittima Charoenpanich
Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, 2 20 1 Chuo, Kurashiki, Okayama 710 0046, Japan
Microbiology 152:3025-34. 2006..A promoter activity assay showed that the pegB promoter was induced by PEG and oligomeric ethylene glycols, whereas the pegA and pegR promoters were induced by PEG...
- Synthesis of pH-sensitive amphotericin B-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugates and study of their controlled release in vitroMiloš Sedlák
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Cs legií 565, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic
Bioorg Med Chem 15:4069-76. 2007New intravenous conjugates of amphotericin B (AMB) with poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) (M=5000, 10,000, 20,000) have been synthesized and characterised...
- Polymer molecular weight-dependent unusual fluorescence probe behavior within 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate+poly(ethylene glycol)Abhra Sarkar
Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
J Phys Chem B 113:7606-14. 2009Poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) and room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are both projected as possible alternatives to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
- A study of the interactions of ternary surfactant systems at the water-air interfaceKatarzyna Szymczyk
Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Maria Curie Sklodowska Sq 3, 20 031 Lublin, Poland
Langmuir 26:2491-6. 2010..ternary mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenoxypoly(ethylene glycols), Triton X-100 (TX100) and Triton X-165 (TX165)...
- Enhancement of hydrophilic drug loading and release characteristics through micellization with new carboxymethyldextran-PEG block copolymers of tunable charge densityGhareb Mohamed Soliman
Faculty of Pharmacy and Department of Chemistry, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
Int J Pharm 356:248-58. 2008..cationic drug, diminazene diaceturate (DIM) and a series of new diblock copolymers, carboxymethyldextran-poly(ethylene glycols) (CMD-PEG), were evaluated as a function of the ionic charge density or degree of substitution (DS) of the ..
- Settlement and adhesion of algal cells to hexa(ethylene glycol)-containing self-assembled monolayers with systematically changed wetting propertiesSoeren Schilp
Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universitat Heidelberg, INF, Heidelberg, Germany
Biointerphases 2:143-50. 2007Protein resistance of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexa(ethylene glycols) (EG(6)) has previously been shown to be dependent on the alkoxyl end-group termination of the SAM, which determines wettability [S. Herrwerth, W. Eck, S...
- CH2-units on (poly-)ethylene glycol radially dehydrate cytoplasm of resting skinned skeletal muscleMasako Kimura
Department of Molecular Physiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato ku Tokyo 105 8461, Japan
J Biochem 143:123-9. 2008..cross-section and electron micrographs of mechanically skinned fibres of frog skeletal muscle, we found that ethylene glycols (EGs) of small (mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-EGs; M(r) 62-194) and medium (poly-EGs; M(r) 900 and 3350) ..
- CH2-units on (poly-)ethylene glycol radially dehydrate cytoplasm of resting skinned skeletal muscleMasako Kimura
Department of Molecular Physiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato ku, Tokyo 105 8461, Japan
J Biochem 143:841-7. 2008..cross-section and electron micrographs of mechanically skinned fibres of frog skeletal muscle, we found that ethylene glycols (EGs) of small (mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-EGs; M(r) 62-194) and medium (poly-EGs; M(r) 900 and 3350) ..
- Cloud point of nonionic surfactants: modulation with pharmaceutical excipientsG C Na
Nycomed Amersham Imaging, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087 8630, USA
Pharm Res 16:562-8. 1999..To determine the cloud point of a variety of nonionic surfactants and to search for means to raise the surfactant cloud point in liquid formulations...
- Size effect on fragmentation in tandem mass spectrometryAntony Memboeuf
Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri ut 59 67, 1025 Budapest, Hungary
Anal Chem 82:2294-302. 2010..energy/voltage, CCE or CCV) has been systematically determined for different types of molecules [poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG), poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), and peptides] over a wide mass (degrees of freedom) range...
- Coefficients of evaporation and gas phase diffusion of low-volatility organic solvents in nitrogen from interferometric study of evaporating dropletsD Jakubczyk
Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 02 668 Warsaw, Poland
J Phys Chem A 114:3483-8. 2010..Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra(ethylene glycols) and 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone were studied. The influence of minute impurities (<0...
- Resolving oligomers from fully grown polymers with IMS-MSSarah Trimpin
Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Anal Chem 79:7965-74. 2007..techniques, combined with electrospray ionization, have been used to examine distributions of poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) with average molecular masses of 6550 and 17900 Da...
- Protein adsorption to oligo(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers: experiments with fibrinogen, heparinized plasma, and serumJ Benesch
Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkopings Universitet, Linkoping, Sweden
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 12:581-97. 2001Low protein adsorption is believed advantageous for blood-contacting materials and ethylene glycols (EG)-based polymeric compounds are often attached to surfaces for this purpose...
- Ab initio modeling of defect signatures in infrared reflection-absorption spectra of SAMs exposing methyl- and hydrogen-terminated oligo(ethylene glycols)Lyuba Malysheva
Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine
J Phys Chem A 112:728-36. 2008..For this family of SAMs, the presence of about 10% of all-trans conformers gives a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the calculated RA spectra and experimental observations...
- Gas-phase proton-transfer chemistry coupled with TOF mass spectrometry and ion mobility-MS for the facile analysis of poly(ethylene glycols) and PEGylated polypeptide conjugatesDhanashri Bagal
Department of Molecular Structure and Analytical Sciences, Amgen, One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
Anal Chem 80:2408-18. 2008....
- Noncovalent adducts of poly(ethylene glycols) with proteinsI N Topchieva
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskii Gory, 119899, Moscow, Russia
Bioconjug Chem 11:22-9. 2000..The complexes between PEG chains in PEG-protein adducts and PEG-beta-CyD may be considered as a novel type of dendritic structures...
- Synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-metaxalone conjugates and study of its controlled release in vitroJuan Zhang
Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xian 710072, China
Int J Pharm 332:125-31. 2007..Met), a drug for treatment of pain and stiffness due to muscular injuries, was covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) via a chloroacetyl chloride spacer...
- Characterisation of morphology of self-assembled PEG monolayers: a comparison of mixed and pure coatings optimised for biosensor applicationsJochen Mehne
Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry IPTC, Eberhard Karls University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076, Tubingen, Germany
Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1783-91. 2008..To tailor biosensor surfaces in such a manner, poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) in varying lengths were immobilised covalently onto glass-type surfaces in different mixing ratios and ..
- Biosynthesis, properties and potential of natural-synthetic hybrids of polyhydroxyalkanoates and polyethylene glycolsL John R Foster
Bio polymers Research Group and Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 75:1241-7. 2007Chemical conjugation with poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) are established procedures to facilitate solubilisation of hydrophobic compounds. Such techniques for PEGylation have been applied to polyhydroxybutyrate...
- Stationary-phase effects in gradient high-performance liquid chromatographyPavel Jandera
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Námestic Cs legií 565, CZ 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic
J Chromatogr A 1030:33-41. 2004..of oligomers can be characterized by "gradient oligomer capacity", as demonstrated in the example of oligo(ethylene glycols)...
- Conformational studies of covalently grafted poly(ethylene glycol) on modified solid matrices using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyVinod Babu Damodaran
Biomolecular Interaction Centre, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand 8140
Langmuir 26:7299-306. 2010Amine functionalized poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) with molecular weights 2000 and 4000 Da were covalently grafted onto carboxy modified hydrophilic Sephadex derivatives and hydrophobic polystyrene derivatives using anhydrous amine ..
- Water soluble SERS labels comprising a SAM with dual spacers for controlled bioconjugationC Jehn
Department of Physics, University of Osnabruck, Barbarastr 7, D 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:7499-504. 2009..approach to synthesize hydrophilic SERS labels in which the colloidal particle is stabilized by two different ethylene glycols attached to the SAM...
- PEGylated Prolactin Receptor Antagonists as Cancer DrugsMERRY SHERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2002..Polymer conjugates of PRLA will be synthesized containing 1-3 strands of linear or branched poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) of various molecular weights (10-60 kDa), linked by various chemistries...
- DERMAL ABSORPTION OF CHEMICALS FROM LIQUID MIXTURESAnnette Bunge; Fiscal Year: 2006..With such information in-hand, it will be possible to plan effective exposure controls and/or interventions. ..
- Evolution of memory-related fMRI activation over the course of MCI and ADReisa Sperling; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed research will provide essential validation studies for fMRI as a biomarker in AD clinical trials, and enhance our fundamental understanding of the early pathophysiological alterations in AD. ..
- Molecular and Functional Imaging of Age Related Cognitive DeclineWilliam Jagust; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Amyloid Imaging in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's DiseaseWilliam Jagust; Fiscal Year: 2007..PIB could become a diagnostic tool that is useful in diagnosing AD and FTLD during life. This will be especially important as new treatments for both disorders are developed. ..
- Effects of Chemotherapy on Brain FunctionWilliam J Jagust; Fiscal Year: 2010..They are also relevant to the overall mission of the NIH because of the negative impact that cognitive dysfunction has on quality of life. ..
- Molecular and Functional Imaging of Age Related Cognitive DeclineWilliam Jagust; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Amyloid Imaging in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's DiseaseWilliam Jagust; Fiscal Year: 2009..PIB could become a diagnostic tool that is useful in diagnosing AD and FTLD during life. This will be especially important as new treatments for both disorders are developed. ..
- Evaluation of a Novel Amyloid Plaque SPECT Tracer for Diagnosing ADAndrew B Newberg; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Evolution of memory-related fMRI activation over the course of MCI and ADReisa A Sperling; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed research will provide essential validation studies for fMRI as a biomarker in AD clinical trials, and enhance our fundamental understanding of the early pathophysiological alterations in AD. ..
- Training for Clinician Scientists in Imaging ResearchDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2007..The long term goal is to attract resident physicians into a career employing imaging research as a major component of their future academic careers. ..
- Mechanisms of Dopamine and Serotonin in Tourette SyndromeDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2007..At the end of this renewal, we will have completed our originally funded AIMS and examined new possibilities of 5HT and DA interrelationships and role of co morbid OCD and TS. ..
- 3D IMAGING & COMPUTER MODEL OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACTRichard Corley; Fiscal Year: 2007..A fourth core will serve as an administrative interface and will provide statistical support among the participating institutions and projects. ..
- Human Imaging Research in Neuropsychiatry and Drug AbuseDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2007..It is my strong belief that this progress will be maintained, even accelerated, in my additional five years. ..
- Molecular Biomarkers as Predictors of Hodgkin's DiseaseRanda El Zein; Fiscal Year: 2007..The high risk population can be targeted for intensive preventive and early detection strategies. ..
- High End Computing for PET/SPECTDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biomedical ImagingFei Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005..Both types of encapsulated nanoparticle probes will be used to transfect cultured mammalian cells in order to assess QD luminescence in a physiological milieu. ..
- Mechanisms of Dopamine and Serotonin in Tourette SyndromeDEAN FOSTER WONG; Fiscal Year: 2010..At the end of this renewal, we will have completed our originally funded AIMS and examined new possibilities of 5HT and DA interrelationships and role of co morbid OCD and TS. ..
- 3D IMAGING & COMPUTER MODEL OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACTRichard A Corley; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- OLFACTION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSISRICHARD DOTY; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Dedicated High Performance Human Brain/Preclinical PETDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- OLFACTION IN EPILEPSYRICHARD DOTY; Fiscal Year: 2004..In addition to providing a better understanding of the influences of TLE and TLR on human olfactory function, this work may lead to the development of a simple and inexpensive non-invasive means for better establishing TLE seizure loci. ..
- MECHANISMS OF DOPAMINE & SEROTONIN IN TOURETTE SYNDROMEDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2003..We propose to carry out experiments using PET to establish a more complete understanding of the neurotransmission in TS. This will also help establish new ationales for improved therapeutics in TS. ..
- GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR-MEDIATED CATARACTEric James; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- POSTMENOPAUSAL ESTROGEN INFLUENCES ON OLFACTIONRICHARD DOTY; Fiscal Year: 2005..Third, it would lead to testable hypotheses regarding the role of reproductive hormones, and their underlying mechanisms, in the maintenance of normal olfactory function. ..
- BRANCHED COPOLYMER AS PEPTIDE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMFei Wang; Fiscal Year: 2006..New drug delivery systems have had an impact on nearly every branch of medicine. Controlled drug delivery is a $20 billion industry and rising rapidly...
- IMAGING DOPAMINE/SEROTONIN MECHANISMS IN COCAINE CRAVINGDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2003..Testing of these hypotheses will provide novel and fundamental answers to craving mechanisms. ..
- STAR POLYMER UNIMOLECULAR MICELLES FOR DRUG DELIVERYFei Wang; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- IMAGING DOPAMINE RELEASE/ENDOCRINE CHANGES IN ALCOHOLISMDEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2004..If the initial D2 receptor deficits are exacerbated by alcohol abuse one can envision a positive feedback loop hard to break. ..