- Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids
Tanya M Teslovich
Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
Nature 466:707-13. 2010
..of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic ..
- Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity
Jeffrey D Browning
Donald W Reynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 9046, USA
Hepatology 40:1387-95. 2004
..In conclusion, the significant ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of hepatic steatosis documented in this study may have a profound impact on susceptibility to steatosis-related liver disease...
- Human fatty liver disease: old questions and new insights
Jonathan C Cohen
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9046, USA
Science 332:1519-23. 2011
..Here, we discuss recent mechanistic insights into NAFLD, focusing primarily on those that have emerged from human genetic and metabolic studies...
- Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome
Department of Internal Medicine, Jakobstad Hospital, Finland
Diabetes Care 24:683-9. 2001
..To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization..
- Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances
Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Arizona State University Polytechnic Campus, Mesa, AZ 85212, USA
Plant J 54:621-39. 2008
- The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity
Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Nat Med 7:941-6. 2001
..These data also indicate that the replenishment of adiponectin might provide a novel treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
- Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Kerry L Donnelly
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, St Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA
J Clin Invest 115:1343-51. 2005
..These quantitative metabolic data document that both elevated peripheral fatty acids and DNL contribute to the accumulation of hepatic and lipoprotein fat in NAFLD...
- Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury
Jeffrey D Browning
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75390 9046, USA
J Clin Invest 114:147-52. 2004
..metabolic consequence of obesity is insulin resistance, which is strongly associated with the deposition of triglycerides in the liver...
- Defective lipolysis and altered energy metabolism in mice lacking adipose triglyceride lipase
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Austria
Science 312:734-7. 2006
..These results indicate that ATGL is rate limiting in the catabolism of cellular fat depots and plays an important role in energy homeostasis...
- Contribution of de novo fatty acid synthesis to hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance: lessons from genetically engineered mice
Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
J Clin Invest 118:829-38. 2008
..This review discusses recent advances in the field...
- Intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease
John C LaRosa
State University of New York Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
N Engl J Med 352:1425-35. 2005
..We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of lowering LDL cholesterol levels below 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter) in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD)...
- FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator
Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
J Clin Invest 115:1627-35. 2005
..Therapeutic administration of FGF-21 reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides to near normal levels in both ob/ob and db/db mice...
- ATGL-mediated fat catabolism regulates cardiac mitochondrial function via PPAR-α and PGC-1
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Nat Med 17:1076-85. 2011
..Here we show that lipolysis of cellular triglycerides by adipose triglyceride lipase (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing protein 2, encoded by Pnpla2; ..
- Inhibition of miR-33a/b in non-human primates raises plasma HDL and lowers VLDL triglycerides
Katey J Rayner
Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program, Leon H Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
Nature 478:404-7. 2011
..resulting in a marked suppression of the plasma levels of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated triglycerides, a finding that has not previously been observed in mice...
- Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and death in men and women
Børge G Nordestgaard
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark
JAMA 298:299-308. 2007
Elevated nonfasting triglycerides indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, which may promote atherosclerosis.
- Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
Prog Lipid Res 47:348-80. 2008
..The relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and total plasma fatty acid composition, and the use of fatty acid ratios as indices of enzyme activity are also addressed...
- Fat mobilization in adipose tissue is promoted by adipose triglyceride lipase
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Science 306:1383-6. 2004
..Until now, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was the only enzyme known to hydrolyze triglycerides in mammalian adipose tissue...
- Mouse models in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis research
Quentin M Anstee
Department of Medicine A, St Mary s Campus, Imperial College, London, UK
Int J Exp Pathol 87:1-16. 2006
- Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management
M John Chapman
European Atherosclerosis Society, INSERM UMR S939, Pitie Salpetriere University Hospital, Paris 75651, France
Eur Heart J 32:1345-61. 2011
..for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease...
- An apolipoprotein influencing triglycerides in humans and mice revealed by comparative sequencing
L A Pennacchio
Genome Sciences Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Science 294:169-73. 2001
..to one-third of those in control mice; conversely, knockout mice lacking Apoav had four times as much plasma triglycerides as controls...
- Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis
Dawn L Brasaemle
Department of Nutritional Sciences and the Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
J Lipid Res 48:2547-59. 2007
..A model is discussed whereby perilipin serves as a dynamic scaffold to coordinate the access of enzymes to the lipid droplet in a manner that is responsive to the metabolic status of the adipocyte...
- Genetic determinants of lipid traits in diverse populations from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE) study
Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
PLoS Genet 7:e1002138. 2011
..For the associations that did not generalize, differences in effect sizes, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium offer clues to the next generation of association studies for these traits...
- Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease
Cristen J Willer
Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
Nat Genet 40:161-9. 2008
..lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; near TRIB1, MLXIPL and ANGPTL3, with variants primarily associated with triglycerides; and a locus encompassing several genes near NCAN, with variants strongly associated with both triglycerides ..
- Common variants at 30 loci contribute to polygenic dyslipidemia
Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Nat Genet 41:56-65. 2009
..HNF1A and TIMD4; with HDL cholesterol near ANGPTL4, FADS1-FADS2-FADS3, HNF4A, LCAT, PLTP and TTC39B; and with triglycerides near AMAC1L2, FADS1-FADS2-FADS3 and PLTP...
- Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Department of Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, Calif, 90262, USA
Arch Intern Med 167:1159-65. 2007
..Results of several epidemiologic and clinical studies have suggested that there is an excess risk of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in persons with suboptimal intake of vitamin D...
- Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)
Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78228 3900, USA
Circulation 102:42-7. 2000
..Recently, some components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) have been related to inflammatory markers. We hypothesized that insulin insensitivity, as directly measured, may be associated with inflammation in nondiabetic subjects...
- Genetic variants influencing circulating lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease
Dawn M Waterworth
Genetics Division, GlaxoSmithKline R and D, King of Prussia, PA, USA
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30:2264-76. 2010
..We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel genetic determinants of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides.
- Triglyceride accumulation protects against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity
Laura L Listenberger
Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110 1010, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3077-82. 2003
..Our findings support a model of cellular lipid metabolism in which unsaturated fatty acids serve a protective function against lipotoxicity though promotion of triglyceride accumulation...
- MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity
Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
J Clin Invest 116:1494-505. 2006
..These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice...
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure hepatic triglyceride content: prevalence of hepatic steatosis in the general population
Lidia S Szczepaniak
DW Reynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 8899, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E462-8. 2005
..6%. Thus MRS provides a sensitive, quantitative, noninvasive method to measure HTGC and, when applied to a large urban US population, revealed a strikingly high prevalence of hepatic steatosis...
- Fish oil supplementation alters the plasma lipidomic profile and increases long-chain PUFAs of phospholipids and triglycerides in healthy subjects
Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway
PLoS ONE 7:e42550. 2012
..The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects...
- Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors
E B Rimm
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
BMJ 319:1523-8. 1999
..To summarise quantitatively the association between moderate alcohol intake and biological markers of risk of coronary heart disease and to predict how these changes would lower the risk...
- Fasting compared with nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular events in women
Donald W Reynolds Center for Cardiovascular Research, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, USA
JAMA 298:309-16. 2007
The association of triglycerides with incident cardiovascular disease remains controversial...
- The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver
Nicola L Beer
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
Hum Mol Genet 18:4081-8. 2009
..glucose metabolism and elevating concentrations of malonyl-CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis, providing a mutational mechanism for the reported association of this variant with raised triglycerides and lower glucose levels.
- Phosphatidylcholine synthesis for lipid droplet expansion is mediated by localized activation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase
Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Cell Metab 14:504-15. 2011
..Our results reveal a mechanism to maintain PC homeostasis at the expanding LD monolayer through targeted activation of a key PC synthesis enzyme...
- Transcriptome sequencing and annotation of the microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta: pathway description and gene discovery for production of next-generation biofuels
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
BMC Genomics 12:148. 2011
..Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for the non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production...
- Lipid profiling identifies a triacylglycerol signature of insulin resistance and improves diabetes prediction in humans
Eugene P Rhee
Nephrology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
J Clin Invest 121:1402-11. 2011
..TAGs) and persisted after multivariable adjustment for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, total triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. A combination of 2 TAGs further improved diabetes prediction...
- Novel adipose tissue-mediated resistance to diet-induced visceral obesity in 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-deficient mice
Nicholas M Morton
Endocrinology Unit, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
Diabetes 53:931-8. 2004
..These data provide the first in vivo evidence that adipose 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency beneficially alters adipose tissue distribution and function, complementing the reported effects of hepatic 11 beta-HSD-1 deficiency or inhibition...
- Forty-three loci associated with plasma lipoprotein size, concentration, and cholesterol content in genome-wide analysis
Daniel I Chasman
Donald W Reynolds Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Genet 5:e1000730. 2009
..a genome-wide association study of 17 lipoprotein measures determined by NMR together with LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, ApoA1, and ApoB in 17,296 women from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS)...
- Chronic alcohol exposure stimulates adipose tissue lipolysis in mice: role of reverse triglyceride transport in the pathogenesis of alcoholic steatosis
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 28081, USA
Am J Pathol 180:998-1007. 2012
..loss and hepatic triglyceride gain, mice were first administered heavy water for 5 weeks to label adipose triglycerides with deuterium, and then pair-fed alcohol or control diet for 2 weeks...
- Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women
Kimber L Stanhope
Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E1596-605. 2011
- Role of LXRs in control of lipogenesis
J R Schultz
Tularik Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Genes Dev 14:2831-8. 2000
..Complementary studies in cell culture and animals suggested that the increase in plasma lipids occurs via LXR-mediated induction of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) lipogenic program...
- Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
1 Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 2 Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 3 Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 4 Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Genet 45:1345-52. 2013
b>Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)...
- The Fatty Liver Index: a simple and accurate predictor of hepatic steatosis in the general population
Centro Studi Fegato Liver Research Center, Area Science Park, Basovizza, Trieste, and Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
BMC Gastroenterol 6:33. 2006
..Fatty liver (FL) is the most frequent liver disease in Western countries. We used data from the Dionysos Nutrition & Liver Study to develop a simple algorithm for the prediction of FL in the general population...
- Cholesterol and bile acid metabolism are impaired in mice lacking the nuclear oxysterol receptor LXR alpha
D J Peet
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235 9050, USA
Cell 93:693-704. 1998
..These results demonstrate the existence of a physiologically significant feed-forward regulatory pathway for sterol metabolism and establish the role of LXR alpha as the major sensor of dietary cholesterol...
- Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase are the major enzymes in adipose tissue triacylglycerol catabolism
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, A 8010 Graz, Austria
J Biol Chem 281:40236-41. 2006
..Together, ATGL and HSL are responsible for more than 95% of the TG hydrolase activity present in murine WAT. Additional known or unknown lipases appear to play only a quantitatively minor role in fat cell lipolysis...
- Tung tree DGAT1 and DGAT2 have nonredundant functions in triacylglycerol biosynthesis and are localized to different subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum
Jay M Shockey
U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70124, USA
Plant Cell 18:2294-313. 2006
..These data suggest that DGAT1 and DGAT2 have nonredundant functions in plants and that the production of storage oils, including those containing unusual fatty acids, occurs in distinct ER subdomains...
- A role for phosphatidic acid in the formation of "supersized" lipid droplets
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
PLoS Genet 7:e1002201. 2011
..In summary, our results provide important insights into how the size of LDs is determined and identify novel gene products that regulate phospholipid metabolism...
- Algal lipid bodies: stress induction, purification, and biochemical characterization in wild-type and starchless Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Zi Teng Wang
Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
Eukaryot Cell 8:1856-68. 2009
..Nitrogen stress-induced LB production in C. reinhardtii has the hallmarks of a discrete pathway that should be amenable to additional genetic and culture condition manipulation...
- Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome
Darcy B Carr
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 6460, USA
Diabetes 53:2087-94. 2004
..Of the NCEP criteria, waist circumference and triglycerides may best identify insulin resistance and visceral adiposity in individuals with a fasting plasma glucose <6...
- Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans
Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Nat Genet 40:189-97. 2008
..of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and/or triglycerides. Six of these loci are new (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each new locus)...
- TIP47 functions in the biogenesis of lipid droplets
Anna V Bulankina
Institute for Biochemistry II, University of Gottingen, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
J Cell Biol 185:641-55. 2009
..Suppression of TIP47 blocked LD maturation and decreased the incorporation of triacylglycerol into LDs. We conclude that TIP47 functions in the biogenesis of LDs...
- Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemia
Ann C Skulas-Ray
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 93:243-52. 2011
..Studies using higher doses have shown evidence of reduced inflammation and improved endothelial function. Few studies have compared these doses...
- Apolipoprotein C3 gene variants in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Kitt Falk Petersen
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
N Engl J Med 362:1082-9. 2010
..Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether this association has a genetic basis is unknown...
- High-fat-diet-induced obesity and heart dysfunction are regulated by the TOR pathway in Drosophila
Ryan T Birse
NASCR Center, Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Cell Metab 12:533-44. 2010
..We conclude that deregulation of insulin-TOR signaling due to a HFD is responsible for mediating the detrimental effects on metabolism and heart function...
- Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins
William E Kraus
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
N Engl J Med 347:1483-92. 2002
..However, the amount of exercise training required for optimal benefit is unknown. In a prospective, randomized study, we investigated the effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on lipoproteins...
- Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: an enzyme that catalyzes the acyl-CoA-independent formation of triacylglycerol in yeast and plants
Scandinavian Biotechnology Research ScanBi AB, Herman Ehles Väg 2 S 26831 Svalôv, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:6487-92. 2000
..However, budding yeast PDAT and its relatives in fission yeast and Arabidopsis form a distinct branch within this protein superfamily, indicating that a separate PDAT enzyme arose at an early point in evolution...
- The metabolic state of diabetic monkeys is regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21
Lilly Research Laboratories, A Division of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
Endocrinology 148:774-81. 2007
..Systemic administration of FGF-21 reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides to near normal levels in genetically compromised diabetic rodents...
- Stimulation of lipogenesis by pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor leads to production of large, triglyceride-rich very low density lipoprotein particles
Laboratory of Pediatrics, Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
J Biol Chem 277:34182-90. 2002
..We conclude that, in addition to raising high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, pharmacological LXR activation in mice leads to development of hepatic steatosis and secretion of atherogenic, large TG-rich VLDL particles...
- Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Nat Med 17:200-5. 2011
..Cold exposure drastically accelerated plasma clearance of triglycerides as a result of increased uptake into BAT, a process crucially dependent on local LPL activity and ..
- A proposed model of fat packaging by exchangeable lipid droplet proteins
Nathan E Wolins
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA
FEBS Lett 580:5484-91. 2006
..Different tissues express different complements of these lipid droplet proteins. Thus, the tissue-specific complement of these proteins determines how tissues manage lipid stores...
- Thematic review series: glycerolipids. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis
Chi Liang Eric Yen
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
J Lipid Res 49:2283-301. 2008
Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms...
- Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women
Karen L Teff
Monell Chemical Senses Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2963-72. 2004
..05 vs. HGl). Consumption of HFr meals produced a rapid and prolonged elevation of plasma triglycerides compared with the HGl day (P < 0.005)...
- Increase in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid n - 6/n - 3 ratio in relation to hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Departamento de Nutricion, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 70058, Santiago 7, Santiago, Chile
Clin Sci (Lond) 106:635-43. 2004
..study were to assess the levels of PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in liver total lipids, triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and phospholipids of NAFLD patients in relation to those in adipose tissue and hepatic indexes related to ..
- Lipolysis and lipid mobilization in human adipose tissue
INSERM U, Institut de Medecine Moleculaire de Rangueil, IFR BMT, Toulouse, France
Prog Lipid Res 48:275-97. 2009
..The manipulation of lipolysis has therapeutic potential in the metabolic disorders frequently associated with obesity and probably in several inborn errors of metabolism...
- A new on-line dual enzymatic method for simultaneous quantification of cholesterol and triglycerides in lipoproteins by HPLC
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Graduate School of Allied Health Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1 5 45 Yushima, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
J Lipid Res 43:805-14. 2002
..969x + 5.44 (r = 0.990) for total cholesterol (mg/dl), y = 1.08x - 11.14 (r = 0.985) for total triglycerides (mg/dl), and y = 1.093x - 0.06 (r = 0.978) for the ratios of triglycerides to cholesterol (mg/mg)...
- Targeted disruption of the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR impairs bile acid and lipid homeostasis
C J Sinal
Laboratory of Metabolism, Division of Basic Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Cell 102:731-44. 2000
..FXR/BAR null mice were distinguished from wild-type mice by elevated serum bile acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides, increased hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides, and a proatherogenic serum lipoprotein profile...
- Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins
Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China
Nat Med 10:1344-51. 2004
..Oral administration of BBR in 32 hypercholesterolemic patients for 3 months reduced serum cholesterol by 29%, triglycerides by 35% and LDL-cholesterol by 25%...
- 11beta-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates metabolic syndrome and prevents progression of atherosclerosis in mice
Merck Research Laboratories, Merck and Company, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
J Exp Med 202:517-27. 2005
..Administration of a selective, potent 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor lowered body weight, insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol in diet-induced obese mice and lowered fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon, triglycerides, and ..
- Triglyceride-mediated pathways and coronary disease: collaborative analysis of 101 studies
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Wort s Causeway, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK
Lancet 375:1634-9. 2010
..Whether triglyceride-mediated pathways are causally relevant to coronary heart disease is uncertain. We studied a genetic variant that regulates triglyceride concentration to help judge likelihood of causality...
- Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention
Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Spain
Vasc Health Risk Manag 5:757-65. 2009
- Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study
David S Freedman
Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
J Pediatr 150:12-17.e2. 2007
- BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis
R Daniel Rudic
Center for Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
PLoS Biol 2:e377. 2004
..of the known clock components Bmal1 (Mop3) and Clock suppress the diurnal variation in glucose and triglycerides. Gluconeogenesis is abolished by deletion of Bmal1 and is depressed in Clock mutants, but the ..
- Mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, ARS, USDA, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
J Nutr Biochem 21:781-92. 2010
..that involve antiinflammation, proresolving lipid mediators, modulation of cardiac ion channels, reduction of triglycerides, influence on membrane microdomains and downstream cell signaling pathways and antithrombotic and ..
- Brummer lipase is an evolutionary conserved fat storage regulator in Drosophila
Max Planck Institut fur biophysikalische Chemie, Abteilung Molekulare Entwicklungsbiologie, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
Cell Metab 1:323-30. 2005
..Their evolutionary conservation suggests Brummer/ATGL family members to be implicated in human obesity and establishes a basis for modeling mechanistic and therapeutic aspects of this disease in the fly...
- Lipid droplets in lipogenesis and lipolysis
Nicole A Ducharme
Center for Diabetes and Obesity Research, Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, 1825 Pressler Street, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Endocrinology 149:942-9. 2008
..Future discovery likely will be driven by the exploitation of model organisms and by human genetic studies...
- Identification of a gene encoding an acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, a key enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis
Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:13018-23. 1998
..The identification of this cDNA encoding a DGAT will greatly facilitate studies of cellular glycerolipid metabolism and its regulation...
- Storage lipid synthesis is non-essential in yeast
Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 44, S 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
J Biol Chem 277:6478-82. 2002
..The strain is devoid of both TAG and steryl esters, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that it also lacks lipid bodies. We conclude that neither storage lipids nor lipid bodies are essential for growth in yeast...
- Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption of lipopolysaccharides
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
J Lipid Res 50:90-7. 2009
..Chylomicron-associated LPS may contribute to postprandial inflammatory responses or chronic diet-induced inflammation in chylomicron target tissues...
- Adipose tissue as a buffer for daily lipid flux
K N Frayn
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UK
Diabetologia 45:1201-10. 2002
..Furthermore, this concept could provide a framework for understanding the action of the thiazolidinedione insulin-sensitizing agents...
- Synthetic LXR ligand inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in mice
Sean B Joseph
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1662, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:7604-9. 2002
..These observations provide direct evidence for an atheroprotective effect of LXR agonists and support their further evaluation as potential modulators of human cardiovascular disease...
- Prolonged exposure to free fatty acids has cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects on human pancreatic islets: evidence that beta-cell death is caspase mediated, partially dependent on ceramide pathway, and Bcl-2 regulated
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Diabetes 51:1437-42. 2002
..The cytostatic action is likely to be due to the FFA-induced reduction of intraislet glucose metabolism, and the proapoptotic effects are mostly caspase mediated, partially dependent on ceramide pathway, and possibly Bcl-2 regulated...
- Prostate cancer risk in the Swedish AMORIS study: the interplay among triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose
Mieke Van Hemelrijck
King s College London, School of Medicine, Division of Cancer Studies, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, London, United Kingdom
Cancer 117:2086-95. 2011
In a cohort including 5112 prostate cancer (pCa) patients, the authors investigated associations among triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and pCa while taking into account glucose.
- Genome-wide scan identifies variation in MLXIPL associated with plasma triglycerides
Jaspal S Kooner
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK
Nat Genet 40:149-51. 2008
We tested over 267,000 SNPs in 1,005 Northern Europeans and 248,000 in 1,006 Indian Asians for association with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol, with replication in 10,536 subjects...
- Alterations in adipose tissue and hepatic lipid kinetics in obese men and women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Gastroenterology 134:424-31. 2008
..The purpose of this study was to evaluate TG metabolism in adipose tissue and liver in NAFLD...
- Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast
Anne C Nilsson
Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, SE 22100 Lund, Sweden
J Nutr 138:732-9. 2008
..The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance...
- Lipid droplets as dynamic organelles connecting storage and efflux of lipids
Sven Olof Olofsson
Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE 413 45 Goteborg, Sweden
Biochim Biophys Acta 1791:448-58. 2009
..article, we review the assembly and fusion of lipid droplets, and the processes involved in the secretion of triglycerides. Triglycerides are secreted from cells by two principally different processes...
- Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity and very low density lipoprotein secretion: a model of viral-related steatosis
Liver Cancer and Molecular Virology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 370, Faculte de Medecine Necker Enfants Malades, 75730 Paris Cedex 15, France
FASEB J 16:185-94. 2002
- A novel bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase mediates wax ester and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1
Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Corrensstr 3, Germany
J Biol Chem 278:8075-82. 2003
..The potential of WS/DGAT as a selective therapeutic target of mycobacterial infections is discussed...
- Triglycerides and heart disease: still a hypothesis?
Ira J Goldberg
Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 31:1716-25. 2011
The purpose of this article is to review the basic and clinical science relating plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular disease...
- Downregulation of adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking in obesity: a driver for ectopic fat deposition?
Siobhán E McQuaid
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, UK
Diabetes 60:47-55. 2011
..It is not clear whether excess fat deposition in nonadipose tissue arises from excessive fatty acid delivery from adipose tissue or from impaired adipose tissue storage of ingested fat...
- Triacylglycerol homeostasis: insights from yeast
Sepp D Kohlwein
Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, A 8010 Graz, Austria
J Biol Chem 285:15663-7. 2010
..Based on these similarities, studies performed in yeast may provide further significant mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of triacylglycerol homeostasis and its important physiological roles in healthy and diseased cells...
- Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans
Kimber L Stanhope
Department of Molecular Biosciences, UCD, Davis, California 95616, USA
J Clin Invest 119:1322-34. 2009
..These data suggest that dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults...
- Lipopenia and skin barrier abnormalities in DGAT2-deficient mice
Scot J Stone
Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, California 94141 1900, USA
J Biol Chem 279:11767-76. 2004
The synthesis of triglycerides is catalyzed by two known acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes...
- Plasma lipoproteins: genetic influences and clinical implications
Robert A Hegele
Robarts Research Institute and Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, 406 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5K8
Nat Rev Genet 10:109-21. 2009
..In addition to filling gaps in our understanding of plasma lipoprotein metabolism, the recent genetic advances will improve our ability to classify, diagnose and treat dyslipidaemias...
- Trends in serum lipids and lipoproteins of adults, 1960-2002
Margaret D Carroll
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
JAMA 294:1773-81. 2005
- Desnutrin, an adipocyte gene encoding a novel patatin domain-containing protein, is induced by fasting and glucocorticoids: ectopic expression of desnutrin increases triglyceride hydrolysis
Josep A Villena
Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
J Biol Chem 279:47066-75. 2004
..In addition, decreased expression of desnutrin in obesity models suggests its possible contribution to the pathophysiology of obesity...
- Interactions of the apolipoprotein C-III 3238C>G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum triglyceride levels
Department of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning 530021, Guangxi, People s Republic of China
Lipids Health Dis 9:86. 2010
..The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G (rs5128) polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels...
- The genetic effect of the apoprotein AV gene on the serum triglyceride level in Japanese
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shimane Medical University, 693 8501, Izumo, Japan
Atherosclerosis 165:201-4. 2002
..0001). This result indicates that polymorphism in the apoAV gene influence serum TG in populations of different ethnicities...
- Cloning of DGAT2, a second mammalian diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and related family members
Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
J Biol Chem 276:38870-6. 2001
..DGAT2 is expressed in many tissues with high expression levels in the liver and white adipose tissue, suggesting that it may play a significant role in mammalian triglyceride metabolism...
- Genetic differences between the determinants of lipid profile phenotypes in African and European Americans: the Jackson Heart Study
Rahul C Deo
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
PLoS Genet 5:e1000342. 2009
..Focusing on lipid profiles -- HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) -- we identified the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) locus as harboring variants that account for interethnic ..