fats

Summary

Summary: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Rapid discrimination of fatty acid composition in fats and oils by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Shoji Kurata
    Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Metropolitan Police Department, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100 8929, Japan
    Anal Sci 21:1457-65. 2005
  2. pmc C. elegans major fats are stored in vesicles distinct from lysosome-related organelles
    Eyleen J O'Rourke
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell Metab 10:430-5. 2009
  3. pmc The influence of bacterial diet on fat storage in C. elegans
    Kyleann K Brooks
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e7545. 2009
  4. ncbi Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate
    R J Dewhurst
    Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3EB, UK
    J Dairy Sci 86:2598-611. 2003
  5. ncbi Oils and fats as renewable raw materials in chemistry
    Ursula Biermann
    Universitat Oldenburg, Institut fur Reine und Angewandte Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Strasse 9 11, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 50:3854-71. 2011
  6. ncbi Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene polymorphism and milk fatty acid composition in Italian Holsteins
    M Mele
    Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell Agroecosistema, University of Pisa, Italy
    J Dairy Sci 90:4458-65. 2007
  7. ncbi Quantitative analysis of triacylglycerol regioisomers in fats and oils using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry
    Laetitia Fauconnot
    Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd Vers chez les Blanc, P O Box 44, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:218-24. 2004
  8. pmc The role of the bovine growth hormone receptor and prolactin receptor genes in milk, fat and protein production in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle
    Sirja Viitala
    MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food Research, Jokioinen, Finland
    Genetics 173:2151-64. 2006
  9. ncbi Combining chromatography and chemometrics for the characterization and authentication of fats and oils from triacylglycerol compositional data--a review
    Juan M Bosque-Sendra
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, Av Fuentenueva S N, E 18071 Granada, Spain
    Anal Chim Acta 724:1-11. 2012
  10. ncbi Dietary fats and oils: technologies for improving cardiovascular health
    Brent D Flickinger
    ADM Reserach, James R Randall Research Center, Decatur, IL 62521, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 6:468-76. 2004

Detail Information

Publications262 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Rapid discrimination of fatty acid composition in fats and oils by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
    Shoji Kurata
    Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Metropolitan Police Department, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100 8929, Japan
    Anal Sci 21:1457-65. 2005
    ..analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a more conventional method used in the discrimination of fats and oils...
  2. pmc C. elegans major fats are stored in vesicles distinct from lysosome-related organelles
    Eyleen J O'Rourke
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell Metab 10:430-5. 2009
    ..elegans, allowing for efficient and accurate genetic and functional genomic screens for genes that control fat accumulation at the organismal level...
  3. pmc The influence of bacterial diet on fat storage in C. elegans
    Kyleann K Brooks
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e7545. 2009
    ..C. elegans feed on bacteria, and various strains of E. coli are commonly used in research settings. However, it is not known whether particular bacterial diets affect fat storage and metabolism...
  4. ncbi Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate
    R J Dewhurst
    Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3EB, UK
    J Dairy Sci 86:2598-611. 2003
    ..The efficiency of conversion of feed N into milk N declined with increasing levels of legume silage. White clover silage led to a higher N-use efficiency when the effect of N intake level is taken into account...
  5. ncbi Oils and fats as renewable raw materials in chemistry
    Ursula Biermann
    Universitat Oldenburg, Institut fur Reine und Angewandte Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Strasse 9 11, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 50:3854-71. 2011
    Oils and fats of vegetable and animal origin have been the most important renewable feedstock of the chemical industry in the past and in the present...
  6. ncbi Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene polymorphism and milk fatty acid composition in Italian Holsteins
    M Mele
    Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell Agroecosistema, University of Pisa, Italy
    J Dairy Sci 90:4458-65. 2007
    ....
  7. ncbi Quantitative analysis of triacylglycerol regioisomers in fats and oils using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry
    Laetitia Fauconnot
    Nestle Research Center, Nestec Ltd Vers chez les Blanc, P O Box 44, CH 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:218-24. 2004
    Positional distribution of fatty acyl chains of triacylglycerols (TGs) in vegetable oils and fats (palm oil, cocoa butter) and animal fats (beef, pork and chicken fats) was examined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ..
  8. pmc The role of the bovine growth hormone receptor and prolactin receptor genes in milk, fat and protein production in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle
    Sirja Viitala
    MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food Research, Jokioinen, Finland
    Genetics 173:2151-64. 2006
    ..In particular, the GHR F279Y has the highest influence on protein percentage and fat percentage while PRLR S18N markedly influences protein and fat yield. Furthermore, an interaction between the two loci is suggested...
  9. ncbi Combining chromatography and chemometrics for the characterization and authentication of fats and oils from triacylglycerol compositional data--a review
    Juan M Bosque-Sendra
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, Av Fuentenueva S N, E 18071 Granada, Spain
    Anal Chim Acta 724:1-11. 2012
    The characterization and authentication of fats and oils is a subject of great importance for market and health aspects...
  10. ncbi Dietary fats and oils: technologies for improving cardiovascular health
    Brent D Flickinger
    ADM Reserach, James R Randall Research Center, Decatur, IL 62521, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 6:468-76. 2004
    ..States, have been major driving forces for the edible oil industry and food manufacturers to develop alternative fats and oils with nutritionally improved fatty acid compositions...
  11. ncbi Milk production and composition, ovarian function, and prostaglandin secretion of dairy cows fed omega-3 fats
    H V Petit
    Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Lennoxville, QC
    J Dairy Sci 85:889-99. 2002
    ....
  12. ncbi Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt
    M S Copley
    Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK
    Analyst 130:860-71. 2005
    ..of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised...
  13. ncbi The impact of dietary fats, photoperiod, temperature and season on morphological variables, torpor patterns, and brown adipose tissue fatty acid composition of hamsters, Phodopus sungorus
    F Geiser
    , Marburg, Germany
    J Comp Physiol B 165:406-15. 1995
    We investigated how dietary fats and oils of different fatty acid composition influence the seasonal change of body mass, fur colour, testes size and torpor in Djungarian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, maintained from autumn to winter under ..
  14. pmc Identification of a missense mutation in the bovine ABCG2 gene with a major effect on the QTL on chromosome 6 affecting milk yield and composition in Holstein cattle
    Miri Cohen-Zinder
    Institute of Animal Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
    Genome Res 15:936-44. 2005
    ..09% fat, and 0.08% protein (F-value = 394), with partial dominance towards the 581S homozygotes. We therefore propose that Y581S in ABCG2 is the causative site for this QTL...
  15. ncbi Detection of QTL for milk production traits in cattle by application of a specifically developed marker map of BTA6
    C Kuhn
    Research Unit of Molecular Biology, Research Institute for Biology of Farm Animals, Dummerstorf, Germany
    Anim Genet 30:333-40. 1999
    ..Although there are several reports about QTL with effects on milk production traits on BTA6 in the literature, a QTL with effects on milk fat and milk protein yield has not been previously described...
  16. pmc An endocytic pathway as a target of tubby for regulation of fat storage
    Arnab Mukhopadhyay
    Program in Gene Function and Expression, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    EMBO Rep 8:931-8. 2007
    ..We propose that TUB-1 controls receptor or sensory molecule degradation in neurons by regulating a RAB-7-mediated endocytic pathway...
  17. ncbi Effect of liver fat on insulin clearance
    Anna Kotronen
    Dept of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Univ of Helsinki, P O Box 700, Rm C418B, FIN 00029 HUCH, Helsinki, Finland
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293:E1709-15. 2007
    ..40, P = 0.0002). We conclude that increased liver fat is associated with both impaired insulin clearance and hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic insulin sensitivity associates with liver fat content, independent of insulin clearance...
  18. ncbi Properties of the mouse intestinal acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, MGAT2
    Jingsong Cao
    Endocrine Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:25657-63. 2003
    ..The elucidation of properties of MGAT2 will facilitate future development of compounds that inhibit dietary fat absorption as a means to treat obesity...
  19. ncbi The different satiating capacity of CHO and fats can be mediated by different effects on leptin and ghrelin systems
    JUANA SANCHEZ
    Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology Nutrigenomics, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera Valldemossa Km 7 5, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
    Behav Brain Res 213:183-8. 2010
    ..In conclusion, different effects on the leptin and ghrelin systems can account, at least in part, for the lower satiating capacity of fat compared to CHO...
  20. ncbi Batch stage study of lipid production from crude glycerol derived from yellow grease or animal fats through microalgal fermentation
    Yanna Liang
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1230 Lincoln Dr, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
    Bioresour Technol 101:6745-50. 2010
    ..With 35 g/l, the cellular lipid content was the highest - 73.3% among all the doses tested. Animal fats derived crude glycerol also supported algal growth and lipid production...
  21. ncbi Gel permeation chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography combination as an automated clean-up technique for the multiresidue analysis of fats
    G G Rimkus
    Food and Veterinary Institute Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Residue and Contamination Analysis, , Germany
    J Chromatogr A 737:9-14. 1996
    ..This automated clean-up technique is routinely used for the multiresidue analysis of various fat-containing food and biota samples...
  22. ncbi Pericardial fat accumulation in men as a risk factor for coronary artery disease
    R Taguchi
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
    Atherosclerosis 157:203-9. 2001
    ..This result showed that pericardial fat accumulation was a stronger coronary risk factor than the other body fat distributions in non-obese men...
  23. ncbi Cytochrome P450s and short-chain dehydrogenases mediate the toxicogenomic response of PCB52 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Ralph Menzel
    Department of Biology, Freshwater and Stress Ecology, Humboldt University at Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany
    J Mol Biol 370:1-13. 2007
    ....
  24. ncbi Major advances in nutrition: impact on milk composition
    T C Jenkins
    Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
    J Dairy Sci 89:1302-10. 2006
    ..New protected fats were developed in recent years that were designed to resist biohydrogenation and enhance the concentration of ..
  25. ncbi A mammary gland EST showing linkage disequilibrium to a milk production QTL on bovine Chromosome 14
    C Looft
    Institut für Tierzucht und Tierhaltung der Christian Albrechts Universität, D 24098 Kiel, Germany
    Mamm Genome 12:646-50. 2001
    ..Nevertheless, KIEL_E8 will be an efficient marker to perform marker-assisted selection in the Holstein-Friesian population...
  26. ncbi A systems comparison of once- versus twice-daily milking of pastured dairy cows
    D A Clark
    Dexcel, Private Bag 3221, Hamilton, New Zealand
    J Dairy Sci 89:1854-62. 2006
    ..Milking once daily is a viable milking option for New Zealand farmers who are prepared to trade-off loss of MS income for increased time to accomplish other non-milking activities...
  27. ncbi Effects of dietary thermoxidized fats on expression and activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats
    Klaus Eder
    Institut fur Ernahrungswissenschaften, Martin Luther Universitat Halle Wittenberg, D 06108 Halle Saale, Germany
    Lipids 38:31-8. 2003
    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary oxidized fats on the relative mRNA concentrations and the activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the liver of rats treated ..
  28. ncbi Effect of frequency of milking on yield, composition and processing quality of milk
    Bernadette O'Brien
    Dairy Production Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co Cork, Ireland
    J Dairy Res 69:367-74. 2002
    ..01). In conclusion, once daily milking reduced milk yield by 29% and did not adversely affect the processability of milk. Moreover, one evening milking per week could be eliminated without adverse effects on milk yield or composition...
  29. pmc Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats
    Jinah Hwang
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Myongji University, Yongin 449 728, Republic of Korea
    Lipids Health Dis 10:184. 2011
    Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding...
  30. ncbi Four genes located on a SSC2 meat quality QTL region are associated with different meat quality traits in Landrace × Chinese-European crossbred population
    S Cepica
    Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, AS CR, Libechov, Czech Republic
    Anim Genet 43:333-6. 2012
    ..Our results support the localization of further QTL for meat quality traits in this region and suggest that there are several genes affecting different meat quality traits...
  31. ncbi Evaluation of five lactation curve models fitted for fat:protein ratio of milk and daily energy balance
    N Buttchereit
    Institute of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Christian Albrechts University, D 24118 Kiel, Germany
    J Dairy Sci 93:1702-12. 2010
    ..43). The results support the hypothesis that FPR can serve as a suitable indicator for energy status, at least during the most metabolically stressful stage of lactation...
  32. ncbi Differential effects of diets that provide different lipid sources on hepatic lipogenic activities in rats under ad libitum or restricted feeding
    M P Portillo
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Pais Vasco, Vitoria, Spain
    Nutrition 17:467-73. 2001
    ..05) than rats fed the other fats. It is unlikely that this effect could be attributed to the stimulation by insulin or triiodothyronine because ..
  33. ncbi Protein carbonyl content roughly reflects the unsaturation of lipids in muscle but not in other tissues of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive strain (SHRSP) rats fed different fats and oils
    A Sato
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 21:1271-6. 1998
    We examined in vivo the effect of dietary fats and oils with different peroxidizability on protein carbonyl content, the presumed index of free radical-mediated protein oxidation. For 15...
  34. ncbi New opportunity for enzymatic modification of fats and oils with industrial potentials
    Zheng Guo
    BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Building 221, DK 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark
    Org Biomol Chem 3:2615-9. 2005
    Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica lipase)-catalyzed glycerolysis of commercial oils and fats to produce monoglycerides (MGs) was investigated using a tetraammonium-based ionic liquid (IL) as a reaction medium...
  35. ncbi VO(2) kinetics of mild exercise are altered by RER
    P A Mole
    Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 87:2097-106. 1999
    ..Therefore, the kinetic model can quantify the dynamics of fat and CHO oxidation over the first 5-10 min of mild exercise in young adult men and women...
  36. ncbi Effect of increasing oil from distillers grains or corn oil on lactation performance
    C Leonardi
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:2820-7. 2005
    ..Therefore, our hypothesis that feeding corn oil either as DGS or as pure corn oil would decrease milk fat yield was not correct...
  37. ncbi Rumen fermentation and intestinal supply of nutrients in dairy cows fed rumen-protected soy products
    I R Ipharraguerre
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:2879-92. 2005
    ..However, significant improvements in the supply of previously reported limiting amino acids for milk production, particularly of Met, should not be expected...
  38. ncbi A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis
    Y Chilliard
    Unite de Recherches sur les Herbivores, Equipe Tissu Adipeux et Lipides du Lait, INRA, Theix, 63122 St Genes Champanelle, France
    J Dairy Sci 86:1751-70. 2003
    ..This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat...
  39. ncbi Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production
    J S Eun
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Research Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1J 4B1, Canada
    J Dairy Sci 88:2140-53. 2005
    ..However, improvements in digestibility were offset by decreased feed intake, likely due to increased ruminal acidosis...
  40. ncbi The effect of herbage allowance and concentrate supplementation on milk production performance and dry matter intake of spring-calving dairy cows in early lactation
    M McEvoy
    Dairy Production Research Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co Cork, Ireland
    J Dairy Sci 91:1258-69. 2008
    ....
  41. ncbi Effects of increasing days of exposure to prepartum transition diets on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows
    P J DeGaris
    Veterinary Clinical Studies, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Aust Vet J 86:341-51. 2008
    ..To evaluate the effects of length of exposure to prepartum transition diets on milk yield, fat and protein production...
  42. ncbi Efficiency of converting nutrient dry matter to milk in Holstein herds
    J S Britt
    Department of Agriculture, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green 42101 5376, USA
    J Dairy Sci 86:3796-801. 2003
    ..The mechanisms for the effects of the dietary variables on dairy efficiency need to be understood and evaluated over a broader range of diets and conditions before more firm conclusions regarding their impact can be drawn...
  43. ncbi Effect of suckling period on calf growth and milk yield of Zebu cows
    Alice G Sidibé-Anago
    Département Production Animale, Institut de l Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    Trop Anim Health Prod 40:491-9. 2008
    ..In conclusion, a suckling period of 5 months resulted in higher total milk production and higher amount of saleable milk but did not seem to have any effect on calf growth when the calves were supplemented...
  44. ncbi A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin in lactating dairy cattle. Part 2. Production effects
    T F Duffield
    Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada
    J Dairy Sci 91:1347-60. 2008
    ..These findings indicate a benefit of monensin for improving milk production efficiency while maintaining body condition. The effect of monensin on milk fat percentage and yield was influenced by diet...
  45. ncbi Extent of methionine limitation in peak-, early-, and mid-lactation dairy cows
    M T Socha
    Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN 55374, USA
    J Dairy Sci 91:1996-2010. 2008
    ..3%. Experiment 3 results indicate that the required level of Met in duodenal digesta for maximizing milk protein yield is lower than that required for maximizing milk protein content...
  46. ncbi Efficacy of liquid feeds varying in concentration and composition of fat, nonprotein nitrogen, and nonfiber carbohydrates for lactating dairy cows
    J L Firkins
    Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Dairy Sci 91:1969-84. 2008
    ..In conclusion, feeding LF at about 5% (trial 2, which contained WG, 1.6% added sugar) or 3.25% (trial 3, 1.7% added sugar) generally increased DMI and maintained or increased production of milk, protein, and fat...
  47. ncbi Effects of the chop lengths of alfalfa silage and oat silage on feed intake, milk production, feeding behavior, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows
    S K Bhandari
    Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 Canada
    J Dairy Sci 91:1942-58. 2008
    ..The onset of subacute ruminal acidosis despite apparently adequate dietary neutral detergent fiber content and particle size distribution as well as the long duration of chewing might be attributed to sorting against long feed particles...
  48. ncbi Variation in plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in pasture-fed Holstein cows
    F Y Obese
    School of Agriculture and Food Systems, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3031, Australia
    J Dairy Sci 91:1814-21. 2008
    ..Both observations have relevance to interpreting data related to plasma concentrations of IGF-I in lactating Holstein cows...
  49. ncbi Variations in carotenoids, fat-soluble micronutrients, and color in cows' plasma and milk following changes in forage and feeding level
    P Nozière
    Unité de Recherche sur les Herbivores, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    J Dairy Sci 89:2634-48. 2006
    ..The concentration of BC explained 58 and 40% of variation in CI of plasma and milk, respectively. These CI appear to be valuable tools for diet traceability (i.e., silage vs. hay)...
  50. ncbi A comparison of three strains of holstein-friesian grazed on pasture and managed under different feed allowances
    K A MacDonald
    DairyNZ, Private Bag 3221, Hamilton, New Zealand 3240
    J Dairy Sci 91:1693-707. 2008
    ..Combined with poor reproductive performance, this means that NA90 cows are less productive than NZ HF in pasture-based seasonal calving systems with low levels of supplementation...
  51. ncbi Chemical, physical, and sensory properties of dairy products enriched with conjugated linoleic acid
    E L Jones
    School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
    J Dairy Sci 88:2923-37. 2005
    ..In conclusion, it is feasible to produce CLA-enriched dairy products with acceptable storage and sensory characteristics...
  52. ncbi Economic and environmental feasibility of a perennial cow dairy farm
    C A Rotz
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:3009-19. 2005
    ..Thus, a perennial cow production system can improve the economic and environmental sustainability of a traditional dairy farm if a similar level in annual milk production per cow can be maintained...
  53. ncbi Variation of milk citrate with stage of lactation and de novo fatty acid synthesis in dairy cows
    P C Garnsworthy
    Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, United Kingdom
    J Dairy Sci 89:1604-12. 2006
    ..This study confirms the hypothesis that variation in milk citrate with stage of lactation is related to de novo synthesis of fatty acids and that the relationship is independent of diet and milk yield...
  54. ncbi Longer milking intervals alter mammary epithelial permeability and the Udder's ability to extract nutrients
    E Delamaire
    Unité Mixte de Recherches INRA Agrocampus Rennes Production du Lait, 33590 Saint Gilles, France
    J Dairy Sci 89:2007-16. 2006
    ..64 +/- 0.12 mmol/L for alpha-amino nitrogen. As a result, the mammary gland's ability to extract nutrients appears to be downregulated explaining partly the decrease in daily milk yield observed in response to increased milking intervals...
  55. ncbi Yields and persistency of lactation in Friesian and Jersey cows milked once daily
    R E Hickson
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11, 222, New Zealand
    J Dairy Sci 89:2017-24. 2006
    ..For most performance measures, cows milked twice daily had better total yields and persistency than cows milked once daily...
  56. ncbi Intake and performance of lactating cows grazing diverse forage mixtures
    K J Soder
    USDA Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, University Park, PA 16802 3702, USA
    J Dairy Sci 89:2158-67. 2006
    ..The use of complex mixtures of forages in grazing systems should not affect dairy cow performance...
  57. ncbi Changes in terpene content in milk from pasture-fed cows
    G Tornambè
    Unite de Recherches sur les Herbivores, INRA, Theix, France
    J Dairy Sci 89:2309-19. 2006
    ..Nevertheless, current results raise questions about the precision of terpenes as feed tracers...
  58. ncbi Physically effective fiber: method of determination and effects on chewing, ruminal acidosis, and digestion by dairy cows
    W Z Yang
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 4B1, Canada
    J Dairy Sci 89:2618-33. 2006
    ....
  59. ncbi Genetic parameters for milk urea nitrogen in relation to milk production traits
    W M Stoop
    Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Dairy Sci 90:1981-6. 2007
    ..85). Herd-test day explained 58% of the variation in MUN, which suggests that management adjustments at herd-level can reduce MUN. This study shows that it is possible to influence MUN by herd practice and by genetic selection...
  60. ncbi A redefinition of the representation of mammary cells and enzyme activities in a lactating dairy cow model
    M D Hanigan
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061, USA
    J Dairy Sci 90:3816-30. 2007
    ..7% vs. 5.7% for the revised model. Based on these observations, it was concluded that representing mammary synthetic capacity as a function of active cell numbers and revisions to endocrine control of cell activity was meritorious...
  61. ncbi Effects of genotype by environment interactions on milk yield, energy balance, and protein balance
    B Beerda
    Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Animal Production Division, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
    J Dairy Sci 90:219-28. 2007
    ....
  62. ncbi Dietary energy source in dairy cows in early lactation: energy partitioning and milk composition
    A T M van Knegsel
    Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
    J Dairy Sci 90:1467-76. 2007
    ..113 +/- 26 kJ/(kg(0.75) x d)]. Overall, results demonstrate that energy partitioning between milk and body tissue can be altered by feeding isocaloric diets differing in lipogenic and glucogenic nutrient content...
  63. ncbi Direct-fed microbial supplementation and health and performance of pre- and postpartum dairy cattle: a field trial
    G R Oetzel
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    J Dairy Sci 90:2058-68. 2007
    ..Key covariates for main study outcomes included milk yield in the previous (first) lactation, body condition score prior to calving, days spent in the maternity pen, and stocking density of the pre-fresh pen...
  64. ncbi Relationships among body condition score, body weight, and milk production variables in pasture-based dairy cows
    J R Roche
    Dexcel Ltd, Hamilton, New Zealand
    J Dairy Sci 90:3802-15. 2007
    ..The results are consistent with the literature and highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on milk production, irrespective of the system of farming...
  65. ncbi Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows
    J Patton
    Teagasc Moorepark, Dairy Production Research Centre, Fermoy, Co Cork, Ireland
    J Dairy Sci 89:1478-87. 2006
    ..3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status...
  66. ncbi Milk from forage as affected by carbohydrate source and degradability with alfalfa silage-based diets
    E Charbonneau
    Departement des Sciences Animales, Universite Laval, QC, G1K 7P4, Canada
    J Dairy Sci 89:283-93. 2006
    ..Results emphasize the advantage of using concentrates of higher degradability in the rumen to improve MF and milk production when feeding silage with high rumen-degradable protein...
  67. ncbi Quarter health, milking interval, and sampling time during milking affect the concentration of milk constituents
    N I Nielsen
    Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Foulum, P O Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
    J Dairy Sci 88:3186-200. 2005
    ..If these milk constituents are to be used in an inline management system, these effects should be taken into account...
  68. ncbi Effects of week of lactation and genetic selection for milk yield on milk fatty acid composition in Holstein cows
    J K Kay
    Department of Animal Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:3886-93. 2005
    ..Results indicate prolonged genetic selection for milk yield had little effect on milk fatty acid composition, but milk fatty acid profiles varied markedly by week of lactation...
  69. ncbi High-concentrate diets and polyunsaturated oils alter trans and conjugated isomers in bovine rumen, blood, and milk
    J J Loor
    Herbivore Research Unit INRA Theix, 63122 St Genes Champanelle, France
    J Dairy Sci 88:3986-99. 2005
    ....
  70. ncbi Lactational response of cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles
    C R Da Cruz
    Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007 0647, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:4000-6. 2005
    ..This study indicated that it is advantageous to feed CCDS at 5% of dry matter; however, some beneficial changes in milk fatty acid composition were achieved by doubling that amount...
  71. ncbi The effect of production level on feed intake, milk yield, and endocrine responses to two fatty acid supplements in lactating cows
    K J Harvatine
    Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:4018-27. 2005
    ..Decreased milk protein synthesis by fat supplementation may be related to FA saturation and milk yield of cows...
  72. ncbi Effect of grazing and fat supplementation on production and reproduction of Holstein cows
    S L Boken
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:4258-72. 2005
    ..7 vs. 42.4 d postpartum) than did cows not supplemented with SORB. Neither housing system nor SORB supplementation influenced detection of first estrus (50.5 d) or the mean length of each estrus period (447 min)...
  73. ncbi Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat
    J A Bell
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
    J Dairy Sci 89:733-48. 2006
    ..The addition of vitamin E to the diet partially prevented the depression in milk fat associated with oilseed feeding, but had no significant effect on the concentration of CLA in milk...
  74. ncbi Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on intake, milk yield, and blood components of the early lactation cow
    P S Chan
    Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, 31793 0748, USA
    J Dairy Sci 88:4384-92. 2005
    ....
  75. ncbi The feeding value of extruded corn grain in a corn silage-based ration for high-producing Holstein cows and heifers during mid lactation
    P Rezamand
    Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269 4040, USA
    J Dairy Sci 90:3475-81. 2007
    ..The major effect of feeding 2.7 kg/d of EXC compared with FGC was an increase in milk production and a reduction in milk fat content for multiparous cows, and an increase in milk protein content for primiparous cows...
  76. ncbi Effects of feeding propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and reproduction
    D R Stein
    Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, 74078, USA
    J Dairy Sci 89:111-25. 2006
    ..We concluded that P169 might have potential as an effective direct-fed microorganism to increase milk production in dairy cows...
  77. ncbi Dietary forage and nonfiber carbohydrate contents influence B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and apparent ruminal synthesis in lactating dairy cows
    E C Schwab
    Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 53706, USA
    J Dairy Sci 89:174-87. 2006
    ..B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and ruminal synthesis are influenced by dietary forage and NFC contents...
  78. ncbi Feeding lactose to increase ruminal butyrate and the metabolic status of transition dairy cows
    J M DeFrain
    Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, 57007, USA
    J Dairy Sci 89:267-76. 2006
    ..Feeding lactose to transition dairy cows increased the proportion of butyrate in the rumen and beta-hydroxybutyrate in plasma and decreased liver lipid but did not affect lactation performance...
  79. ncbi Trans-9, cis-11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows
    J W Perfield
    Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Dairy Sci 90:2211-8. 2007
    ....
  80. ncbi Performance of lactating dairy cows fed corn as whole plant silage and grain produced from a glyphosate-tolerant hybrid (event NK603)
    I R Ipharraguerre
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA
    J Dairy Sci 86:1734-41. 2003
    ....
  81. ncbi Influence of glyphosate-tolerant (event nk603) and corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn silage and grain on feed consumption and milk production in Holstein cattle
    R J Grant
    Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 68583 0908, USA
    J Dairy Sci 86:1707-15. 2003
    ....
  82. ncbi The effect of oilseeds in diets of lactating cows on milk production and methane emissions
    K A Johnson
    Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman 99164, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:1509-15. 2002
    ..The strategy of using unsaturated fats from oilseeds to substantially reduce methane emissions was ineffective, although yield of milk was increased.
  83. ncbi Ruminal digestion and fermentation of high-producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations
    F Bargo
    Department of Dairy and Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:2964-73. 2002
    ..Ruminal NH3-N losses were reduced when combining pasture and TMR; however this combination decreased the ruminal digestion of pasture, indicating the presence of associative effects in the rumen...
  84. ncbi Performance of high producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations
    F Bargo
    Department of Dairy and Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:2948-63. 2002
    ..The TMR feeding system resulted in the highest total dry matter intake and milk production...
  85. ncbi Invited review: production and digestion of supplemented dairy cows on pasture
    F Bargo
    Department of Dairy and Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    J Dairy Sci 86:1-42. 2003
    ..Supplementation with energy concentrates reduced digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and intake of N but did not affect digestibility of organic matter or flow of microbial N...
  86. ncbi Lactational effect of propionic acid and duodenal glucose in cows
    S Rigout
    Unité Mixte de Recherches Production du Lait, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, 35590 Saint Gilles, France
    J Dairy Sci 86:243-53. 2003
    ..04% per Mcal of GP) and curvilinearly decrease milk fat content (- 0.14% per Mcal of GP). Thus, it appears important to account for the nature of energy supplied by the ration in formulation...
  87. ncbi Milk response to concentrate supplementation of high producing dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances
    F Bargo
    Department of Dairy and Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:1777-92. 2002
    ..The latter was more important, quantitatively explaining at least 80% of the reduction in pasture dry matter intake observed...
  88. ncbi Evaluation of isoleucine, leucine, and valine as a second-limiting amino acid for milk production in dairy cows fed grass silage diet
    M Korhonen
    J Dairy Sci 85:1533-45. 2002
    ..Postruminal AA supply seems to be dependent on the basal diet, but variation may exist even within the similar basal diets...
  89. ncbi Feeding fish meal and extruded soybeans enhances the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk
    A A Abu-Ghazaleh
    Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007 0647, USA
    J Dairy Sci 85:624-31. 2002
    ..This suggested that fish oil increased the production of CLA and TVA from other dietary sources of linoleic acid such as extruded soybeans...
  90. ncbi Sugar beet mash silage as a component of a total-mixed-ration for dairy cows--effects on parameters of digestion and animal performance
    S Schmidt
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, Stuttgart, Germany
    Arch Tierernahr 54:47-59. 2001
    ..For a better handling of BMS, it is of advantage to include it in a TMR...
  91. ncbi Evaluation of wet corn gluten feed in diets for lactating dairy cows
    M J Vanbaale
    Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506, USA
    J Dairy Sci 84:2478-85. 2001
    ..Milk protein and lactose yields were higher when WCGF was fed. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino N, and triglyceride concentrations were similar among diets in both experiments, but plasma urea N was higher for cows fed WCGF in experiment 2...
  92. ncbi Milk production, nutrient utilization, and endocrine responses to increased postruminal lysine and methionine supply in dairy cows
    L Misciatteilli
    Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, P O Box 50, DK 8830 Tjele, Denmark
    J Dairy Sci 86:275-86. 2003
    ..44) and partially with low plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration and insulin levels (r = -0.26), while body weight gain was negatively correlated (r = -0.33) with elevated plasma bovine somatotropin concentrations...
  93. ncbi [Studies on the use of lucerne silage source for high-milk-producing dairy cows]
    M Bulang
    Institut fur Ernahrungswissenschaften, Martin Luther Universitat Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Saale, Germany
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 90:89-102. 2006
    ..It is concluded that lucerne silage is a suitable forage source for high yielding dairy cows in spite of its low digestibility...
  94. ncbi Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A
    Douglas J Lanska
    Department of Neurology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Tomah, WI 54660, USA
    Handb Clin Neurol 95:435-44. 2010
    ..late-19th century, a physiologically complete diet was believed to require only sufficient proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water...
  95. ncbi Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils
    D Mozaffarian
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Eur J Clin Nutr 63:S22-33. 2009
    ..contain both TFAs and other fatty acids are the unit of replacement and could be replaced with diverse alternative fats and oils...
  96. ncbi Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials
    Ronald P Mensink
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:1146-55. 2003
    The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol...
  97. ncbi The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial
    S J Schoenthaler
    Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, California State University, Stanislaus, Turlock 95380, USA
    J Altern Complement Med 6:7-17. 2000
    ..after implementing nutrient-dense diets that are consistent with the World Health Organization's guidelines for fats, sugar, starches, and protein ratios...
  98. ncbi Yellow nail syndrome: treatment with octreotide
    Gunnar Hillerdal
    Department of Lung Medicine and Allergy Karolinska University Hospital, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Clin Respir J 1:120-1. 2007
    ..Because of the inhibition of absorption of fats and other nutrients, octreotide has been useful in chylothorax from many different causes (4)...
  99. ncbi Modulation of absorption of beta-carotene and tissue accumulation of beta-carotene and vitamin A by different surfactants in rats
    Florian J Schweigert
    Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam Rehbrucke, Germany
    Ann Nutr Metab 46:200-4. 2002
    The absorption of beta-carotene is closely associated with the absorption of dietary fats in the duodenum...
  100. ncbi Trans fatty acid isomers in human health and in the food industry
    A Valenzuela
    Laboratorio de Lípidos y Antioxidantes, INTA, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Biol Res 32:273-87. 1999
    ..These fatty acids occur naturally in dairy and other natural fats and in some plants...
  101. ncbi Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on the activity and gene expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes
    T Ide
    Laboratory of Nutrition Biochemistry, National Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba, Japan
    Biofactors 13:9-14. 2000
    ..alpha-18:3) were compared with those in the animals fed safflower oil rich in linoleic acid (18:2) and saturated fats (coconut or palm oil)...

Research Grants75

  1. Impact of the P479L Variant in CPT1A on Infant Mortality in Alaska
    David M Koeller; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..regulatory role, responding to physiologic signals to exert control over the relative usage of carbohydrates and fats for energy production...
  2. Role of SCD1 and Dietary Methionine Restriction on Energy Homeostasis
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..responses of the brain and peripheral tissues to the intake of specific nutrients such as amino acids and fats in the diet...
  3. Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Antioxidant on Degenerative Eye Disorders
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the macula is the site of high rate of metabolic activity and the presence of concentrations of polyunsaturated fats. Lens and retinal cells combat oxidative stress by generating sufficient antioxidant enzymes or small molecular ..
  4. Remodeling of Lipid Metabolism by Dietary Methionine Restriction
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..deletion of the gene for stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) on MR to determine if an inhibition of the synthesis of fats reduces metabolism in adipose tissue and decreases overall energy expenditure...
  5. Inhibition of S14 by Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Advanced Solid Tumor Patients
    Raymond P Perez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: It has become apparent that many cancers depend on specific fats (lipids) for their continued growth...
  6. Calcium Signaling in the Pubertal Activation of the GnRH Pulse Generator
    Daniel J Spergel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..presynaptic neurons that convey information about age, growth, availability of metabolic fuels such as glucose and fats, circadian rhythm, and other factors...
  7. Functions of the Human OST-alpha and OST-beta Proteins
    Patricia M Hinkle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is essential for processes such as intestinal absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, cholesterol homeostasis, bile flow, and biliary lipid secretion, these data suggest that Ost?-Ost? ..
  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS)
    Ross L Prentice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..blood-derived nutritional measures, including carotenoids (fruits &vegetables), 1- and 3 -tocopherols (fats &oils), phospholipid fatty acids (fats &oils), and folate (fruits &vegetables) at the beginning and end ..
  9. Attenuation of androgen deprivation therapy-induced metabolic syndrome by diet
    Oleg Varlamov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the present proposal is to further our understanding of the ADT-related MS and establish the effects of dietary fats on the progression and reversal of MS in non-human primates (NHP;rhesus macaques)...
  10. Genetic contributors to diabetes and dyslipidemia in African Americans
    Michele M Sale; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..has high rates of type 2 diabetes, low levels of admixture and, in general, consumes a diet rich in saturated fats. We postulate that this unique combination of ancestral and environmental factors results in a more consistent ..
  11. Structure/Function of Steroid Transforming AKR's
    Trevor M Penning; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The production of bile-acids is essential for normal liver function and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the G.I. tract...
  12. Substituting Brown Rice for White Rice: Effect on Diabetes Risk Factors in India
    Mohan Viswanathan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These transitions are accompanied by a shift in dietary consumption towards more highly refined carbohydrates, fats, and animal products...
  13. Fatty Acids and Heart Failure in the Physicians'Health Study
    Luc Djousse; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results on trans fats may provide additional evidence to support legislative action on the usage of trans fatty acids...
  14. Diet and Activity Promotion Among Older Working Adults
    Gladys Block; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..B &C then focus on either increasing PA, increasing fruits and vegetables, or decreasing saturated and trans- fats and added sugars...
  15. CNS PPAR gamma and energy homeostasis
    HEIDI E KOCALIS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Such a finding would have far reaching implications, first, supporting the idea that dietary fats, via their action on PPARy have physiological effects that extend beyond their basic nutritional profile...
  16. Do Genotype Patterns Predict Weight Loss Success for Low Carb vs. Low Fat Diets?
    Christopher D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on prior genetic studies evaluating the body's physiological responses to dietary carbohydrates or fats, we identified multi-locus genotype patterns with SNPs from three genes (FABP2, PPARG, and ADRB2): a low ..
  17. An investigation of the mechanisms by which down-regulation of lipoprotein lipase
    Jheem D Medh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the absence of LPL, fats may become unavailable and muscle cells may be forced to use glucose, thereby helping with the management of ..
  18. Mechanisms of Dietary Lipid Induced Insulin Resistance
    Peter D Reaven; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 2 will determine in a cross-over study the effects of dietary composition (monounsaturated fats vs. carbohydrates) on pathways of dietary induction of insulin resistance...
  19. Role of Bile Acids in the Initiation of Liver Regeneration
    Willscott E Naugler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Bile acids are detergent molecules made from cholesterol which help solubilize fats for absorption in the intestine...
  20. The Impact of Maternal Health and Diet on Development of Fetal Metabolic Systems
    KENT L R THORNBURG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For these studies, breeding NHPs will be chronically maintained on a diet high in fats and calories (HFD)...
  21. Massachusetts Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention
    Allen A Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Dietary patterns have changed over the past decades, with many persons replacing consumption of proteins and fats with carbohydrates;it is therefore critical to identify the possible impact of such high-glycemic diets on risks of ..
  22. Effect of FADS gene variants on fatty acid synthesis &brain development in India
    AVINASH KUNJAN SHETTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Together this will create a fertile local academic environment and a proven infrastructure needed to better understand how diverse Indian populations synthesize fats that are critical for brain and eye development.
  23. Mechanisms for Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Colon Cancer Exacerbation by Dietary Fat
    Aramandla Ramesh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CRC) in USA and in a great majority of the cases surveyed;consumption of well-done red meat and other saturated fats, rich in B(a)P were implicated as a possible causative factor...
  24. N-3 Fatty Acid-Induced Akt Suppression: Chemoprevention for Pancreatic Neoplasia
    PAUL JOSEPH GRIPPO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to fighting these precancerous conditions must evolve, including chemoprevention, where dietary intake of fats and inhibition of key signaling pathways may reduce production of early cancer before it spreads...
  25. Marital Discord, Fast Food, Obesity, and Inflammation
    Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..high in saturated fat, and recent demonstrations of enhanced inflammation following meals high in saturated fats have sparked interest in the possibility that postprandial inflammation acts as a driver for chronic inflammatory ..
  26. Red Blood Cell Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Coronary Artery Disease
    Luc Djousse; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The current project will examine whether omega-3 fatty acids - a type of polyunsaturated fats found mostly in fatty fish, flaxseed or canola oils - can lower the risk of fatal coronary events, cardiovascular ..
  27. Fast Food, Depression, Obesity, and Inflammation in Breast Cancer Survivors
    Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..high in saturated fat, and recent demonstrations of enhanced inflammation following meals high in saturated fats have sparked interest in the possibility that postprandial inflammation acts as a driver for chronic inflammation...
  28. Defining the role of BPA in promoting obesity and associated metabolic complicati
    BEVERLY SHARON contact RUBIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., high in saturated fats), 4) test the hypothesis that BPA promotes obesity by altering relevant metabolic pathways in adipose tissue and ..
  29. Genomewide Association Study of Lipid Response to Fenofibrate and Dietary Fat
    Donna K Arnett; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..people's genes interact with their consumption of dietary fat or their treatment with drugs to reduce blood fats is poorly understood...
  30. Dietary carbohydrate &glycemic index effects on oxidation &inflammation
    EDGAR RAYMOND MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in this trial since modifying the glycemic index within a fixed macronutrients diet (carbohydrate, protein and fats held constant) is expected to results in only modest effects on serum lipids and other traditional CVD risk factors ..
  31. Regulation of Exercise-Induced IL-6 Expression in Skeletal Muscle
    David L Allen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..released by skeletal muscle during exercise signals the fat and the liver to release their stores of sugars and fats for use by the contracting muscle, and thus understanding how IL-6 is regulated, and how this gene is turned on ..
  32. Lipid Mediators of Insulin Resistance
    Scott A Summers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using experimental systems to deliver exogenous fats to muscle either in vitro or ex vivo, we have determined that the metabolic processing of fatty acids is a key ..
  33. Mechanisms of Renal Lipotoxicity and Injury in Obesity and Diabetes
    Jesus H Dominguez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Current dietary fats contain a large proportion of proinflammatory saturated fatty acids (PSFA), and proinflammatory lipid peroxides, ..
  34. NR1D1 pathway in breast cancer
    Douglas S Conklin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..most critical for the survival of ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells are related to the production and storage of fats. Two of these genes, NR1D1 and PBP, map closely to the ERBB2 locus and are commonly found on amplicons that are ..
  35. Fat, sweet taste, and cocaine reinforcement in obese and lean Zucker rats
    Kevin B Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to the investigation of this issue is to use a genetic model of obesity to test the relative reinforcing effects of fats, sweets, and non-food reinforces such as cocaine...
  36. MAL2 regulation of hepatic protein trafficking: mechanisms and binding partners
    Pamela L Tuma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..surface faces the bile (the external environment), the complex molecular "soap" that helps in absorption of dietary fats and waste removal...
  37. THE ROLE OF CLASS III PI-3 KINASE IN MTOR COMPLEX1 SIGNALING AND TUMORIGENESIS
    BRIAN MICHAEL WICZER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Although increased fats and carbohydrates are commonly cited as the major factors in diet-induced dysmetabolic states, increased protein ..
  38. Circulating fatty acids and breast cancer risk: a prospective study
    A Heather Eliassen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., animal and trans fats) and/or in specific subsets of women (e.g., premenopausal) have been observed in some studies...
  39. Enhancement of Cancer Therapy Using Ketogenic Diets
    DOUGLAS ROBERT SPITZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ketogenic diets, which are low in protein and carbohydrates and high in fats, result in elevated ketones (2-hydroxybuturate and acetoacetate;precursors to Acetyl-CoA) forcing cells to rely more ..
  40. Genetics and Personalized Medicine: From Population Studies to Clinical Therapy
    Christie M Ballantyne; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..can be improved by using recent genetic discoveries to identify who is at risk of developing a heart attack and by improved understanding of the genes that control the levels of fats (triglycerides and HDL ["good"] cholesterol) in blood.
  41. Dietary Fat Composition, Plasma Lipids, and Cognitive Decline
    OLIVIA IFEOMA OKEREKE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Furthermore, in order to address the candidate's hypotheses regarding mechanistic links between dietary fats and cognitive change, she proposes new collection of two innovative markers of oxidative stress among a subset of ..
  42. Comparative-Effectiveness of Population Strategies to Improve Diet and Reduce CVD
    Dariush Mozaffarian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our prior work has shown that excess salt and trans fats and insufficient polyunsaturated fats (in place of saturated fats), fruits and vegetables, and seafood omega-3 fats ..
  43. Health Revolutionary: The Life and Science of Ancel Keys
    Sarah W Tracy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Conscientious Objectors (COs) during World War Two, to demonstrating the connection between diets rich in saturated fats and cardiovascular disease across the globe not only reveals how individuals from diverse disciplines contributed ..
  44. Macronutrients, Mitochondria and Blood Metabolome/Proteome Disease Risk Profiles
    Bruce S Kristal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to discover and confirm innovative plasma metabolomic and proteomic biomarkers for dietary intake of subclasses of fats and carbohydrates, and for their effects on mitochondrial (dys)function...
  45. Maternal High Fat Diet and Melanocortin System in Offspring
    Kevin L Grove; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For these studies, breeding NHPs will be chronically maintained on a diet high in fats and calories (HFD), similar to the typical American diet...
  46. Genetic Discovery of New Regulators of Fatty Acid Synthesis
    Daniel E Gottschling; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Fatty acids are obtained directly from absorption of dietary fats, or from conversion of digested nutrients to fatty acids via de novo synthesis...
  47. A Role for Endocannabinoids in the Control of Dietary Fat Intake
    NICHOLAS VINCENT DIPATRIZIO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..control over fat intake, and provide novel insights into physiological mechanisms that govern preference for fats, which are posited to possess addictive-like properties...
  48. Neural Mechansims of Oil Reward
    Ralph Norgren; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of fat in the American diet is a high priority, this effort has been hindered by our poor understanding of fats sensory and rewarding properties...
  49. Validated Biomarkers for Primary Macronutrient Balance
    Bruce S Kristal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Genes and Environment Initiative has focused on the development of a metabolomic signature of class-specific fats (eg, saturated, trans, polyunsaturated) and carbohydrates (differing glycemic index), including testing the ..
  50. Mechanisms of Fatty Acid Control of Feeding Behavior
    W SUE RITTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on signals (notably, the hormone leptin) derived from stored fat, while the mechanisms through which circulating fats may alter food intake have been neglected...
  51. Metabolic Determinants of Cardiac Bioactive Sphingolipids in Lipid Overload
    Sarah Brice Russo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for sphingolipid synthesis, as well as how sphingolipid levels and production are regulated by different dietary fats. Ceramide, a key sphingolipid signaling molecule, has been implicated in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy ..
  52. Novel Surfaces for Enriching Epithelial Cells: A Breastmilk Model
    Maria M Santore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells found in human milk, requires purification and concentration of these cells, and exclusion of lymphocytes, fats, and proteins that are prevalent in milk...
  53. Damaging Effects of a Saturated Fat/Cholesterol Diet toe the Brain
    LINNEA RUTH FREEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..there are many possible contributors to cognitive decline, this study focuses on and explores the role of dietary fats, particularly on hippocampal morphology...
  54. Kinetic and structural analysis of human steroid 5beta-reductase (AKR1D1)
    Mo Chen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..52-Reduction grants bile acids the detergent-like characteristics to emulsify fats and fat soluble vitamins...
  55. Circulating Dietary &Metabolic Fatty Acids, Major CVD Outcomes, &Healthy Aging
    Dariush Mozaffarian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Historically, FA research has focused on broad categories of dietary fats, e.g...
  56. Modulation of neural function in energy failure
    JUAN MANUEL PASCUAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposal also includes the therapeutic consideration that even-carbon ketones, generated from common dietary fats or a ketogenic diet, can fuel the TCA cycle and ameliorate seizures in G1D, but are not anaplerotic...
  57. Pretreatment genotyping at APOA5 and GCKR loci and response to fenofibrate therap
    Edmond Kato Kabagambe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RELEVANCE: A large number of people have high amounts of blood fats including triglycerides...
  58. 2011 Molecular and Cellular Biology of Lipids Gordon Research Conference
    Judith Storch; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Superb facilities are available to accommodate handicapped individuals. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Lipids such as fats and cholesterol are required for life, but cause heart attacks and strokes when present in excess...
  59. Early Events in Lipoprotein Assembly
    CHRISTOPHER JAMES MCKNIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Soth LDL and VLDL are composed of fats, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids and a single molecule of apolipoprotein S (ApoS)...
  60. Lipid overload and skeletal muscle energetics.
    Paul J Schaeffer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In skeletal muscle, this means that glucose is unable to enter the cells normally (insulin resistance). However, fats accumulate in the muscle cells as levels of circulating fats in the blood are elevated...
  61. MyNutritionPlanner: Development and Evaluation of an Innovative Software Approach
    Daniel K Davies; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..barriers in understanding the complexity of nutritional concepts such as the food groups, caloric values, saturated fats, cholesterol, daily recommended allowances, special diets, etc...
  62. The Impact of Omega three Fatty Acids on Vascular Function and cIMT in HIV
    Christine A Wanke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At present, there are no data that extend these observations to determine whether intake of omega three fats over a more prolonged time period will also have a beneficial impact on vascular function and surrogate markers of ..
  63. Walnuts vs. Walnut-Oil, Glucose Homeostasis, PCOS
    Sidika Kasim Karakas; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Since epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that replacement of the dietary saturated fats with unsaturated fats improves insulin sensitivity, these women are advised to increase polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) ..
  64. PROTEASE INHIBITOR-INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN AIDS
    Virgil Brown; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..LRP is responsible for the hepatic uptake of intestinal lipoproteins transporting dietary fats and fat- soluble vitamins such as vitamin A...
  65. DOES ATHEROSCLEROSIS REGRESS WITH THERAPY FOR LOW HDLC?
    Bruce Brown; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..also been shown that HDLc rises in response to exercise, smoking cessation, weight reduction and monounsaturated fats. Our goal is to test, in patients with low HDLc normal LDLc, and CAD, two hypotheses that spring from these ..
  66. Physiological Significance of Conjugated Double Bonds in Membrane Lipids
    Papasani Subbaiah; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Although the man-made trans-unsaturated fats are generally detrimental to human health, a new class of naturally occurring trans fatty acids, called conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which are found in dairy products and meat, have been ..
  67. PANCREATIC LIPASES AND COLIPASE IN LIPOLYSIS AND OBESITY
    Mark Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In Specific Aim 1 we will measure the absorption of a variety of dietary fats in CEL and PLRP2 deficient mice, which are already available. We will monitor growth and fecal fat absorption...
  68. NITRIC OXIDE AND GASTROINTESTINAL OXIDATIVE INJURY
    Walee Chamulitrat; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These test compounds are relevant since lipid hydroperoxides are present in dietary fats, and TNBS is a chemical irritant commonly used to produce inflammatory responses in chronic colitis models...
  69. UPPER GI TRACT MEDIATION OF THE SATIETY EFFECT OF FATS
    Danielle Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The physiological mechanism by which ingested fats terminate eating in animals and humans is unknown...
  70. Regulation of syndecan 1 in by n-3 PUFA
    IRIS EDWARDS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Studies will use LDL obtained from African green monkeys fed dietary fats proposed to have opposite effects in human breast cancer: n-6 PUFA (tumor promoting) and n-3 PUFA (tumor inhibiting)..
  71. NOVEL EVALUATION OF LACTATION PERFORMANCE
    Cutberto Garza; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..standards or on the occurrence of morbidity and mortality; milk quality on the concentrations of proteins, fats, and minerals; and that of milk quantity on production volumes and concentrations...
  72. Novel Anti-Obesity Drugs Targeting Fat Processing Pathway
    Henry Pelish; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The unprocessed fats are not absorbed by the body and pass through the digestive tract...
  73. STRUCTURE-FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF COLIPASE AND LIPASE
    Mark Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Dietary fats provide a major source of energy, essential fatty acids, a vehicle for fat-soluble vitamins, and components of ..
  74. A prospective study of diet and endometriosis
    Stacey Missmer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..to assess the following three hypotheses: a) Women who consume greater amounts of omega-6 fatty acids, saturated fats, and trans fats are at greater risk of endometriosis; b) Women who consume smaller amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, ..
  75. ALTERED MEMBRANE PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND CARDIAC FUNCTION
    DIANE REIBEL; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..This is surprising in view of the fact that modification of dietary fats can profoundly alter the lipid composition of cellular membranes in the myocardium...