Summary: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc iSNO-PseAAC: predict cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in proteins by incorporating position specific amino acid propensity into pseudo amino acid composition
    Yan Xu
    Department of Information and Computer Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e55844. 2013
  2. pmc Cardioprotection by S-nitrosation of a cysteine switch on mitochondrial complex I
    Edward T Chouchani
    Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Med 19:753-9. 2013
  3. pmc H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyase
    Guangdong Yang
    Department of Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
    Science 322:587-90. 2008
  4. ncbi Noxious compounds activate TRPA1 ion channels through covalent modification of cysteines
    Lindsey J Macpherson
    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 445:541-5. 2007
  5. ncbi Gated access to the pore of a voltage-dependent K+ channel
    Y Liu
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
    Neuron 19:175-84. 1997
  6. ncbi Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health
    Guoyao Wu
    Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
    J Nutr 134:489-92. 2004
  7. doi Regulation of intracellular signalling through cysteine oxidation by reactive oxygen species
    Hiroaki Miki
    Department of Cellular Regulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Biochem 151:255-61. 2012
  8. pmc Cysteine scanning and modification reveal major differences between BK channels and Kv channels in the inner pore region
    Yu Zhou
    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12161-6. 2011
  9. ncbi Cysteine 38 in p65/NF-kappaB plays a crucial role in DNA binding inhibition by sesquiterpene lactones
    A J García-Piñeres
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Stefan Meier Strasse 19, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:39713-20. 2001
  10. ncbi Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215
    W C Barrett
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Section of Metabolic Regulation, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 38:6699-705. 1999

Detail Information

Publications428 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc iSNO-PseAAC: predict cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in proteins by incorporating position specific amino acid propensity into pseudo amino acid composition
    Yan Xu
    Department of Information and Computer Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e55844. 2013
    ..It is anticipated that iSNO-PseAAC may become a useful high throughput tool for identifying the SNO sites, or at the very least play a complementary role to the existing methods in this area...
  2. pmc Cardioprotection by S-nitrosation of a cysteine switch on mitochondrial complex I
    Edward T Chouchani
    Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Med 19:753-9. 2013 a central pathological feature of ischemia-reperfusion injury and show that preventing this reactivation by modification of a cysteine switch is a robust cardioprotective mechanism and hence a rational therapeutic strategy.
  3. pmc H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyase
    Guangdong Yang
    Department of Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
    Science 322:587-90. 2008
    ..These findings provide direct evidence that H2S is a physiologic vasodilator and regulator of blood pressure...
  4. ncbi Noxious compounds activate TRPA1 ion channels through covalent modification of cysteines
    Lindsey J Macpherson
    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 445:541-5. 2007
    ..We observed that most compounds known to activate TRPA1 are able to covalently bind cysteine residues...
  5. ncbi Gated access to the pore of a voltage-dependent K+ channel
    Y Liu
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
    Neuron 19:175-84. 1997
    ..The results suggest that these channels open and close by the movement of an intracellular gate, distinct from the selectivity filter, that regulates access to the pore...
  6. ncbi Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health
    Guoyao Wu
    Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
    J Nutr 134:489-92. 2004
    ..The synthesis of GSH from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine is catalyzed sequentially by two cytosolic enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH ..
  7. doi Regulation of intracellular signalling through cysteine oxidation by reactive oxygen species
    Hiroaki Miki
    Department of Cellular Regulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Biochem 151:255-61. 2012
    ..Such ROS-effector proteins commonly possess a highly reactive cysteine (Cys) residue, of which oxidation changes the protein function, thus enabling signal transmission to downstream ..
  8. pmc Cysteine scanning and modification reveal major differences between BK channels and Kv channels in the inner pore region
    Yu Zhou
    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12161-6. 2011
    ..Here, cysteine substitution and modification studies of the BK S6 point to substantial differences between BK and Kv channels in ..
  9. ncbi Cysteine 38 in p65/NF-kappaB plays a crucial role in DNA binding inhibition by sesquiterpene lactones
    A J García-Piñeres
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Stefan Meier Strasse 19, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:39713-20. 2001
    ..Here we report the construction of p65/NF-kappaB point mutants that lack the cysteine residues alkylated by SLs in our model...
  10. ncbi Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215
    W C Barrett
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Section of Metabolic Regulation, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 38:6699-705. 1999
    ..Recent reports have shown that the active site cysteine residue, Cys215, can be reversibly oxidized to a cysteine sulfenic derivative (Denu and Tanner, 1998; Lee et al...
  11. pmc On terminal alkynes that can react with active-site cysteine nucleophiles in proteases
    Reggy Ekkebus
    Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Am Chem Soc 135:2867-70. 2013
    ..C-terminal carboxylate of ubiquitin (Ub) with an alkyne functionality, a selective reaction with the active-site cysteine residue of de-ubiquitinating enzymes was observed...
  12. pmc Redox signalling directly regulates TDP-43 via cysteine oxidation and disulphide cross-linking
    Todd J Cohen
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Institute on Aging and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4283, USA
    EMBO J 31:1241-52. 2012
    ..Using in vitro and cell-based studies, we demonstrate that oxidative stress promotes TDP-43 cross-linking via cysteine oxidation and disulphide bond formation leading to decreased TDP-43 solubility...
  13. pmc TRP channel activation by reversible covalent modification
    Andrew Hinman
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19564-8. 2006
    ..thiol reactive compounds of diverse structure activate TRPA1 in a manner that relies on covalent modification of cysteine residues within the cytoplasmic N terminus of the channel...
  14. pmc A novel family in Medicago truncatula consisting of more than 300 nodule-specific genes coding for small, secreted polypeptides with conserved cysteine motifs
    Peter Mergaert
    Institut des Sciences du Vegetal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Plant Physiol 132:161-73. 2003
    ..analysis of Medicago truncatula nodules has led to the discovery of a gene family named NCR (nodule-specific cysteine rich) with more than 300 members...
  15. pmc SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures
    Gang Hao
    Department of Pharmacology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1012-7. 2006
    ..SNOSID provides the first effective tool for unbiased elucidation of the SNO proteome, identifying Cys residues that undergo reversible S-nitrosylation...
  16. ncbi Small cysteine-rich peptides resembling antimicrobial peptides have been under-predicted in plants
    Kevin A T Silverstein
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Plant J 51:262-80. 2007
    Multicellular organisms produce small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides as an innate defense against pathogens...
  17. pmc The Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1 is neuroprotective due to cysteine-sulfinic acid-driven mitochondrial localization
    Rosa M Canet-Aviles
    Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 1589, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9103-8. 2004
    ..We addressed whether this represents a posttranslational modification at cysteine residues by systematically mutating cysteine residues in human DJ-1...
  18. pmc A critical cysteine is required for HMGB1 binding to Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of macrophage cytokine release
    Huan Yang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science and Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11942-7. 2010
    ..plasmon resonance studies indicate that HMGB1 binds specifically to TLR4, and that this binding requires a cysteine in position 106...
  19. pmc Distinct cysteine residues in Keap1 are required for Keap1-dependent ubiquitination of Nrf2 and for stabilization of Nrf2 by chemopreventive agents and oxidative stress
    Donna D Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 23:8137-51. 2003
    ..We have identified two critical cysteine residues in Keap1, C273 and C288, that are required for Keap1-dependent ubiquitination of Nrf2...
  20. doi Blood levels of homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in the acute phase of atherothrombotic stroke
    Giuseppe Salemi
    Section of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Via Gaetano La Loggia 1, 90129, Palermo, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:361-4. 2009
    Blood levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine (Cys), total and reduced glutathione (tGSH and rGSH), folic acid (FA), and vitamin B12 (B12) change during ischemic stroke as accompaniment of the tissue damage...
  21. pmc Cysteine oxidative posttranslational modifications: emerging regulation in the cardiovascular system
    Heaseung S Chung
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Circ Res 112:382-92. 2013
    ..and nitrogen species can have many effects including the posttranslational modification of proteins at critical cysteine thiols...
  22. ncbi Characterization of cysteine-degrading and H2S-releasing enzymes of higher plants - from the field to the test tube and back
    J Papenbrock
    Institut fur Botanik, Universitat Hannover, Herrenhauser Strasse 2, 30419 Hannover, Germany
    Plant Biol (Stuttg) 9:582-8. 2007
    ..compounds in plants which might be involved in SIR, such as high levels of thiols, glucosinolates, cysteine-rich proteins, phytoalexins, elemental sulfur, or H2S. Probably more than one strategy is used by plants...
  23. pmc Thiol-based redox switches and gene regulation
    Haike Antelmann
    Institute of Microbiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    Antioxid Redox Signal 14:1049-63. 2011
    b>Cysteine is notable among the universal, proteinogenic amino acids for its facile redox chemistry...
  24. ncbi Biologic and pharmacologic regulation of mammalian glutathione synthesis
    O W Griffith
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 27:922-35. 1999
    ..Glutathione synthesis is also modulated by the availability of gamma-GCS substrates, primarily L-cysteine, by feedback inhibition of gamma-GCS by GSH, and by covalent inhibition of gamma-GCS by phosphorylation or ..
  25. doi Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) mediate diverse aspects of cell-cell communication in plant reproduction and development
    Eleanor Marshall
    School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne Campus, Wellesbourne, UK
    J Exp Bot 62:1677-86. 2011
    ..Interestingly, most of these peptides are cysteine-rich, and there is convincing evidence suggesting multiple roles for related cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) as ..
  26. pmc Myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit T-cell activation by depleting cystine and cysteine
    Minu K Srivastava
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250, USA
    Cancer Res 70:68-77. 2010
    ..Here we show that MDSCs also block T-cell activation by sequestering cystine and limiting the availability of cysteine. Cysteine is an essential amino acid for T-cell activation because T cells lack cystathionase, which converts ..
  27. pmc The cysteine switch: a principle of regulation of metalloproteinase activity with potential applicability to the entire matrix metalloproteinase gene family
    H E Van Wart
    Department of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306 3015
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:5578-82. 1990
    The general applicability of the "cysteine-switch" activation mechanism to the members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family is examined here...
  28. ncbi Production of piglets derived from in vitro-produced blastocysts fertilized and cultured in chemically defined media: effects of theophylline, adenosine, and cysteine during in vitro fertilization
    Koji Yoshioka
    National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0856, Japan
    Biol Reprod 69:2092-9. 2003
    ..vitro culture (IVC) of in vitro-matured porcine oocytes, we evaluated the effects of theophylline, adenosine, and cysteine in a chemically defined medium during IVF...
  29. ncbi Blocker protection in the pore of a voltage-gated K+ channel and its structural implications
    D del Camino
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 403:321-5. 2000
    ..This bend would occur at a Pro-X-Pro sequence that is highly conserved in Kv channels, near the site of activation gating...
  30. pmc Cellular mechanisms of redox cell signalling: role of cysteine modification in controlling antioxidant defences in response to electrophilic lipid oxidation products
    Anna Liisa Levonen
    Department of Pathology, Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Biomedical Research Building II, 901 19th Str S, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Biochem J 378:373-82. 2004
  31. pmc Cysteine-dependent ubiquitination of Pex18p is linked to cargo translocation across the peroxisomal membrane
    Astrid Hensel
    Abteilung für Systembiochemie, Institut fur Physiologische Chemie, Medizinische Fakultät der Ruhr Universität Bochum, D 44780 Bochum, Germany
    J Biol Chem 286:43495-505. 2011
    ..A cysteine residue near the extreme Pex18p amino-terminus is required for the second type of ubiquitination...
  32. pmc Redox modification of cysteine residues regulates the cytokine activity of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)
    Huan Yang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, United States of America
    Mol Med 18:250-9. 2012
    ..HMGB1 contains three conserved redox-sensitive cysteine residues: C23 and C45 can form an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas C106 is unpaired and is essential for ..
  33. doi Conserved cysteine residues of GidA are essential for biogenesis of 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine at tRNA anticodon
    Takuo Osawa
    Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Ibaraki, Japan
    Structure 17:713-24. 2009
    ..We also present a tRNA-docking model that provides structural insights into the tRNA recognition mechanism for efficient modification...
  34. doi Facile conversion of cysteine and alkyl cysteines to dehydroalanine on protein surfaces: versatile and switchable access to functionalized proteins
    Gonçalo J L Bernardes
    Chemistry Research Laboratory, Dept of Chemistry, University of Oxford, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, UK
    J Am Chem Soc 130:5052-3. 2008
    An efficient and robust oxidative elimination of cysteine to dehydroalanine has been discovered. The reaction is induced by O-mesitylenesulfonylhydroxylamine (MSH) and is compatible with methionine...
  35. pmc FIZZ1, a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein associated with pulmonary inflammation, defines a new gene family
    I N Holcomb
    Department of Pathology, Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    EMBO J 19:4046-55. 2000
    ..4 kDa cysteine-rich secreted protein, FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone)...
  36. ncbi The activity of leukocyte NADPH oxidase: regulation by p47PHOX cysteine and serine residues
    Bernard M Babior
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 4:35-8. 2002
    ..Its activity is also regulated, however, by the four cysteines of the same subunit, as indicated by the replacement of those cysteines by alanines...
  37. ncbi Mechanisms of reversible protein glutathionylation in redox signaling and oxidative stress
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, and the Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44106 4965, United States
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:381-91. 2007
    ..Accordingly, this review focuses primarily on mechanisms of catalysis in mammalian systems...
  38. doi Cysteine biosynthesis, oxidative stress and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella typhimurium
    Amy L Turnbull
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, B724 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N4P2, Canada
    Res Microbiol 161:643-50. 2010
    ..Previously, we had shown that cysteine biosynthesis was important for the induced antibiotic resistance phenotype of swarm cells...
  39. pmc Protein cysteine phosphorylation of SarA/MgrA family transcriptional regulators mediates bacterial virulence and antibiotic resistance
    Fei Sun
    Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:15461-6. 2012
    ..Although cysteine (Cys) in various proteins can be subject to multiple PTMs, its phosphorylation was previously considered a rare ..
  40. doi The role of plasma aminothiols in the prediction of coronary microvascular dysfunction and plaque vulnerability
    Saurabh S Dhawan
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States
    Atherosclerosis 219:266-72. 2011
    ..Accordingly, we hypothesized that higher oxidative stress would be associated with abnormal coronary epicardial structure and microvascular function...
  41. pmc Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids activate NRF2 by a KEAP1 cysteine 151-independent mechanism
    Emilia Kansanen
    Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A I Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, FIN 70211 Kuopio, Finland
    J Biol Chem 286:14019-27. 2011
    ..OA-NO(2) can therefore be categorized as a Cys(151)-independent Nrf2 activator, which in turn can influence the pattern of gene expression and therapeutic actions of nitroalkenes...
  42. ncbi Regulation of SUMOylation by reversible oxidation of SUMO conjugating enzymes
    Guillaume Bossis
    Department of Biochemie I, University Goettingen, Humboldt Allee 23, 37073 Goettingen, Germany
    Mol Cell 21:349-57. 2006
    ..Thus, our findings add SUMO conjugating enzymes to the small list of specific direct effectors of H(2)O(2) and implicate ROS as key regulators of the sumoylation-desumoylation equilibrium...
  43. doi dbSNO: a database of cysteine S-nitrosylation
    Tzong Yi Lee
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan
    Bioinformatics 28:2293-5. 2012 modification that involves the covalent attachment of nitric oxide (NO) to the sulfur atom of cysteine, critically regulates protein activity, localization and stability...
  44. pmc Location of the beta 4 transmembrane helices in the BK potassium channel
    Roland S Wu
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 29:8321-8. 2009
    ..In six of eight of the most highly crosslinked cysteine pairs, four crosslinks from TM2 to S0 and one each from TM1 to S1 and S2 had small effects on the V(50) and on ..
  45. pmc Protection of Sinorhizobium against host cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides is critical for symbiosis
    Andreas F Haag
    School of Medicine and Dentistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001169. 2011
    ..Nodule-specific cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (NCR AMPs) and the bacterial BacA protein are essential for bacteroid development...
  46. pmc Cysteine/cystine redox signaling in cardiovascular disease
    Young Mi Go
    Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 50:495-509. 2011
    ..The major thiol/disulfide redox couple in human plasma is cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide form, cystine (CySS)...
  47. ncbi Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid metabolism?
    Amany K Elshorbagy
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:738-46. 2008
    ..phenotype of cystathionine beta-synthase-deficient homocystinuria and the positive association of plasma total cysteine (tCys) with body mass index (BMI) suggest that total homocysteine (tHcy) and tCys are associated with body ..
  48. ncbi Protein S-nitrosylation: purview and parameters
    Douglas T Hess
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:150-66. 2005
    S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of a nitrogen monoxide group to the thiol side chain of cysteine, has emerged as an important mechanism for dynamic, post-translational regulation of most or all main classes of protein...
  49. pmc Leptomycin B inactivates CRM1/exportin 1 by covalent modification at a cysteine residue in the central conserved region
    N Kudo
    Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:9112-7. 1999
    ..pombe, and Crm1-K1 no longer bound biotinylated LMB. (1)H NMR analysis showed that LMB bound N-acetyl-L-cysteine methyl ester through a Michael-type addition, consistent with the idea that LMB binds covalently via its alpha, ..
  50. pmc Quantitative reactivity profiling predicts functional cysteines in proteomes
    Eranthie Weerapana
    The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 468:790-5. 2010
    b>Cysteine is the most intrinsically nucleophilic amino acid in proteins, where its reactivity is tuned to perform diverse biochemical functions...
  51. pmc The role of cysteine oxidation in DJ-1 function and dysfunction
    Mark A Wilson
    Department of Biochemistry, Redox Biology Center, The University of Nebraska Lincoln, 68588 0664, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 15:111-22. 2011
    ..A conserved cysteine residue in DJ-1 (Cys106) is both functionally essential and subject to oxidation to the cysteine-sulfinate and ..
  52. pmc DiANNA: a web server for disulfide connectivity prediction
    F Ferre
    Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:W230-2. 2005
    ..Next, cysteine oxidation state is predicted, then each pair of cysteines in the protein sequence is assigned a likelihood of ..
  53. ncbi S-nitrosylated protein-disulphide isomerase links protein misfolding to neurodegeneration
    Takashi Uehara
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 441:513-7. 2006
    ..Alzheimer's disease, that PDI is S-nitrosylated, a reaction transferring a nitric oxide (NO) group to a critical cysteine thiol to affect protein function...
  54. ncbi Crystal structure of the wild-type human procathepsin B at 2.5 A resolution reveals the native active site of a papain-like cysteine protease zymogen
    M Podobnik
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, 1111, Slovenia
    J Mol Biol 271:774-88. 1997
    ..The structure strongly suggests that processing of procathepsin B during its autoactivation is not unimolecular...
  55. ncbi Activation of the OxyR transcription factor by reversible disulfide bond formation
    M Zheng
    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 279:1718-21. 1998
    ..The redox potential of OxyR was determined to be -185 millivolts, ensuring that OxyR is reduced in the absence of stress. These results represent an example of redox signaling through disulfide bond formation and reduction...
  56. ncbi Key residues for membrane binding, oligomerization, and pore forming activity of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin identified by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and targeted chemical modification
    B Walker
    Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:23065-71. 1995
    ..individually replaced each charged residue (79 of 293 amino acids) and four neutral residues in alpha HL with cysteine, which is not found in the wild-type protein...
  57. ncbi Insights into Wnt binding and signalling from the structures of two Frizzled cysteine-rich domains
    C E Dann
    Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Nature 412:86-90. 2001
    ..An extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) at the amino terminus of Frizzled proteins binds Wnt proteins, as do homologous domains in ..
  58. ncbi Redox regulation of beta-actin during integrin-mediated cell adhesion
    Tania Fiaschi
    Department of Biochemical Sciences, Center of Excellence for Scientific Research DENOTHE, Department of Anatomy, University of Florence, Italy
    J Biol Chem 281:22983-91. 2006
    ..Actin oxidation takes place via the formation of a mixed disulfide between cysteine 374 and glutathione; this modification is essential for spreading and for cytoskeleton organization...
  59. pmc Formation of a stabilized cysteine sulfinic acid is critical for the mitochondrial function of the parkinsonism protein DJ-1
    Jeff Blackinton
    Cell Biology and Gene Expression Unit, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, NIA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3707, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:6476-85. 2009
    The formation of cysteine-sulfinic acid has recently become appreciated as a modification that links protein function to cellular oxidative status...
  60. pmc Location of modulatory beta subunits in BK potassium channels
    Guoxia Liu
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, LaGuardia Community College, Long Island City, NY 11101, USA
    J Gen Physiol 135:449-59. 2010
    ..From the extents of disulfide cross-linking in channels on the cell surface between cysteine (Cys) substituted for residues in the first turns in the membrane of the S0 transmembrane (TM) helix, unique to ..
  61. ncbi Specific and reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases by hydrogen peroxide: evidence for a sulfenic acid intermediate and implications for redox regulation
    J M Denu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Biochemistry 37:5633-42. 1998
    ..of biochemical techniques including chemical modification, pH kinetic studies, and mutagenesis, the catalytic cysteine thiolate of PTPs was determined to be the selective target of oxidation by H2O2...
  62. pmc Cysteine 203 of cyclophilin D is critical for cyclophilin D activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore
    Tiffany T Nguyen
    Systems Biology Center, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:40184-92. 2011
    ..Our previous studies have shown that cysteine 203 of cyclophilin D (CypD), a critical mPTP mediator, undergoes protein S-nitrosylation (SNO)...
  63. pmc Cysteine S-nitrosylation protects protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B against oxidation-induced permanent inactivation
    Yi Yun Chen
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, National Core Facility for Proteomics Research, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
    J Biol Chem 283:35265-72. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that S-nitrosylation might prevent PTPs from permanent inactivation caused by oxidative stress...
  64. pmc Modulation of human mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (hVDAC-2) structural stability by cysteine-assisted barrel-lipid interactions
    Svetlana Rajkumar Maurya
    Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal 462023, India
    J Biol Chem 288:25584-92. 2013
    ..Our findings suggest that cysteine mutation results in the formation of a better barrel at the expense of weakened protein-lipid interactions...
  65. ncbi Peroxiredoxin evolution and the regulation of hydrogen peroxide signaling
    Zachary A Wood
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
    Science 300:650-3. 2003
    ..We suggest this adaptation allows 2-Cys Prxs to act as floodgates, keeping resting levels of hydrogen peroxide low, while permitting higher levels during signal transduction...
  66. ncbi Reactivity of biologically important thiol compounds with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide
    C C Winterbourn
    Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine, New Zealand
    Free Radic Biol Med 27:322-8. 1999
    The reactivities of glutathione, cysteine, cysteamine, penicillamine, N-acetylcysteine, dithiothreitol and captopril with superoxide generated from xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine, and with reagent hydrogen peroxide, have been ..
  67. ncbi Enzymatic activation of sulfur for incorporation into biomolecules in prokaryotes
    Dorothea Kessler
    Biochemiezentrum Heidelberg, Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:825-40. 2006
    ..Sulfide is added to an activated acceptor in the biosynthesis of cysteine, from which methionine, coenzyme A and a number of biologically important thiols can be constructed...
  68. pmc Locations of the beta1 transmembrane helices in the BK potassium channel
    Guoxia Liu
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10727-32. 2008
    ..TM1 and TM2 are in position to contribute, in concert with the extracellular loop and the intracellular N- and C-terminal tails of beta1, to the modulation of BK channel function...
  69. pmc Cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, old and new; implications for asthma
    T M Laidlaw
    Departments of Medicine and Paediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
    Clin Exp Allergy 42:1313-20. 2012
    ..This review focuses on these recent findings and their potential clinical implications...
  70. pmc Excision of oxidatively damaged DNA bases by the human alpha-hOgg1 protein and the polymorphic alpha-hOgg1(Ser326Cys) protein which is frequently found in human populations
    C Dherin
    CEA, DSV, DRR, UMR217 CNRS CEA, Radiobiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Fontenay aux Roses, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 27:4001-7. 1999
    ..Furthermore, both proteins efficiently complement the mutator phenotype of the fpg mutY mutant of Escherichia coli...
  71. pmc Nitrosative damage to free and zinc-bound cysteine thiols underlies nitric oxide toxicity in wild-type Borrelia burgdorferi
    Travis J Bourret
    Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Mol Microbiol 81:259-73. 2011
    ..Collectively, these data suggested that nitrosative damage to proteins harbouring free or zinc-bound cysteine thiols, rather than DNA or membrane lipids underlies RNS toxicity in wild-type B. burgdorferi.
  72. pmc Cysteine 70 of ankyrin-G is S-palmitoylated and is required for function of ankyrin-G in membrane domain assembly
    Meng He
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:43995-4005. 2012
  73. pmc Anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects of cysteine metabolites of the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
    Joshua D Lambert
    Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 332 Food Science Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 58:10016-9. 2010
    ..We have previously shown that EGCG can undergo conjugation to cysteine to form 2'-cysteinyl-EGCG and 2''-cysteinyl-EGCG...
  74. pmc Cysteine-based redox switches in enzymes
    Chananat Klomsiri
    Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 14:1065-77. 2011
    ..but now a distinct class of modification coming to the fore is a set of versatile redox modifications of key cysteine residues...
  75. pmc Crystal structures of a cysteine-modified mutant in loop D of acetylcholine-binding protein
    Marijke Brams
    Laboratory of Structural Neurobiology, KULeuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 286:4420-8. 2011
    Covalent modification of α7 W55C nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) with the cysteine-modifying reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate (MTSET(+)) produces receptors that are unresponsive to acetylcholine, ..
  76. pmc Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica
    Afzal Husain
    Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    BMC Genomics 12:275. 2011
    ..E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol...
  77. doi Protective effects of cysteine analogues on acute myocardial ischemia: novel modulators of endogenous H(2)S production
    Qian Wang
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1155-65. 2010
    The current study was designed to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of three novel cysteine-containing compounds: S-propyl-l-cysteine (SPC), S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC), and S-propargyl-l-cysteine (SPRC) on H(2)S production and antioxidant ..
  78. pmc A multifaceted study of stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA)-like Arabidopsis lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) suggests diversified roles for these LTPs in plant growth and reproduction
    Keun Chae
    Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Exp Bot 61:4277-90. 2010
    Lily stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA), a plant lipid transfer protein (LTP) which is secreted into the extracellular matrix, functions in pollen tube guidance in fertilization...
  79. doi Berberine modifies cysteine 179 of IkappaBalpha kinase, suppresses nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic gene products, and potentiates apoptosis
    Manoj K Pandey
    Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Cytokine Research Laboratory, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Res 68:5370-9. 2008
    ..Site-specific mutagenesis suggested the involvement of cysteine residue 179 in IKK...
  80. ncbi Genetic polymorphisms and alternative splicing of the hOGG1 gene, that is involved in the repair of 8-hydroxyguanine in damaged DNA
    T Kohno
    Biology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
    Oncogene 16:3219-25. 1998
    ..These results suggest that the oh8Gua levels are maintained at a steady level, even though multiple hOGG1 proteins are produced due to genetic polymorphisms, mutations and alternative splicing of the hOGG1 gene...
  81. pmc Physiological significance of reactive cysteine residues of Keap1 in determining Nrf2 activity
    Tae Yamamoto
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryo cho, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 28:2758-70. 2008
    ..Keap1 possesses several reactive cysteine residues that covalently bond with electrophiles in vitro...
  82. ncbi Identification of the highly reactive cysteine 151 in the chemopreventive agent-sensor Keap1 protein is method-dependent
    Aimee L Eggler
    The Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago 60607, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:1878-84. 2007
    ..particular, our group has found C151 of human Keap1 to be highly reactive, while others have not identified this cysteine as being even weakly reactive...
  83. ncbi N-methyl-D-glucamine improves the laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis performance in the total plasma thiols measurement
    Angelo Zinellu
    Chair of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43 B, I 07100 Sassari, Italy
    Electrophoresis 24:2796-804. 2003
    ..We show that CE-LIF allows a baseline separation of total plasma cysteinylglycine, homocysteine, cysteine, and glutathione in less than 5 min when N-methyl-D-glucamine in run buffer was added...
  84. pmc Dynamic redox control of NF-kappaB through glutaredoxin-regulated S-glutathionylation of inhibitory kappaB kinase beta
    Niki L Reynaert
    Department of Pathology and Chemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, 05405, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13086-91. 2006
    ..We now report that cysteine-179 of the inhibitory kappaB kinase (IKK) beta-subunit of the IKK signalosome is a central target for oxidative ..
  85. ncbi Reaction of oxidized dopamine with endogenous cysteine residues in the human dopamine transporter
    R E Whitehead
    Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Neurochem 76:1242-51. 2001
    ..We have identified specific cysteine residues in the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) that are modified by this electron-deficient substrate analog...
  86. ncbi RSPO4 is the major gene in autosomal-recessive anonychia and mutations cluster in the furin-like cysteine-rich domains of the Wnt signaling ligand R-spondin 4
    Nadina Ortiz Brüchle
    Department of Human Genetics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
    J Invest Dermatol 128:791-6. 2008
    ..Thus, we postulate that RSPO4 mutations preferentially cluster in the furin-like cysteine-rich domains of R-spondin 4, which is in line with experimental data proposing that for beta-catenin ..
  87. pmc Role of cysteine residues in regulation of p53 function
    R Rainwater
    Biology Department, University of Alaska, Anchorage 99508, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 15:3892-903. 1995
    Previous studies of p53 have implicated cysteine residues in site-specific DNA binding via zinc coordination and redox regulation (P. Hainaut and J. Milner, Cancer Res. 53:4469-4473, 1993; T. R. Hupp, D. W. Meek, C. A. Midgley, and D. P...
  88. doi S-Nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 induces chromatin remodelling in neurons
    Alexi Nott
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular and Cell Biology, and Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 455:411-5. 2008
    ..Thus, by stimulating NO production and S-nitrosylation of HDAC2, neurotrophic factors promote chromatin remodelling and the activation of genes that are associated with neuronal development...
  89. ncbi Structural basis for the redox control of plant glutamate cysteine ligase
    Michael Hothorn
    Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 281:27557-65. 2006
    ..The rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of GSH is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) the activity of which is tightly regulated. The regulation of plant GCLs is poorly understood...
  90. ncbi Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors as determinants of total cysteine in plasma: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study
    L El-Khairy
    Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care and the Department of Pharmacology, University of Bergen, Norway
    Am J Clin Nutr 70:1016-24. 1999
    ..b>Cysteine is structurally and metabolically related to homocysteine, but data on its association with cardiovascular ..
  91. pmc Key role of cysteine residues in catalysis and subcellular localization of sulfur oxygenase-reductase of Acidianus tengchongensis
    Zhi Wei Chen
    Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People s Republic of China
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:621-8. 2005
    ..SORs) and the SOR-like sequences identified from public databases indicated that they all possess three cysteine residues within two conserved motifs (V-G-P-K-V-C(31) and C(101)-X-X-C(104); numbering according to the Acidianus ..
  92. doi Expanding the functional diversity of proteins through cysteine oxidation
    Khalilah G Reddie
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2216, USA
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 12:746-54. 2008
    The polarizable sulfur atom in cysteine is subject to numerous post-translational oxidative modifications in the cellular milieu, which regulates a wide variety of biological phenomena such as catalysis, metal binding, protein turnover, ..
  93. pmc Modification of keap1 cysteine residues by sulforaphane
    Chenqi Hu
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois College of Pharmacy, 833 S Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, United States
    Chem Res Toxicol 24:515-21. 2011 cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is a potent natural ARE activator that functions by modifying Keap1 cysteine residues, but there are conflicting in vitro and in vivo data regarding which of these cysteine residues react...
  94. pmc Glutathione synthesis is diminished in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and restored by dietary supplementation with cysteine and glycine
    Rajagopal V Sekhar
    Translational Metabolism Unit, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Diabetes Care 34:162-7. 2011
    ..GSH in adult patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is attributed to decreased synthesis and measured the effect of dietary supplementation with its precursors cysteine and glycine on GSH synthesis rate and oxidative stress.
  95. pmc Association of severe noncerebral Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Brazil with expressed PfEMP1 DBL1 alpha sequences lacking cysteine residues
    Karin Kirchgatter
    Departmento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Mol Med 8:16-23. 2002
    ..We analyzed parasites of Brazilian patients with severe malaria to determine whether there were particular DBL1 alpha var sequences predominantly expressed in such patients...
  96. doi Multiple ways to make disulfides
    Neil J Bulleid
    Institute of Molecular, Cellular and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Trends Biochem Sci 36:485-92. 2011
    ..Here we discuss these various pathways for disulfide formation in the mammalian ER and highlight the central role played by glutathione in regulating this process...
  97. ncbi Sulfur amino acid metabolism: pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine
    Martha H Stipanuk
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 24:539-77. 2004
    Tissue concentrations of both homocysteine (Hcy) and cysteine (Cys) are maintained at low levels by regulated production and efficient removal of these thiols...
  98. doi Regulation of the catalytic activity and structure of human thioredoxin 1 via oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues
    Seyed Isaac Hashemy
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 283:21890-8. 2008
    ..The reversible inhibition of human Trx1 activity by H(2)O(2) and NO donors is suggested to act in cell signaling via temporal control of reduction for the transmission of oxidative and/or nitrosative signals in thiol redox control...
  99. doi The redox switch: dynamic regulation of protein function by cysteine modifications
    Davide Spadaro
    School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
    Physiol Plant 138:360-71. 2010
    ..Specifically, highly reactive cysteine (Cys) residues of low pK(a) are a major site of action for these intermediates...
  100. pmc Reversal of HCN channel voltage dependence via bridging of the S4-S5 linker and Post-S6
    David L Prole
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Gen Physiol 128:273-82. 2006
    ..Bridging also alters channel activation by cAMP, showing that interaction of these two regions can also affect the efficacy of physiological ligands...
  101. pmc Cystathionine gamma-Lyase-deficient mice require dietary cysteine to protect against acute lethal myopathy and oxidative injury
    Isao Ishii
    Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Biol Chem 285:26358-68. 2010
    b>Cysteine is considered a nonessential amino acid in mammals as it is synthesized from methionine via trans-sulfuration...

Research Grants72

  1. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No Abstract provided ..
  2. Cross-talk Between Coagulation, Inflammation, and Immunity
    Lawrence L Leung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3. Biochemistry and biology of activation of prochemerin by serine/cysteine proteases and CPB. Active chemerin is present in GBM CSF samples (preliminary result) and RA synovial fluid...
  3. Right ventricular contractile dysfunction after pressure overload
    ..demonstrated that RV contractile failure from acute pulmonary hypertension is associated with activation of the cysteine protease calpain in the RV, and that right heart failure in this setting may be attenuated by a calpain inhibitor...
  4. Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and angiogenesis
    Priyabrata Mukherjee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of L-serine and L-homocysteine (Hcy) to produce cystathionine, an intermediate step in the synthesis of cysteine (Cys)...
    Enrique A Mesri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This led us to test the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a well characterized antioxidant, to suppress mECK36 tumors in mice...
  6. Enterococcus faecalis, Colorectal Cancer, and Bystander Effects
    Mark M Huycke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..faecalis colonized mice will be evaluated. The effect of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as inhibitors or promoters, respectively, of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases will be tested...
  7. Genetic and physiological causes of inherited Vascular and Metabolic Diseases
    Arya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mutation, substitutes cysteine for arginine (R611C) at a highly conserved residue of the second epidermal growth factor precursor domain in the ..
  8. Enzymatic Regulation of S-Glutathionylation : Role in Apoptosis and Disease
    John J Mieyal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These enzymes maintain the thiol status of cysteine residues and the corresponding functions of protein intermediates in signaling pathways that govern whether a ..
  9. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During the first funding period, we made the discovery that the transcription factor AphB possesses a cysteine residue that undergoes modification in response to the microoxic conditions of the intestines, leading to ..
  10. Phage Display for Improved Peptide-based Tumor Targeting and Imaging Agents
    Susan L Deutscher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tumor uptake and low kidney retention;2) engineer the optimized peptide motifs into stable small molecular weight cysteine-constrained scaffolds for enhanced in vivo stability, affinity, and rapid excretion; 3) compare the in vivo SPECT ..
  11. Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Antioxidant on Degenerative Eye Disorders
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Antioxidants like N- acetyl cysteine (NAC) have shown promise in ameliorating oxidative stress damage...
  12. Complex I: Role of L Subunit in Proton Translocation
    Steven B Vik; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Second, the importance of piston-like motion will be tested by constructing cysteine residues in subunit L as sites for photo-affinity cross-linking to other subunits...
  13. A Novel Thioredoxin Mimetic Prodrug for Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Prakash Jagtap; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the native conserved Trx motif and exhibits extraordinary potency: R- 901 is 450-fold more potent than N-acetyl cysteine in the protection of cultured cells from oxidant stress...
  14. Intracellular Serpin Regulation of Intestinal Cell Necrosis
    GARY ARTHUR SILVERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Since some of these intracellular serpins (serpinsIC) neutralize lysosomal cysteine and serine peptidases, we hypothesized that they regulate intracellular proteolysis and enhance cell survival...
  15. The effect of trichloroethylene exposure on adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Iman Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..necrosis within the basal zone of the placenta;and 2) a principal bioactive metabolite of TCE, 1,3-dichlorovinyl cysteine (DCVC), decreased the antioxidant glutathione, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and increased ..
  16. Dynamics of Kinesins, Dyneins, and Myosins
    Paul R Selvin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will utilize an improved "cysteine-light" smooth muscle myosin II...
  17. Role of TPH2 and 5HT Neuronal Loss in Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's
    Donald M Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Protein cysteine residues can be viewed as cellular redox sensors...
  18. The Role of Adipocyte-Induced Inflammation in Prostate Tumor Progression
    ..The cysteine protease, cathepsin K (CTSK), is a major collagenase involved in osteoclastic bone resorption...
  19. Parvalbumin-Containing Neurons in Schizophrenia
    Tsung Ung W Woo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the catalytic and modulatory subunits of the antioxidant enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase in homogenized PFC...
  20. Novel Collagen II Alternative Transcripts and Mouse Skeletal Development
    Audrey McAlinden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..spliced to produce two isoforms by inclusion (type IIA) or exclusion (type IIB) of exon 2, which encodes a cysteine-rich domain within the amino propeptide of the procollagen molecule...
  21. Therapeutics for Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Myxopyronins
    Richard H Ebright; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tuberculosis RNAP, exploiting a binding-site cysteine residue present in M...
  22. Cyr61/CCN1-Induced Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis in the Retina
    Brahim Chaqour; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recent work in the PI's laboratory have revealed that the cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), a novel ECM-associated, heparin- and integrin-binding protein, stimulates the angiogenic ..
  23. OmpR and SsrB Regulation of Salmonella Virulence
    Linda J Kenney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SsrB is modified by NO stress during macrophage infection, the consequences of this cysteine-modification to expression of SPI-2 genes will be examined in both mouse macrophages, a macrophage-like cell line ..
  24. Vitamin B6 Effects on One-Carbon Metabolism
    Jesse F Gregory; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inter conversion and catabolism of amino acids, control of homocysteine, and production of glucose and cysteine. Thus, B6 nutrition is linked many vital cellular processes such as the synthesis of nucleotides and glutathione, ..
  25. Mechanisms of Neutrophil-induced Liver Toxicity
    HARTMUT W JAESCHKE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Metallothioneins (MTs) are sulfhydryl-rich polypeptides, which contain 18-23 cysteine residues per molecule...
  26. Fic-mediated Adenylylation
    CAROLYN ANN WORBY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We previously demonstrated that Yersinia YopT functions as a cysteine protease that cleaves and inactivates Rho GTPases...
  27. Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-models
    Marcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..To explore the role of antioxidant defenses in ALS, knockout mice were employed using the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-/-), which have a 70-80% reduction of total glutathione (GSH) when compared to wild-..
  28. A Novel Murine Model of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontitus
    Helieh S Oz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The approach will be to treat mice with distinct antioxidants, a cysteine prodrug 2-(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine- 4(R)-carboxylic acid (PTCA) and a glutathione (GSH) prodrug s-..
  29. Mechanism of eNOS Uncoupling in the Renal Microvasculature
    YVES CLAUDE GORIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose that ROS generated by Nox4 or other Nox oxidases result in oxidation of cysteine residues in the zincthiolate cluster essential for the activity of eNOS, and or decrease the levels of the ..
  30. Excessive Copper Levels Disrupt Hepatic Nuclear Receptor Function
    Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the effect of copper on the structure of nuclear receptors (3) determine the effect of zinc and/or n-acetyl cysteine on nuclear receptor DNA-binding activity and liver function in wild-type and Atp7b-/- mice...
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..proteins with three subfamilies now called FosA, FosB and FosX that catalyze the addition of glutathione, L-cysteine and water, respectively, to the antibiotic rendering it inactive...
  32. Low level exposure to PBDEs: testing the hormetic and epigenetic hypotheses
    Lucio G Costa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that the hormetic response would be lost in cells from mice mimicking human polymorphisms of Gclm (glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit) i.e. Gclm+/- and Gclm-/- mice)...
  33. Arsenic co-carcinogenesis with UVR: nitrosation and oxidation of target proteins
    Ke Jian Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nitrogen species inhibits the activity of zinc finger DNA repair proteins through reaction with redox-sensitive cysteine residues of the zinc finger domains...
    SHELLY CHI LOO LU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The activity of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) is a key factor that determines GSH synthesis...
  35. Preconception Nutrition, Endocrine Disruptors, Reproductive Outcomes
    Xiaobin Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and head circumference);(3) Preconception BMI and Micronutrients: including serum biomarkers of folate, B6, B12, cysteine, homocysteine, hemoglobin, ferritin, and trans-ferritin receptor, TfR;and (4) Preconception Exposure: including ..
  36. Mitochondrial function and antifungal photodynamic therapy
    Constantine G Haidaris; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The sulfur containing amino acids cysteine and methionine are primary targets of oxidative damage in proteins...
    Richard C Deth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Studies our lab have identified a critical role for the cysteine/glutamate uptake transporter EAAT3 (excitatory amino acid transporter 3) in controlling redox and methylation ..
  38. Dopamine Transporter Structure and Function
    Christopher K Surratt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for binding and uptake of DAT ligands, assessment of cell surface expression and accessibility of introduced cysteine residues of the mutant transporter proteins via immunoblotting and cysteine alkylation experiments, and ..
  39. Transcriptional Control by the Global Regulator Spx
    PETER A ZUBER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study will focus on the Zn-binding site of the adaptor to test the model that oxidation of Zn-coordinating cysteine residues causes inactivation of YjbH and release of Spx...
  40. Prostate cancer prevention by selenium supplementation
    Rayudu Gopalakrishna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..selenometabolites exert their cancer-preventive actions, at least in part, through oxidation of unique cysteine- rich regions and zinc fingers present in protein kinase C (PKC), a known target for a variety of tumor promoters...
  41. Cell death regulation in proteotoxic therapy
    Wei Xing Zong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also reported that an endogenous serine/cysteine protease inhibitor SerpinB3 (also termed squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1, SCCA1) may function as a molecular ..
  42. HMG in Post Operative and Traumatic Stress
    Kevin J Tracey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..context of sepsis? These questions will be addressed in the following Aims: Specific Aim 1: To elucidate whether cysteine modifications influence interaction of HMGB1-RAGE. Specific Aim 2...
  43. Redox Regulation of SERCA by Nitric Oxide
    Richard A Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013 be stimulated by low levels of 7NO-derived RNS that formed glutathione (GSH) adducts most abundantly on SERCA cysteine-674 (C674)...
  44. Elucidating the JNK2-mediated redox regulation of cartilage matrix remdeling
    ..pathway, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2), are targeted by FN-f stimulated ROS and oxidized at specific cysteine residues generating cysteine sulfenic acids...
  45. Prevention and Treatment of Chlorine Gas Induced Injury to the Pulmonary System
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Thus, systemic administration of reactive species scavengers (such as ascorbate, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and deferoxamine, as well as agents that augment surfactant levels, ion transport and paracellular ..
  46. Redox regulation of intestinal T cells
    ALAN DAVID LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..our findings it was recently reported that in the normal intestine, lamina propria macrophages do not secrete cysteine, which is required by the LPT to regulate their cytosolic redox potential...
  47. Risk factors for orofacial clefts
    Suzan L Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..stress - nutrients that protect against oxidative stress ([unreadable]- and [unreadable]-carotene, cryptoxanthin, cysteine, folate, lutein, lycopene, oleic acid, pro-vitamin A, vitamins C and E, zinc) or promote it (iron, saturated fat);..
  48. ROS, Redox Regulation and Novel Targets for Cancer Therapy
    Peng Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..through enhancing GSH synthesis mediated by an intercellular metabolic communication involving cystine->cysteine conversion and shuttling between the two cell compartments...
  49. Cigarette Smoke-derived Electrophilic Aldehydes and Airway Inflammation
    Albert van Der Vliet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a newly recognized endogenous mediator produced by (homo)cysteine metabolism by cystathionine [unreadable]-synthase (CBS), we will explore the importance of GSTP1 and CBS/H2S in ..
  50. Radiocontrast Nephropathy: Redox Degradation Catalyst and Nitric Oxide Donor
    ..injury group will be compared to treatment of CM-challenged healthy rats with 3 dose levels of IV R-100, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), or vehicle control initiated 10 min before CM administration and continued for 48 h...
    CLARK ALGAIER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Testing of Tris (chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) in Wistar Han Rats and B6C3F1 Mice [unreadable] Analytical Method Development for the Extraction and Analysis of Tris(chloropropyl)phosphate, mixture, 1-Chloroacetone and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine
  52. Enzymology of Post-translational Modifications
    Carol A Fierke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..palmitoyl transferases (PATs), such as Akr1p, and is a thioester exchange reaction between palmitoyl-CoA and a cysteine on a substrate protein to form a palmitoyl thioester...
    Anne M Delany; Fiscal Year: 2013 the bone microenvironment is the matricellular glycoprotein osteonectin (secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine, SPARC;BM-40)...
    Charles Steenbergen; Fiscal Year: 2013 cardioprotection is the activation of nitric oxide synthase, which can result in nitrosylation of protein cysteine residues...
  55. Molecular mechanism of apolipoprotein binding to lipopolysaccharides
    PAUL MICHIEL WEERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein conformational change will be investigated using molecular spectroscopy with single tryptophan and double cysteine mutant proteins...
  56. The role of trace metals and T-channels in pain
    Slobodan M Todorovic; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..previous work, we identified several endogenous metal chelators, including amino acids such as L-histidine and L-cysteine, which can selectively modulate function of the CaV3...
  57. Cathepsin L in the Biosynthesis of Enkephalins and beta-Endorphin Opioid Peptides
    Steven J Bark; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These new findings indicate a distinct cysteine protease pathway, in addition to the well known subtilisin-like Prohormone Convertases 1 and 2 for production of ..
  58. Regulation of Streptomyces differentiation and antibiotic production by SoxR
    Monica Chander; Fiscal Year: 2010 probe the importance of a potential regulatory domain consisting of an extended C-terminal region (with two cysteine residues) that is unique to SoxRs from Streptomyces species...
  59. Molecular mechanisms of pathogen recognition by the Nod-like receptor NLRC4
    Fayyaz S Sutterwala; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome ultimately results in the activation of the cysteine protease caspase-1 and its processing and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. P...
  60. Non-Human Primate Model of Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy
    Karol Sestak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with increasing levels of gluten and a fixed daily oral dose of prolyl endopeptidase from Sphingomonas capsulata, cysteine endoprotease EP-B2 from barley, and the two-enzymes together to evaluate their therapeutic potential...
  61. Myocardial Injury Associated with Mitochondria-derived Oxygen Free Radical(s)
    Yeong Renn Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S-glutathionylation of the reactive and labile cysteine residues in the NQR or SQR is a reversible modification, whereas S-sulfonation of reactive cysteine residues is ..
  62. The Impact of Oxidative Stress on HIV-induced Lung Disease
    Jesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HIV infection is also associated with oxidant stress caused by oxidation of the thiol disulfide couple cysteine (Cys)/cysteine (CySS) redox potential (Eh);also termed Eh Cys/CySS...
  63. Catalytic Approach to Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning
    SIGRIDUR G SUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The accelerated bioelimination of cyanide is accomplished by administration of a catalyst with a polymer-bound cysteine that rapidly reacts with cyanide to produce inert thiocyanate, thereby antagonizing cyanide toxicity...
    Sara Lustigman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We propose to explore cysteine proteases as potential targets for chemotherapy...
    Arthur Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These compounds are metabolized in part to halogenated cysteine S-conjugates, which are thought to be the major toxicants...
    Sara Lustigman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We propose to explore cysteine proteases as potential targets for chemotherapy...
  67. A Controlled Trial of NAC for Cocaine Dependence
    Robert Malcolm; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Most synaptic glutamate arises from nonvesicular release, and specifically from the cysteine/glutamate antiporter...
  68. Dietary Cysteine:Conceptal Response to Oxidative Stress
    Craig Harris; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Without adequate free cysteine, the ability to restore glutathione that is lost due to oxidation is compromised by inadequate glutathione ..
    DANIEL RICH; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..a new medicinal chemistry application designed to determine the structure-activity relationships for a range of cysteine proteinases and to apply these findings to develop new reagents for purifying cysteine proteinases by kcat ..
    Gail Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..studies show that the CRES protein is a new member of the family 2 cystatins of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine protease inhibitors. However, several lines of evidence suggest that CRES may not function as a classic cystatin...
  71. Redox Biology in COPD
    Yvonne Janssen Heininger; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The latter signaling function of oxidants has been attributed to cysteine oxidations, such as S-nitrosylation (PSNO), and S-glutathionylation (PSSG)...
    Ya Ming Hou; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS) is extraordinary- even the simple replacement of the thiol of the substrate cysteine with the hydroxyl of serine, or a single substitution in tRNA cys can cause reduction in activity of a million-..