free radicals

Summary

Summary: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function
    Wulf Dröge
    Division of Immunochemistry, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
    Physiol Rev 82:47-95. 2002
  2. ncbi Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Chem Biol Interact 160:1-40. 2006
  3. doi Taking a "good" look at free radicals in the aging process
    Siegfried Hekimi
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3A 1B1
    Trends Cell Biol 21:569-76. 2011
  4. doi Free radicals and antioxidants - quo vadis?
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 32:125-30. 2011
  5. doi Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Nutr Rev 70:257-65. 2012
  6. ncbi Role of free radicals in the neurodegenerative diseases: therapeutic implications for antioxidant treatment
    B Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Drugs Aging 18:685-716. 2001
  7. ncbi Radiation activates HIF-1 to regulate vascular radiosensitivity in tumors: role of reoxygenation, free radicals, and stress granules
    Benjamin J Moeller
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cancer Cell 5:429-41. 2004
  8. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects
    T P A Devasagayam
    Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085
    J Assoc Physicians India 52:794-804. 2004
  9. ncbi Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition
    Yun Zhong Fang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China
    Nutrition 18:872-9. 2002
  10. ncbi Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center
    Kristina N Ferreira
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 303:1831-8. 2004

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications320 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function
    Wulf Dröge
    Division of Immunochemistry, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
    Physiol Rev 82:47-95. 2002
    At high concentrations, free radicals and radical-derived, nonradical reactive species are hazardous for living organisms and damage all major cellular constituents...
  2. ncbi Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Chem Biol Interact 160:1-40. 2006
    Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species...
  3. doi Taking a "good" look at free radicals in the aging process
    Siegfried Hekimi
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3A 1B1
    Trends Cell Biol 21:569-76. 2011
    ..This could generate the observed correlation between aging and ROS without implying that ROS damage is the earliest trigger or main cause of aging...
  4. doi Free radicals and antioxidants - quo vadis?
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 32:125-30. 2011
    The field of free radicals and antioxidants, or 'redox biology', is fundamental to aerobic life. Aerobes constantly make reactive species, but modulate their actions by synthesizing antioxidants...
  5. doi Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Nutr Rev 70:257-65. 2012
    ..Increasing endogenous antioxidant levels (e.g., by supplying "pro-oxidants") may be a better approach to therapeutics and disease prevention than consuming large doses of "dietary antioxidants."..
  6. ncbi Role of free radicals in the neurodegenerative diseases: therapeutic implications for antioxidant treatment
    B Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Drugs Aging 18:685-716. 2001
    b>Free radicals and other so-called 'reactive species' are constantly produced in the brain in vivo...
  7. ncbi Radiation activates HIF-1 to regulate vascular radiosensitivity in tumors: role of reoxygenation, free radicals, and stress granules
    Benjamin J Moeller
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cancer Cell 5:429-41. 2004
    ..These data describe novel pathways contributing significantly to our understanding of HIF-1 regulation which may be major determinants of tumor radiosensitivity, potentially having high clinical relevance...
  8. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects
    T P A Devasagayam
    Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085
    J Assoc Physicians India 52:794-804. 2004
    b>Free radicals and related species have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years...
  9. ncbi Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition
    Yun Zhong Fang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China
    Nutrition 18:872-9. 2002
    ..b>Free radicals (e.g., superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and other reactive species (e.g...
  10. ncbi Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center
    Kristina N Ferreira
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 303:1831-8. 2004
    ..The details of the surrounding coordination sphere of the metal cluster and the implications for a possible oxygen-evolving mechanism are discussed...
  11. doi Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise
    Sean Sachdev
    Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0191, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:215-23. 2008
    b>Free radicals (particularly oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals), and related reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, are generated in cells and tissues during exercise...
  12. ncbi Free radical-mediated oxidation of free amino acids and amino acid residues in proteins
    E R Stadtman
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8012, USA
    Amino Acids 25:207-18. 2003
    ....
  13. doi Cycling hypoxia and free radicals regulate angiogenesis and radiotherapy response
    Mark W Dewhirst
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 8:425-37. 2008
    Hypoxia and free radicals, such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, can alter the function and/or activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1)...
  14. ncbi Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention
    D Bagchi
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    Toxicology 148:187-97. 2000
    b>Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, ..
  15. ncbi Three distinct mechanisms generate oxygen free radicals in neurons and contribute to cell death during anoxia and reoxygenation
    Andrey Y Abramov
    Department of Physiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 27:1129-38. 2007
    ..Inhibition of either the NADPH oxidase or XO was significantly neuroprotective. Thus, oxidative stress contributes to cell death over and above the injury attributable to energy deprivation...
  16. ncbi Free radicals and aging
    Gustavo Barja
    Department of Animal Physiology II, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain
    Trends Neurosci 27:595-600. 2004
    ..Furthermore, caloric restriction, which decreases the rate of aging, proportionately decreases mitochondrial oxygen radical generation, especially at complex I. These findings are reviewed, highlighting the results obtained in the brain...
  17. doi Free radicals and muscle fatigue: Of ROS, canaries, and the IOC
    Michael B Reid
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:169-79. 2008
    ....
  18. doi Free radicals and redox signalling in T-cells during chronic inflammation and ageing
    Helen R Griffiths
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Biochem Soc Trans 39:1273-8. 2011
    ..Together, these data suggest that a complex relationship exists between intra- and extra-cellular redox compartments which contribute to the T-cell phenotype...
  19. pmc The oxygen free radicals originating from mitochondrial complex I contribute to oxidative brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal mice
    Zoya V Niatsetskaya
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 32:3235-44. 2012
    ..This highlights a novel neuroprotective strategy against HI brain injury where the major therapeutic principle is a pharmacological attenuation, rather than an enhancement of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during early reperfusion...
  20. doi Cardioprotection: a radical view Free radicals in pre and postconditioning
    Claudia Penna
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche Università di Torino, Italy Istituto Nazionale Ricerche Cardiovascolari, Bologna, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1787:781-93. 2009
    ..Therefore, our and others' results suggest that the role of ROS in reperfusion may be reconsidered as they are not only deleterious...
  21. ncbi Free radical-induced damage to DNA: mechanisms and measurement
    Miral Dizdaroglu
    Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 8311, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:1102-15. 2002
    b>Free radicals are produced in cells by cellular metabolism and by exogenous agents. These species react with biomolecules in cells, including DNA...
  22. pmc Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet induces apoptosis involving mitochondria via generation of free radicals
    Hak Jun Ahn
    Department of Molecular Science and Technology and Department of Life Science, Ajou University, Suwon, Gyounggi do, Korea
    PLoS ONE 6:e28154. 2011
    ..Taken together, our data suggest the potential employment of plasma jets as a novel therapy for cancer...
  23. ncbi The role of oxidants and free radicals in reperfusion injury
    Jay L Zweier
    Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute and the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 473 W 12th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 70:181-90. 2006
    ..Ischemic preconditioning markedly decreases NO and oxidant generation, and this appears to be an important mechanism contributing to preconditioning-induced myocardial protection...
  24. pmc NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals are key oxidants in alcohol-induced liver disease
    H Kono
    Laboratory of Hepatobiology and Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7365, USA
    J Clin Invest 106:867-72. 2000
    ..are known to contribute to early alcohol-induced liver injury via oxidative stress, the exact source of free radicals has remained a mystery...
  25. ncbi The Radical SAM Superfamily
    Perry A Frey
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Madison, Wisconin Madison, Wisconsin 53726, USA
    Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 43:63-88. 2008
    ....
  26. ncbi Free radicals, mitochondria, and hypoxia-ischemia in the developing brain
    Klas Blomgren
    Arvid Carlsson Institute, Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, Sweden
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:388-97. 2006
    ..of its poorly developed scavenging systems and high availability of iron for the catalytic formation of free radicals. Neurons are more vulnerable to free radical damage than glial cells, but oligodendrocyte progenitors and ..
  27. pmc Tobacco smoke: involvement of reactive oxygen species and stable free radicals in mechanisms of oxidative damage, carcinogenesis and synergistic effects with other respirable particles
    Athanasios Valavanidis
    Department of Chemistry, Free Radical Research Group, University of Athens, University Campus Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:445-62. 2009
    Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative ..
  28. ncbi The role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy
    James G Tidball
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 102:1677-86. 2007
    ..likelihood that interactions between the primary genetic defect and disruptions in the normal production of free radicals contribute to the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophies...
  29. pmc Iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease is a source of redox-generated free radicals
    M A Smith
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:9866-8. 1997
    Damage from free radicals has been demonstrated in susceptible neuronal populations in cases of Alzheimer disease...
  30. ncbi Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals
    Suresh I S Rattan
    Laboratory of Cellular Ageing, Department of Molecular Biology, Danish Centre for Molecular Gerontology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark
    Free Radic Res 40:1230-8. 2006
    ..by the progressive accumulation of molecular damage caused by environmental and metabolically generated free radicals, by spontaneous errors in biochemical reactions, and by nutritional components...
  31. doi Cell signaling and receptors in toxicity of advanced glycation end products (AGEs): α-dicarbonyls, radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants
    Peter Kovacic
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
    J Recept Signal Transduct Res 31:332-9. 2011
    ..The toxic species have been related to illnesses and aging. Antioxidants alleviate the adverse effects...
  32. ncbi Free radicals, antioxidants, and neurologic injury: possible relationship to cerebral protection by anesthetics
    John X Wilson
    Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 14:66-79. 2002
    Oxygen-centered free radicals cause brain injury associated with trauma and stroke. These reactive oxygen species may be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants, but cell death occurs after antioxidants become depleted...
  33. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidant systems in reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus
    Pilar Jimenez
    Aragonés Institute of Health Sciences, and Gastroenterology Service, Lozano Blesa University Hospital Clinic, Avenida San Juan Bosco, C Domingo Miral, s n 15 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
    World J Gastroenterol 11:2697-703. 2005
    Experimental studies suggest that free radicals are involved in acid and pepsin-induced damage of esophageal mucosa. The profile and balance between free radicals and antioxidant systems in human esophagitis are unknown.
  34. pmc Site-specific radical formation in DNA induced by Cu(II)-H₂O₂ oxidizing system, using ESR, immuno-spin trapping, LC-MS, and MS/MS
    Suchandra Bhattacharjee
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 50:1536-45. 2011
    ..The DMPO adduct formed is initially EPR active but subsequently is oxidized to the stable nitrone, which can then be detected by IST and further characterized by MS and MS/MS...
  35. ncbi Signaling functions of free radicals superoxide & nitric oxide under physiological & pathological conditions
    Igor B Afanas'ev
    Vitamin Research Institute, Moscow, Russia
    Mol Biotechnol 37:2-4. 2007
    Superoxide and nitric oxide are ubiquitous physiological free radicals that are responsible for many pathological disorders...
  36. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinases and free radicals in cerebral ischemia
    K Jian Liu
    College of Pharmacy, Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, 87131, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:71-80. 2005
    ..The proteases and free radicals involved are important, both individually and in concert, at each of the steps in the injury cascade...
  37. ncbi Potential markers of oxidative stress in stroke
    Antonio Cherubini
    Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia Medical School, Policlinico Monteluce Pad E, Via Brunamonti 51, 06122 Perugia, Italy
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:841-52. 2005
    ..Since direct measurement of free radicals and oxidized molecules in the brain is difficult in humans, several biological substances have been ..
  38. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder?
    Selda Bagis
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Mersin University Medical School, Mersin, Turkey
    Rheumatol Int 25:188-90. 2005
    The role of free radicals in fibromyalgia is controversial. In this study, 85 female patients with primary fibromyalgia and 80 age-, height-, and weight-matched healthy women were evaluated for oxidant/antioxidant balance...
  39. ncbi On the generation of free radical species from quantum dots
    Binil Itty Ipe
    Biologisch Chemische Mikrostrukturtechnik, Fachbereich Chemie, Universitat Dortmund, Otto Hahn Str 6, 44227, Dortmund, Germany
    Small 1:706-9. 2005
  40. doi The role of catechols and free radicals in benzene toxicity: an oxidative DNA damage pathway
    George Barreto
    Instituto Cajal, CSIC E 28002 Madrid, Spain
    Environ Mol Mutagen 50:771-80. 2009
    ..In this review, we have addressed the cytotoxic effects of benzene and its main metabolite, catechol, focusing on the oxidative pathway and further DNA damage...
  41. ncbi Immunochemical detection of hemoglobin-derived radicals formed by reaction with hydrogen peroxide: involvement of a protein-tyrosyl radical
    Dario C Ramirez
    Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27713, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 34:830-9. 2003
    ....
  42. pmc Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors
    Khalid Rahman
    School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England, UK
    Clin Interv Aging 2:219-36. 2007
    The interplay between free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors is important in maintaining health, aging and age-related diseases...
  43. ncbi The free radical theory of aging
    Denham Harman
    University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68198 4635, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 5:557-61. 2003
    ..Aging changes may be caused by free radical reactions. The extensive studies based on this possibility hold promise that the ALE-B can be extended to >85 years and the maximum life span increased...
  44. doi De novo lipogenesis protects cancer cells from free radicals and chemotherapeutics by promoting membrane lipid saturation
    Evelien Rysman
    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, K U Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Cancer Res 70:8117-26. 2010
    ..These findings provide important new insights into the role of de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells, and they provide a rationale for the use of lipogenesis inhibitors as antineoplastic agents and as chemotherapeutic sensitizers...
  45. ncbi tert-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipid signaling in hepatocytes: involvement of glutathione and free radicals
    C Martin
    Department of Physiology, University of the Basque Country, E 48080, Bilbao, Spain
    Biochem Pharmacol 62:705-12. 2001
    ..Results suggest that specific ROS generated in iron-dependent reactions, different from lipid peroxyl radicals, are involved in PLA(2) activation, this process being important in TBHP-induced hepatocyte injury...
  46. ncbi Biochemistry. Water photolysis in biology
    A W Rutherford
    Service of Bioenergetics, CNRS URA 2096, Departement de Biologie Joliot Curie, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Science 303:1782-4. 2004
  47. ncbi Oxidative injury in epilepsy: potential for antioxidant therapy?
    Daniel J Costello
    Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Expert Rev Neurother 4:541-53. 2004
    ..This review examines the evidence for the role of oxidative injury in epilepsy, the rationale for use of antioxidant therapy in epilepsy and appraises the current clinical performance of the studies of antioxidant therapies...
  48. ncbi Ca2+-induced permeabilization promotes free radical release from rat brain mitochondria with partially inhibited complex I
    Tatyana V Votyakova
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Neurochem 93:526-37. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that Ca2+ can greatly increase ROS release by brain mitochondria when complex I is impaired...
  49. ncbi Immune cells: free radicals and antioxidants in sepsis
    Victor M Victor
    Unidad Mixta Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III Universidad de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Int Immunopharmacol 4:327-47. 2004
    ..The potential clinical use of antioxidants in the treatment of sepsis and the effects on the redox state of the immune cells are discussed...
  50. ncbi Oxidative damage caused by free radicals produced during catecholamine autoxidation: protective effects of O-methylation and melatonin
    J W Miller
    Vitamin Bioavailability Laboratory, Jean Mayer, USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 21:241-9. 1996
    ..and (2) melatonin, which has recently been shown to be a powerful antioxidant, is capable of scavenging free radicals produced during catecholamine autoxidation...
  51. ncbi Oxidative stress and antioxidants in exercise
    C Leeuwenburgh
    Center for Exercise Science, Aging Biochemistry Laboratory, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Curr Med Chem 8:829-38. 2001
    ..These include increased antioxidant defenses, reduced basal production of oxidants, and reduction of radical leak during oxidative phosphorylation...
  52. ncbi Identification of free radicals on hemoglobin from its self-peroxidation using mass spectrometry and immuno-spin trapping: observation of a histidinyl radical
    Leesa J Deterding
    Laboratory of Structural Biology, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:11600-7. 2004
    ..To verify that DMPO adducts of the protein free radicals had been formed, the reaction mixtures were analyzed by flow injection electrospray ionization mass ..
  53. ncbi Critical role of microglial NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals in the in vitro MPTP model of Parkinson's disease
    Hui Ming Gao
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 17:1954-6. 2003
    ..This study also suggests that NADPH oxidase may be a promising target for therapeutic interventions in Parkinson's disease...
  54. pmc Role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease
    E S Klings
    The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Respir Res 2:280-5. 2001
    ..The present review summarizes the evidence for alterations in oxidant stress during ACS of SCD, and the potential contributions of RBCs, WBCs and the vascular endothelium to this process...
  55. ncbi Oxidative stress and diabetic cardiovascular complications
    Desmond Jay
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:183-92. 2006
    ..The elucidation of the mechanisms of oxidative stress in diabetes and their relationship with atherosclerosis could potentially identify molecular targets of therapy for this condition and its cardiovascular consequences...
  56. ncbi Curcumin induces glutathione biosynthesis and inhibits NF-kappaB activation and interleukin-8 release in alveolar epithelial cells: mechanism of free radical scavenging activity
    Saibal K Biswas
    Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    Antioxid Redox Signal 7:32-41. 2005
    ..This suggests that curcumin has multiple properties: as an oxygen radical scavenger, antioxidant through modulation of glutathione levels, and antiinflammatory agent through inhibition of IL-8 release in lung cells...
  57. ncbi The role of free radicals in cerebral hypoxia and ischemia
    J Rodrigo
    Department of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:26-50. 2005
    ..Unfortunately, in many cases this response becomes excessive and it triggers a cascade of free-radical reactions, leading to modifications of cerebral plasticity and overt injury...
  58. ncbi Reactive carbonyls and oxidative stress: potential for therapeutic intervention
    Elizabeth M Ellis
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW, United Kingdom
    Pharmacol Ther 115:13-24. 2007
    ..This review describes the metabolism of reactive carbonyls and discusses the potential for manipulating levels of carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes through chemical intervention...
  59. ncbi Effects of propolis on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus
    H U Fuliang
    College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
    Pharmacol Res 51:147-52. 2005
    ..EEP) and water (WSD) extracts of propolis collected from north China on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus were studied...
  60. ncbi Enzymology of the repair of free radicals-induced DNA damage
    Laurent Gros
    Groupe Réparation de l ADN, UMR 8532 CNRS, LBPA ENS Cachan, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Oncogene 21:8905-25. 2002
    ..This review is focused on the repair of lesions induced by free radicals and ionising radiation...
  61. ncbi Ascorbic acid: much more than just an antioxidant
    Oreste Arrigoni
    Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Bari, Via E Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1569:1-9. 2002
    ....
  62. ncbi Free radicals as triggers of brain edema formation after stroke
    Ji Hoe Heo
    Department of Neurology, National Core Research Center for Nanomedical Technology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Seoul
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:51-70. 2005
    ..b>Free radicals exert their deleterious actions during both cytotoxic and vasogenic edema...
  63. doi Free radicals in breast carcinogenesis, breast cancer progression and cancer stem cells. Biological bases to develop oxidative-based therapies
    Laura Vera-Ramirez
    Department of Oncology, Complejo Hospitalario de Jaen, Avenida del Ejercito Español s n, Jaen, Spain
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 80:347-68. 2011
    ..To survive, cancer cells must acquire adaptive mechanisms that counteract the toxic effects of free radicals exposure...
  64. doi Scavenging free radicals improves endothelial dysfunction in human coronary arteries in vivo
    Jun ichi Oyama
    Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Geriatric Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu and Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Oita, Japan
    Heart Vessels 25:379-85. 2010
    ..was examined in patients who had no significant stenosis of coronary arteries, to elucidate the role of free radicals on coronary endothelial dysfunction...
  65. ncbi Pesticides and oxidative stress: a review
    Mohammad Abdollahi
    Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Laboratory of Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14155 6451, Iran
    Med Sci Monit 10:RA141-7. 2004
    ....
  66. pmc Immuno-spin trapping of a post-translational carboxypeptidase B1 radical formed by a dual role of xanthine oxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in acute septic mice
    Saurabh Chatterjee
    Free Radical Metabolites Group, Laboratory of Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 46:454-61. 2009
    ..This suggests the presence of a possible mechanism for CPB1 activity loss with compensatory protein production...
  67. ncbi Interaction of free radicals, matrix metalloproteinases and caveolin-1 impacts blood-brain barrier permeability
    Yong Gu
    School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 3:1216-31. 2011
    b>Free radicals play an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  68. doi Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla)
    Ozlem Sacan
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, Avcilar Istanbul, Turkey
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:1275-80. 2010
    ..The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that chard may provide a natural source of antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities and proline content...
  69. doi Fatty liver induced by free radicals and lipid peroxidation
    Mayuko Morita
    Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan
    Free Radic Res 46:758-65. 2012
    ..These results show that free radicals as well as high fat diet induce fatty liver by similar mechanisms, in which lipid peroxidation may be involved.
  70. doi An oxygen radical absorbance capacity-like assay that directly quantifies the antioxidant's scavenging capacity against AAPH-derived free radicals
    Shunji Kohri
    School of Health Sciences, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, South 1 West 17, Chuo Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060 8556, Japan
    Anal Biochem 386:167-71. 2009
    ..The new ORAC assay employs a short in situ photolysis of AAPH to generate free radicals. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping method was employed to identify and quantify AAPH ..
  71. ncbi The role of melanin as protector against free radicals in skin and its role as free radical indicator in hair
    Thomas Herrling
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Applied Sciences TFH Berlin, Luxemburger Strasse 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 69:1429-35. 2008
    ..Additional extrinsic free radicals are reversibly photo-generated by UV and visible light...
  72. doi Analysis of acid-stressed Bacillus cereus reveals a major oxidative response and inactivation-associated radical formation
    Maarten Mols
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 12:873-85. 2010
    ..cereus strains in bactericidal conditions only. Our study shows that radicals can indicate acid-induced malfunctioning of cellular processes that lead to cell death...
  73. ncbi Free radicals: their beneficial and detrimental effects on sperm function
    Shiva Kothari
    Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk A19 1, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Indian J Exp Biol 48:425-35. 2010
    b>Free radicals are molecules with one or more unpaired electron(s) commonly found in seminal plasma. Physiologically, free radicals control sperm maturation, capacitation and hyperactivation, the acrosome reaction, and sperm-oocyte fusion...
  74. doi Tyrosyl radicals in proteins: a comparison of empirical and density functional calculated EPR parameters
    Dimitri A Svistunenko
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Essex, Colchester, UK
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:6600-13. 2009
    ..Therefore, it is suggested that a full correlation between the calculated and the algorithm-derived empirical EPR parameters might be achieved when water molecules are included in the calculation model...
  75. ncbi Reaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobin O with hydrogen peroxide: evidence for peroxidatic activity and formation of protein-based radicals
    Hugues Ouellet
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 282:7491-503. 2007
    ..These findings suggest an oxidation/reduction function for trHbO and, by analogy, for other Group II trHbs...
  76. doi The impact of oxygen availability on stress survival and radical formation of Bacillus cereus
    Maarten Mols
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Int J Food Microbiol 135:303-11. 2009
    ..cereus, in food industry related conditions is investigated, because oxygen availability may affect the efficiency of food preservation conditions...
  77. ncbi Membrane "lens" effect: focusing the formation of reactive nitrogen oxides from the *NO/O2 reaction
    Matías N Möller
    Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias, and Center for Free Radical and Biomedical Research, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo 11400, Uruguay
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:709-14. 2007
    ....
  78. ncbi PLA2 mediated arachidonate free radicals: PLA2 inhibition and neutralization of free radicals by anti-oxidants--a new role as anti-inflammatory molecule
    B L Nanda
    Department of Studies in Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, India
    Curr Top Med Chem 7:765-77. 2007
    ..Thus PLA2 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and free radicals. These peroxides and reactive oxygen species in turn activates PLA2 enzyme and further attenuates the ..
  79. ncbi In vivo detection of free radicals induced by diethylnitrosamine in rat liver tissue
    Ken ichi Yamada
    Department of Bio function Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:2040-6. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to use in vivo spin trapping and spin probe techniques to investigate whether free radicals are generated in rat liver tissue during DEN activation...
  80. pmc An active dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical cofactor in Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase
    Joseph A Cotruvo
    Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Biochemistry 49:1297-309. 2010
    ..We propose that NrdI is an essential player in E. coli class Ib RNR cluster assembly and that the Mn(III)(2)-Y* cofactor, not the diferric-Y* one, is the active metallocofactor in vivo...
  81. ncbi Oxygen free radicals and contrast nephropathy
    R E Katholi
    Prairie Education Research Cooperative, Springfield, IL, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 32:64-71. 1998
    ..To test the hypothesis that oxygen free radicals (produced during intrarenal adenosine catabolism to xanthine) should be implicated in the pathogenesis of ..
  82. doi Side chain chemistry mediates backbone fragmentation in hydrogen deficient peptide radicals
    Qingyu Sun
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    J Proteome Res 8:958-66. 2009
    ....
  83. ncbi Alzheimer disease and the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of the disease
    Paula I Moreira
    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology of Coimbra, University of Coimbra, 3004 517 Coimbra, Portugal
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 7:3-10. 2008
    ..However, during the progression of the disease, the antioxidant activity of both agents is either overwhelmed or, according to others, evolves into pro-oxidant activity resulting in the exacerbation of reactive species production...
  84. ncbi Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer
    S S Hecht
    University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1194-210. 1999
    ..also discussed, as are inhalation studies of tobacco smoke in laboratory animals and the potential role of free radicals and oxidative damage in tobacco-associated carcinogenesis...
  85. ncbi Free radicals in biology and medicine: from inflammation to biotechnology
    Okezie I Aruoma
    Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London, UK
    Biofactors 27:1-3. 2006
  86. ncbi What an andrologist/urologist should know about free radicals and why
    Ashok Agarwal
    Center for Advanced Research in Human Reproduction, Infertility, and Sexual Function, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Urology 67:2-8. 2006
  87. pmc Bacillus subtilis class Ib ribonucleotide reductase is a dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical enzyme
    Yan Zhang
    Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Biochemistry 50:5615-23. 2011
    ..5 Y(•)/β(2) and an activity of 318-363 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) (normalized for 1 Y(•)/β(2)). These data strongly suggest that the B. subtilis class Ib RNR is a Mn(III)(2)-Y(•) enzyme...
  88. doi Free radicals generated by contracting muscle: by-products of metabolism or key regulators of muscle function?
    Malcolm J Jackson
    Division of Metabolic and Cellular Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:132-41. 2008
    ....
  89. doi Free radicals and exercise: an introduction
    Lester Packer
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:123-5. 2008
  90. doi Chapter 9: Oxidative stress in malignant progression: The role of Clusterin, a sensitive cellular biosensor of free radicals
    Ioannis P Trougakos
    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, Athens 15784, Greece
    Adv Cancer Res 104:171-210. 2009
    ..This review focuses on CLU regulation by oxidative injury that is the common molecular link of most, if not all, pathological conditions where CLU has been functionally implicated...
  91. ncbi Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Curr Med Chem 12:1161-208. 2005
    ..Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to DNA bases, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl ..
  92. ncbi Effects of amelioration of total flavonoids from stems and leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on cognitive deficits, neuronal damage and free radicals disorder induced by cerebral ischemia in rats
    Ya Zhen Shang
    Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengde Medical College, China
    Biol Pharm Bull 29:805-10. 2006
    ..The present study examined whether TFSS can improve memory dysfunction, neuronal damage, and abnormal free radicals induced by permanent cerebral ischemia in rats...
  93. ncbi Sensitivity of tyrosyl radical g-values to changes in protein structure: a high-field EPR study of mutants of ribonucleotide reductase
    S Un
    , , CNRS URA2096, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
    J Am Chem Soc 123:3048-54. 2001
    ..Using existing tyrosyl radical g-tensor measurements, we have developed a simple effective charge model that allows us to rationalize the effect of the local electrostatic environments in a number of proteins...
  94. ncbi beta-amyloid protein enhances macrophage production of oxygen free radicals and glutamate
    A Klegeris
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    J Neurosci Res 49:229-35. 1997
    ..Such mechanisms could contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease...
  95. ncbi Microsomal metabolism of ciprofloxacin generates free radicals
    A Gürbay
    Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Ankara, Turkey
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:1118-21. 2001
    ..The generation of 4-POBN/radical adduct is dependent on the presence of NADPH, CPFX, and active microsomes. Furthermore, free radical production is completely inhibited by SKF 525A, Trolox, or ZnCl2...
  96. ncbi Free radicals in Parkinson's disease
    E Koutsilieri
    Clinical Neurochemistry and NPF Center of Excellence Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Julius Maximilians University, Fuechsleinstr 15, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    J Neurol 249:II1-5. 2002
    ..toxin-induced neurodegeneration can be blocked by antioxidants, and 5) Activated microglia, known to release free radicals and inflammatory cytokines, are present in brains of Parkinsonian patients...
  97. ncbi Oxalate and calcium oxalate mediated free radical toxicity in renal epithelial cells: effect of antioxidants
    Sivagnanam Thamilselvan
    Department of Urology 2D, Vattikuti Urology Institute and Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, One Ford Place, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    Urol Res 31:3-9. 2003
    ..Antioxidant administration may prevent calcium oxalate nucleation and retention in the renal tubules by preventing oxalate mediated peroxidative injury...
  98. ncbi Examples of high-frequency EPR studies in bioinorganic chemistry
    K Kristoffer Andersson
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Blindern, PO Box 1041, 0316, Oslo, Norway
    J Biol Inorg Chem 8:235-47. 2003
    ..GHz and magnetic fields up to 12 T has been used to study metal sites in proteins or inorganic complexes and free radicals. The high-field EPR method was used to resolve g-value anisotropy by separating it from overlapping hyperfine ..
  99. doi The tandem of free radicals and methylglyoxal
    Miklos Peter Kalapos
    Theoretical Biology Research Group, Budapest, Hungary
    Chem Biol Interact 171:251-71. 2008
    ..Recently, the attention has been focused on the involvement of free radicals in methylglyoxal toxicity...
  100. ncbi Delayed production of free radicals following noise exposure
    Daisuke Yamashita
    Kresge Hearing Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Brain Res 1019:201-9. 2004
    ..slowly progressing apoptotic or necrosis pathways, an alternate hypothesis is that a continued formation of free radicals contributes to cell death...
  101. ncbi Free radicals, chemokines, and cell injury in HIV-1 and SIV infections and alcoholic hepatitis
    A P Bautista
    Department of Physiology and NIAAA Sponsored Alcohol Research Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 31:1527-32. 2001
    ....

Research Grants81

  1. Charge Transfer Reactions of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex
    COLIN WRAIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains, but is also implicated in the production of damaging free radicals and reactive oxygen species relevant to pathogenesis and aging...
  2. OXIDANT HEPATIC INJURY IN CHOLESTASIS
    Ronald Sokol; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..To determine if toxic bile acids stimulate generation of free radicals and subsequent liver injury, lipid peroxidation as a marker of free radical injury (analyzed by four different ..
  3. OXIDANT HEPATIC INJURY IN CHOLESTASIS
    Ronald Sokol; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..To determine if toxic bile acids stimulate generation of free radicals and subsequent liver injury, lipid peroxidation as a marker of free radical injury (analyzed by four different ..
  4. ROLE OF SIRTUIN IN CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED LUNG INFLAMMATION AND INJURY
    Irfan Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in lung function) and chronic inflammation of the lungs due to inhaled cigarette smoke-derived oxidants and free radicals which are implicated in aging, senescence, cancer and inflammatory processes...
  5. MECHANISM/S OF ALCOHOL-INDUCED LIVER GRAFT FAILURE
    John Lemasters; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..cycle of NIAAA support: namely, that fatty livers from alcohol-treated rat produce SOD/catalase- insensitive free radicals in the early minutes following transplantation and that white cell adhesion also occurs very early and to a ..
  6. ENDOGENOUS MODULATION OF COCHLEA INJURY
    Leonard Rybak; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It generates super oxide and other free radicals that can activate downstream effectors in the apoptotic pathway, leading to hair cell death and hearing loss...
  7. Matrix Metalloproteinases and the Blood-Brain Barrier
    Gary Rosenberg; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..They are secreted as latent enzymes, which are activated by proteases and free radicals and inhibited by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)...
  8. Glutathione reductase and tumor sensitivity to radiation
    Xiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..GSH increases cancer resistance to radiation by terminating free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated by radiation to destroy cancer cells...
  9. OXIDATION OF MACROMOLECULES IN SPINAL CORD INJURY
    Danxia Liu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The long term objective of this project is to reveal mechanisms whereby free radicals damage neurons following spinal cord injury - a major health care issue...
  10. Microxymetry Techniques for Cardiomocyte Respiration
    Govindasamy Ilangovan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..assume importance in pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease because large quantities of oxygen free radicals are generated during ischemia/reperfusion, and the produced free radicals impair the heart function...
  11. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF ENZYME/SUBSTRATE COMPLEXES
    George Reed; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..are to explore the catalytic mechanisms of enzymic reactions in which the exceptional reactivity of organic free radicals are employed. Reactions of free radicals are of fundamental importance in biology...
  12. Charge Transfer Reactions of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex
    COLIN WRAIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains, but is also implicated in the production of damaging free radicals and reactive oxygen species relevant to pathogenesis and aging...
  13. Charge Transfer Reactions of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex
    Colin A Wraight; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains, but is also implicated in the production of damaging free radicals and reactive oxygen species relevant to pathogenesis and aging...
  14. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT INDUCED PHENOMENA IN BIOMEMBRANES
    IRENE KOCHEVAR; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The specific aims of this proposal are: Specific Aim 1: To produce, separately, singlet oxygen (1O2*) and free radicals from the same photosensitizer molecules in the plasma membrane...
  15. HOW DO ENZYMES GENERATE AND CONTROL FREE RADICALS
    E Marsh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The intention is to replace this award with an expanded research program funded by an R01 award. Free radicals are generally perceived as highly reactive species that are harmful to the cell...
  16. Hypoxia and free radicals in alcoholic pancreatitis
    Gavin Arteel; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Next, the hypothesis that free radicals play a causative role in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis will be tested...
  17. INOS/REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
    Maria Grant; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and early on in diabetic vessels, free radical scavenging systems eliminate glucose-induced, oxygen-derived free radicals. However, if antioxidant defense systems fail, oxygen-derived free radicals combine with NO to form the toxic ..