free radicals

Summary

Summary: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function
    Wulf Dröge
    Division of Immunochemistry, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
    Physiol Rev 82:47-95. 2002
  2. ncbi Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Chem Biol Interact 160:1-40. 2006
  3. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects
    T P A Devasagayam
    Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085
    J Assoc Physicians India 52:794-804. 2004
  4. pmc Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet induces apoptosis involving mitochondria via generation of free radicals
    Hak Jun Ahn
    Department of Molecular Science and Technology and Department of Life Science, Ajou University, Suwon, Gyounggi do, Korea
    PLoS ONE 6:e28154. 2011
  5. ncbi Radiation activates HIF-1 to regulate vascular radiosensitivity in tumors: role of reoxygenation, free radicals, and stress granules
    Benjamin J Moeller
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cancer Cell 5:429-41. 2004
  6. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Nutr Rev 70:257-65. 2012
  7. ncbi Ribonucleotide reductases
    Pär Nordlund
    Division of Biophysics and 2Division of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Annu Rev Biochem 75:681-706. 2006
  8. pmc Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors
    Khalid Rahman
    School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England, UK
    Clin Interv Aging 2:219-36. 2007
  9. pmc Tobacco smoke: involvement of reactive oxygen species and stable free radicals in mechanisms of oxidative damage, carcinogenesis and synergistic effects with other respirable particles
    Athanasios Valavanidis
    Department of Chemistry, Free Radical Research Group, University of Athens, University Campus Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:445-62. 2009
  10. pmc Iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease is a source of redox-generated free radicals
    M A Smith
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:9866-8. 1997

Detail Information

Publications344 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function
    Wulf Dröge
    Division of Immunochemistry, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
    Physiol Rev 82:47-95. 2002
    At high concentrations, free radicals and radical-derived, nonradical reactive species are hazardous for living organisms and damage all major cellular constituents...
  2. ncbi Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Chem Biol Interact 160:1-40. 2006
    Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species...
  3. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects
    T P A Devasagayam
    Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085
    J Assoc Physicians India 52:794-804. 2004
    b>Free radicals and related species have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years...
  4. pmc Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet induces apoptosis involving mitochondria via generation of free radicals
    Hak Jun Ahn
    Department of Molecular Science and Technology and Department of Life Science, Ajou University, Suwon, Gyounggi do, Korea
    PLoS ONE 6:e28154. 2011
    ..Taken together, our data suggest the potential employment of plasma jets as a novel therapy for cancer...
  5. ncbi Radiation activates HIF-1 to regulate vascular radiosensitivity in tumors: role of reoxygenation, free radicals, and stress granules
    Benjamin J Moeller
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cancer Cell 5:429-41. 2004
    ..These data describe novel pathways contributing significantly to our understanding of HIF-1 regulation which may be major determinants of tumor radiosensitivity, potentially having high clinical relevance...
  6. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Nutr Rev 70:257-65. 2012
    ..Increasing endogenous antioxidant levels (e.g., by supplying "pro-oxidants") may be a better approach to therapeutics and disease prevention than consuming large doses of "dietary antioxidants."..
  7. ncbi Ribonucleotide reductases
    Pär Nordlund
    Division of Biophysics and 2Division of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Annu Rev Biochem 75:681-706. 2006
    ..In spite of large differences in the amino acid sequences, basic structural features are remarkably similar and suggest a common evolutionary origin for the three classes...
  8. pmc Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors
    Khalid Rahman
    School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England, UK
    Clin Interv Aging 2:219-36. 2007
    The interplay between free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors is important in maintaining health, aging and age-related diseases...
  9. pmc Tobacco smoke: involvement of reactive oxygen species and stable free radicals in mechanisms of oxidative damage, carcinogenesis and synergistic effects with other respirable particles
    Athanasios Valavanidis
    Department of Chemistry, Free Radical Research Group, University of Athens, University Campus Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:445-62. 2009
    Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative ..
  10. pmc Iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease is a source of redox-generated free radicals
    M A Smith
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:9866-8. 1997
    Damage from free radicals has been demonstrated in susceptible neuronal populations in cases of Alzheimer disease...
  11. pmc Antioxidants in health and disease
    I S Young
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Institute of Clinical Science, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
    J Clin Pathol 54:176-86. 2001
    ....
  12. ncbi The roles of free radicals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: reactive oxygen species and elevated oxidation of protein, DNA, and membrane phospholipids
    D Liu
    Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0653, USA
    FASEB J 13:2318-28. 1999
    ..Liu, D., Wen, J., Liu, J., Li, L. The roles of free radicals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: reactive oxygen species and elevated oxidation of protein, DNA, and membrane ..
  13. pmc Taking a "good" look at free radicals in the aging process
    Siegfried Hekimi
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3A 1B1
    Trends Cell Biol 21:569-76. 2011
    ..This could generate the observed correlation between aging and ROS without implying that ROS damage is the earliest trigger or main cause of aging...
  14. ncbi Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center
    Kristina N Ferreira
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
    Science 303:1831-8. 2004
    ..The details of the surrounding coordination sphere of the metal cluster and the implications for a possible oxygen-evolving mechanism are discussed...
  15. ncbi The role of oxidants and free radicals in reperfusion injury
    Jay L Zweier
    Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute and the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 473 W 12th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 70:181-90. 2006
    ..Ischemic preconditioning markedly decreases NO and oxidant generation, and this appears to be an important mechanism contributing to preconditioning-induced myocardial protection...
  16. ncbi Free radical-mediated oxidation of free amino acids and amino acid residues in proteins
    E R Stadtman
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 8012, USA
    Amino Acids 25:207-18. 2003
    ....
  17. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants - quo vadis?
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 32:125-30. 2011
    The field of free radicals and antioxidants, or 'redox biology', is fundamental to aerobic life. Aerobes constantly make reactive species, but modulate their actions by synthesizing antioxidants...
  18. ncbi Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition
    Yun Zhong Fang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China
    Nutrition 18:872-9. 2002
    ..b>Free radicals (e.g., superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and other reactive species (e.g...
  19. pmc Redox-control of matrix metalloproteinase-1: a critical link between free radicals, matrix remodeling and degenerative disease
    Supriya Kar
    Centers for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, United States
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 174:299-306. 2010
    ....
  20. ncbi Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention
    D Bagchi
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    Toxicology 148:187-97. 2000
    b>Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, ..
  21. pmc Cycling hypoxia and free radicals regulate angiogenesis and radiotherapy response
    Mark W Dewhirst
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 8:425-37. 2008
    Hypoxia and free radicals, such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, can alter the function and/or activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1)...
  22. ncbi The tandem of free radicals and methylglyoxal
    Miklos Peter Kalapos
    Theoretical Biology Research Group, Budapest, Hungary
    Chem Biol Interact 171:251-71. 2008
    ..Recently, the attention has been focused on the involvement of free radicals in methylglyoxal toxicity...
  23. ncbi Three distinct mechanisms generate oxygen free radicals in neurons and contribute to cell death during anoxia and reoxygenation
    Andrey Y Abramov
    Department of Physiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 27:1129-38. 2007
    ..Inhibition of either the NADPH oxidase or XO was significantly neuroprotective. Thus, oxidative stress contributes to cell death over and above the injury attributable to energy deprivation...
  24. ncbi De novo lipogenesis protects cancer cells from free radicals and chemotherapeutics by promoting membrane lipid saturation
    Evelien Rysman
    Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, K U Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Cancer Res 70:8117-26. 2010
    ..These findings provide important new insights into the role of de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells, and they provide a rationale for the use of lipogenesis inhibitors as antineoplastic agents and as chemotherapeutic sensitizers...
  25. ncbi Free radical-induced damage to DNA: mechanisms and measurement
    Miral Dizdaroglu
    Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 8311, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:1102-15. 2002
    b>Free radicals are produced in cells by cellular metabolism and by exogenous agents. These species react with biomolecules in cells, including DNA...
  26. ncbi The Radical SAM Superfamily
    Perry A Frey
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Madison, Wisconin Madison, Wisconsin 53726, USA
    Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 43:63-88. 2008
    ....
  27. ncbi Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise
    Sean Sachdev
    Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0191, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:215-23. 2008
    b>Free radicals (particularly oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals), and related reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, are generated in cells and tissues during exercise...
  28. ncbi Free radicals and aging
    Gustavo Barja
    Department of Animal Physiology II, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain
    Trends Neurosci 27:595-600. 2004
    ..Furthermore, caloric restriction, which decreases the rate of aging, proportionately decreases mitochondrial oxygen radical generation, especially at complex I. These findings are reviewed, highlighting the results obtained in the brain...
  29. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants at a glance using EPR spectroscopy
    Ivan Spasojevic
    Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 48:114-42. 2011
    The delicate balance between the advantageous and detrimental effects of free radicals is one of the important aspects of human (patho)physiology...
  30. ncbi Free radicals and brain damage in the newborn
    G Buonocore
    Institute of Preventive Pediatrics and Neonatology, University of Siena, Italy
    Biol Neonate 79:180-6. 2001
    ..b>Free radicals may be generated by different mechanisms, such as ischemia-reperfusion, neutrophil and macrophage activation, ..
  31. ncbi Delayed production of free radicals following noise exposure
    Daisuke Yamashita
    Kresge Hearing Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Brain Res 1019:201-9. 2004
    ..slowly progressing apoptotic or necrosis pathways, an alternate hypothesis is that a continued formation of free radicals contributes to cell death...
  32. ncbi Free radicals and redox signalling in T-cells during chronic inflammation and ageing
    Helen R Griffiths
    School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Biochem Soc Trans 39:1273-8. 2011
    ..Together, these data suggest that a complex relationship exists between intra- and extra-cellular redox compartments which contribute to the T-cell phenotype...
  33. pmc The oxygen free radicals originating from mitochondrial complex I contribute to oxidative brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal mice
    Zoya V Niatsetskaya
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 32:3235-44. 2012
    ..This highlights a novel neuroprotective strategy against HI brain injury where the major therapeutic principle is a pharmacological attenuation, rather than an enhancement of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism during early reperfusion...
  34. ncbi Cardioprotection: a radical view Free radicals in pre and postconditioning
    Claudia Penna
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche Università di Torino, Italy Istituto Nazionale Ricerche Cardiovascolari, Bologna, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1787:781-93. 2009
    ..Therefore, our and others' results suggest that the role of ROS in reperfusion may be reconsidered as they are not only deleterious...
  35. ncbi beta-amyloid protein enhances macrophage production of oxygen free radicals and glutamate
    A Klegeris
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    J Neurosci Res 49:229-35. 1997
    ..Such mechanisms could contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease...
  36. ncbi Free radicals and muscle fatigue: Of ROS, canaries, and the IOC
    Michael B Reid
    Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:169-79. 2008
    ....
  37. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinases and free radicals in cerebral ischemia
    K Jian Liu
    College of Pharmacy, Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, 87131, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:71-80. 2005
    ..The proteases and free radicals involved are important, both individually and in concert, at each of the steps in the injury cascade...
  38. pmc NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals are key oxidants in alcohol-induced liver disease
    H Kono
    Laboratory of Hepatobiology and Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7365, USA
    J Clin Invest 106:867-72. 2000
    ..are known to contribute to early alcohol-induced liver injury via oxidative stress, the exact source of free radicals has remained a mystery...
  39. ncbi Melatonin defeats neurally-derived free radicals and reduces the associated neuromorphological and neurobehavioral damage
    R J Reiter
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    J Physiol Pharmacol 58:5-22. 2007
    ..These, however, are not the only age-associated neurodegenerative states where melatonin has been found to be protective...
  40. ncbi Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals
    Suresh I S Rattan
    Laboratory of Cellular Ageing, Department of Molecular Biology, Danish Centre for Molecular Gerontology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark
    Free Radic Res 40:1230-8. 2006
    ..by the progressive accumulation of molecular damage caused by environmental and metabolically generated free radicals, by spontaneous errors in biochemical reactions, and by nutritional components...
  41. ncbi Free radicals, mitochondria, and hypoxia-ischemia in the developing brain
    Klas Blomgren
    Arvid Carlsson Institute, Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, Sweden
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:388-97. 2006
    ..of its poorly developed scavenging systems and high availability of iron for the catalytic formation of free radicals. Neurons are more vulnerable to free radical damage than glial cells, but oligodendrocyte progenitors and ..
  42. ncbi The role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy
    James G Tidball
    Department of Physiological Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 102:1677-86. 2007
    ..likelihood that interactions between the primary genetic defect and disruptions in the normal production of free radicals contribute to the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophies...
  43. pmc Emerging themes in radical SAM chemistry
    Krista A Shisler
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Astrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research Center, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, United States
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 22:701-10. 2012
    ..Recently characterized superfamily members are providing new examples of the remarkable range of reactions that can be catalyzed, as well as new structural and mechanistic insights into these fascinating reactions...
  44. ncbi EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review
    Paola Fattibene
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena, Rome, Italy
    Appl Radiat Isot 68:2033-116. 2010
    ..Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed...
  45. ncbi EPR studies of free radicals decay and survival in gamma irradiated aminoglycoside antibiotics: sisomicin, tobramycin and paromomycin
    Sławomir Wilczyński
    Department of Biophysics, School of Pharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, Jednosci 8, 41 200 Sosnowiec, Poland
    Eur J Pharm Sci 45:251-62. 2012
    ..But on the other hand radiosterilization can lead to radiolytic products appearing, in example free radicals. Free radicals in radiative sterilized sisomicin, tobramycin and paromomycin were studied by electron ..
  46. ncbi Evaluation of different methods detecting intracellular generation of free radicals
    Jiri Wilhelm
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Centre of Cardiovascular Research, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
    Mol Cell Biochem 328:167-76. 2009
    ..The results indicate that the potential of fluorescent dyes in ROS detection is not usually fully exploited, and that blue autofluorescence is associated with oxidative damage...
  47. ncbi The effect of brief food withdrawal on the level of free radicals and other parameters of oxidative status in the liver
    Dorota Marczuk-Krynicka
    Department of Physiology, University School of Medical Sciences Poznań, Poland
    Med Sci Monit 9:BR131-5. 2003
    The aim of our study was to determine the effect of brief starvation on the level of free radicals and other parameters of oxidative status in the liver.
  48. ncbi Reduction of free radicals in multiple sclerosis: effect of glatiramer acetate (Copaxone)
    C Iarlori
    Department of Oncology and Neuroscience, University G D Annunzio, Chieti, Italy
    Mult Scler 14:739-48. 2008
    b>Free radicals have been found in high concentrations within inflammatory multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. The superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) reacts rapidly with nitric oxide (NO), producing peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))...
  49. ncbi Immune cells: free radicals and antioxidants in sepsis
    Victor M Victor
    Unidad Mixta Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III Universidad de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Int Immunopharmacol 4:327-47. 2004
    ..The potential clinical use of antioxidants in the treatment of sepsis and the effects on the redox state of the immune cells are discussed...
  50. ncbi Oxidative stress, metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-related diseases
    T Zima
    Institute of Clinical Chemistry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Karlovo nam 32, CZ 121 11 Prague 2, Czech Republic
    J Biomed Sci 8:59-70. 2001
    ..Each of these pathways could produce free radicals which affect the antioxidant system...
  51. ncbi Genetic determinants of dietary antioxidant status
    Laura A Da Costa
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 108:179-200. 2012
    ..Endogenous production of free radicals occurs during normal physiological processes, such as aerobic metabolism, oxidation of biological molecules, ..
  52. ncbi Effects of static magnetic fields in biology: role of free radicals
    Hideyuki Okano
    International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    Front Biosci 13:6106-25. 2008
    ..Biological free radicals are most commonly oxygen or nitrogen based with an unpaired electron, leading to the terms "reactive oxygen ..
  53. ncbi Interaction of free radicals, matrix metalloproteinases and caveolin-1 impacts blood-brain barrier permeability
    Yong Gu
    School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 3:1216-31. 2011
    b>Free radicals play an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  54. ncbi Free radicals in breast carcinogenesis, breast cancer progression and cancer stem cells. Biological bases to develop oxidative-based therapies
    Laura Vera-Ramirez
    Department of Oncology, Complejo Hospitalario de Jaen, Avenida del Ejercito Español s n, Jaen, Spain
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 80:347-68. 2011
    ..To survive, cancer cells must acquire adaptive mechanisms that counteract the toxic effects of free radicals exposure...
  55. ncbi Simvastatin decreases free radicals formation in the human abdominal aortic aneurysm wall via NF-κB
    A Piechota-Polanczyk
    Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 44:133-7. 2012
    Statins have been reported to suppress the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the effects of statins on inflammatory processes and free radicals generation are poorly understood.
  56. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidant systems in reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus
    Pilar Jimenez
    Aragonés Institute of Health Sciences, and Gastroenterology Service, Lozano Blesa University Hospital Clinic, Avenida San Juan Bosco, C Domingo Miral, s n 15 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
    World J Gastroenterol 11:2697-703. 2005
    Experimental studies suggest that free radicals are involved in acid and pepsin-induced damage of esophageal mucosa. The profile and balance between free radicals and antioxidant systems in human esophagitis are unknown.
  57. pmc Site-specific radical formation in DNA induced by Cu(II)-H₂O₂ oxidizing system, using ESR, immuno-spin trapping, LC-MS, and MS/MS
    Suchandra Bhattacharjee
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 50:1536-45. 2011
    ..The DMPO adduct formed is initially EPR active but subsequently is oxidized to the stable nitrone, which can then be detected by IST and further characterized by MS and MS/MS...
  58. ncbi Cell signaling and receptors in toxicity of advanced glycation end products (AGEs): α-dicarbonyls, radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants
    Peter Kovacic
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
    J Recept Signal Transduct Res 31:332-9. 2011
    ..The toxic species have been related to illnesses and aging. Antioxidants alleviate the adverse effects...
  59. ncbi Signaling functions of free radicals superoxide & nitric oxide under physiological & pathological conditions
    Igor B Afanas'ev
    Vitamin Research Institute, Moscow, Russia
    Mol Biotechnol 37:2-4. 2007
    Superoxide and nitric oxide are ubiquitous physiological free radicals that are responsible for many pathological disorders...
  60. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder?
    Selda Bagis
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Mersin University Medical School, Mersin, Turkey
    Rheumatol Int 25:188-90. 2005
    The role of free radicals in fibromyalgia is controversial. In this study, 85 female patients with primary fibromyalgia and 80 age-, height-, and weight-matched healthy women were evaluated for oxidant/antioxidant balance...
  61. ncbi Potential markers of oxidative stress in stroke
    Antonio Cherubini
    Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia Medical School, Policlinico Monteluce Pad E, Via Brunamonti 51, 06122 Perugia, Italy
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:841-52. 2005
    ..Since direct measurement of free radicals and oxidized molecules in the brain is difficult in humans, several biological substances have been ..
  62. ncbi On the generation of free radical species from quantum dots
    Binil Itty Ipe
    Biologisch Chemische Mikrostrukturtechnik, Fachbereich Chemie, Universitat Dortmund, Otto Hahn Str 6, 44227, Dortmund, Germany
    Small 1:706-9. 2005
  63. ncbi The role of catechols and free radicals in benzene toxicity: an oxidative DNA damage pathway
    George Barreto
    Instituto Cajal, CSIC E 28002 Madrid, Spain
    Environ Mol Mutagen 50:771-80. 2009
    ..In this review, we have addressed the cytotoxic effects of benzene and its main metabolite, catechol, focusing on the oxidative pathway and further DNA damage...
  64. ncbi Mitochondria, oxygen free radicals, and apoptosis
    S Raha
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Tronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Med Genet 106:62-70. 2001
    ..Integration of knowledge surrounding these different aspects of ROS generation is difficult and reveals considerable gaps in our understanding...
  65. ncbi Immunochemical detection of hemoglobin-derived radicals formed by reaction with hydrogen peroxide: involvement of a protein-tyrosyl radical
    Dario C Ramirez
    Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27713, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 34:830-9. 2003
    ....
  66. ncbi The free radical theory of aging
    Denham Harman
    University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68198 4635, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 5:557-61. 2003
    ..Aging changes may be caused by free radical reactions. The extensive studies based on this possibility hold promise that the ALE-B can be extended to >85 years and the maximum life span increased...
  67. ncbi Oxidative injury in epilepsy: potential for antioxidant therapy?
    Daniel J Costello
    Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Expert Rev Neurother 4:541-53. 2004
    ..This review examines the evidence for the role of oxidative injury in epilepsy, the rationale for use of antioxidant therapy in epilepsy and appraises the current clinical performance of the studies of antioxidant therapies...
  68. ncbi Biochemistry. Water photolysis in biology
    A W Rutherford
    Service of Bioenergetics, CNRS URA 2096, Departement de Biologie Joliot Curie, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Science 303:1782-4. 2004
  69. ncbi tert-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipid signaling in hepatocytes: involvement of glutathione and free radicals
    C Martin
    Department of Physiology, University of the Basque Country, E 48080, Bilbao, Spain
    Biochem Pharmacol 62:705-12. 2001
    ..Results suggest that specific ROS generated in iron-dependent reactions, different from lipid peroxyl radicals, are involved in PLA(2) activation, this process being important in TBHP-induced hepatocyte injury...
  70. ncbi Ca2+-induced permeabilization promotes free radical release from rat brain mitochondria with partially inhibited complex I
    Tatyana V Votyakova
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Neurochem 93:526-37. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that Ca2+ can greatly increase ROS release by brain mitochondria when complex I is impaired...
  71. ncbi Identification of free radicals on hemoglobin from its self-peroxidation using mass spectrometry and immuno-spin trapping: observation of a histidinyl radical
    Leesa J Deterding
    Laboratory of Structural Biology, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:11600-7. 2004
    ..To verify that DMPO adducts of the protein free radicals had been formed, the reaction mixtures were analyzed by flow injection electrospray ionization mass ..
  72. ncbi Oxidative stress and antioxidants in exercise
    C Leeuwenburgh
    Center for Exercise Science, Aging Biochemistry Laboratory, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Curr Med Chem 8:829-38. 2001
    ..These include increased antioxidant defenses, reduced basal production of oxidants, and reduction of radical leak during oxidative phosphorylation...
  73. ncbi Critical role of microglial NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals in the in vitro MPTP model of Parkinson's disease
    Hui Ming Gao
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 17:1954-6. 2003
    ..This study also suggests that NADPH oxidase may be a promising target for therapeutic interventions in Parkinson's disease...
  74. ncbi Oxidative damage caused by free radicals produced during catecholamine autoxidation: protective effects of O-methylation and melatonin
    J W Miller
    Vitamin Bioavailability Laboratory, Jean Mayer, USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 21:241-9. 1996
    ..and (2) melatonin, which has recently been shown to be a powerful antioxidant, is capable of scavenging free radicals produced during catecholamine autoxidation...
  75. ncbi Induction of DNA double-strand breaks in A549 and normal human pulmonary epithelial cells by cigarette smoke is mediated by free radicals
    Anthony P Albino
    Vector Research Ltd, New York, NY 10019, USA
    Int J Oncol 28:1491-505. 2006
    ..In the present study, we show that N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione, both effective scavengers of free radicals, prevented induction of DSBs by CS in these cells...
  76. ncbi Oxidative stress levels are raised in chronic fatigue syndrome and are associated with clinical symptoms
    Gwen Kennedy
    Vascular Diseases Research Unit, The Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland DD1 9SY, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:584-9. 2005
    ..002; postexertional malaise P=0.027, Pearson). This is the first time that raised levels of the gold standard measure of in vivo oxidative stress (isoprostanes) and their association with CFS symptoms have been reported...
  77. ncbi Free radicals, antioxidants, and neurologic injury: possible relationship to cerebral protection by anesthetics
    John X Wilson
    Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 14:66-79. 2002
    Oxygen-centered free radicals cause brain injury associated with trauma and stroke. These reactive oxygen species may be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants, but cell death occurs after antioxidants become depleted...
  78. ncbi Role of free radicals in the neurodegenerative diseases: therapeutic implications for antioxidant treatment
    B Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Drugs Aging 18:685-716. 2001
    b>Free radicals and other so-called 'reactive species' are constantly produced in the brain in vivo...
  79. pmc Oxidative damage to RNA: mechanisms, consequences, and diseases
    Qiongman Kong
    Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, 4198 Graves Hall, 333 W 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:1817-29. 2010
    Overproduction of free radicals can damage cellular components resulting in progressive physiological dysfunction, which has been implicated in many human diseases. Oxidative damage to RNA received little attention until the past decade...
  80. pmc Role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease
    E S Klings
    The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Respir Res 2:280-5. 2001
    ..The present review summarizes the evidence for alterations in oxidant stress during ACS of SCD, and the potential contributions of RBCs, WBCs and the vascular endothelium to this process...
  81. ncbi Oxidative stress and diabetic cardiovascular complications
    Desmond Jay
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:183-92. 2006
    ..The elucidation of the mechanisms of oxidative stress in diabetes and their relationship with atherosclerosis could potentially identify molecular targets of therapy for this condition and its cardiovascular consequences...
  82. ncbi The role of free radicals in cerebral hypoxia and ischemia
    J Rodrigo
    Department of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:26-50. 2005
    ..Unfortunately, in many cases this response becomes excessive and it triggers a cascade of free-radical reactions, leading to modifications of cerebral plasticity and overt injury...
  83. ncbi Curcumin induces glutathione biosynthesis and inhibits NF-kappaB activation and interleukin-8 release in alveolar epithelial cells: mechanism of free radical scavenging activity
    Saibal K Biswas
    Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
    Antioxid Redox Signal 7:32-41. 2005
    ..This suggests that curcumin has multiple properties: as an oxygen radical scavenger, antioxidant through modulation of glutathione levels, and antiinflammatory agent through inhibition of IL-8 release in lung cells...
  84. ncbi Effects of propolis on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus
    H U Fuliang
    College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
    Pharmacol Res 51:147-52. 2005
    ..EEP) and water (WSD) extracts of propolis collected from north China on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus were studied...
  85. ncbi Enzymology of the repair of free radicals-induced DNA damage
    Laurent Gros
    Groupe Réparation de l ADN, UMR 8532 CNRS, LBPA ENS Cachan, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Oncogene 21:8905-25. 2002
    ..This review is focused on the repair of lesions induced by free radicals and ionising radiation...
  86. ncbi Ascorbic acid: much more than just an antioxidant
    Oreste Arrigoni
    Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Bari, Via E Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1569:1-9. 2002
    ....
  87. ncbi Reactive carbonyls and oxidative stress: potential for therapeutic intervention
    Elizabeth M Ellis
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW, United Kingdom
    Pharmacol Ther 115:13-24. 2007
    ..This review describes the metabolism of reactive carbonyls and discusses the potential for manipulating levels of carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes through chemical intervention...
  88. ncbi Free radicals as triggers of brain edema formation after stroke
    Ji Hoe Heo
    Department of Neurology, National Core Research Center for Nanomedical Technology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Seoul
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:51-70. 2005
    ..b>Free radicals exert their deleterious actions during both cytotoxic and vasogenic edema...
  89. ncbi Scavenging free radicals by low-dose carvedilol prevents redox-dependent Ca2+ leak via stabilization of ryanodine receptor in heart failure
    Mamoru Mochizuki
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Division of Cardiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Japan
    J Am Coll Cardiol 49:1722-32. 2007
    ..We investigated whether defective intracellular Ca2+ handling is corrected by carvedilol in heart failure...
  90. ncbi Increased flux of free radicals in cells subjected to hyperthermia: detection by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping
    S W Flanagan
    Department of Exercise Science, The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    FEBS Lett 431:285-6. 1998
    ..OH (aN = aH = 14.9 G). These findings indicate that heat increases the flux of cellular free radicals and support the hypothesis that increased generation of oxygen-centered free radicals and the resultant ..
  91. ncbi Changes in the spin state and reactivity of cytochrome C induced by photochemically generated singlet oxygen and free radicals
    Mauren L Estevam
    Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Bioquímica CIIB Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes UMC, Mogi das Cruzes, SP, CEP 08780 911, Brazil
    J Biol Chem 279:39214-22. 2004
    This work compares the effect of photogenerated singlet oxygen (O(2)((1)Delta(g))) (type II mechanism) and free radicals (type I mechanism) on cytochrome c structure and reactivity...
  92. ncbi Nitric oxide radicals choreograph a radioadaptive response
    Hideki Matsumoto
    Division of Oncology, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan
    Cancer Res 67:8574-9. 2007
    ..Moreover, radioresistance was observed when cultures were treated with a NO radical-generating agent. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of the radioadaptive response...
  93. ncbi The role of free radicals and antioxidants in reproduction
    Ashok Agarwal
    Center for Advanced Research in Human Reproduction, Infertility and Sexual Function, Glickman Urological Institute and the Department of Obstetrics Gynecology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 18:325-32. 2006
    This review summarizes the role of free radicals and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of human reproduction.
  94. ncbi Interaction of static and extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields with living systems: health effects and research needs
    M H Repacholi
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bioelectromagnetics 20:133-60. 1999
    ..Ambient static electric fields have not been reported to cause any direct adverse health effects, and so no further research in this area was deemed necessary...
  95. ncbi Is lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated acids the only source of free radicals that induce aging and age-related diseases?
    Gerhard Spiteller
    Institute for Organic Chemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
    Rejuvenation Res 13:91-103. 2010
    The increase in free radicals is hypothesised to cause aging and age-related diseases. The most common source of free radicals is thought to be superoxide...
  96. ncbi Scavenging free radicals improves endothelial dysfunction in human coronary arteries in vivo
    Jun ichi Oyama
    Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Geriatric Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu and Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Oita, Japan
    Heart Vessels 25:379-85. 2010
    ..was examined in patients who had no significant stenosis of coronary arteries, to elucidate the role of free radicals on coronary endothelial dysfunction...
  97. ncbi Fatty liver induced by free radicals and lipid peroxidation
    Mayuko Morita
    Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan
    Free Radic Res 46:758-65. 2012
    ..These results show that free radicals as well as high fat diet induce fatty liver by similar mechanisms, in which lipid peroxidation may be involved.
  98. ncbi Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla)
    Ozlem Sacan
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, Avcilar Istanbul, Turkey
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:1275-80. 2010
    ..The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that chard may provide a natural source of antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities and proline content...
  99. ncbi The role of melanin as protector against free radicals in skin and its role as free radical indicator in hair
    Thomas Herrling
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Applied Sciences TFH Berlin, Luxemburger Strasse 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 69:1429-35. 2008
    ..Additional extrinsic free radicals are reversibly photo-generated by UV and visible light...
  100. pmc Immuno-spin trapping of a post-translational carboxypeptidase B1 radical formed by a dual role of xanthine oxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in acute septic mice
    Saurabh Chatterjee
    Free Radical Metabolites Group, Laboratory of Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 46:454-61. 2009
    ..This suggests the presence of a possible mechanism for CPB1 activity loss with compensatory protein production...
  101. ncbi Pesticides and oxidative stress: a review
    Mohammad Abdollahi
    Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Laboratory of Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14155 6451, Iran
    Med Sci Monit 10:RA141-7. 2004
    ....

Research Grants78

  1. Correction of glutathione deficiency for treatment of diabetic nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both supplements are capable of neutralizing directly toxic free radicals but, more importantly, NAC is substrate for the intracellular generation of GSH and the MTh flavonolignans are ..
  2. Peroxynitrite Decomposition Catalyst and Nitric Oxide Donor for Endotoxemia
    GARRY JOHN SOUTHAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Alterations in the biosynthesis of the free radicals nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion are generally accepted to contribute to widespread tissue injury in sepsis via their induction of ..
  3. Nanoparticle Coupled Antioxidants for Respiratory Illness in Veterans
    RODNEY JON SCHLOSSER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both tobacco smoke and DEP are known airborne toxins that cause extensive oxidative inflammation due to free radicals and can lead to exacerbation of allergic rhinitis3...
  4. Novel PET imaging agents for early diagnosis of plaque deposition in Alzheimer's
    Padmakar Kulkarni; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These metal-protein aggregates are thought to be toxic, involved in generation of H2O2 and free radicals causing neuronal damage...
  5. Prevention of UV-induced carcinogenesis by cyanidin-3-glucoside
    Xianglin Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..O27-) radicals, using Fenton reaction (Fe(II) + H2O2) and xanthine/xanthine oxidase as sources of these free radicals in a non-cellular system, and to investigate antioxidant activities against UVB-induced 7OH and O27- radicals ..
  6. Monitoring cellular redox signaling and oxidant stress in vivo
    Paul T Schumacker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Public Health Relevance Statement: Healthy cells in the body use oxygen free radicals (Reactive Oxygen Species, or ROS) to regulate various cellular functions...
  7. Parathyroid Hormone & Vitamin D Effects on Salt Sensitivity and Vascular Function
    ANNA LIZA BELEN VALINA TOTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..baseline levels of circulating markers of oxidative stress (total isoprostanes, nuclear factor kappa beta) and free radicals (nitrotyrosine, dityrosine, chlorotyrosine), and in turn, link circulating markers of oxidative stress to ..
  8. ROLE OF SIRTUIN IN CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED LUNG INFLAMMATION AND INJURY
    Irfan Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in lung function) and chronic inflammation of the lungs due to inhaled cigarette smoke-derived oxidants and free radicals which are implicated in aging, senescence, cancer and inflammatory processes...
  9. N-Acetylcysteine and Milk Thistle for Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Both supplements are capable of neutralizing directly toxic free radicals but, more importantly, NAC is substrate for the intracellular generation of GSH and the MTh flavonolignans are ..
  10. Citrulline to Prevent or Mitigate Acute Lung Injury in Severe Sepsis
    Todd W Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These free radicals also interact with endothelial cells, especially in the lung, via lipid peroxidation causing altered membrane ..
  11. Na+/H+-exchanger-1 and Diabetic Neuropathy
    MARK ANTHONY YOREK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Evidence for importance of free radicals and oxidants in PDN is emerging from both animal and human studies, but the mechanisms are not well understood...
  12. Molecular Mechanism of Acrolein-Induced Vascular Toxicity: Role of PPAR gamma and
    Zivar Yousefipour; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This process involves nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen free radicals. Vascular NAD(P)H oxidase plays an important role as the major source of oxygen free radical generation...
  13. NADPH oxidase-associated transition from Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma
    Weibiao Cao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..via activation of Rho kinases and MAP kinases in Barrett's metaplastic cells, causing overproduction of free radicals, which in turn may further enhance the expression of NADPH oxidases through activation of the nuclear factor ..
  14. A new ultra-low field in-vivo EPR technology for biomedical applications
    Inseob Hahn; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE (provided by applicant): Free radicals play a major role in human diseases such as iron sulfate poisoning, ionizing radiation, oxygen toxicity in ..
  15. A new ultra-low field in-vivo EPR technology for biomedical applications
    Inseob Hahn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE (provided by applicant): Free radicals play a major role in human diseases such as iron sulfate poisoning, ionizing radiation, oxygen toxicity in ..
  16. Mechanism of CREB dysregulation in Alzheimer brain
    Subbiah Pugazhenthi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, cytokines and free radicals released from hyperactivated microglia cause neuronal damage...
  17. Genetic Determinants of Lung Injury
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Oxygen derived free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normal byproducts of cellular metabolism, but are also produced at ..
  18. Bifunctional Redox Catalyst &Organic Nitrate for Limb Reperfusion
    ANDREW LURIE SALZMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Acute limb ischemia reperfusion injury (LIRI) is characterized by an imbalance in the free radicals nitric oxide and superoxide anion...
  19. Apple peel extract inhibits Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer
    Zhuo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 1 will use in vivo electron spin resonance (ESR) to investigate inhibition of Cr(VI)-generated free radicals by apple peel extract in living animals (BALB/c mice)...
  20. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Adaptations to a Two-Year Caloric Restiction
    STEVEN RICHARD SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The energy producing cellular organelles called mitochondria produce free radicals producing oxidative stress...
  21. Therapeutic Potential of PARP inhibitor for Acute Pancreatitis
    Latha Paka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AP...
  22. FOXO1 Inhibition in Genotoxic Stress Response and Prostate Cancer Survival
    Haojie Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..breaks and adducts invariably accumulate with advancing age because of constant production of oxygen free radicals during normal metabolic processes and/or continuous assault by environmental hazards such as radical chemicals...
  23. Bifunctional Redox Agent for the Treatment of PPHN
    GARRY JOHN SOUTHAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The imbalance of these two free radicals directly impairs the ability of the pulmonary arteriole to dilate appropriately after birth...
  24. Myocardial Injury Associated with Mitochondria-derived Oxygen Free Radical(s)
    Yeong Renn Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..level of the post-ischemic heart, a defect in energy metabolism associated with overproducing oxygen free radicals and NO in mitochondria was marked...
  25. Free Radical Mechanism in Obesity Potentiation of Environmental Hepatotoxicity
    Saurabh Chatterjee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..can be provided by environmental exposure to hepatotoxins that are reductively metaboiized to form reactive free radicals. Although direct exposure to high doses of environmental hepatotoxins is rare, low exposure from the ..
  26. Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant and protects UV-induced carcinogenesis
    Zhuo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will study whether quercitrin scavenges free radicals or inhibits their generation and determine reaction rate constants of the reactions between quercitrin and ..
  27. Free Radicals and Methamphetamine Abuse
    Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..IT is known that free radicals participate in the enhancement of brain pathology, but the cell types as well as pathways affected by Meth ..
  28. Optical spectroscopy to study mitochondrial function within replicating cells
    Roger J Springett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ATP, control apoptotic cell death, buffer intracellular calcium and generate reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Perturbations in the function or regulation of these pathways have been implicated numerous diseases ..
  29. Defining target specificity of oxadiazole 2-oxides in Ancylostoma ceylanicum
    Jon J Vermeire; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..also exposes hookworms to potentially toxic iron-containing compounds, which mediate the generation of free radicals and oxidative products...
  30. The Contribution of Protein Methylation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    Hester A Doyle; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the skin and kidneys, the resulting inflammatory response produces a number of oxidative by-products, such as free radicals, that posttranslationally modify self-proteins...
  31. Mathematical Modeling of Inflammation in ARDS
    Gary F Nieman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Inflammation involves complex interactions among leukocytes, their products (cytokines, free radicals, and proteases), and the tissue damage/dysfunction that ensues...
  32. Respiratory and Metabolic Adaptation to Hypoxia
    Paul T Schumacker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..model to test this hypothesis, which allows us to inactivate the ability of mitochondria to generate oxygen free radicals. We hypothesize that free radicals generated by the mitochondria are responsible for activating the adaptive ..
  33. Mathematical Modeling of Inflammation in ARDS
    Yoram Vodovotz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Inflammation involves complex interactions among leukocytes, their products (cytokines, free radicals, and proteases), and the tissue damage/dysfunction that ensues...
  34. Oxidative DNA damage processing;role in human pathology and aging
    PHILIP COURTLAND HANAWALT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Free radicals from endogenous and environmental sources are a constant threat to genomic integrity...
  35. Cytochrome P4501A1 and Vascular Injury
    Mary K Walker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Cardiovascular injury induced by TS is mediated, in part, by oxidative stress. While TS is a source of free radicals, it also activates endogenous pathways that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  36. Selenium, other risk factors and cognitive decline in rural elderly Chinese
    Sujuan Gao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Selenium is a trace element that is considered a defensive agent against free radicals through the maintenance of better enzyme activity...
  37. Inflammatory Biomarkers in Pediatric Obesity and Diabetes: Research and Mentoring
    Pietro R Galassetti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e. not requiring a blood sample);b) The study of the damage from inflammation and free radicals during exercise in obese children. Both projects are clear examples of patient-oriented research...
  38. Prevention of ischemia reperfusion injury associated with acute myocardial infarc
    Craig Sherman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These inflammatory factors include free radicals that can damage cellular proteins and disrupt cell membranes...
  39. Long-Chain Fatty Acids, Oxidative Stress and Colorectal Neoplasm Risk
    Harvey J Murff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Chronic inflammation and genotoxic free radicals are contributors to colorectal carcinogenesis...
  40. Male Mutation Bias and Paternal Age Effect in Mammals
    Kateryna Makova; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., environmental agents such as free radicals). Additionally, the conclusions of this project will be important for genetic counseling...
  41. ADENOSINE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Oxygen free radicals, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, are normal byproducts of oxygen utilization by the tissue...
  42. Oxidative Stress and Vascular HO in Diabetes
    Nader G Abraham; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by the increased release of free radicals, increases adhesion molecules and apoptosis...
  43. NET-PD LS-1 Nicotine and Neuroprotection in Parkinson's Disease
    Jayaraman Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Exogenous (MPTP and rotenone) and endogenous neurotoxins (increased free radicals) induce severe damage to Complex I of the electron transfer chain of the mitochondria, contributing to ..
  44. Training in Molecular and Mechanistic Toxicology
    Edson X Albuquerque; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The Cell Injury and Carcinogenesis Track provides training in the action of free radicals, calcium homeostasis, mechanisms of lead and dioxin toxicities, estrogen biosynthesis and carcinogenesis...
  45. Interaction between B. cereus RecQ helicase and topoisomerase III
    Zhiyu Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..may shed light on how bacteria cope with severe environmental stress such as antibiotics, chemicals, UV and free radicals. The following specific aims have been proposed to elucidate the functions of bcTopo III? and bcRecQL protein ..
  46. Mechanism of the Transcriptional Response to Transition Metals
    MICHAEL THOMAS MARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Left unchecked these metals can catalyze the generation of free radicals that damage all types of biological molecules. Transition metals must be kept in a physiological window...
  47. Identifying Liver Proteins that Decrease Mutant SOD1 Misfolding and Decrease SOD1
    Timothy M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..SOD1 is a ubiquitous protein responsible for scavenging oxygen free radicals;thus, how mutations in such a widely expressed protein result in tissue specific toxicity remains a mystery...
  48. Iron and Atherosclerosis
    Subha V Raman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, iron catalyzes the generation of free radicals that oxidize cholesterol stimulating atheroma formation...
  49. Genetic Analysis of Iron Homeostasis in C.Elegans
    ELIZABETH ANN LEIBOLD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..But iron can also be toxic due to its ability to generate free radicals that damage macromolecules in cells...
  50. Preclinical Development of a Novel Plaque-Regressing Therapy For Atherosclerosis
    Michael W Fanger; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..stimulated by multiple factors including elevated and modified low density lipoproteins (LDL), sheer stress, free radicals and hypertension...
  51. Fe porphyrin-based Redox Modulator in Experimental Stroke Outcome
    Ines Batinic-Haberle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nitrone NXY-059 in stroke clinical trials may be attributed to its ~100-fold lower efficacy in scavenging free radicals, failure in E...
  52. Synthetic surfactant and toxic chemical lung injury
    Frans J Walther; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..As surfactant inactivation and the formation of free radicals are important pathways in acute lung injury and edema, we propose testing synthetic surfactant in rats exposed ..
  53. Ion Channel and Calcium Signaling in Ultraviolet Light Transduction in Human Skin
    Elena Oancea; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Melanin protects the nuclear DNA of melanocytes and keratinocytes by directly absorbing UVR and neutralizing free radicals, thus preventing genetic damage and cancer formation...
  54. Bypass of DNA lesions by translesion synthesis in yeast
    Louise Prakash; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and by promoting error-free replication through a large variety of DNA adducts that result from the attack of free radicals and reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular oxidative reactions and from exposure to chemical ..
  55. Redox-Control of MMP-1 and Senescence
    JUAN ANDRES MELENDEZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..it is anticipated that our studies will fundamentally advance our understanding of the contribution of free radicals to many SA diseases. Public Health Relevance...
  56. CER on CAM Antioxidant Therapies (CERCAT)
    BALZ B FREI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..not only by scavenging free radicals and preventing oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, but also through more subtle, yet profound ..
  57. The novel family of superoxide dismutase enzymes in Candida albicans
    Valeria C Culotta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..includes a family of copper containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes that scavenge toxic superoxide free radicals. In spite of their established importance in virulence, virtually nothing is known about the biochemistry of C...
  58. Mitochondrial modulation for neuroprotection in a model of multiple sclerosis
    DENNIS NEIL BOURDETTE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PT Pore activation and primary cortical neurons from CyPD-KO mice resist injury induced by oxygen and nitrogen free radicals, mediators of injury in EAE and MS...
  59. Charge Transfer Reactions of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex
    Colin A Wraight; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains, but is also implicated in the production of damaging free radicals and reactive oxygen species relevant to pathogenesis and aging...
  60. STRUCTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF PROSTAGLANDIN CONJUGATES
    L Jackson Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, studies are proposed to utilize measurements of IsoFs to investigate the role of free radicals in hyperoxia-induced pathologies. New IsoPs and IsoFs will also be synthesized and tested for bioactivity...
  61. TRAINING PROGRAM IN FREE RADICAL AND RADIATION BIOLOGY
    DOUGLAS ROBERT SPITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RELEVANCE: There is growing evidence that redox biology and oxidative stress mediated by free radicals (as well as other reactive oxygen and nitrogen containing species) are causally involved in basic biochemical ..
  62. Role of Squamous Metaplasia in Small Airways Disease in COPD
    Stephen L Nishimura; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Major toxic components of tobacco smoke are oxygen free radicals. Free radicals likely play a role in amplifying integrin expression and integrin-mediated TGF-[unreadable] ..
  63. OXYGEN RADICALS, OXIDANTS AND MEMBRANE DYSFUNCTION
    RAKESH KUKREJA; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..physiological and morphological changes that occur in these organelles as a result of attack by oxygen free radicals and neutrophil derived oxidants. The specific aim of this project is to answer the following three hypotheses...
  64. Refinement of LC/ESR/MS for Studying Lipid Free Radicals in Colon Cancer Growth
    Steven Qian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, PUFA-derived free radicals, the most reactive intermediates in 15-LOX and COX lipid peroxidation, have not yet been identified nor their ..
  65. Glutathione reductase and tumor sensitivity to radiation
    Xiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..GSH increases cancer resistance to radiation by terminating free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated by radiation to destroy cancer cells...
  66. Can Chlamydial Infection Increase Host Mutation Frequency?
    ROBERT SCHOBORG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Other studies have demonstrated that chlamydiae-infected host cells produce increased quantities of free radicals, which can damage DNA and have been strongly linked to both cancer and aging...
  67. FREE RADICALS, PROTEIN AGGREGATES & PARKINSON'S DISEASE
    GARY PIELAK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..link the formation of hydrogen peroxide to the formation of Lewy bodies: 1) hydrogen peroxide induces tyrosine free radicals on cytochrome C; 2) the cytochrome C radicals are transferred to tyrosine residues on alpha-synuclein; 3) ..
  68. OXIDATION OF MACROMOLECULES IN SPINAL CORD INJURY
    Danxia Liu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The long term objective of this project is to reveal mechanisms whereby free radicals damage neurons following spinal cord injury - a major health care issue...
  69. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROMETER
    Cecilia Giulivi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g, ascorbyl, glutathionyl, and tocopheryl radicals);h) free radicals as initiators of apoptosis in neurons and neoplastic tissues;i) identification of bound radicals at the ..
  70. Microxymetry Techniques for Cardiomocyte Respiration
    Govindasamy Ilangovan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..assume importance in pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease because large quantities of oxygen free radicals are generated during ischemia/reperfusion, and the produced free radicals impair the heart function...
  71. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF ENZYME/SUBSTRATE COMPLEXES
    George Reed; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..are to explore the catalytic mechanisms of enzymic reactions in which the exceptional reactivity of organic free radicals are employed. Reactions of free radicals are of fundamental importance in biology...
  72. Synthesis and Evaluation of Nano-antioxidants for Medical Applications
    Choon Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Commonly available antioxidants are small molecular weight compounds that have the ability to neutralize free radicals, destroy potential radical forming substances, boost the immune system and exhibit other biological activities ..
  73. PRESERVATION OF THE ISCHEMIC/REPERFUSED MYOCARDIUM
    Michael Hess; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Our laboratory has developed the hypothesis that the generation of cytotoxic oxygen free radicals occupies an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic/reperfusion injury...
  74. ANESTHETIC TOXICITY--MECHANISMS AND PREVENTION
    Evan Kharasch; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..P450 also activates halothane to free radicals which initiate lipid peroxidation, and catalyzes nephrotoxic fluoride ion release from fluorinated ethers...
  75. EXERCISE ANTIOXIDANTS & OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE ELDERLY
    JAMES JESSUP; Fiscal Year: 2000
    While there is no doubt that exercise promotes health, it also increases the generation of free radicals. Free radicals have been implicated in the number of degenerative diseases associated with aging...
  76. OXYGEN RADICALS AND CARDIAC ADAPTATIONS TO ISCHEMIA
    Roberto Bolli; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..hypothesis is that, in both cases, late preconditioning is triggered by the exposure to oxygen-derived free radicals during the preconditioning ischemia ("oxyradical hypothesis of late preconditioning")...
  77. Hypoxia and free radicals in alcoholic pancreatitis
    Gavin Arteel; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Next, the hypothesis that free radicals play a causative role in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis will be tested...
  78. IN VIVO DETECTION OF FREE RADICALS USING NMR
    Thomas Clanton; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In preliminary experiments we demonstrate that reactions of DBPMPO with specific free radicals result in distinguishable chemical shifts in the phosphorus spectrum...