Summary: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Publications248 found, 100 shown here
- Fatigue performance and cyto-toxicity of low rigidity titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6ZrMitsuo Niinomi
Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1 1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku cho, Toyohashi 441 8580, Japan
Biomaterials 24:2673-83. 2003..The cyto-toxicity of the new alloy is equivalent to that of pure Ti. Therefore, it is proposed that the new alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr, will be of considerable use in biomedical applications...
- Fatigue characteristics of bioactive glass-ceramic-coated Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr for biomedical applicationS J Li
Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1 1, Hibarigaoka, Tempaku cho, Toyohashi 441 8580, Japan
Biomaterials 25:3369-78. 2004..Subsequent ageing at 673 K for 259.2 ks greatly improves the fatigue resistance of the coated alloy due to isothermal omega phase precipitation, and does not have obvious detrimental effect on the coating properties...
- Biocompatible Nb2O5 thin films prepared by means of the sol-gel processD Velten
Lehrstuhl für Metallische Werkstoffe, Im Stadtwald, Geb 22, 6 OG, Universitat des Saarlandes, D 66123 Saarbrucken, Germany
J Mater Sci Mater Med 15:457-61. 2004..lt; 200 nm) were prepared by spin coating of polished discs of cp-titanium with a sol consisting of a mixture of niobium ethoxide, butanol and acetylacetone...
- High efficiency NbN nanowire superconducting single photon detectors fabricated on MgO substrates from a low temperature processF Marsili
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Station 3, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Opt Express 16:3191-6. 2008..Electrical and optical characterizations were performed on the SSPDs. The highest QE value measured at 4.2K is 20% at 1300 nm...
- Quantum and thermal phase slips in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) ultrathin crystalline nanowire: application to single photon detectionCécile Delacour
Institut Neel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F 38042 Grenoble, France
Nano Lett 12:3501-6. 2012..electronic transport properties of superconducting nanowires obtained by nanolithography of 4-nm-thick niobium nitride (NbN) films epitaxially grown on sapphire substrate...
- Tuning of superconducting niobium nitride terahertz metamaterialsJingbo Wu
Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Opt Express 19:12021-6. 2011..planar terahertz (THz) metamaterials (MMs), with unit cells of different sizes, are fabricated on 200 nm-thick niobium nitride (NbN) films deposited on MgO substrates...
- Effect of a niobium-containing titanium alloy on osteoblast behavior in cultureLior Shapira
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
Clin Oral Implants Res 20:578-82. 2009..The chemistry of titanium is a key factor in determining implant-tissue interactions. Reports that a vanadium-based titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) exhibits some cytotoxicity led to a search for an alternative...
- One-pot synthesis of platinum-based nanoparticles incorporated into mesoporous niobium oxide-carbon composites for fuel cell electrodesM Christopher Orilall
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
J Am Chem Soc 131:9389-95. 2009..Herein, we report the one-pot synthesis of Pt and Pt-Pb nanoparticles incorporated into the pores of mesoporous niobium oxide-carbon composites...
- Nanoporous niobium oxide for label-free detection of DNA hybridization eventsJinsub Choi
Nanomaterials Application Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology KICET, Seoul 153 801, South Korea
Talanta 74:1056-9. 2008We found that DNA probes can be immobilized on anodically prepared porous niobium oxide without a chemical modification of both the DNA probes and the substrate...
- Electrochemical DNA biosensors based on thin gold films sputtered on capacitive nanoporous niobium oxideSangchul Rho
Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyunggi do 449 728, South Korea
Biosens Bioelectron 23:852-6. 2008Electrochemical DNA biosensors based on a thin gold film sputtered on anodic porous niobium oxide (Au@Nb(2)O(5)) are studied in detail here...
- Niobium(V) oxide (Nb2O5): application to phosphoproteomicsScott B Ficarro
Department of Cancer Biology and Blais Proteomics Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 6084, USA
Anal Chem 80:4606-13. 2008..Here we report the first demonstration that niobium pentoxide (Nb 2O 5) provides for efficient enrichment and recovery ( approximately 50-100%) of phosphopeptides ..
- Nanostructured niobium oxide coatings influence osteoblast adhesionE Eisenbarth
Biomechanic, Hamburg University of Technology TUHH, Hamburg, Germany
J Biomed Mater Res A 79:166-75. 2006..The surface roughness of Ra = 40 nm was rather peaked and reduced the speed of cell reactions belonging to the adhesion process...
- Elastic deformation behaviour of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn for biomedical applicationsY L Hao
Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, China
Acta Biomater 3:277-86. 2007..We suggest sluggish, partially reversible processes of stress-induced phase transformation and/or incipient kink bands as the origin of the above peculiar elastic behaviour...
- Structural and optical properties of KTa0.77Nb0.23O3 nanoplates synthesized by hydrothermal methodYongming Hu
Key Lab of Ferro and Piezoelectric Materials and Devices of Hubei Province, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, PR China
J Colloid Interface Sci 310:292-6. 2007....
- Matrix isolation infrared spectroscopic and theoretical studies on the reactions of niobium and tantalum mono- and dioxides with methaneGuanjun Wang
Department of Chemistry and Laser Chemistry Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysts and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People s Republic of China
J Phys Chem A 109:9514-20. 2005The reactions of niobium and tantalum monoxides and dioxides with methane have been investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopic and theoretical calculations...
- (23)Na multiple-quantum MAS NMR of the perovskites NaNbO(3) and NaTaO(3)Sharon E Ashbrook
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK CB2 3EQ
Phys Chem Chem Phys 8:3423-31. 2006..Finally, we discuss the measured NMR parameters in relation to other studies of sodium in high coordination sites in the solid state...
- Biomimetic implant coatingsE Eisenbarth
Hamburg University of Technology, Department of Biomechanics, Hamburg, Germany
Biomol Eng 24:27-32. 2007..The influence of nanometer sized surface structures on osteoblastlike cell interactions was tested with niobium oxide coatings on polished titanium slices (cp-Ti grade 2)...
- Design and modeling of inversion layer ultrasonic transducers using LiNbO3 single crystalQ F Zhou
Department of Biomedical Engineering and NIH transducer Resource Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
Ultrasonics 44:e607-11. 2006..Two lambda/4 matching layers and a Tungsten loaded epoxy backing were used in these designs. The modeled results show that an over 90% bandwidth transducer can be made with proper matching and 30% inversion layer...
- Surface-acoustic-wave-enhanced alignment of thiolated carbon nanotubes on gold electrodesTobias Smorodin
Department für Physik der Ludwig Maximilians Universität and Center for NanoScience CeNS, Geschwister Scholl Platz 1, 80539 Munich, Germany
Small 1:1188-90. 2005
- Laser-deposited Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta orthopedic alloysR Banerjee
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
J Biomed Mater Res A 78:298-305. 2006..alloy has been successfully deposited from a powder feedstock consisting of a blend of elemental titanium, niobium, zirconium, and tantalum powders, using the laser engineered net-shaping (LENStrade mark) process...
- Effect of niobium on the structure and photoactivity of anatase (TiO2) nanoparticlesMasanori Hirano
Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470 0392, Japan
J Nanosci Nanotechnol 6:762-70. 2006Anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles doped with 0-30 mol% niobium were directly formed from precursor solutions of TiOSO4 and NbCl5 under mild hydrothermal conditions at 120-180 degrees C for 5 h using the hydrolysis of urea...
- Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructuresA Magrez
Laboratoire des Nanostructures et des Nouveaux Matériaux Electroniques, Institut de Physique de la Matière Complexe, Switzerland
J Phys Chem B 110:58-61. 2006..The results indicate that highly uniform single-crystalline nanowires form within a narrow window of the ternary phase diagram of KOH-Nb2O5-H2O...
- Optimal selection of piezoelectric substrates and crystal cuts for SAW-based pressure and temperature sensorsXiangwen Zhang
Key Laboratory for Complex Systems and Intelligence Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 54:1207-16. 2007....
- Arthroplasty options for the young patient: Oxinium on cross-linked polyethyleneRobert B Bourne
London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
Clin Orthop Relat Res 441:159-67. 2005..5/million cycles versus 38.4 mm/million). Against cross-linked polyethylene, a damaged Oxinium femoral head had minimal wear (1.5 mm cubed per Mc)...
- Effect of prestrain on martensitic transformation in a Ti46.4Ni47.6Nb6.0 superelastic alloy and its application to medical stentsT Takagi
Management of Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba yama 04, Sendai 980 8579, Japan
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 76:179-83. 2006..Especially, medical stents with such qualities show promise as a new class of self-expandable stents with both excellent mountability and deliverability...
- Photodegradation catalyst discovery by high-throughput experimentQi X Dai
Department of Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, China 410082
J Comb Chem 7:539-45. 2005..The doping of ZrO2 into TiO2 did not generate apparent positive effects on catalytic activity...
- A simple and versatile Sol-Gel method for the synthesis of functional nanocrystalline oxidesSilvia Licoccia
Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5:592-5. 2005..The oxides obtained have well-defined crystalline structures, exhibit homogeneity, and crystallite sizes ranging from 9 to 16 nm in diameter...
- A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2OZhensong Cao
Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics of Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 68:74-7. 2007..In this work, we report the detection of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in atmosphere, the minimum detectable concentration of 10.9 ppbV was achieved using a Herriott cell with the optical path length of 100 m...
- Growth of high performance piezoelectric crystal Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 using PbO fluxMin Jin
Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
Ultrasonics 46:129-32. 2007..The maximum size of as-grown PZNT crystal was about 60 mm in length. The crystal was oriented and its piezoelectric constant d(33) and coupling coefficient k(33) were measured over 2000pC/N and 0.92, respectively...
- In vitro bioactivity evaluation of titanium and niobium metals with different surface morphologiesX J Wang
Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia
Acta Biomater 4:1530-5. 2008..In the present study, the surface morphologies of titanium (Ti) and niobium (Nb) metals were tailored to form nanoporous, nanoplate and nanofibre-like structures through adjustment of the ..
- Vacuum arc deposition of nanostructured multilayer coatings for biomedical applicationsA Vladescu
National Institute for Optoelectronics Tehnoprof Research Centre, Bucharest, 077125, Romania
J Nanosci Nanotechnol 8:733-8. 2008..For all coatings, the concentrations of dissolved ions were lower that those measured in the case of the uncoated specimens. The nanostructured multilayer films exhibited the best mechanical and anticorrosive properties...
- Bioactivity of novel self-assembled crystalline Nb2O5 microstructures in simulated and human salivasRobert L Karlinsey
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Oral Health Research Institute, 415 Lansing Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Biomed Mater 1:16-23. 2006Crystalline, self-assembled niobium oxide microstructures formed in situ via potentiostatic anodization of niobium foil in an HF(aq) electrolyte solution are proposed as exceptional nucleators of Ca-P minerals, including hydroxyapatite...
- Production, microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti-10Mo-xNb alloysSinara Borborema Gabriel
Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEMM COPPE UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Artif Organs 32:299-304. 2008..The results show a near beta microstructure for niobium (Nb) contents lower or equal to 9 wt% while beta single-phase microstructure was obtained for higher Nb additions...
- Direct access to thermally stable and highly crystalline mesoporous transition-metal oxides with uniform poresJinwoo Lee
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Nat Mater 7:222-8. 2008..To this end, here we report on an approach established for group-IV (titanium) and group-V (niobium) oxides, with potential applications to photovoltaic cells and fuel cells, respectively, which overcomes previous ..
- Fatigue properties of a metastable beta-type titanium alloy with reversible phase transformationS J Li
Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, China
Acta Biomater 4:305-17. 2008..Due to the effective suppression of the brittle isothermal omega phase, balanced properties of high strength, low Young's modulus and good ductility can be achieved through ageing treatment at intermediate temperature...
- Measurements along the growth direction of PMN-PT crystals: dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic propertiesJian Tian
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 54:1895-902. 2007..The results are useful for an understanding of properties in PMN-PT crystals and for the design of piezoelectric devices...
- Electrochemical formation of self-organized anodic nanotube coating on Ti-28Zr-8Nb biomedical alloy surfaceX J Feng
Department of Materials Science, WW4 LKO, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, D 91058 Erlangen, Germany
Acta Biomater 4:318-23. 2008....
- The mechanism of Li-ion transport in the garnet Li5La3Nb2O12Leo van Wüllen
Institut fur Physikalische Chemie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Corrensstr 30 36, D 48149, Munster, Germany
Phys Chem Chem Phys 9:3298-303. 2007....
- High-throughput screening using porous photoelectrode for the development of visible-light-responsive semiconductorsTakeo Arai
Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Central 5, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8565, Japan
J Comb Chem 9:574-81. 2007..As another example, screening targets of bismuth-based binary oxides were investigated for p-type semiconductor photoelectrodes, and CuBi2O4 was found as a new visible-light-responsive p-type semiconductor...
- Mechanical and thermal transitions in morphotropic PZN-pT and PMN-PT single crystals and their implication for sound projectorsAhmed Amin
Sensors and Sonar Systems Department, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI 02841, USA
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 54:1090-5. 2007....
- Limitations of the tunability of dual-crystal optical parametric oscillatorsIngo Breunig
Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, Bonn, Germany
Opt Lett 32:1450-2. 2007..Our model, describing the dual-crystal parametric gain, explains the observed lower tuning limit by showing that the assumption of independent oscillation conditions in a D-OPO is not necessarily valid...
- Preparation of porous solids composed of layered niobate walls from colloidal mixtures of niobate nanosheets and polystyrene spheresNobuyoshi Miyamoto
CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Japan
J Colloid Interface Sci 313:369-73. 2007..The walls were converted to crystalline K(8)Nb(18)O(49) after calcination at 500 degrees C for 6 h...
- High-frequency surface acoustic waves excited on thin-oriented LiNbO3 single-crystal layers transferred onto siliconThomas Pastureaud
TEMEX, F 06904 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 54:870-6. 2007..A theoretical analysis of the elastic wave assumed to propagate on such a combination of material is first exposed. Technological aspects then are described briefly. Experimental results are presented and compared to the state of art...
- Cytotoxicity analysis of a novel titanium alloy in vitro: adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of human gingival fibroblastsNagahiro Shimojo
Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan
Biomed Mater Eng 17:127-35. 2007..These results suggest that the newly developed Ti-Ta alloy has biocompatibility as good as that of Ti and Ti-Al with respect to morphology and proliferation of Gin-1 cells in vitro...
- Bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Solc filter by a temperature-gradient-control techniqueYeung Lak Lee
1Nonlinear Optics Laboratory, Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong dong, Buk Gu, Gwangju 500 712, Republic of Korea
Opt Express 16:13699-706. 2008..2 nm filtering bandwidth at an uniform temperature. We have also analyzed the experimental results with the theoretical calculation which is derived from the codirectional coupled mode equations...
- Structures of the ordered double perovskites Sr2YTaO6 and Sr2YNbO6Christopher J Howard
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234, Australia
Acta Crystallogr B 61:258-62. 2005..A new investigation establishes that Sr(2)YTaO(6) and the isostructural Sr(2)YNbO(6), distrontium yttrium niobium hexaoxide, in fact both adopt the commonly occurring monoclinic structure, with the space-group symmetry P2(1)/n.
- Novel synthesis of polymorphous nanocrystalline KNbO3 by a low temperature solution methodJun Feng Liu
Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences Ministry of Education, China, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People s Republic of China
J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2:617-9. 2002....
- Measurement of circular birefringence and circular dichroism of the single crystals of lambda-(+)589- and delta-(-)589-tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) triiodide monohydrate by the extended HAUP methodRyo Matsuki
Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
Chirality 16:286-93. 2004..On the other hand, although the CD data obtained for Lambda-(+)(589)-(1) is almost three times larger than that for Delta-(-)(589)-(1,) these CD data are also opposite in sign, as expected from the opposite chirality of crystals. ...
- Niobium nitride films formed by rapid thermal processing (RTP): a study of depth profiles and interface reactions by complementary analytical techniquesA Berendes
Institut fur Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, J W Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Marie Curie Str 11, 60439 Frankfurt, Germany
Anal Bioanal Chem 379:554-67. 2004The nitridation of niobium films approximately 250 and 650 nm thick by rapid thermal processing (RTP) at 800 degrees C in molecular nitrogen or ammonia was investigated...
- Effects of six particulate metals on osteoblast-like MG-63 and HOS cells in vitroSyuhei Kuroda
Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University 8 1, Kuzuhahanazono cho, Hirakata shi, Osaka 573 1121, Japan
Dent Mater J 22:507-20. 2003..These findings suggest that the cell viability of osteoblast-like cells might be influenced by particulate size and metal type, but ALP activity was not influenced by these factors...
- Formation and growth of calcium phosphate on the surface of oxidized Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloyS J Li
Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, PR China
Biomaterials 25:2525-32. 2004..The surface processes during various treatment and immersion processes were investigated in detail, and the morphology of the calcium phosphate crystals was shown to be determined by the concentrations of Ca and P in the solution...
- Monolithic bulk shear-wave acousto-optic tunable filterHarald Gnewuch
School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent at Canterbury, Canterbury CT2 7NR, United Kingdom
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 49:1635-40. 2002..5%) converted at a mechanically free boundary into a Y-propagating acoustic slow-shear wave that couples collinearly propagating e- and o-polarized optical waves. A relative conversion efficiency of 80%/W was measured at 980 nm...
- Terahertz polariton propagation in patterned materialsNikolay S Stoyanov
Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Nat Mater 1:95-8. 2002..The structures permit integrated terahertz signal generation, propagation through waveguide-based devices, and readout within a single solid-state platform...
- Nondestructive evaluation of large-area PZN-8%PT single crystal wafers for medical ultrasound imaging probe applicationsFrancis J Kumar
Microfine Materials Technologies Pte Ltd, The Spire, 10 Bukit Batok Crescent 06 02, Singapore 658079
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 50:203-9. 2003..Our results show that, to control deltaK3T and deltakt within individual wafer to < or = 10% and 5%, respectively, the variation in Tc within the wafer should be kept within +/- 3.0 degrees C or better...
- The effects of particulate metals on cell viability of osteoblast-like cells in vitroTatuji Sakai
Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata shi, Japan
Dent Mater J 21:133-46. 2002..These findings suggested that the effects of particulates on cells depended upon the direct effects of contact between particulates and cells, the indirect effects of dissolved ions and the kinds of particulate elements...
- The influence of niobium and vanadium on passivity of titanium-based implants in physiological solutionM Metikos-Huković
Department of Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Zagreb, Savska 16, 10 000, Zagreb, Croatia
Biomaterials 24:3765-75. 2003..The influence of niobium and vanadium as alloying elements on titanium alloy passivity have been investigated in Hanks' Balanced Salt ..
- New application of terahertz time-domain spectrometry (THz-TDS) to the phonon-polariton observation on ferroelectric crystalsSeizi Nishizawa
Cooperative Research Center, Shinshu University, Nagano 380 8553, Japan
Phys Med Biol 47:3771-6. 2002..The complex dielectric constants are well reproduced by the phonon-polariton dispersion relation based on the Kurosawa formula. The instrument details and phonon-polariton dispersion results are described...
- [Electrochemical properties of biocompatible material hardness modifications on titanium and steel under mechanical loads]W Braun
Abteilung für Funktionswerkstoffe der Medizin und der Zahnheilkunde, Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg, Deutschland
Biomed Tech (Berl) 50:100-6. 2005..In this study it could be demonstrated that tantalum and niobium coatings fulfill the requirements...
- In vitro biocompatibility of a new titanium-29niobium-13tantalum-4.6zirconium alloy with osteoblast-like MG63 cellsT Naganawa
Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya shi Aichi, Japan
J Periodontol 75:1701-7. 2004..However, its biocompatibility has not been adequately characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of TiNb using an osteoblast-titanium co-culture system...
- A comparison of the fatigue behavior of cast Ti-7.5Mo with c.p. titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloysChia Wei Lin
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC
Biomaterials 26:2899-907. 2005....
- Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzolGermund Tyler
Department of Ecology, Soil Plant Research, Ecology Building, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Sci Total Environ 329:231-9. 2004..erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, ..
- Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scatteringPeter Müller-Buschbaum
Technische Universitat Munchen, Lehrstuhl für Funktionelle Materialien, Physik Department E13, James Franck Str 1, 85747 Garching, Germany
J Phys Condens Matter 23:250301. 2011..dynamics of simple liquids B Schmid and W Schirmacher Inelastic neutron and low-frequency Raman scattering in niobium-phosphate glasses: the role of spatially fluctuating elastic and elasto-optic constants A Schulte, W Schirmacher, ..
- Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of refractory metal implants, titanium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum and rheniumH Matsuno
Department of Removable Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
Biomaterials 22:1253-62. 2001To evaluate the biocompatibility of refractory metals, titanium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum and rhenium were implanted in rats, and histological observation and elemental mapping were performed by X-ray scanning analytical microscope (..
- Non-targeted effects and the dose response for heavy ion tumor inductionFrancis A Cucinotta
NASA, Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Space Radiation Program, 2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK, Houston, TX 77058, USA
Mutat Res 687:49-53. 2010..by heavy ions is the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice by high-energy protons, helium, neon, iron and niobium ions after doses of 0.05 to several Gy...
- Surface changes induced by fluoride prophylactic agents on titanium-based orthodontic wiresIkuya Watanabe
Department of Biomaterials Science, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M University Sytem Health Science Center, Dallas, 75246, USA
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 123:653-6. 2003..nickel-titanium and copper-nickel-titanium] and 2 beta-titanium alloy wires [titanium-molybdenum and titanium-niobium], all from Ormco, Glendora, Calif) with similar sizes were prepared and immersed in 5 fluoride prophylactic ..
- Selective arylation reactions of bismuth-transition metal salicylate complexesVitalie Stavila
Department of Chemistry, MS 60, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005
Inorg Chem 48:6945-51. 2009Heterometallic bismuth-niobium or -tantalum salicylate complexes react with sodium tetraphenylborate to produce complexes in which one or more aryl groups have been transferred from boron to bismuth with the concomitant displacement of a ..
- Transfer of selected elements from food into human milkOlaf Wappelhorst
International Graduate School of Zittau, Martk 23, D 02763 Zittau, Germany
Nutrition 18:316-22. 2002We measured the transfer factors of antimony, cerium, chromium, cobalt, gallium, lanthanum, molybdenum, niobium, ruthenium, silver, thorium, titanium, and uranium from food to milk in nursing mothers.
- Evaluation of the catalytic properties of Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on non-commercial matrices to be used in biodiesel synthesis from different feedstocksPatricia C M Da Rós
Engineering School of Lorena, University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 116, 12602 810 Lorena, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Bioresour Technol 101:5508-16. 2010..For this purpose lipase PS was immobilized on two different non-commercial matrices, such as inorganic matrix (niobium oxide, Nb(2)O(5)) and a hybrid matrix (polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol, SiO(2)-PVA) by covalent binding...
- Sulfates of the refractory metals: crystal structure and thermal behavior of Nb2O2(SO4)3, MoO2(SO4), WO(SO4)2, and two modifications of Re2O5(SO4)2Ulf Betke
Institute for Pure and Applied Chemistry, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
Inorg Chem 50:858-72. 2011..9589(7) Å, b = 11.7983(7) Å, c = 8.6065(5) Å, V = 1011.3(1) Å(3), Z = 4) represents a new sulfate-richer niobium oxide sulfate. The crystal structure contains a three-dimensional network of sulfate connected [Nb═O] moieties...
- Niobium-doped titania nanoparticles: synthesis and assembly into mesoporous films and electrical conductivityYujing Liu
Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience CeNS, University of Munich LMU, Butenandtstrasse 5 13, 81377 Munich, Germany
ACS Nano 4:5373-81. 2010Crystalline niobium-doped titania nanoparticles were synthesized via solvothermal procedures using tert-butyl alcohol as a novel reaction medium, and their assembly into mesoporous films was investigated...
- Sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulationsWieslawa Misiuk
Department of Biology and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, 15 399, Bialystok, Poland
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 55:1655-61. 2007..The methods involve the formation of colored ion-pairs between the drug and the complex of niobium(V)-thiocyanate (Nb-SCN) or iron(III)-thiocyanate (Fe-SCN) followed by their extraction with butanol or a mixture ..
- Exposure of workers in a mineral processing industry in BrazilLigia M Q C Julião
Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Av Salvador Allende s n Rio de Janeiro RJ 22780 160, Brazil
Radiat Prot Dosimetry 125:513-5. 2007..where the extraction mining and processing of ores containing elements of great economical importance as tin, niobium and tantalum. Some of these ores have uranium and thorium natural decay series associated...
- Matrix isolation spectroscopic and theoretical study of water adsorption and hydrolysis on molecular tantalum and niobium oxidesMingfei Zhou
Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysts and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
J Phys Chem A 115:2238-46. 2011The reactions of molecular tantalum and niobium monoxides and dioxides with water were investigated by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy...
- Exposure of workers in mineral processing industries in BrazilJ L Lipsztein
Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria CNEN, Av Salvador Allende s no, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780 160, Brazil
J Environ Radioact 54:189-99. 2001..A preliminary survey pilot program, that included six mines in Brazil (two coal mines, one niobium mine, one nickel mine, one gold mine and one phosphate mine), was launched in order to determine the need to ..
- Controlling the duality of the mechanism in liquid-phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol catalysed by supported Au-Pd nanoparticlesMeenakshisundaram Sankar
Cardiff Catalysis Institute, School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
Chemistry 17:6524-32. 2011..we report that by changing the metal oxide used to support the metal-nanoparticles catalyst from titania or niobium oxide to magnesium oxide or zinc oxide, it is possible to switch off the disproportionation reaction and thereby ..
- Organometallic Trinuclear Niobium Cluster Complex in Aqueous Solution: Synthesis and Characterization of Niobium Complexes Containing Nb(3)(mu-eta(2):eta(2)( perpendicular)-NCCH(3))(mu(2)-O)(3)(6+) Cluster CoreHans Arni Nybo Joensen
Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Building 207, Kemitorvet, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
Inorg Chem 49:1720-7. 2010The synthesis and characterization of an organometallic trinuclear oxo-bridged niobium cluster complex with perpendicularly coordinated mu(3)-eta(2):eta(2)( perpendicular)-acetonitrile ligand in aqueous solution is reported...
- Trialkyl imido niobium and tantalum compounds: synthesis, structural study and migratory insertion reactionsMiguel Galajov
Centro de Espectroscopia de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Campus Universitario, E 28871, Alcala de Henares, Spain
Dalton Trans 40:2797-804. 2011Trialkyl imido niobium and tantalum complexes [MR(3)(NtBu)] (M = Nb, R = Me 2, CH(2)CMe(3)3, CH(2)CMe(2)Ph 4, CH(2)SiMe(3)5; M = Ta, R = Me 6, CH(2)CMe(2)Ph 7, CH(2)SiMe(3)8) have been prepared by treatment of solutions containing [MCl(3)..
- An ultralow noise current amplifier based on superconducting quantum interference device for high sensitivity applicationsC Granata
Istituto di Cibernetica E Caianiello del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pozzuoli, Napoli, Italy
Rev Sci Instrum 82:013901. 2011An integrated ultrahigh sensitive current amplifier based on a niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed...
- Solvothermal and surfactant-free synthesis of crystalline Nb(2)O(5), Ta(2)O(5), HfO(2), and Co-doped HfO(2) nanoparticlesJelena Buha
IHTM Institute of Microelectronic Technologies and Single Crystals, University of Belgrade, Njegoseva 12, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:15537-43. 2010A simple route to niobium, hafnium and tantalum oxide nanocrystals using a nonaqueous sol-gel route based on the solvothermal reaction of the corresponding metal chlorides with benzyl alcohol is presented...
- Investigations of niobium carbide contact for carbon-nanotube-based devicesL Huang
Centre for Optoelectronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E3 02 07, Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Nanotechnology 21:95201. 2010..transistors (FETs) with Nb contacts have been fabricated and upon annealing in vacuum at 700 degrees C for 1 h, niobium carbide (Nb(2)C) is formed at the Nb/SWCNT interface...
- Fabrication of mesoporous carbons with rod and winding road like morphology using NbSBA-15 templatesRadhakrishnan Logudurai
International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, World Premier International Research Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1 1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305 0044, Japan
J Nanosci Nanotechnol 10:329-35. 2010..materials with different morphology and pore diameters using NbSBA-15 mesoporous silica template with different niobium content...
- NORM workers: a challenge for internal dosimetry programmesJ L Lipsztein
Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria CNEN, Av Salvador Allende s n, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, CEP 22780 160
Radiat Prot Dosimetry 105:317-20. 2003..Positive exposure results were identified among the coal miners, the niobium miners and the monazite sand workers...
- Effects of distortion of metal-oxygen octahedra on photocatalytic water-splitting performance of RuO2-loaded niobium and tantalum phosphate bronzesHiroshi Nishiyama
Department of Material and Science Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940 2188, Japan
ChemSusChem 4:208-15. 2011Sodium, niobium, and tantalum phosphate bronzes Na(4)M(8)P(4)O(32) (M=Nb, Ta) are employed as photocatalysts for water splitting to reveal the effects of the distortion of metal-oxygen octahedra on the photocatalytic performance...
- Effect of hydrocarbons on the morphology of synthesized niobium carbide nanoparticlesDavid E Grove
Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Langmuir 26:16517-21. 2010b>Niobium carbide nanoparticles were synthesized by flowing methane, ethylene, or acetylene gas through a plasma generated from an arc discharge between two niobium electrodes...
- Short-term microvascular response of striated muscle to cp-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7NbPeter H Pennekamp
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, D 53105 Bonn, Germany
J Orthop Res 24:531-40. 2006..properties and good corrosion resistance, titanium-aluminium-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) and titanium-aluminium-niobium (Ti-6Al-7Nb) are extensively used for orthopedic surgery...
- Development of core-shell structure Fe3O4@Ta2O5 microspheres for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides for mass spectrometry analysisDawei Qi
Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
J Chromatogr A 1216:5533-9. 2009..Recently, niobium pentoxide was proved to have the ability for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides...
- Assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination in a thorium rich area in NorwayJelena Mrdakovic Popic
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N 1432 As, Norway
J Environ Monit 13:1730-8. 2011..These rocks, also rich in iron (Fe), niobium (Nb), uranium ((238)U) and rare earth elements (REE), were mined in several past centuries...
- Effect of alumina air-abrasion on mechanical bonding between an acrylic resin and casting alloysTakaya Ishii
Division of Applied Oral Sciences, Nihon University Graduate School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan
J Oral Sci 51:161-6. 2009..C.12) alloy and a titanium-aluminum-niobium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb, T-Alloy Tough)...
- Reactivity of polyoxoniobates in acidic solution: controllable assembly and disassembly based on niobium-substituted germanotungstatesShu Jun Li
Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate Science of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Ren Min Street No 5268, Changchun, Jilin 130024, P R China
Chemistry 16:13435-42. 2010The reactivity of polyoxoniobates has been studied in acidic solution by grafting niobium onto trivacant Keggin-type germanotungstates. Four niobium-containing compounds were obtained in the course of this study. Cs(6.5)K(0...
- Fetal MCG and fetal MEG measurements with a 3-channel SQUID systemU Schneider
Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
Neurol Clin Neurophysiol 2004:65. 2004..The system comprises 3 axial first order gradiometers with 7 cm base length, 2 cm diameter and 2x2 windings of niobium wire, dc-SQUIDs (UJ-111), and current locked mode SQUID electronics that form an equal length triangle (22.5 mm)...
- In vitro apatite formation on chemically treated (P/M) Ti-13Nb-13ZrFrank A Müller
Department of Materials Science III Biomaterials, University of Erlangen Nuernberg, Erlangen, Germany
Dent Mater 24:50-6. 2008..The objective of this study was to suggest a chemical surface treatment for Ti-13Nb-13Zr to initiate the formation of hydroxy carbonated apatite (HCA) during in vitro bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid (SBF)...
- Comparison of action of mixed permanent chemical modifiers for cadmium and lead determination in sediments and soils by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometryRyszard Dobrowolski
Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Maria Curie Sklodowska Sq 3, 20 031 Lublin, Poland
Talanta 82:1325-31. 2010..Comparison of action of mixed permanent modifiers niobium (Nb)/iridium (Ir) and tungsten (W)/iridium (Ir) were studied in detail...
- Preparation and characterization of the agostic bonding molecules between metal and chlorine from the reactions of niobium and tantalum monoxide and dioxide molecules with monochloromethane in solid argonYanying Zhao
Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of ATMMT MOE, Zhejiang Sci Tech University, Hanzhou, 310018, China
J Phys Chem A 114:5779-86. 2010Reactions of niobium and tantalum monoxide and dioxide molecules with monochloromethane in solid argon have been investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations...
- [Complications following eyebrow piercing]S Hörle
Klinik fur Augenheilkunde, Philipps Universitat, Robert Koch Strasse 4, 35037 Marburg
Ophthalmologe 99:200-2. 2002..Materials used are mainly surgical steel and, less frequently due to higher costs, titanium, gold, silver and niobium. The current literature reports complications such as infections, swellings, allergies, wound healing problems, ..
- Enhanced photoassisted water electrolysis using vertically oriented anodically fabricated Ti-Nb-Zr-O mixed oxide nanotube arraysNageh K Allam
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 0400, USA
ACS Nano 4:5819-26. 2010Self-ordered, highly oriented arrays of titanium-niobium-zirconium mixed oxide nanotube films were fabricated by the anodization of Ti(35)Nb(5)Zr alloy in aqueous and formamide electrolytes containing NH(4)F at room temperature...
- Tri-chlorido, 2-methylallyl and 2-butenyl tert-butylimido niobium and tantalum complexes: synthesis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and reactivityMiguel Galajov
Centro de Espectroscopia de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear, CAI en Química, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Campus Universitario, E 28871, Alcala de Henares, Spain
Dalton Trans 40:413-20. 2011..All new complexes were studied by IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy...
- Frustrated ferroelectricity in niobate pyrochloresT M McQueen
Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
J Phys Condens Matter 20:235210. 2008The crystal structures of the A(2)B(2)O(7-x) niobium based pyrochlores Y(2)(Nb(0.86)Y(0.14))(2)O(6.91), CaYNb(2)O(7), and Y(2)NbTiO(7) are reported, determined by means of powder neutron diffraction...
- Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputteringEda Cetinörgü
Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7, Canada
Appl Opt 48:4536-44. 2009..We systematically study the growth and the mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of niobium oxide (Nb(2)O(5)), tantalum oxide (Ta(2)O(5)), and silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) thin films prepared by dual ion beam ..
- Trapping unstable terminal M-O multiple bonds of monocyclopentadienyl niobium and tantalum complexes with Lewis acidsJavier Sánchez-Nieves
Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, E 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Inorg Chem 49:10642-8. 2010..The structure of 2a and 3a was obtained by X-ray diffraction studies. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to further understand these types of oxo compounds...
- Obstructive flow-volume loop contours after single lung transplantationD J Ross
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine
J Heart Lung Transplant 13:508-13. 1994..inspiratory and expiratory flow-volume loops were analyzed both before and after correction of stenosis by niobium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser photoresection or endobronchial silicone stent placement...
- Catalytic effects by metal oxides on the formation and degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in fly ashT Oberg
University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
Chemosphere 71:1135-43. 2008..design with four replicates was completed in 36 runs with the oxides of magnesium, yttrium, titanium, vanadium, niobium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and tin...
- Ceramic scaffolds with engineered topography and chemistryISABELLE L DENRY; Fiscal Year: 2011..We will first investigate the crystallization kinetics and mechanical properties of sintered niobium- doped fluorapatite (FAp) ceramics with the aim of developing a highly crystalline ceramic with nanosized FAp ..
- Ceramic scaffolds with engineered topography and chemistryISABELLE L DENRY; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will first investigate the crystallization kinetics and mechanical properties of sintered niobium- doped fluorapatite (FAp) ceramics with the aim of developing a highly crystalline ceramic with nanosized FAp ..
- MRI Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) system with low cost, highly stable magMICHAEL J TOMSIC; Fiscal Year: 2011..Liquid helium is presently essential for operation of present day low temperature niobium-titanium (NbTi) based superconductor magnets...
- MRI Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) system with low cost, highly stable magMICHAEL J TOMSIC; Fiscal Year: 2010..Liquid helium is presently essential for operation of present day low temperature niobium-titanium (NbTi) based superconductor magnets...
- Development of a niobuim oxide as a potential coating for dental and orthopedic iRobert Karlinsey; Fiscal Year: 2009..The long-term goal of this research endeavor is to develop a unique niobium oxide coating that forms strong interfacial bonds with the implant substrate while stimulating rapid ..
- PRP STRUCTURE AND POLVOXOMETALATESJeffrey Long; Fiscal Year: 2011..A wide variety of POM species remain to be tested, including water-soluble POMs based upon vanadium and niobium. PROJECT/
- PRP STRUCTURE AND POLVOXOMETALATESJeffrey Long; Fiscal Year: 2009..A wide variety of POM species remain to be tested, including water-soluble POMs based upon vanadium and niobium. PROJECT/
- CATALYTIC ASYMETRIC EPOXIDATIONRONALD HALTERMAN; Fiscal Year: 1990..Chiral bis(cyclopentadienyl)niobium and tungsten catalysts for the asymmetric epoxidation of alkenes and for the kinetic resolution of racemic ..
- IMAGE SURFACE SENSOR ARRAY FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTSRobert Kraus; Fiscal Year: 2000..accomplishments include (A) the super-conducting imaging principle was experimentally verified; (B) comparison of niobium and lead imaging surface performance demonstrated superior performance in the lead; (C) a new cryogenic sensor ..
- IMAGE SURFACE SENSOR ARRAY FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTSRobert Kraus; Fiscal Year: 2001..accomplishments include (A) the super-conducting imaging principle was experimentally verified; (B) comparison of niobium and lead imaging surface performance demonstrated superior performance in the lead; (C) a new cryogenic sensor ..
- IMAGE SURFACE SENSOR ARRAY FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTSRobert Kraus; Fiscal Year: 1999..accomplishments include (A) the super-conducting imaging principle was experimentally verified; (B) comparison of niobium and lead imaging surface performance demonstrated superior performance in the lead; (C) a new cryogenic sensor ..
- IMAGE SURFACE SENSOR ARRAY FOR BIOMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTSRobert Kraus; Fiscal Year: 2000
- NMR FACILITY FOR BIOMEDICAL STUDIESAKSEL BOTHNER BY; Fiscal Year: 1990Under joint NIH-NSF sponsorship, a niobium-tin tape superconducting solenoid operating in nonpersistent mode and generating a field of 140...
- Low Cost Open MRI Systems using MgB2 CoilsMICHAEL TOMSIC; Fiscal Year: 2004..Magnesium diboride at 20 K can be made into a superconductor wire that can be lower cost than conventional Niobium Titanium superconductor wires at 4 K, and the future projected costs for ceramic BSCCO tape and YBCO HTS coated ..
- Development of a calcium-phosphate nanocomplex fluoride-based mouthrinseRobert Karlinsey; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Periodontal Engineering by Growth Factor Release from Hollow HA MicrospheresMOHAMED RAHAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008..Tissue engineering approaches, based on cell or growth factor delivery from biomaterials scaffolds, offer promising solutions for complete regeneration of the periodontium. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..