halogens

Summary

Summary: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Halogen bonding: the sigma-hole. Proceedings of "Modeling interactions in biomolecules II", Prague, September 5th-9th, 2005
    Timothy Clark
    Computer Chemie Centrum, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Nägelsbachstr 25, 91052, Erlangen, Germany
    J Mol Model 13:291-6. 2007
  2. ncbi Halogen bonding in solution
    Máté Erdélyi
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivagen 10, SE 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Chem Soc Rev 41:3547-57. 2012
  3. ncbi Halogen bond and its counterparts: Bent's rule explains the formation of nonbonding interactions
    Sławomir J Grabowski
    Faculty of Chemistry, University of the Basque Country UPV EHU, and Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, Donostia, Euskadi, Spain
    J Phys Chem A 115:12340-7. 2011
  4. ncbi Nonbonding interactions of organic halogens in biological systems: implications for drug discovery and biomolecular design
    Yunxiang Lu
    Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201203, China
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:4543-51. 2010
  5. ncbi Do traditional, chlorine-shared, and ion-pair halogen bonds exist? An ab initio investigation of FCl:CNX complexes
    Janet E Del Bene
    Department of Chemistry, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio 44555, USA
    J Phys Chem A 114:12958-62. 2010
  6. ncbi Expansion of the sigma-hole concept
    Jane S Murray
    Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA
    J Mol Model 15:723-9. 2009
  7. ncbi Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces--A review
    Bernhard Welz
    Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040 900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil
    Anal Chim Acta 647:137-48. 2009
  8. pmc Exploring the chemistry and biology of vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases
    Jaclyn M Winter
    Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18577-81. 2009
  9. ncbi Biological halogenation has moved far beyond haloperoxidases
    Karl Heinz van Pee
    Biochemie, Technische Universitat Dresden, D 01062 Dresden, Germany
    Adv Appl Microbiol 59:127-57. 2006
  10. ncbi Halogenation strategies in natural product biosynthesis
    Christopher S Neumann
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Chem Biol 15:99-109. 2008

Detail Information

Publications258 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Halogen bonding: the sigma-hole. Proceedings of "Modeling interactions in biomolecules II", Prague, September 5th-9th, 2005
    Timothy Clark
    Computer Chemie Centrum, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Nägelsbachstr 25, 91052, Erlangen, Germany
    J Mol Model 13:291-6. 2007
    ..Thus a sigma-hole is observed for the Cl in CF(3)Cl, but not in CH(3)Cl...
  2. ncbi Halogen bonding in solution
    Máté Erdélyi
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivagen 10, SE 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Chem Soc Rev 41:3547-57. 2012
    Halogen bonding is the electron density donation based weak interaction of halogens with Lewis bases...
  3. ncbi Halogen bond and its counterparts: Bent's rule explains the formation of nonbonding interactions
    Sławomir J Grabowski
    Faculty of Chemistry, University of the Basque Country UPV EHU, and Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, Donostia, Euskadi, Spain
    J Phys Chem A 115:12340-7. 2011
    ..Numerous analogies between the halogen bond and the hydrogen bond are analyzed and various relationships between energetic, geometrical and the natural bond orbitals method (NBO) parameters are shown...
  4. ncbi Nonbonding interactions of organic halogens in biological systems: implications for drug discovery and biomolecular design
    Yunxiang Lu
    Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201203, China
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:4543-51. 2010
    ..In this Perspective, we concentrate on nonbonding interactions of halogens from both crystallographic data and theoretical viewpoints...
  5. ncbi Do traditional, chlorine-shared, and ion-pair halogen bonds exist? An ab initio investigation of FCl:CNX complexes
    Janet E Del Bene
    Department of Chemistry, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio 44555, USA
    J Phys Chem A 114:12958-62. 2010
    ..Coupling constants across halogen bonds are compared with corresponding coupling constants across traditional, proton-shared, and ion-pair hydrogen bonds...
  6. ncbi Expansion of the sigma-hole concept
    Jane S Murray
    Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA
    J Mol Model 15:723-9. 2009
    ..2) It is possible for the bonding orbital to be doubly-occupied and forming a coordinate covalent bond...
  7. ncbi Determination of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens using high-temperature molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces--A review
    Bernhard Welz
    Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040 900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil
    Anal Chim Acta 647:137-48. 2009
    The literature about the investigation of molecular spectra of phosphorus, sulfur and the halogens in flames and furnaces, and the use of these spectra for the determination of these non-metals has been reviewed...
  8. pmc Exploring the chemistry and biology of vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases
    Jaclyn M Winter
    Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:18577-81. 2009
    ....
  9. ncbi Biological halogenation has moved far beyond haloperoxidases
    Karl Heinz van Pee
    Biochemie, Technische Universitat Dresden, D 01062 Dresden, Germany
    Adv Appl Microbiol 59:127-57. 2006
  10. ncbi Halogenation strategies in natural product biosynthesis
    Christopher S Neumann
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Chem Biol 15:99-109. 2008
    ..In this article, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of these transformations, highlight applications of this knowledge, and propose future opportunities and challenges for the field...
  11. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of enzyme-catalysed halogenation
    J L Ross Anderson
    School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Mol Biosyst 2:350-7. 2006
    ..In addition, we will consider how this chemistry might be harnessed and developed to produce novel enzymatic activity...
  12. ncbi Structure and mechanism of bacterial dehalogenases: different ways to cleave a carbon-halogen bond
    René M de Jong
    Department of Biophysical Chemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 13:722-30. 2003
    ..The available information on the various dehalogenases supports different views on the possible evolutionary origins of their activities...
  13. ncbi Utilization of halogen bond in lead optimization: a case study of rational design of potent phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors
    Zhijian Xu
    State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    J Med Chem 54:5607-11. 2011
    ..Our X-ray crystal structures verified the existence of the predicted halogen bonds, demonstrating that the halogen bond is an applicable tool in drug design and should be routinely considered in lead optimization...
  14. ncbi X-ray structure determination of a vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum at 2.0 A resolution
    M Weyand
    Department of Molecular Structure Research, GBF Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung, Mascheroder Weg 1, Braunschweig, D 38124, Germany
    J Mol Biol 293:595-611. 1999
    ....
  15. pmc Modification of halogen specificity of a vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase
    Takashi Ohshiro
    Department of Biotechnology, Tottori University, Japan
    Protein Sci 13:1566-71. 2004
    ..These results supported the existence of a specific halogen binding site within the catalytic cleft of vanadium haloperoxidases...
  16. ncbi Nature's inventory of halogenation catalysts: oxidative strategies predominate
    Frederic H Vaillancourt
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Chem Rev 106:3364-78. 2006
  17. ncbi Impact of cytosine 5-halogens on the interaction of DNA with restriction endonucleases and methyltransferase
    Victoria Valinluck
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California 92350, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 19:556-62. 2006
    ..a series of oligonucleotides containing cytosine and a series of 5-substituted cytosine analogues including all halogens. This set of oligonucleotides has been used to probe the relationship between the size of the substituent and its ..
  18. ncbi Mechanistic considerations of halogenating enzymes
    Alison Butler
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    Nature 460:848-54. 2009
    ....
  19. ncbi Halogen bonding--a novel interaction for rational drug design?
    Yunxiang Lu
    Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
    J Med Chem 52:2854-62. 2009
    ..This study would help to establish such interaction as a potential and effective tool in the context of drug design...
  20. ncbi Do microbial numbers count? Quantifying the regulation of biogeochemical fluxes by population size and cellular activity
    Wilfred F M Röling
    Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 62:202-10. 2007
    ..Its application is discussed in the context of the complexity of microbial communities (e.g. functional redundancy) and their functioning...
  21. ncbi Experimental measurement of noncovalent interactions between halogens and aromatic rings
    Harry Adams
    Centre for Chemical Biology, Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7HF, UK
    Chembiochem 5:657-65. 2004
    Chemical double mutant cycles have been used to quantify the interactions of halogens with the faces of aromatic rings in chloroform...
  22. ncbi Halogen bonding at the active sites of human cathepsin L and MEK1 kinase: efficient interactions in different environments
    Leo A Hardegger
    Laboratorium fur Organische Chemie, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10, HCI, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    ChemMedChem 6:2048-54. 2011
    ..affinities were found to strongly increase when an aryl ring of the inhibitors is substituted with the larger halogens Cl, Br, and I, but to decrease upon F substitution...
  23. ncbi Shrinkage behavior of a resin-based composite irradiated with modern curing units
    Nicoleta Ilie
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School of the Ludwig Maximilians University, Goethestr 70, Munich 80336, Germany
    Dent Mater 21:483-9. 2005
    ....
  24. ncbi Effect of led light curing on the marginal sealing of composite resin restorations
    Luis Guilherme Sensi
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
    Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 18:345-51; quiz 352. 2006
    ..Variation of the light-curing unit (quartz tungsten halogen or LED) did not result in discernible differences in the marginal sealing of composite restorations...
  25. ncbi Microleakage beneath ceramic and metal brackets photopolymerized with LED or conventional light curing units
    Serdar Arikan
    Osmanli Dis Hastanesi, Conservative Dentistry, Ankara, Turkey
    Angle Orthod 76:1035-40. 2006
    ....
  26. ncbi Effect of light dispersion of LED curing lights on resin composite polymerization
    Kraig S Vandewalle
    Dental Materials and Testing, USAF Dental Investigation Service, Great Lakes, IL 60088, USA
    J Esthet Restor Dent 17:244-54; discussion 254-5. 2005
    ..This study evaluated the effect of light dispersion of halogen and LED curing lights on resin composite polymerization...
  27. ncbi Effectiveness of second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units
    Ulisses Bastos Campregher
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Algere, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    J Contemp Dent Pract 8:35-42. 2007
    ....
  28. ncbi Effect of high intensity vs. soft-start halogen irradiation on light-cured resin-based composites. Part II: Hardness and solubility
    Norbert Hofmann
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Julius Maximilians University of Wurzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Am J Dent 17:38-42. 2004
    ..To determine hardness and solubility of light-cured resin-based composites after high intensity vs. soft-start quartz tungsten halogen irradiation...
  29. ncbi Polymerisation characteristics of resin composites polymerised with different curing units
    Gholamreza Danesh
    Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung, Waldeyerstr 30, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Dent 32:479-88. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the plasma arc light source Apollo 95E and the conventional halogen lamp Elipar Visio regarding a number of polymerisation characteristics of different resin composites...
  30. ncbi Temperature rise during adhesive and resin composite polymerization with various light curing sources
    Bora Ozturk
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Selcuk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Konya, Turkey
    Oper Dent 29:325-32. 2004
    ..However, in this study, no temperature rises beneath 1-mm dentin disk exceed the critical 5.6 degrees C value for pulpal health...
  31. ncbi Post-gel shrinkage with different modes of LED and halogen light curing units
    M S Soh
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Oper Dent 29:317-24. 2004
    ..At all time intervals, post-gel shrinkage associated with continuous light curing mode was significantly higher than the soft-start light curing mode for FL and TL...
  32. ncbi The Knoop hardness of a composite resin polymerized with different curing lights and different modes
    A Ruya Yazici
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    J Contemp Dent Pract 8:52-9. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the surface hardness of a hybrid composite resin polymerized with different curing lights...
  33. ncbi Visible light curing
    Fred Rueggeberg
    Department of Oral Rehabilitation, The Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA
    J Esthet Restor Dent 17:200-1. 2005
  34. ncbi LED's--future technology in curing scenario?--an in-vitro study
    R Vinay Chandra
    Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Bapuji Dental College, Davangere, India
    Indian J Dent Res 14:152-5. 2003
    ..The results showed that in the long run LED's seem to have great potential to achieve a clinically consistent quality of composite cure...
  35. ncbi Color stability of resin matrix restorative materials as a function of the method of light activation
    Ralf Janda
    Humboldt University, Medical Faculty Charité, Center of Dentistry, Augustenburger Platz, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Oral Sci 112:280-5. 2004
    ..It may be concluded that the bleaching of composites, ormocers and compomers depends on (i) the used light curing device and (ii) the chosen curing times. The tungsten halogen light provided highly significantly superior results...
  36. ncbi Comparison of PAC and QTH light sources on polymerization of resin composites
    Nobuhiro Katahira
    Toranomon Hospital Dental Clinic 2 2 2, Toranomon, Minato ku, Tokyo, 105 8470, Japan
    Am J Dent 17:113-7. 2004
    ..To evaluate the polymerization shrinkage, Knoop hardness number (KHN) and compressive strength and to suggest a suitable time for irradiating resin composite restorations, when using a high-intensity light source...
  37. ncbi Orthodontic bracket shear bond strengths produced by two high-power light-emitting diode modes and halogen light
    Hakan Turkkahraman
    Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Suleyman Demirel, Cunur, Isparta, Turkey
    Angle Orthod 75:854-7. 2005
    ..14 +/- 5.75 MPa) and the halogen group (17.38 +/- 5.41 MPa) (P > .05). The LED is effective for bonding metal brackets to teeth, and the soft-start mode gives higher bond strengths than the fast mode...
  38. ncbi Hardening of dual-cure resin cements and a resin composite restorative cured with QTH and LED curing units
    Gildo Coelho Santos
    Department of Operative Dentistry, University of Bahia, School of Dentistry, Salvador, BA, Brazil
    J Can Dent Assoc 70:323-8. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effects of light intensity and type of light unit (quartztungsten-halogen [QTH] or light-emitting diode [LED]) on the hardening of various resin cements and a resin composite restorative...
  39. ncbi A comparison of tungsten-quartz-halogen, plasma arc and light-emitting diode light sources for the polymerization of an orthodontic adhesive
    Bikram S Thind
    Department of Orthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK
    Eur J Orthod 28:78-82. 2006
    ..Polymerization, as effective as that produced by conventional bulb light sources, was obtained with the short exposure times recommended for the plasma arc or light-emitting diode sources...
  40. ncbi Reducing, by pulse width modulation, the curing temperature of a prototype high-power LED light curing unit
    Ta Ko Huang
    TSAI Graduate Institute of Dental Science, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Dent Mater J 25:309-15. 2006
    ..2 degrees C and an irradiance of 1,194 +/- 1 mW/cm2. Based on the results of the present study, it was shown that PWM technology reduced the curing temperature while retaining the polymerization effectiveness of a high-power LED LCU...
  41. ncbi The degree of conversion of fiber-reinforced composites polymerized using different light-curing sources
    S Uctasli
    Faculty of Dentistry, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey
    Dent Mater 21:469-75. 2005
    ..In addition, the effect of different types of light-curing units and durations of light irradiation on the degree of conversion was evaluated...
  42. ncbi Effect of reduced exposure times on the microhardness of 10 resin composites cured by high-power LED and QTH curing lights
    Corey A Felix
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia
    J Can Dent Assoc 72:147. 2006
    ..To compare the effect of reduced exposure times on the microhardness of resin composites cured with a "second-generation" light-emitting diode (LED) curing light and a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) curing light...
  43. ncbi Influence of photopolymerization light source on enamel shear bond strength after bleaching
    Sandro Cordeiro Loretto
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry of Pernambuco, UPE, Camaragibe, PE, Brazil
    Braz Dent J 15:133-7. 2004
    ..It was therefore possible to conclude that neither enamel bleaching nor the photopolymerization source used had any influence on enamel shear bond strength...
  44. ncbi A new laboratory polymerizing apparatus equipped with halogen and metal halide light sources
    Naomi Tanoue
    Department of Specialized Dentistry, Nagasaki University Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, 1 7 1, Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852 8588, Japan
    Dent Mater J 24:43-8. 2005
    ..05) among the curing units and polymerization modes. In conclusion, the M3 unit was found to be well suited to polymerizing the composite material tested...
  45. ncbi Surface microhardness of a resin composite: a comparison of a tungsten halogen and a LED light curing unit, in vitro
    Noel J Ray
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, National University of Ireland, Cork
    Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 14:7-12. 2006
    ..Immediate finishing (1 h) was more appropriate to the use of the LED LCU (with adequate exposure time). The effect of elapsed time after exposure on microhardness was more pronounced with the QTH LCU...
  46. ncbi Evaluation of a dual peak third generation LED curing light
    Richard B T Price
    Department of Dental Clinical Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 26:331-2, 334, 336-8 passim; quiz 348. 2005
    ..001). It was concluded that overall the UltraLume 5 dual peak third generation LED curing light was able to polymerize these 5 resin composites as well as or better than the other curing lights...
  47. ncbi The effect of different light-curing units on fatigue behavior and degree of conversion of a resin composite
    Ulrich Lohbauer
    Policlinic for Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Gluckstrasse 11, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Dent Mater 21:608-15. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different light-curing units and irradiation modes on the mechanical fatigue strength and degree of conversion of a restorative resin composite...
  48. ncbi Evaluation of curing performance of light-emitting polymerization units
    Barry M Owens
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Tennessee, Memphis, USA
    Gen Dent 54:17-20. 2006
    ..Dentists should be aware that LED curing units offer portability, reduced heat production, and more consistent intensity output per life of the unit...
  49. ncbi Time dependence of composite shrinkage using halogen and LED light curing
    Alexander Uhl
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Materials Science and Technology IMT, Löbdergraben 32, D 07743 Jena, Germany
    Dent Mater 21:278-86. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi Microhardness and Young's modulus of a bonding resin cured with different curing units
    Monica Yamauti
    Section of Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Graduate School, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 5 45 Yushima, 1 chome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 5489, Japan
    Dent Mater J 23:457-66. 2004
    ..Increasing the distance between the curing unit tip and the irradiated surface decreased the hardness and Young's modulus of SE...
  51. ncbi Effect of light-tip distance on the shear bond strengths of resin-modified glass ionomer cured with high-intensity halogen, light-emitting diode, and plasma arc lights
    Maria Francesca Sfondrini
    Department of Orthodontics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 129:541-6. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of light-tip distance on the shear bond strength and the failure site of brackets cured with 3 light-curing units (high-intensity halogen, light-emitting diode, and plasma arc)...
  52. ncbi Effect of radiation light characteristics on surface hardness of paint-on resin for shade modification
    Hiroyuki Arikawa
    Department of Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Japan
    Dent Mater J 24:636-41. 2005
    ..Our results indicated that the polymerization efficiency of paint-on resin was significantly influenced by the radiation light characteristics of clinical light-curing units...
  53. ncbi Prerequisites for proper curing
    C Strydom
    Restorative Dentistry, University of the Western Cape
    SADJ 60:254-5. 2005
    ..Some basic terminology relating to the power of the light and intensity is explained and calculations are used to illustrate to the reader how the size of the light guide increases or reduces the intensity of the light beam...
  54. ncbi Critical appraisal. Quartz-tungsten-halogen and light-emitting diode curing lights
    Kraig S Vandewalle
    Dental Materials Evaluation and Testing, USAF Dental Evaluation and Consultation Service, Great Lakes, IL, USA
    J Esthet Restor Dent 18:161-7. 2006
  55. ncbi Advances in light curing units and curing techniques: a literature review
    G Oberholpez
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus
    SADJ 60:451-4. 2005
    ..This article presents a review of the advances in light curing units and curing techniques, as well as the scientific principles that guided past developments and that will influence future advances...
  56. ncbi Terminology, technology, and troubleshooting: curing lights
    Victoria L Wallace
    Ultradent Products, Inc, USA
    Dent Assist 74:12, 14-5. 2005
  57. ncbi Influence of curing lights and modes on cross-link density of dental composites
    Adrian U J Yap
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Oper Dent 29:410-5. 2004
    ..For TL, curing with continuous mode resulted in specimens with significantly higher cross-link density than curing with the soft-start mode...
  58. ncbi Effect of photoactivation systems and resin composites on the microleakage of esthetic restorations
    Larissa Maria Assad Cavalcante
    Clinical Dentistry Program, Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Unviersity of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
    J Contemp Dent Pract 8:70-9. 2007
    ....
  59. ncbi Comparison of halogen, plasma and LED curing units
    Rie Nomoto
    Department of Dental Engineering, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, Japan
    Oper Dent 29:287-94. 2004
    ..Both the plasma arc and LED units required longer irradiation times than those recommended by their respective manufacturers. Clinicians should be aware of potential thermal rise and UV-A hazard when using plasma arc units...
  60. ncbi Curing light technology 2003
    Scott D Benjamin
    Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 15:333-5. 2003
  61. ncbi Microhardness evaluation of resin composites polymerized by three different light sources
    Ihsan Hubbezoglu
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey
    Dent Mater J 26:845-53. 2007
    ..Among the materials tested, the nanofilled resin composite displayed the highest microhardness values for each curing regime...
  62. ncbi The effect of different light-curing methods on temperature changes of dual polymerizing agents cemented to human dentin
    Nadia Malek Taher
    Department of Restorative Dental Sciences of the College of Dentistry at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    J Contemp Dent Pract 9:57-64. 2008
    ..This in vitro study aims to measure the temperature changes of resin luting cements cemented to human dentin when using different light curing systems for photo-activation...
  63. ncbi Comparison of the heat generation of light curing units
    Bora Bagis
    Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of the Faculty of Dentistry at Karadeniz Technical University in Trabzon, Turkey
    J Contemp Dent Pract 9:65-72. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat generation of three different types of light curing units...
  64. ncbi Sorption and solubility of composites cured with quartz-tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light-curing units
    Luci Regina P Archegas
    Technological School at the Federal University of Parana in Curitiba, PR, Brazil
    J Contemp Dent Pract 9:73-80. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of light polymerization on water sorption and solubility of hybrid composites...
  65. ncbi Influence of ceramic translucency on curing efficacy of different light-curing units
    Angela Koch
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Clinics, Regensburg, Germany
    J Adhes Dent 9:449-62. 2007
    ....
  66. ncbi Effect of irradiation type (LED or QTH) on photo-activated composite shrinkage strain kinetics, temperature rise, and hardness
    Norbert Hofmann
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Bavarian Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Eur J Oral Sci 110:471-9. 2002
    ..Ramp curing decreased contraction speed even more. Shrinkage strain after 60 min was greater following QTH irradiation compared with both LED units (Herculite, Definite) or with the weaker LED light (Z250)...
  67. ncbi Light curing--an update
    John O Burgess
    Operative Dentistry and Biomaterials Department, Louisiana State University School of Dentistry, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 23:889-92, 894, 896 passim; quiz 908. 2002
    ..The support for different curing modes (soft, exponential, and pulse delay) to improve marginal integrity and reduce marginal leakage is examined...
  68. ncbi Shedding new light on composite polymerization
    W Frank Caughman
    Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, USA
    Oper Dent 27:636-8. 2002
    ..At stake are the durability of restorations, the satisfaction of patient and the well-earned reputation of the operator...
  69. ncbi Comparative efficiency of plasma and halogen light sources on composite micro-hardness in different curing conditions
    D Dietschi
    Division de Cariologie, d Endodontie et de Pédodontie, Section de Médecine Dentaire, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Geneve, 19 Rue BarthElemy Menn, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
    Dent Mater 19:493-500. 2003
    ..This study evaluated the effectiveness of a plasma-curing device (Apollo 95 E) and a halogen device (Heliolux DLX), in different curing conditions...
  70. ncbi A study of temperature rise in the pulp chamber during composite polymerization with different light-curing units
    Christopher Millen
    Edinburgh Postgraduate Dental Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Contemp Dent Pract 8:29-37. 2007
    ..The study compared pulp temperature rise during polymerization of resin-based composites (RBCs) using halogen and LED light-curing units (LCUs)...
  71. ncbi Effectiveness of composite cure associated with different curing modes of LED lights
    M S Soh
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Oper Dent 28:371-7. 2003
    ..Hence, the effectiveness of composite cure with LED LCUs is product dependent...
  72. ncbi Dentin bond strength of composites with self-etching adhesives using LED curing lights
    Yonca Korkmaz
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    J Contemp Dent Pract 8:34-42. 2007
    ....
  73. ncbi Curing efficiency of various types of light-curing units
    Chris Rahiotis
    Biomaterials Laboratory, University of Athens, Greece
    Eur J Oral Sci 112:89-94. 2004
    ..The QTH, operated in exponential mode, resulted in the highest H4/H0 value. The exponential mode of the QTH demonstrated superior performance for the total of the characteristics evaluated...
  74. ncbi The influence of storage and indenter load on the Knoop hardness of dental composites polymerized with LED and halogen technologies
    Alexander Uhl
    Institute of Materials Science and Technology IMT, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Löbdergraben 32, Jena D 07743, Germany
    Dent Mater 20:21-8. 2004
    ..Therefore, this study investigated the post-curing process, to ascertain if it can compensate for the lower mechanical properties of composites polymerized with LED LCUs...
  75. ncbi Depth of cure and hardness of an indirect composite polymerized with three laboratory curing units
    Naomi Tanoue
    Department of Specialized Dentistry, Nagasaki University Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Japan
    J Oral Sci 49:25-9. 2007
    ..2 KHN). Of the three units, the halogen-fluorescent unit exhibited the lowest depth of cure. Both the hardness and curing depth of the composite were influenced by the laboratory polymerizing units employed...
  76. ncbi Revisiting the intensity output of curing lights in private dental offices
    Nasser Barghi
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Compend Contin Educ Dent 28:380-4; quiz 385-6. 2007
    ..4%), and heavy (13.7%). A comparison of the results of this study with the 1994 survey report shows an overall improvement in the intensity output in dental offices. LED and PAC lights constituted 21.2% of curing lights in this survey...
  77. ncbi Evaluation of a second-generation LED curing light
    Richard B T Price
    Department of Dental Clinical Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia
    J Can Dent Assoc 69:666. 2003
    ..Light-emitting diode (LED) curing lights offer advantages over quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) lights, but the first-generation LED lights had some disadvantages...
  78. ncbi Effect of light curing modes and light curing time on the microhardness of a hybrid composite resin
    Flavio Henrique Baggio Aguiar
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Piracicaba School of Dentistry, Campinas State University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Contemp Dent Pract 8:1-8. 2007
    ..The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of light curing modes and curing time on the microhardness of a hybrid composite resin...
  79. ncbi Effect of exposure time on curing efficiency of polymerizing units equipped with light-emitting diodes
    José R David
    Department of Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Ponta Grossa, Campus Uvaranas, Brazil
    J Oral Sci 49:19-24. 2007
    ..An exposure time of 40 sec is required to provide composites with a uniform and high Knoop hardness when LED light-curing units are employed...
  80. ncbi The influence of temperature on the efficacy of polymerization of composite resin
    Wedad Y Awliya
    Department of Restorative Dental Science, Collage of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    J Contemp Dent Pract 8:9-16. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different temperatures on the efficacy of polymerization during the insertion of composite resin using different light curing units...
  81. ncbi The comet assay with multiple mouse organs: comparison of comet assay results and carcinogenicity with 208 chemicals selected from the IARC monographs and U.S. NTP Carcinogenicity Database
    Y F Sasaki
    Laboratory of Genotoxicity, Faculty of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Hachinohe National College of Technology, Hachinohe, Aomori, Japan
    Crit Rev Toxicol 30:629-799. 2000
    ..agents, amides, aromatic amines, azo compounds, cyclic nitro compounds, hydrazines, halides having reactive halogens, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chemicals showing high positive effects in this assay...
  82. ncbi Sense or no-sense of the sum parameter for water soluble "adsorbable organic halogens" (AOX) and "absorbed organic halogens" (AOX-S18) for the assessment of organohalogens in sludges and sediments
    German Müller
    Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg Im Neuenheimer Feld 236, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Chemosphere 52:371-9. 2003
    AOX" is the abbreviation of the sum parameter for water soluble "adsorbable organic halogens" in which 'A' stands for adsorbable, 'O' for organic and 'X' for the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine...
  83. ncbi Decomposition of energetic chemicals contaminated with iron or stainless steel
    Sima Chervin
    Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY 14652 6270, USA
    J Hazard Mater 130:48-52. 2006
    ..The following non-energetic groups were investigated for contributing effects: halogens, hydroxyls, amines, amides, nitriles, sulfonic acid esters, carbonyl halides and salts of hydrochloric acid...
  84. ncbi Phytotoxicity tests of solid wastes and contaminated soils in the Czech Republic
    Vladimir Koci
    Department of Environmental Chemistry, ICT Prague, Czech Republic
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 17:611-23. 2010
    ..Ten different representative types of contaminated soils and solid waste samples were chosen from the Czech Republic...
  85. ncbi Toxicity of fire smoke
    Yves Alarie
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 32:259-89. 2002
    ..Many contain nitrogen or halogens, resulting in the release of hydrogen cyanide and inorganic acids in fire smoke as additional toxic threats...
  86. ncbi Chemoselective Synthesis of Substituted Imines, Secondary Amines, and beta-Amino Carbonyl Compounds from Nitroaromatics through Cascade Reactions on Gold Catalysts
    Laura L Santos
    , , Avda de los Naranjos, 46022, Valencia Spain, Fax 34 963 877 809
    Chemistry 15:8196-203. 2009
    ..The process is shown to be highly selective towards other competing groups, such as double bonds, carbonyls, halogens, nitriles, or cinnamates, and thereby allows the synthesis of different substituted nitrogenated compounds...
  87. ncbi Formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products in viticulture
    Jan Bernd Barhorst
    Institute for AgroEcology IfA, RLP AgroScience GmbH, 67435 Neustadt Weinstrasse, Germany
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 16:582-9. 2009
    ..These disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be quantified as group parameter 'adsorbable organic halogens' (AOX) and have not been determined in effluents of viticulture yet...
  88. ncbi pKa prediction from an ab initio bond length: part 3--benzoic acids and anilines
    A P Harding
    Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre MIB, Manchester, UK
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:11283-93. 2011
    ..g. halogens, hydroxy) ortho substituent...
  89. ncbi Synthesis, evaluation and structure-activity relationships of 5-alkyl-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c] quinazoline, 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-5(6H)-thiones and their oxo-analogues as new potential bronchodilators
    R H Bahekar
    Medicinal Chemistry Division, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, A P, India
    Arzneimittelforschung 51:284-92. 2001
    ..The presence of halogens altered the biological activity in both the series...
  90. ncbi Solar photolysis kinetics of disinfection byproducts
    Baiyang Chen
    Chinese Environmental Scholars and Professionals Network, 11900 Stonehollow Drive, Apartment 338, Austin, TX 78758, USA
    Water Res 44:3401-9. 2010
    ..Compounds containing a high degree of halogenation (e.g., three halogens) were usually less stable than less halogenated species (e.g., those with two halogens)...
  91. ncbi Characterization of lysosomal monoiodotyrosine transport in rat thyroid cells. Evidence for transport by system h
    H C Andersson
    Section on Human Biochemical Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Biol Chem 265:10950-4. 1990
    ..Ring-substituted halogens, regardless of mass or ring position, but not amino, nitro, hydroxy, or methoxy groups, enhanced carrier ..
  92. ncbi A highly versatile catalyst system for the cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and amines
    Rylan J Lundgren
    Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia B3H 4J3 Canada
    Chemistry 16:1983-91. 2010
    ..as substituents enolizable ketones, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols, olefins, amides, and halogens, to a diverse range of amine and related substrates that includes primary alkyl- and arylamines, cyclic and ..
  93. ncbi Bromine in waste incineration: partitioning and influence on metal volatilisation
    Jürgen Vehlow
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Technical Chemistry, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 10:329-34. 2003
    ..It may have similar implications like Cl for the volatilisation of heavy metals and the formation of low volatile organic compounds. Due to its lower oxidation potential, there is a risk of formation of elementary Br2 in the offgas...
  94. ncbi Evaluation of sample preparation methods for elastomer digestion for further halogens determination
    Diogo P Moraes
    , Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105 900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
    Anal Bioanal Chem 397:563-70. 2010
    ..Using MIC, it was possible to digest elastomers with high efficiency, resulting in a single solution suitable for halogen determination by different techniques...
  95. ncbi Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents with a single multi-functional material
    Gabi Amitai
    McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
    Biomaterials 31:4417-25. 2010
    ..containing the redox enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can convert halide ions into active halogens and exert striking bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria...
  96. ncbi Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review
    M Concepción Contreras López
    University of the Basque Country, Faculty of Sciences, Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain
    Environ Int 28:751-9. 2003
    ..The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter...
  97. ncbi Microwave assisted extraction of iodine and bromine from edible seaweed for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry determination
    Vanessa Romarís-Hortas
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, S N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Talanta 79:947-52. 2009
    ..When extracting both halogens, results showed statistical significance (confidence interval of 95%) for TMAH volume and temperature, and also ..
  98. ncbi Theoretical studies on the interaction of partial agonists with the 5-HT2A receptor
    Maria Elena Silva
    Institute of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg, Germany
    J Comput Aided Mol Des 25:51-66. 2011
    ..FRA indicates which substructures affect potency or intrinsic activity. The high contribution of halogens in para position of phenethylamines to pEC(50) points to a specific hydrophobic pocket...
  99. ncbi 77Se NMR chemical shifts of 9-(arylselanyl)triptycenes: new standard for planar structures of ArSeR and applications to determine the structures in solutions
    Takashi Nakamoto
    Department of Material Science and Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama 640 8510, Japan
    J Org Chem 73:9259-69. 2008
    ..Y = COOEt, CN, and NO(2) (19-37 ppm), relative to Y = H, with small upfield and moderate downfield shifts by Y of halogens (-1 ppm for Y = F and 4 ppm for Y = Cl and Br)...
  100. ncbi Organic halogen removal from chlorinated humic ground water and lake water by nitrifying fluidized-bed biomass characterised by electron microscopy and molecular methods
    E Kostyal
    Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50:612-22. 1998
    ..The removal rates of adsorbable organic halogens were 200 micrograms Cl (g VS day)-1 for chlorinated humic ground water and 50 micrograms Cl (g VS day)-1 for ..
  101. ncbi [Synthesis of fluorine compounds based on special properties of fluorine compounds]
    Itsumaro Kumadaki
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Setsunan University, 45 1 Nagaotoge cho, Hirakata City 573 0101, Japan
    Yakugaku Zasshi 126:1059-85. 2006
    ..6) Reaction of halothane, which has a highly acidic hydrogen and two halogens adjacent to the trifluoromethyl group and shows interesting reactivities with various bases and metals to give ..

Research Grants34

  1. Enhanced Membrane Systems for Supplying Quality Drinking Water
    Andrew Feiring; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Background: Chlorine dioxide and other halogens are routinely used for oxidation...
  2. Oxidative Stress in Oral Streptococci
    Robert E Marquis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..zinc cations, benzimidazoles or other sulfhydryl-reacting agents, such as allicin, chelators, fluoride and other halogens, transition metal cations and oxidative antimicrobials...
  3. Synthesis and Study of Minimal Protein Folding Models: Molecular Torsion Balance
    Craig S Wilcox; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We seek to verify this prediction and quantify the differences. 3) The effects of halogens and the 'halogen bond'on conformation stability in water...
  4. Total Synthesis of Plocamium Polyhalogenated Monoterpenes, Analogues, and Biologi
    Carl Vogel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..isolated from the red algae Plocamium cartilagineum, featuring several units of unsaturation, as well as multiple halogens, including two contiguous stereogenic chlorine-bearing carbons...
  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A MARINE ANTI-PLAQUE COMPOUND
    TREVOR CASTOR; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Marine microorganisms, which can generate compounds that integrate halogens such as chlorine and bromine, can thus be an important resource for the discovery of anti-plaque compounds...
  6. BACTERIAL DEFENSES AGAINST PHAGOCYTE OXIDATIVE KILLING
    John Eaton; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..One important line of attack involves the generation of activated oxygen species and derivatives thereof (such as halogens). These damage various microbial components and aid in destruction of the invading organism...
  7. The Removal of Disinfection Byoproducts from Water (1000-641)
    ARJAN GIAYA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..following advantages: [unreadable] [unreadable] Municipal treatment facilities can continue to use time-tested halogens as the primary and/or secondary means of disinfection, saving billions of dollars in infrastructure required to ..
  8. Mechanistic studies of pulmonary toxicity of styrene
    Jiang Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary studies showed that para-substituted halogens "amplify" cytotoxicity of styrene...
  9. HALOGEN FREE ENERGY DATABASE FOR RATIONAL DRUG DESIGN
    ALEXANDER MACKERELL; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of chemical substituents to aqueous solvation and lipid solubility and 2) understand the influence of halogens on the conformational and solubility properties of sugars in nucleoside based therapeutic agents...
  10. STUDIES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. TANDEM ARYNE REACTIONS
    HAROLD HART; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..can be used to construct, in a single operation, from one to six new carbon-carbon bonds in place of the halogens, often with functional differentiation of the appended carbon atoms...
  11. MYELOPEROXIDASE-H202-HALIDE SYSTEM IN GLOMERULAR INJURY
    Richard Johnson; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..capillary wall and catalyzes the reaction of H2O2 with a halide (C1, I) to form highly toxic hypohalous acids and halogens. We have now shown that MPO and H2O2 can interact to produce severe glomerular injury and that a similar ..
  12. Oxidative Coupling in Natural Product Synthesis
    Phil Baran; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..There are remarkable advantages to be gained in terms of efficiency (lack of protecting groups, halogens, disposable functional groups), practicality (extremely concise sequences), stereocontrol (complete ..
  13. NMR HIGH SENSITIVITY MOLECULAR STRUCTURE DETERMINATION
    REINHARD DUNKEL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Oxygen, sulfur, and most halogens are not NMR observable. But they influence the shift of surrounding observable atoms...
  14. Catalytic Processes for Selective Organic Synthesis
    GARY MOLANDER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..4) Carbometalation/cyclization reactions will be explored utilizing organochromium species. 5) Ligands and catalytic systems designed for asymmetric synthesis will be explored. ..
  15. Agilent 5973 GC/MS System
    GARY MOLANDER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Our current lack of such instrumentation negatively affects the ability to carry out many of these studies. This critical capability, in the form of an instrument for everyday analysis, is urgently needed. ..
  16. Tandem Cycloaddition Chemistry of 2-Azoniaheterodienes
    SCOTT DENMARK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Construction of Alpha-Siloxy-and Alpha-Amino-Amides
    ROBERT CUNICO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Exploratory experiments directed towards inducing chiral stereoselectivity within these transformations will also be carried out. ..
  18. New Methods for Stereoselective Addictions to Carbonyls
    Tarek Sammakia; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We will explore this catalyst system in the upcoming funding period and delineate its scope and limitations. ..
  19. Investigations of the Bioinorganic Chemistry of Iron: New Siderophores
    Alison Butler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Cross-Coupling Reactions of Organosilanols
    SCOTT DENMARK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Synthetic approaches to isodomoic acid H, hepatitis C viral inihibiting indole alkaloids, the salicylihalimide macrolactone oximidine II, and polyene antiviral antibiotic viridenomycin are detailed. ..
  21. Ultraviolet-C Therapy for Onychomycosis
    MICHAEL HAMBLIN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Synthesis of the myrmicarin family of natural products
    Scott Snyder; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  23. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race or ethnicity. ..
  24. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: GENETIC STUDIES IN ZEBRAFISH
    MICHAEL CARVAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. GENE-NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN REDOX HOMEOSTASIS
    Ruma Banerjee; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  26. CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY OF INSULIN-LIKE VANADIUM COMPOUNDS
    DEBBIE CRANS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed studies will lead to an in-depth understanding of both the chemical and pharmacological properties of known and new vanadium compounds inducing insulin-like action. ..
  27. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race or ethnicity or disability. ..
  28. Fostriecin and Related Protein Phosphatase Inhibitors
    Dale Boger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  29. Macrophage Targeted Photodynamic Therapy
    MICHAEL HAMBLIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  30. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race, ethnicity or disability. ..
  31. Amination and Etherification of Aryl Halides and Olefins
    John Hartwig; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In addition, we will strive to develop conditions to add other nitrogen substrates to vinylarenes and to add amines to more substituted vinylarenes and simple alkenes. ..
  32. Metals in biology and Graduate Research Seminar
    Alison Butler; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..To ensure the best possible programs, it is important that the cost of participating in the conference not be an impediment to the attendance of the invited speakers and discussion chairs. ..
  33. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANOCOPPER CHEMISTRY
    R Dieter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed synthetic routes to pyrrolidine aza sugars will develop the potential synthetic power of alpha-aminoalkylcuprate chemistry. ..
  34. Gordon Research Sponsored Conference on Cobalamins
    Ruma Banerjee; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....