carbon

Summary

Summary: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight 12.011. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes
    A P Gasch
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5428, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 11:4241-57. 2000
  2. doi A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests
    Yude Pan
    U S Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA
    Science 333:988-93. 2011
  3. doi Membrane-transport systems for sucrose in relation to whole-plant carbon partitioning
    Brian G Ayre
    University of North Texas, Department of Biological Sciences, Denton, Texas, USA
    Mol Plant 4:377-94. 2011
  4. ncbi Soil warming and carbon-cycle feedbacks to the climate system
    J M Melillo
    The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Science 298:2173-6. 2002
  5. ncbi Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change
    Eric A Davidson
    The Woods Hole Research Center, PO Box 296, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Nature 440:165-73. 2006
  6. pmc Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine
    Dong Eun Chang
    Advanced Center for Genome Technology, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 0245, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7427-32. 2004
  7. ncbi Dissolved organic carbon trends resulting from changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry
    Donald T Monteith
    Environmental Change Research Centre, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 450:537-40. 2007
  8. ncbi Photosynthetic overcompensation under nocturnal warming enhances grassland carbon sequestration
    Shiqiang Wan
    State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China
    Ecology 90:2700-10. 2009
  9. doi Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change
    W A Kurz
    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 1M5, Canada
    Nature 452:987-90. 2008
  10. pmc Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning
    Fabienne Bourgis
    Université de Bordeaux Ségalen, Laboratoire de Biogenese Membranaire, Bordeaux, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12527-32. 2011

Detail Information

Publications344 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes
    A P Gasch
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5428, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 11:4241-57. 2000
    ..Physiological themes in the genomic responses to specific environmental stresses provided insights into the effects of those stresses on the cell...
  2. doi A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests
    Yude Pan
    U S Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA
    Science 333:988-93. 2011
    The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 ± 0...
  3. doi Membrane-transport systems for sucrose in relation to whole-plant carbon partitioning
    Brian G Ayre
    University of North Texas, Department of Biological Sciences, Denton, Texas, USA
    Mol Plant 4:377-94. 2011
    Sucrose is the principal product of photosynthesis used for the distribution of assimilated carbon in plants...
  4. ncbi Soil warming and carbon-cycle feedbacks to the climate system
    J M Melillo
    The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Science 298:2173-6. 2002
    In a decade-long soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude hardwood forest, we documented changes in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in order to investigate the consequences of these changes for the climate system...
  5. ncbi Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change
    Eric A Davidson
    The Woods Hole Research Center, PO Box 296, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Nature 440:165-73. 2006
    Significantly more carbon is stored in the world's soils--including peatlands, wetlands and permafrost--than is present in the atmosphere. Disagreement exists, however, regarding the effects of climate change on global soil carbon stocks...
  6. pmc Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine
    Dong Eun Chang
    Advanced Center for Genome Technology, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 0245, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7427-32. 2004
    ..Gluconate appeared to be a major carbon source used by E. coli MG1655 to colonize, having an impact on both the initiation and maintenance stages...
  7. ncbi Dissolved organic carbon trends resulting from changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry
    Donald T Monteith
    Environmental Change Research Centre, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 450:537-40. 2007
    ..Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain recent, widespread increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface waters of glaciated landscapes across eastern North America and northern and central Europe...
  8. ncbi Photosynthetic overcompensation under nocturnal warming enhances grassland carbon sequestration
    Shiqiang Wan
    State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China
    Ecology 90:2700-10. 2009
    A mechanistic understanding of the carbon (C) cycle-climate change feedback is essential for projecting future states of climate and ecosystems...
  9. doi Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change
    W A Kurz
    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 1M5, Canada
    Nature 452:987-90. 2008
    ..During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees...
  10. pmc Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning
    Fabienne Bourgis
    Université de Bordeaux Ségalen, Laboratoire de Biogenese Membranaire, Bordeaux, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12527-32. 2011
    ..To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp ..
  11. doi Carbon catabolite repression in bacteria: many ways to make the most out of nutrients
    Boris Görke
    Department of General Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Gottingen, Grisebachstr 8, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:613-24. 2008
    Most bacteria can selectively use substrates from a mixture of different carbon sources...
  12. doi Genome-scale metabolic network modeling results in minimal interventions that cooperatively force carbon flux towards malonyl-CoA
    Peng Xu
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
    Metab Eng 13:578-87. 2011
    ..knockout targets (ΔfumC and ΔsucC) and overexpression targets (ACC, PGK, GAPD and PDH) can cooperatively force carbon flux towards malonyl-CoA...
  13. doi Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property
    Michael W I Schmidt
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 8050 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 478:49-56. 2011
    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation...
  14. pmc Deletion of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase in mice perturbs choline and 1-carbon metabolism, resulting in fatty liver and hepatocellular carcinomas
    Ya Wen Teng
    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:36258-67. 2011
    ..These results indicate that BHMT has an important role in Hcy, choline, and one-carbon homeostasis. A lack of Bhmt also affects susceptibility to fatty liver and hepatocellular carcinoma...
  15. pmc Energy starved Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique substitutes light-mediated ATP production for endogenous carbon respiration
    Laura Steindler
    Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e19725. 2011
    ..P. ubique cells that are starved for carbon, but provides little or no advantage during active growth on organic carbon substrates...
  16. pmc Induction of inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis by carbon black nanoparticles
    Anna C Reisetter
    Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:21844-52. 2011
    Inhalation of nanoparticles has been implicated in respiratory morbidity and mortality. In particular, carbon black nanoparticles are found in many different environmental exposures...
  17. doi Carbon metabolism of intracellular bacterial pathogens and possible links to virulence
    Wolfgang Eisenreich
    Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 85747 Garching, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:401-12. 2010
    ..In this Review, we discuss the recent progress made in determining the major carbon sources and metabolic pathways used by model intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate either in the ..
  18. pmc Comprehensive quantitative analysis of central carbon and amino-acid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under multiple conditions by targeted proteomics
    Roeland Costenoble
    Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Syst Biol 7:464. 2011
    ..monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry to quantify abundance changes of the 228 proteins that constitute the central carbon and amino-acid metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at five different metabolic steady states...
  19. pmc Randomized phase II study evaluating a carbon ion boost applied after combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide versus a proton boost after radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma: the CLEOPATRA trial
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:478. 2010
    ..b>Carbon ions offer physical and biological advantages...
  20. ncbi Microbial nitrogen limitation increases decomposition
    Joseph M Craine
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, 100 Ecology, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
    Ecology 88:2105-13. 2007
    ..results suggest that basic stoichiometric decomposition theory needs to be revised and ecosystem models restructured accordingly in order to predict ecosystem carbon storage responses to anthropogenic changes in nutrient availability.
  21. pmc Arabidopsis plants acclimate to water deficit at low cost through changes of carbon usage: an integrated perspective using growth, metabolite, enzyme, and gene expression analysis
    Irène Hummel
    INRA, Ecophysiologie des Plantes sous Stress Environnementaux, UMR 759, Montpellier, France
    Plant Physiol 154:357-72. 2010
    Growth and carbon (C) fluxes are severely altered in plants exposed to soil water deficit. Correspondingly, it has been suggested that plants under water deficit suffer from C shortage...
  22. pmc Novel roles of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in regulation of transport and metabolism of carbon sources
    Tomohiro Shimada
    Department of Frontier Bioscience, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 6:e20081. 2011
    CRP (cAMP receptor protein), the global regulator of genes for carbon source utilization in the absence of glucose, is the best-studied prokaryotic transcription factor...
  23. pmc Enzyme production by filamentous fungi: analysis of the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on unconventional carbon source
    He Jun
    Department of Chemistry, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Microb Cell Fact 10:68. 2011
    ..In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 grown either on a spent hydrolysate model medium (SHMM) or on a lactose-based standard medium (LBSM) was explored using proteomics...
  24. pmc Hunger artists: yeast adapted to carbon limitation show trade-offs under carbon sufficiency
    Jared W Wenger
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002202. 2011
    ..show that yeast evolved under aerobic glucose limitation show surprisingly few trade-offs when cultured in other carbon-limited environments, under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions...
  25. doi Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt
    Joseph Fargione
    The Nature Conservancy, 1101 West River Parkway, Suite 200, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
    Science 319:1235-8. 2008
    Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to low-carbon fuels a high priority...
  26. pmc Host carbon sources modulate cell wall architecture, drug resistance and virulence in a fungal pathogen
    Iuliana V Ene
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK
    Cell Microbiol 14:1319-35. 2012
    ..stress adaptation have generally been performed on glucose-grown cells, leaving the effects of alternative carbon sources upon stress resistance largely unexplored...
  27. ncbi DNA-assisted dispersion and separation of carbon nanotubes
    Ming Zheng
    DuPont Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware 19880, USA
    Nat Mater 2:338-42. 2003
    b>Carbon nanotubes are man-made one-dimensional carbon crystals with different diameters and chiralities. Owing to their superb mechanical and electrical properties, many potential applications have been proposed for them...
  28. doi A genetic element present on megaplasmids allows Enterococcus faecium to use raffinose as carbon source
    Xinglin Zhang
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 13:518-28. 2011
    ..Since the 1990s, it has also emerged as a nosocomial pathogen. Little is known about carbon metabolism of E...
  29. pmc Contrasting soil pH effects on fungal and bacterial growth suggest functional redundancy in carbon mineralization
    Johannes Rousk
    Department of Microbial Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1589-96. 2009
    ..The shift in fungal and bacterial importance along the pH gradient decreased the total carbon mineralization, measured as basal respiration, by only about one-third, possibly suggesting functional redundancy...
  30. ncbi Fine root branch orders respond differentially to carbon source-sink manipulations in a longleaf pine forest
    Dali L Guo
    Jones Ecological Research Center, Route 2, Box 2324, Newton, GA 39870, USA
    Oecologia 140:450-7. 2004
    Fine roots are a key component of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forest ecosystems...
  31. pmc The role of the C4 pathway in carbon accumulation and fixation in a marine diatom
    John R Reinfelder
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Plant Physiol 135:2106-11. 2004
    The role of a C(4) pathway in photosynthetic carbon fixation by marine diatoms is presently debated...
  32. doi Particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) - Integrated research-driven university-hospital-based radiation oncology service in Heidelberg, Germany
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Radiother Oncol 95:41-4. 2010
    ..In November 2009, patient treatment has begun. The aim of the center is to provide high-end radiotherapy, and to define the role of particle therapy through clinical trials...
  33. doi Alterations in hepatic one-carbon metabolism and related pathways following a high-fat dietary intervention
    Isabel Rubio-Aliaga
    Molecular Nutrition Unit, ZIEL Research Center for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Physiol Genomics 43:408-16. 2011
    ..Nutrigenomic analysis revealed alterations of key metabolites and enzyme transcript levels of hepatic one-carbon metabolism and related pathways...
  34. doi Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks
    Martin Heimann
    Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans Knöll Strasse 10, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Nature 451:289-92. 2008
  35. ncbi Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed
    David S LeBauer
    Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92054, USA
    Ecology 89:371-9. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the global N and C cycles interact strongly and that geography can mediate ecosystem response to N within certain biome types...
  36. doi Genomic insights into marine microalgae
    Micaela S Parker
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 42:619-45. 2008
    ..We focus our metabolic discussion on carbon, nitrogen, and iron. We then discuss biomineralization and new evidence for programmed cell death in microalgae...
  37. ncbi The versatile epsilon-proteobacteria: key players in sulphidic habitats
    Barbara J Campbell
    College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware 19958, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:458-68. 2006
    ..These integrated perspectives provide a framework for future culture- and genomic-based studies...
  38. ncbi Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security
    R Lal
    Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Science 304:1623-7. 2004
    The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon...
  39. doi The mechanisms of carbon catabolite repression in bacteria
    Josef Deutscher
    Laboratorie de Microbiologie et Génétique Moléculaire, INRA AgroParisTech CNRS, F 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France
    Curr Opin Microbiol 11:87-93. 2008
    b>Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is the paradigm of cellular regulation. CCR happens when bacteria are exposed to two or more carbon sources and one of them is preferentially utilised (frequently glucose)...
  40. ncbi Testing the functional significance of microbial community composition
    Michael S Strickland
    Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Ecology 90:441-51. 2009
    ..We find that rates of carbon dioxide production from litter decomposition were dependent upon the microbial inoculum, with differences in the ..
  41. doi Heterotrophy in tropical scleractinian corals
    Fanny Houlbrèque
    Stanford University, Geological and Environmental Sciences, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 2115, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 84:1-17. 2009
    ..Heterotrophy accounts for between 0 and 66% of the fixed carbon incorporated into coral skeletons and can meet from 15 to 35% of daily metabolic requirements in healthy corals ..
  42. pmc Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity
    Andreas F Haas
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e27973. 2011
    ..Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat...
  43. doi Autotrophic carbon fixation in archaea
    Ivan A Berg
    Mikrobiologie, Fakultat Biologie, Universitat Freiburg, Schanzlestrasse 1, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:447-60. 2010
    The acquisition of cellular carbon from inorganic carbon is a prerequisite for life and marked the transition from the inorganic to the organic world...
  44. pmc Bacterial adaptation through distributed sensing of metabolic fluxes
    Oliver Kotte
    Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Syst Biol 6:355. 2010
    The recognition of carbon sources and the regulatory adjustments to recognized changes are of particular importance for bacterial survival in fluctuating environments...
  45. ncbi Transport mechanisms for organic forms of carbon and nitrogen between source and sink
    Sylvie Lalonde
    ZMBP Plant Physiology, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:341-72. 2004
    ..Novel imaging approaches may provide the means to characterize the cellular events and elucidate whole plant control of assimilate partitioning and allocation...
  46. doi Biological characteristics of carbon-ion therapy
    Koichi Ando
    Medicine and Biology Division, Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Showa machi 3 39 22, Maebashi shi, Gunma, Japan
    Int J Radiat Biol 85:715-28. 2009
    ..and/or high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles has a long history, starting with proton beams up to now carbon-ions...
  47. ncbi Similar response of labile and resistant soil organic matter pools to changes in temperature
    Changming Fang
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, UK
    Nature 433:57-9. 2005
    ..organic matter (SOM) and soil temperature affects our predictions of the impact of climate change on soil-stored carbon. One current opinion is that the decomposition of soil labile carbon is sensitive to temperature variation whereas ..
  48. pmc Gluconeogenic carbon flow of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to establish and maintain infection
    Joeli Marrero
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9819-24. 2010
    ..In vitro, Mtb is able to grow on a variety of carbon sources, but mounting evidence has implicated fatty acids as the major source of carbon and energy for Mtb during ..
  49. doi A stretchable carbon nanotube strain sensor for human-motion detection
    Takeo Yamada
    Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Tsukuba, 305 8565, Japan
    Nat Nanotechnol 6:296-301. 2011
    ..Here, we report a class of wearable and stretchable devices fabricated from thin films of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. When stretched, the nanotube films fracture into gaps and islands, and bundles bridging the gaps...
  50. doi An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics
    James C Zachos
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95060, USA
    Nature 451:279-83. 2008
  51. doi The sucrose transporter family in Populus: the importance of a tonoplast PtaSUT4 to biomass and carbon partitioning
    Raja S Payyavula
    School of Forest Resources and Environmental Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
    Plant J 65:757-70. 2011
    ..Our findings also support the idea that PtaSUT4 modulates sucrose efflux and utilization in concert with plant N-status...
  52. doi Radiobiological evaluation and correlation with the local effect model (LEM) of carbon ion radiation therapy and temozolomide in glioblastoma cell lines
    Stephanie E Combs
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg
    Int J Radiat Biol 85:126-37. 2009
    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of high linear-energy transfer (LET) carbon irradiation on glioblastoma cells lines in combination with temozolomide (TMZ).
  53. ncbi Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply
    Sébastien Fontaine
    INRA, UR 874 Agronomie, 234 avenue du Brezet, 63100 Clermont Ferrand, France
    Nature 450:277-80. 2007
    The world's soils store more carbon than is present in biomass and in the atmosphere...
  54. pmc Inorganic carbon limitation induces transcripts encoding components of the CO(2)-concentrating mechanism in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 through a redox-independent pathway
    Fiona J Woodger
    Molecular Plant Physiology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, PO Box 475, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia
    Plant Physiol 133:2069-80. 2003
    ..to proceed in CO2-limited aquatic environments, and its activity is modulated in response to inorganic carbon (Ci) availability...
  55. ncbi Resource limitation of bacterial production distorts the temperature dependence of oceanic carbon cycling
    Ángel López-Urrutia
    Centro Oceanográfico de Gijón, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Camín de L Arbeyal, S N, Xixón, Asturies, E 33212 Spain
    Ecology 88:817-22. 2007
    Our view of the effects of temperature on bacterial carbon fluxes in the ocean has been confounded by the interplay of resource availability...
  56. pmc Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo
    Sheng Tao Yang
    Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Emerging Materials and Technology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 0973, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:11308-9. 2009
    It was found and recently reported that small carbon nanoparticles can be surface-passivated by organic or biomolecules to become strongly fluorescent...
  57. doi The carbon and energy sources of the non-photosynthetic plastid in the malaria parasite
    Liting Lim
    School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    FEBS Lett 584:549-54. 2010
    ..of the apicoplast and measured their substrate preferences using a novel cell-free assay system to explore the carbon and energy sources of the apicoplast...
  58. pmc Syntrophy in anaerobic global carbon cycles
    Michael J McInerney
    Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, 770 Van Vleet Oval, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 20:623-32. 2009
    ..Genomic analyses reveal that multiple mechanisms exist for reverse electron transfer. Surprisingly, the flagellum functions were implicated in ensuring close physical proximity and synchronization of the syntrophic partners...
  59. pmc Enzymatic and genetic characterization of carbon and energy metabolisms by deep-sea hydrothermal chemolithoautotrophic isolates of Epsilonproteobacteria
    Ken Takai
    Subground Animalcule Retrieval Program, Extremobiosphere Research Center, Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology, 2 15 Natsushima cho, Yokosuka 237 0061, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:7310-20. 2005
    The carbon and energy metabolisms of a variety of cultured chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal environments were characterized by both enzymatic and genetic analyses...
  60. ncbi Methanotrophic symbionts provide carbon for photosynthesis in peat bogs
    Ashna A Raghoebarsing
    Department of Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nature 436:1153-6. 2005
    ..Incubation with (13)C-methane showed rapid in situ oxidation by these bacteria to carbon dioxide, which was subsequently fixed by Sphagnum, as shown by incorporation of (13)C-methane into plant sterols...
  61. doi Arsenic metabolism is influenced by polymorphisms in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and reduction reactions
    Karin Schläwicke Engström
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Mutat Res 667:4-14. 2009
    ..The aim for this study was to identify genetic variants affecting arsenic metabolism...
  62. ncbi Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean
    U Riebesell
    Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM GEOMAR, 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Nature 450:545-8. 2007
    The oceans have absorbed nearly half of the fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere since pre-industrial times, causing a measurable reduction in seawater pH and carbonate saturation...
  63. ncbi Carbon catabolite control of the metabolic network in Bacillus subtilis
    Yasutaro Fujita
    Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science and Biotechnology, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:245-59. 2009
    ..In Bacillus subtilis and close relatives, global regulation of carbon catabolite control occurs on the binding of the complex of CcpA (catabolite control protein A) and P-Ser-HPr (..
  64. doi Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide
    William K Cornwell
    Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Ecol Lett 11:1065-71. 2008
    ..ecological strategy within different ecosystems globally, representing a new connection between whole plant carbon strategy and biogeochemical cycling...
  65. doi Correlations between carbon metabolism and virulence in bacteria
    Sandrine Poncet
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS AgroParisTech INRA, Thiverval Grignon, France
    Contrib Microbiol 16:88-102. 2009
    ..utilization of the most efficiently metabolizable carbohydrates when these organisms are exposed to a mixture of carbon sources...
  66. pmc Small RNA as global regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Elisabeth Sonnleitner
    Département de Microbiologie Fondamentale, Universite de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21866-71. 2009
    ..catabolite repression in vivo, whereas a crcZ mutation pleiotropically prevented the utilization of several carbon sources...
  67. ncbi Alterations in global patterns of gene expression in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in response to inorganic carbon limitation and the inactivation of ndhR, a LysR family regulator
    Hong liang Wang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74075, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:5739-51. 2004
    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses multiple inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems that are regulated by Ci availability...
  68. ncbi Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests
    R Valentini
    University of Tuscia, Department of Forest Environment and Resources, Viterbo, Italy
    Nature 404:861-5. 2000
    b>Carbon exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is one of the key processes that need to be assessed in the context of the Kyoto Protocol...
  69. ncbi Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respiration
    P Högberg
    Department of Forest Ecology, SLU, Umea, Sweden
    Nature 411:789-92. 2001
    ..and of the free-living microbial heterotrophs (decomposers) in soils are significant components of the global carbon balance, but their relative contributions remain uncertain...
  70. pmc The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa
    Omar Torres-Quesada
    Grupo de Ecología Genética de la Rizosfera, Estacion Experimental del Zaidin, CSIC, Profesor Albareda, 1, 18008 Granada, Spain
    BMC Microbiol 10:71. 2010
    ..Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored...
  71. doi Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest
    Oliver L Phillips
    Ecology and Global Change, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Science 323:1344-7. 2009
    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances...
  72. ncbi Rubisco without the Calvin cycle improves the carbon efficiency of developing green seeds
    Jorg Schwender
    Plant Biology Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Nature 432:779-82. 2004
    Efficient storage of carbon in seeds is crucial to plant fitness and to agricultural productivity...
  73. pmc Air pollution and emergency admissions in Boston, MA
    Antonella Zanobetti
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 60:890-5. 2006
    ..5) is now the particle measure of greatest health and regulatory concern. And little has been published on associations of hospital admissions and PM components...
  74. doi The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China
    Shilong Piao
    Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    Nature 458:1009-13. 2009
    Global terrestrial ecosystems absorbed carbon at a rate of 1-4 Pg yr(-1) during the 1980s and 1990s, offsetting 10-60 per cent of the fossil-fuel emissions...
  75. pmc The CRE1 carbon catabolite repressor of the fungus Trichoderma reesei: a master regulator of carbon assimilation
    Thomas Portnoy
    Research Area Gene Technology and Applied Biochemistry, Institute of ChemicalEngineering, Technische Universitat Wien, Getreidemarkt, Vienna, Austria
    BMC Genomics 12:269. 2011
    ..One such wide-domain regulatory circuit, essential to all cells, is carbon catabolite repression (CCR): it allows the cell to prefer some carbon sources, whose assimilation is of high ..
  76. doi Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization
    Raymond T Pollard
    National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Natural Environment Research Council and University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK
    Nature 457:577-80. 2009
    The addition of iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon. Carbon export from the surface layer and, in particular, the ability of the ocean and sediments to sequester carbon for many ..
  77. pmc Proteins from multiple metabolic pathways associate with starch biosynthetic enzymes in high molecular weight complexes: a model for regulation of carbon allocation in maize amyloplasts
    Tracie A Hennen-Bierwagen
    Department of Biochemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Plant Physiol 149:1541-59. 2009
    ..PPDK and SUS-SH1 required SSIII, SSIIa, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb for assembly into the 670-kD complex. These complexes may function in global regulation of carbon partitioning between metabolic pathways in developing seeds.
  78. pmc Microbial community diversity associated with carbon and nitrogen cycling in permeable shelf sediments
    Evan M Hunter
    Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, FSU Collins Research Lab, 255 Atomic Way, Bldg 42, Tallahassee, FL 32306 4470, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5689-701. 2006
    ..Our results elucidate predominant phylotypes that are likely to catalyze carbon and nitrogen cycling in marine sands...
  79. doi Metabolic and signaling aspects underpinning the regulation of plant carbon nitrogen interactions
    Adriano Nunes-Nesi
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Muhlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Mol Plant 3:973-96. 2010
    ..Due to its importance, much research effort has been expended to understand how carbon and nitrogen metabolism are integrated and regulated according to the rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration, ..
  80. pmc Integration of metabolite with transcript and enzyme activity profiling during diurnal cycles in Arabidopsis rosettes
    Yves Gibon
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Science Park Golm, Am Muehlenberg, D 14476 Potsdam Golm, Germany
    Genome Biol 7:R76. 2006
    Genome-wide transcript profiling and analyses of enzyme activities from central carbon and nitrogen metabolism show that transcript levels undergo marked and rapid changes during diurnal cycles and after transfer to darkness, whereas ..
  81. pmc Mitochondrial C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase (MTHFD1L) supports the flow of mitochondrial one-carbon units into the methyl cycle in embryos
    Schuyler T Pike
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:4612-20. 2010
    Mitochondrial folate-dependent one-carbon (1-C) metabolism converts 1-C donors such as serine and glycine to formate, which is exported and incorporated into the cytoplasmic tetrahydrofolate (THF) 1-C pool...
  82. pmc Air pollution, obesity, genes and cellular adhesion molecules
    Jaime Madrigano
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Occup Environ Med 67:312-7. 2010
    ..We examined the association between particulate matter and cell adhesion molecules. We also investigated the modifying effect of genotype and phenotype variation to gain insight into the relevant biological pathways for this association...
  83. pmc Light-dependent roles of the G-protein alpha subunit GNA1 of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei)
    Christian Seibel
    Research Area Gene Technology and Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Austria
    BMC Biol 7:58. 2009
    ..Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi...
  84. doi Oxidative stress and proinflammatory effects of carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: role of particle surface area and internalized amount
    Salik Hussain
    University Paris Diderot Paris 7, Unit of Functional and Adaptive Biology BFA CNRS EAC 7059, Paris, France
    Toxicology 260:142-9. 2009
    ..investigate the role of surface area and oxidative stress in the cellular effects of two chemically distinct NPs, carbon black (CB) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), on the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-)...
  85. doi Deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs: diversity, biochemistry and ecological significance
    Satoshi Nakagawa
    Subground Animalcule Retrieval Program, Extremobiosphere Research Center, Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 65:1-14. 2008
    ..Chemoautotrophs are organisms that are able to fix inorganic carbon using a chemical energy obtained through the oxidation of reduced compounds...
  86. pmc Sensitive immunosensor for cancer biomarker based on dual signal amplification strategy of graphene sheets and multienzyme functionalized carbon nanospheres
    Dan Du
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA
    Anal Chem 82:2989-95. 2010
    ..biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is described that uses a graphene sheet sensor platform and functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNSs) labeled with horseradish peroxidase-secondary antibodies (HRP-Ab2)...
  87. ncbi Onset of carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Parallel involvement of hexokinase and glucokinase in sugar signaling
    Michel Flipphi
    Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS Unité Mixte de Recherche 8621, Universite Paris Sud XI, Centre d Orsay, Batiment 409, F 91405 Orsay cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 278:11849-57. 2003
    The role of hexose phosphorylating enzymes in the signaling of carbon catabolite repression was investigated in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans...
  88. doi Air pollution and homocysteine: more evidence that oxidative stress-related genes modify effects of particulate air pollution
    Cizao Ren
    Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Epidemiology 21:198-206. 2010
    ..We aimed to examine whether associations of PM2.5 and black carbon with homocysteine were modified by genotypes including HFE H63D, C282Y, CAT (rs480575, rs1001179, rs2284367, and ..
  89. doi Increasing the flow of carbon into seed oil
    Randall J Weselake
    Agricultural Lipid Biotechnology Program Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5
    Biotechnol Adv 27:866-78. 2009
    ..engineering to over-express/repress specific genes encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in the flow of carbon into seed oil has led to the development of transgenic lines with significant increases in seed oil content...
  90. ncbi Lipid particle composition of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica depends on the carbon source
    Karin Athenstaedt
    Institut fur Biochemie, Technische Universitat Graz, Graz, Austria
    Proteomics 6:1450-9. 2006
    ..Properties of LP varied depending on the carbon source...
  91. ncbi Mass + retention time = structure: a strategy for the analysis of N-glycans by carbon LC-ESI-MS and its application to fibrin N-glycans
    Martin Pabst
    Biochemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences BOKU, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria
    Anal Chem 79:5051-7. 2007
    ..Here we investigate the usefulness of porous graphitic carbon columns coupled to ESI-MS for the separation of N-glycans with two or more sialic acids...
  92. pmc A genome-scale metabolic model accurately predicts fluxes in central carbon metabolism under stress conditions
    Thomas C R Williams
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Plant Physiol 154:311-23. 2010
    ..Reactions of the central carbon metabolic network (glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle) ..
  93. doi Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants
    Kirk R Smith
    School of Public Health, University of alifornia, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
    Lancet 374:2091-103. 2009
    In this report we review the health effects of three short-lived greenhouse pollutants-black carbon, ozone, and sulphates...
  94. pmc The effects of components of fine particulate air pollution on mortality in california: results from CALFINE
    Bart Ostro
    Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 16th Floor, 1515 Clay St, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:13-9. 2007
    ..5 pm in diameter (PM2.5). Little is known, however, about the relative effects of PM2.5 constituents. We examined associations between 19 PM2.5 components and daily mortality in six California counties...
  95. pmc Inhalation vs. aspiration of single-walled carbon nanotubes in C57BL/6 mice: inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and mutagenesis
    A A Shvedova
    Health Effects Laboratory Div, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L552-65. 2008
    ..Because of their unique physicochemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are finding numerous applications in electronics, aerospace devices, computers, and chemical, ..
  96. ncbi Dynamics of large elongated RNA by NMR carbon relaxation
    Alexandar L Hansen
    Department of Chemistry and Biophysics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 129:16072-82. 2007
    ..TROSY-detected pulse sequences are presented for the accurate measurement of nucleobase carbon R1 and R1rho rates in large RNAs...
  97. pmc Carbon catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis: quantitative analysis of repression exerted by different carbon sources
    Kalpana D Singh
    Department of General Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Gottingen, Grisebachstr 8, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 190:7275-84. 2008
    In many bacteria glucose is the preferred carbon source and represses the utilization of secondary substrates...
  98. pmc Evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria: how many and which genes does it take to make C4?
    Udo Gowik
    Institute of Plant Molecular and Developmental Biology, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
    Plant Cell 23:2087-105. 2011
    ..CO(2) levels 55 to 40 million years ago promoted the evolution of a novel, highly efficient mode of photosynthetic carbon assimilation known as C(4) photosynthesis...
  99. pmc Contribution of Archaea to total prokaryotic production in the deep Atlantic Ocean
    Gerhard J Herndl
    Department of Biological Oceanography, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:2303-9. 2005
    ..The fraction of Crenarchaeota taking up inorganic carbon increased with depth, while Euryarchaeota taking up inorganic carbon decreased from 200 m to 3,000 m in depth...
  100. pmc Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension
    Min Wei
    Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000467. 2009
    ..or ethanol, did not adversely affect the life span extension induced by calorie restriction or starvation, suggesting that carbon source substitution may represent an alternative to calorie restriction as a strategy to delay aging.
  101. ncbi Structure validation by Calpha geometry: phi,psi and Cbeta deviation
    Simon C Lovell
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Proteins 50:437-50. 2003
    ..To run our geometrical evaluations on a user-uploaded file, see MOLPROBITY (http://kinemage.biochem.duke.edu) or RAMPAGE (http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/rampage)...

Research Grants89

  1. Vitamin B6 Effects on One-Carbon Metabolism
    Jesse F Gregory; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..its coenzyme form pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), B6 plays essential roles in the acquisition and processing of one-carbon (1C) units by the glycine cleavage system and serine hydroxymethyltransferase, inter conversion and catabolism of ..
  2. Dietary Methyl Score, Genomic DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2010
    One-carbon metabolism is a critical pathway in cancer epigenetics because it directs the methylation of DNA and RNA and is involved in DNA synthesis and repair. There is no good systemic marker of one-carbon metabolism status...
  3. Dietary Methyl Score, Genomic DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer
    Eunyoung Cho; Fiscal Year: 2009
    One-carbon metabolism is a critical pathway in cancer epigenetics because it directs the methylation of DNA and RNA and is involved in DNA synthesis and repair. There is no good systemic marker of one-carbon metabolism status...
  4. MECHANISMS OF CARBON-CARBON LYASES AND KYNURENINASE
    Robert Phillips; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..These enzymes catalyze unusual elimination reactions with carbon leaving groups, and thus require chemical steps involving the leaving groups in order for the reactions to proceed...
  5. Biomarkers for Arsenic Toxicity: Genetics, Epigenetics and Folate
    MARY VELESCA GAMBLE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..inorganic As (InAs) is methylated to methylarsonic (MMA) and dimethylarsinic (DMA) acids via folate- dependent one-carbon metabolism. A reduced capacity to fully methylate As to DMA is associated with reduced urinary elimination of As...
  6. BIOLOGICALLY RELATED IRON-SULFUR CHEMISTRY
    RICHARD HADLEY HOLM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These include the clusters found in nitrogenase and nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, which catalyse the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia and the interconversion of carbon ..
  7. Biomarkers for Arsenic Toxicity: Genetics, Epigenetics and Folate
    MARY VELESCA GAMBLE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..inorganic As (InAs) is methylated to methylarsonic (MMA) and dimethylarsinic (DMA) acids via folate- dependent one-carbon metabolism. A reduced capacity to fully methylate As to DMA is associated with reduced urinary elimination of As...
  8. Catalytic Methods for Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation
    F Toste; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Several new gold(I) catalyzed carbon-carbon formatting reactions are proposed. In general, these reactions involve activation of alkynes or allenes by coordination to cationic gold(I) complexes...
  9. MOLECULAR BASIS AND ENZYMOLOGY OF MICROBIAL BIOSYNTHESIS
    F Tabita; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..PRK), this pathway functions in a purely biosynthetic mode, such that organisms gain the capacity to use carbon dioxide as the sole source of carbon...
  10. LUNG DRUG DELIVERY WITH CARBON DIOXIDE AEROSOL INHALERS
    Brian Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the patients that need them the most, and the global warming potential is 1300 times higher for HFA-134a than for carbon dioxide...
  11. Role of Physico-chemical Properties in the Reprotoxicity of Inhaled Cd NP.
    JUDITH TERRY ZELIKOFF; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Most non-carbon NP contain one or more toxicologically-active metals, including cadmium (Cd)...
  12. Role of Physico-chemical Properties in the Reprotoxicity of Inhaled Cd NP.
    Judith Zelikoff; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Most non-carbon NP contain one or more toxicologically-active metals, including cadmium (Cd)...
  13. A Prospective Study of Colorectal Cancer: One-Carbon Metabolism and Inflammation
    Cornelia M Ulrich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the role of genetic variability and biomarkers in two specific pathways - inflammation and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism - in colorectal cancer etiology within a large cohort of women...
  14. A Prospective Study of Colorectal Cancer: One-Carbon Metabolism and Inflammation
    Cornelia Ulrich; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the role of genetic variability and biomarkers in two specific pathways - inflammation and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism - in colorectal cancer etiology within a large cohort of women...
  15. Late Metal-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reaction of Enolate Nucleophiles
    John F Hartwig; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We also plan to study the allylation processes using new classes of ligands that are isoelectronic with those in the active catalyst. ..
  16. Late Metal-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reaction of Enolate Nucleophiles
    John Hartwig; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We also plan to study the allylation processes using new classes of ligands that are isoelectronic with those in the active catalyst. ..
  17. CARBON MONOXIDE IN NEWBORN CEREBRAL CIRCULATION
    CHARLES LEFFLER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The gas, carbon monoxide (CO), is produced physiologically by catabolism of heme via heme oxygenase...
  18. Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions Via C-H Activation
    Jonathan A Ellman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Transition metal catalyzed carbon-carbon bond forming reactions such as metal-catalyzed cross-coupling and alkene metathesis have become some of the most extensively used reactions in the synthesis of ..
  19. Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions Via C-H Activation
    Jonathan A Ellman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Transition metal catalyzed carbon-carbon bond forming reactions such as metal-catalyzed cross-coupling and alkene metathesis have become some of the most extensively used reactions in the synthesis of important pharmaceutical agents and ..
  20. Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions Via C-H Activation
    JONATHAN ELLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Transition metal catalyzed carbon-carbon bond forming reactions such as metal-catalyzed cross-coupling and alkene metathesis have become some of the most extensively used reactions in the synthesis of important pharmaceutical agents and ..
  21. Development of methods and models for nanoparticle toxicity screening: Applicatio
    Andre Nel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..this study will consider fullerene-based materials, comparing them with, (i) reference standards (TiO2 and carbon black); (ii) ultrafine particles obtained from an urban airshed (well characterized by in vitro toxicology studies)..
  22. Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Implantable Neural Electrodes
    Douglas Adamson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..R01 project focuses on the design of a novel class of nanomaterials for neurobiological applications based on carbon nanotube fibers (CNF)...
  23. Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Implantable Neural Electrodes
    Douglas Adamson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..R01 project focuses on the design of a novel class of nanomaterials for neurobiological applications based on carbon nanotube fibers (CNF)...
  24. GENETIC EFFECTS-FOLATE-DEPENDENT ONE-CARBON METABOLISM
    JESSE GREGORY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION: One-carbon (Cl) metabolism consists of the generation of carbon units for use in cellular processes including DNA synthesis, regeneration of methionine (Met) from homocysteine (Hcy), and methylation of many biological ..
  25. Carbon Nanotubes as Multi-functional Spectroscopic Markers and Delivery Agents fo
    Hongjie Dai; Fiscal Year: 2009
    One of our long-term objectives in the nano-biotechnology area is to develop highly biocompatible carbon nanotube biological conjugates for targeted imaging, drug delivery and cancer therapy...
  26. SECRETION FROM INDIVIDUAL VESICLES
    Robert Wightman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Amperometry at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (with an applied potential sufficient to oxidize catecholamines) placed next to an isolated ..