kynurenic acid

Summary

Summary: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Kynurenic acid is a potent endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that synergistically induces interleukin-6 in the presence of inflammatory signaling
    Brett C Dinatale
    Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16803, USA
    Toxicol Sci 115:89-97. 2010
  2. pmc Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition in blood ameliorates neurodegeneration
    Daniel Zwilling
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 145:863-74. 2011
  3. pmc The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Mol Neurosci 40:204-10. 2010
  4. ncbi The commissure of the inferior colliculus shapes frequency response areas in rat: an in vivo study using reversible blockade with microinjection of kynurenic acid
    Manuel S Malmierca
    Laboratory for the Neurobiology of Hearing, Institute for Neuroscience of Castilla y León and Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
    Exp Brain Res 153:522-9. 2003
  5. ncbi The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia
    Sophie Erhardt
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Stockholm, Sweden
    Physiol Behav 92:203-9. 2007
  6. ncbi On the antioxidant properties of kynurenic acid: free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of oxidative stress
    R Lugo-Huitrón
    Laboratorio de Aminoácidos Excitadores, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, S S A, México D F 14269, Mexico
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:538-47. 2011
  7. ncbi Kynurenic acid: a metabolite with multiple actions and multiple targets in brain and periphery
    Flavio Moroni
    Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy
    J Neural Transm 119:133-9. 2012
  8. ncbi Increased cortical kynurenate content in schizophrenia
    R Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 50:521-30. 2001
  9. ncbi Pharmacological manipulation of kynurenic acid: potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders
    Sophie Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    CNS Drugs 23:91-101. 2009
  10. ncbi GPR35 is a functional receptor in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons
    Hiroyuki Ohshiro
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Discovery Biology Research, 5 2 Taketoyo, Aichi 470 2393, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 365:344-8. 2008

Detail Information

Publications285 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Kynurenic acid is a potent endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that synergistically induces interleukin-6 in the presence of inflammatory signaling
    Brett C Dinatale
    Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16803, USA
    Toxicol Sci 115:89-97. 2010
    ..We screened the metabolites of this pathway for their ability to activate the AHR; results revealed that kynurenic acid (KA) is an efficient agonist for the human AHR...
  2. pmc Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition in blood ameliorates neurodegeneration
    Daniel Zwilling
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 145:863-74. 2011
    ..and free radical formation have been correlated with decreased levels of the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of JM6, a small-molecule prodrug inhibitor of kynurenine ..
  3. pmc The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Mol Neurosci 40:204-10. 2010
    ..hypothesized that these impairments may be secondary to increased levels of the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which inhibits alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7AChR) and may thereby reduce glutamate ..
  4. ncbi The commissure of the inferior colliculus shapes frequency response areas in rat: an in vivo study using reversible blockade with microinjection of kynurenic acid
    Manuel S Malmierca
    Laboratory for the Neurobiology of Hearing, Institute for Neuroscience of Castilla y León and Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
    Exp Brain Res 153:522-9. 2003
    ..In this study, we injected the glutamate receptor blocker kynurenic acid into one IC while recording the frequency response areas (FRAs) of neurons in the other, to test the ..
  5. ncbi The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia
    Sophie Erhardt
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Stockholm, Sweden
    Physiol Behav 92:203-9. 2007
    ..b>Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl-D-..
  6. ncbi On the antioxidant properties of kynurenic acid: free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of oxidative stress
    R Lugo-Huitrón
    Laboratorio de Aminoácidos Excitadores, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, S S A, México D F 14269, Mexico
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:538-47. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway for tryptophan degradation and an antagonist of both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nACh) receptors...
  7. ncbi Kynurenic acid: a metabolite with multiple actions and multiple targets in brain and periphery
    Flavio Moroni
    Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy
    J Neural Transm 119:133-9. 2012
    It is usually assumed that kynurenic acid (KYNA) modifies neuronal function because it antagonizes the glycine site of the NMDA receptors and/or the neuronal cholinergic α7 nicotine receptors...
  8. ncbi Increased cortical kynurenate content in schizophrenia
    R Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 50:521-30. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate an impairment of brain kynurenine pathway metabolism in schizophrenia, resulting in elevated kynurenate levels and suggesting a possible concomitant reduction in glutamate receptor function...
  9. ncbi Pharmacological manipulation of kynurenic acid: potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders
    Sophie Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    CNS Drugs 23:91-101. 2009
    ..quinolinic acid is an excitotoxic NMDA receptor agonist, 3-hydroxykynurenine is a free-radical generator and kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist at glutamate and nicotinic receptors...
  10. ncbi GPR35 is a functional receptor in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons
    Hiroyuki Ohshiro
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Discovery Biology Research, 5 2 Taketoyo, Aichi 470 2393, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 365:344-8. 2008
    GPR35, previously an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, is a receptor for kynurenic acid. Here we examine the distribution of GPR35 in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the effects of its selective activation...
  11. pmc Mechanisms of activation, inhibition and specificity: crystal structures of the NMDA receptor NR1 ligand-binding core
    Hiroyasu Furukawa
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 650 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    EMBO J 22:2873-85. 2003
    ..In addition, the NR1 S1S2 structure reveals the fold and interactions of loop 1, a cysteine-rich region implicated in intersubunit allostery...
  12. pmc The kynurenine pathway modulates neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease
    Susanna Campesan
    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Curr Biol 21:961-6. 2011
    ..inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) increases levels of the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) relative to the neurotoxic metabolite 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and ameliorates neurodegeneration...
  13. ncbi Increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity and elevated serum levels of tryptophan catabolites in patients with chronic kidney disease: a possible link between chronic inflammation and uraemic symptoms
    Jörg C Schefold
    Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care, Charite University Medicine, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin, Germany
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 24:1901-8. 2009
    ..Here we investigate Trp catabolism, IDO activity and the role of inflammation in moderate to very severe CKD and haemodialysis...
  14. ncbi Electrophysiological characterisation of the actions of kynurenic acid at ligand-gated ion channels
    M H Selina Mok
    Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, United Kingdom
    Neuropharmacology 57:242-9. 2009
    To better understand the effects of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (kynA) in the brain, we characterised its actions at five ligand-gated ion channels: NMDA, AMPA, GABA(A), glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  15. ncbi G-protein coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) activation and inflammatory pain: Studies on the antinociceptive effects of kynurenic acid and zaprinast
    Cristina Cosi
    Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 60:1227-31. 2011
    G-protein coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) is a former "orphan receptor" expressed in brain and activated by either kynurenic acid or zaprinast...
  16. ncbi Presynaptic kynurenate-sensitive receptors inhibit glutamate release
    R Carpenedo
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, Viale Pieraccini 6, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 13:2141-7. 2001
    b>Kynurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite provided with antagonist activity on ionotropic glutamate and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  17. ncbi Kynurenic acid levels are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia
    S Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurosci Lett 313:96-8. 2001
    b>Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor...
  18. ncbi Kynurenic acid influences the respiratory parameters of rat heart mitochondria
    H Baran
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary University Vienna, Austria
    Pharmacology 62:119-23. 2001
    In the present study the effect of L-kynurenine, kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid on the heart mitochondrial function were investigated...
  19. ncbi Interaction and transport of kynurenic acid via human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3
    Yuichi Uwai
    Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1 100 Kusumoto cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya shi, Japan
    Pharmacol Res 65:254-60. 2012
    b>Kynurenic acid, a catabolite of tryptophan, is suggested to be involved in schizophrenia, and is known to be a uremic toxin, although there is little information about the mechanism of its disposition...
  20. ncbi An expanding range of targets for kynurenine metabolites of tryptophan
    Trevor W Stone
    Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 34:136-43. 2013
    ..b>Kynurenic acid blocks NMDARs and α7-homomeric nicotinic cholinoceptors and is also an agonist at the orphan G-protein-..
  21. ncbi Hyperglycemia enhances the inhibitory effect of mitochondrial toxins and D,L-homocysteine on the brain production of kynurenic acid
    Iwona Chmiel-Perzyńska
    Family Medicine Department, Skubiszewski Medical University of Lublin, Staszica 13, PL 20 081 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 59:268-73. 2007
    We have evaluated the effect of diabetes-mimicking conditions on the inhibition of kynurenic acid (KYNA) production exerted by mitochondrial toxins: 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), by endogenous agonists of ..
  22. pmc The BTBR mouse model of autism spectrum disorders has learning and attentional impairments and alterations in acetylcholine and kynurenic acid in prefrontal cortex
    Stephanie M McTighe
    Neuroscience Research Unit, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e62189. 2013
    ..accuracy in detecting short stimuli, lower basal levels of extracellular acetylcholine and higher levels of kynurenic acid within the prefrontal cortex...
  23. ncbi Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid is associated with manic and psychotic features in patients with bipolar I disorder
    Sara K Olsson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Bipolar Disord 14:719-26. 2012
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an end metabolite of tryptophan degradation, antagonizes glutamatergic and cholinergic receptors in the brain...
  24. ncbi Prolonged kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition reduces development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys
    Laurent Gregoire
    Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Research Center, CHUQ, CHUL Pavillon and Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Quebec, PQ, Canada
    Behav Brain Res 186:161-7. 2008
    ..This was tested pharmacologically in MPTP monkeys by increasing the formation of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite that inhibits glutamate release and also blocks NMDA receptors directly...
  25. pmc Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: linkage through astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid?
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:652-3. 2007
  26. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits intestinal hypermotility and xanthine oxidase activity during experimental colon obstruction in dogs
    J Kaszaki
    Institute of Surgical Research, Szent Györgyi Albert Medical and Pharmaceutical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 20:53-62. 2008
    b>Kynurenic acid (KynA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, protects the central nervous system in excitotoxic neurological diseases...
  27. pmc Age dependency of inhibition of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and tonically active N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by endogenously produced kynurenic acid in the brain
    Manickavasagom Alkondon
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 S Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337:572-82. 2011
    In the mouse hippocampus normal levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite synthesized in astrocytes primarily by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II)-catalyzed transamination of L-kynurenine, maintain a degree of tonic ..
  28. ncbi Presence of kynurenic acid in food and honeybee products
    Michal P Turski
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20 950, Lublin, Poland
    Amino Acids 36:75-80. 2009
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors and the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, showing anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity...
  29. ncbi Time course of changes in the concentration of kynurenic acid in the brain of pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats
    Piotr Maciejak
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, 26 28 Krakowskie Przedmiescie Street, 00 927 Warsaw, Poland
    Brain Res Bull 78:299-305. 2009
    The time response of changes in the brain concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA) was examined in rats subjected to the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling of seizures (n=32)...
  30. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits circulatory responses to intracisternally injected L-proline in conscious rats
    Y Takemoto
    Department of Physiology II, Hiroshima University Faculty of Medicine, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 261:121-3. 1999
    ..Prior injection of kynurenic acid (0...
  31. ncbi Kynurenic acid and schizophrenia
    Sophie Erhardt
    Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Adv Exp Med Biol 527:155-65. 2003
    ..Thus, schizophrenia may be regarded as a glutamate deficiency disorder. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycinesite of the N-methyl D-..
  32. ncbi l-kynurenine combined with probenecid and the novel synthetic kynurenic acid derivative attenuate nitroglycerin-induced nNOS in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus
    Eniko Vamos
    Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neuropharmacology 57:425-9. 2009
    ..b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its analogues may exert modulatory effects in many neuropathological conditions, probably via N-..
  33. ncbi Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of male patients with schizophrenia
    L K Nilsson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Schizophr Res 80:315-22. 2005
    Previous studies have shown that endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a glutamate receptor antagonist, are elevated in patients with schizophrenia...
  34. ncbi The brain metabolite kynurenic acid inhibits alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity and increases non-alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression: physiopathological implications
    C Hilmas
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 21:7463-73. 2001
    The tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) has long been recognized as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Here, interactions between KYNA and the nicotinic system in the brain were investigated using the patch-clamp technique and HPLC...
  35. pmc Modulation of glycine potency in rat recombinant NMDA receptors containing chimeric NR2A/2D subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes
    Philip E Chen
    Centre for Neuroscience Research, Hugh Robson Building, University of Edinburgh, George Square, Edinburgh, UK
    J Physiol 586:227-45. 2008
    ....
  36. ncbi Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35
    Jinghong Wang
    Amgen Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:22021-8. 2006
    ..previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, functions as a receptor for the kynurenine pathway intermediate kynurenic acid. Kynurenic acid elicits calcium mobilization and inositol phosphate production in a GPR35-dependent manner in ..
  37. ncbi Kynurenines in chronic neurodegenerative disorders: future therapeutic strategies
    D Zadori
    Department of Neurology, Albert Szent Gyorgyi Clinical Centre, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    J Neural Transm 116:1403-9. 2009
    ..considerations, possibilities that come into account include increasing the neuroprotective effect of kynurenic acid, or decreasing the levels of neurotoxic 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid...
  38. ncbi Nanomolar concentrations of kynurenic acid reduce extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum
    Arash Rassoulpour
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Neurochem 93:762-5. 2005
    ..We report here that nanomolar concentrations of the astrocyte-derived neuroinhibitory metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) potently reduce the extracellular levels of striatal dopamine in unanesthetized rats in vivo...
  39. ncbi Manipulation of brain kynurenines: glial targets, neuronal effects, and clinical opportunities
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:1-10. 2002
    ..NMDA) receptor agonist quinolinic acid, and the NMDA and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist kynurenic acid. The ambient levels of these compounds are determined by several KP enzymes, which in the brain are ..
  40. ncbi N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism decreases motility and inflammatory activation in the early phase of acute experimental colitis in the rat
    G Varga
    Institute of Surgical Research, Szent Györgyi Albert Medical and Pharmaceutical Centre, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:217-25, e68. 2010
    ....
  41. pmc Reduction of endogenous kynurenic acid formation enhances extracellular glutamate, hippocampal plasticity, and cognitive behavior
    Michelle C Potter
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1734-42. 2010
    At endogenous brain concentrations, the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) antagonizes the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor...
  42. ncbi Neuropharmacology of quinolinic and kynurenic acids
    T W Stone
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Glasgow, Scotland
    Pharmacol Rev 45:309-79. 1993
    ..The pathway includes two compounds, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, which are remarkably specific in their pharmacological profiles: one is a selective agonist at receptors ..
  43. ncbi Kynurenic acid in human saliva--does it influence oral microflora?
    Damian Kuc
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, PL 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 58:393-8. 2006
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and all ionotropic glutamate receptors. Its neuroprotective activity has been suggested...
  44. ncbi Kynurenic acid synthesis and kynurenine aminotransferases expression in colon derived normal and cancer cells
    Katarzyna Walczak
    Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
    Scand J Gastroenterol 46:903-12. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite, was found in human saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice and mucus of rat small intestine.
  45. ncbi Kynurenic acid has a dual action on AMPA receptor responses
    Christina Prescott
    Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Neurosci Lett 402:108-12. 2006
    ..Here we demonstrate that kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, acts upon heterologous AMPA receptors via two distinct mechanisms...
  46. ncbi Competitive antagonism between the nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand galantamine and kynurenic acid at alpha7* nicotinic receptors
    Cristiane Lopes
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322:48-58. 2007
    Galantamine, a drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand, and kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is an endogenous noncompetitive inhibitor of alpha7* ..
  47. ncbi Determination of kynurenic acid in human serum and its correlation with the concentration of certain amino acids
    Takeshi Fukushima
    Division of Bio Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52 1 Yada, Suruga ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    Clin Chim Acta 377:174-8. 2007
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA)--a tryptophan metabolite--elicits antagonistic activity against glutaminergic and cholinergic receptors; it has been suggested to have some relationship with neurological disorders...
  48. ncbi L-cysteine sulphinate, endogenous sulphur-containing amino acid, inhibits rat brain kynurenic acid production via selective interference with kynurenine aminotransferase II
    Tomasz Kocki
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Neurosci Lett 346:97-100. 2003
    ..L-cysteate, L-homocysteine sulphinate and L-homocysteate, on the production of glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), was evaluated. The experiments comprised the measurements of (a)...
  49. ncbi IDO and interferon-alpha-induced depressive symptoms: a shift in hypothesis from tryptophan depletion to neurotoxicity
    M C Wichers
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mol Psychiatry 10:538-44. 2005
    ..Measurements of TRP, amino acids competing with TRP for entrance through the blood-brain barrier, KYN and kynurenic acid (KA), a neuroprotective metabolite, were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography...
  50. ncbi Serum kynurenic acid positively correlates with cardiovascular disease risk factor, homocysteine: a study in stroke patients
    Ewa M Urbanska
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Skubiszewski Medical University in Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, PL 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 58:507-11. 2006
    ..001; r = 0.6401), and with urea level (p = 0.017; r = 0.4813). Clinical significance of the association between serum KYNA and homocysteine levels requires further investigation...
  51. ncbi Induction of the kynurenine pathway by neurotropic influenza A virus infection
    Maria Holtze
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurosci Res 86:3674-83. 2008
    ..b>Kynurenic acid, an end product of tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway, is an endogenous NMDA receptor ..
  52. ncbi Kynurenine 3-mono-oxygenase inhibitors attenuate post-ischemic neuronal death in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures
    Raffaella Carpenedo
    Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita di Firenze, Firenze, Italy
    J Neurochem 82:1465-71. 2002
    ..3-HK) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) neosynthesis and facilitate kynurenine metabolism towards kynurenic acid (KYNA) formation...
  53. ncbi Synergistic effect of the L-tryptophan and kynurenic acid with dipyrone or paracetamol in mice
    Nayrton Flávio Moura Rocha
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Ceara, CEP 60430 270, Brazil
    Chem Biol Interact 205:148-56. 2013
    Our great interest in this work was study the synergism between l-tryptophan and dipyrone or paracetamol as well as the interaction of kynurenic acid (l-tryptophan metabolite) and these analgesics agents utilizing a robust methodology.
  54. ncbi Endothelium-dependent production and liberation of kynurenic acid by rat aortic rings exposed to L-kynurenine
    Janusz Stazka
    Department of Cardiosurgery, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Eur J Pharmacol 448:133-7. 2002
    Rat aortic slices produced and liberated the endogenous antagonist of glutamate receptors, kynurenic acid, upon exposure to L-kynurenine...
  55. pmc GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses
    Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, Section of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    PLoS ONE 8:e82180. 2013
    ..Limited information is available on the brain expression and role of GPR35, a Gi/o coupled receptor activated by kynurenic acid (KYNA). In mouse cultured astrocytes, we detected GPR35 transcript using RT-PCR and we found that KYNA (0...
  56. ncbi Regulation of kynurenic acid synthesis in C6 glioma cells
    Tomasz Kocki
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    J Neurosci Res 68:622-6. 2002
    Studies with brain slices have provided evidence that synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA) from kynurenine (KYN), which occurs in astrocytes, is modulated by changes in the ionic composition of the medium and the presence of depolarizing ..
  57. ncbi Kynurenic acid enhances expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 in colon cancer HT-29 cells
    Katarzyna Walczak
    Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Rural Health, Jaczewskiego 2, PL 20 950 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 64:745-50. 2012
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite, was found in the mucus of rat small intestine. However, its role in the gastrointestinal tract is still not fully elucidated.
  58. pmc Cortical kynurenic acid bi-directionally modulates prefrontal glutamate levels as assessed by microdialysis and rapid electrochemistry
    A Konradsson-Geuken
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neuroscience 169:1848-59. 2010
    ..this study examined the modulation of extracellular glutamate levels by endogenously produced kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of awake rats. Measured by microdialysis, i.p...
  59. ncbi Kynurenic acid in human renal cell carcinoma: its antiproliferative and antimigrative action on Caki-2 cells
    Katarzyna Walczak
    Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20 950, Lublin, Poland
    Amino Acids 43:1663-70. 2012
    ..Taking into account a considerably high concentration of one of the tryptophan metabolites, kynurenic acid (KYNA) in this organ and previously reported antiproliferative activity against colon cancer cells in vitro, ..
  60. ncbi Stacking interaction and its role in kynurenic acid binding to glutamate ionotropic receptors
    Alexander V Zhuravlev
    Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Science, St Petersburg, Russia
    J Mol Model 18:1755-66. 2012
    ..with glutamate ionotropic receptors (iGluRs), in particular, the complex of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit with the kynurenic acid (KYNA) derivatives...
  61. pmc Increased levels of kynurenine and kynurenic acid in the CSF of patients with schizophrenia
    Klas R Linderholm
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Nanna Svartz vag 2, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Schizophr Bull 38:426-32. 2012
    The kynurenic acid (KYNA) hypothesis for schizophrenia is partly based on studies showing increased brain levels of KYNA in patients...
  62. ncbi The neuroprotector kynurenic acid increases neuronal cell survival through neprilysin induction
    Christian Klein
    Biopathologie de Myéline, Neuroprotection et Stratégies Thérapeutiques, INSERM U1119, Universite de Strasbourg, Faculte de Medecine, 11 rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Neuropharmacology 70:254-60. 2013
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of the main product of the kynurenine pathway originating from tryptophan, is considered to be neuroprotective...
  63. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits glutamatergic transmission to CA1 pyramidal neurons via α7 nAChR-dependent and -independent mechanisms
    Jyotirmoy Banerjee
    Division of Translational Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 84:1078-87. 2012
    Glutamatergic hypofunction and elevated levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brain are common features of patients with schizophrenia...
  64. ncbi Different inhibitory effects of kynurenic acid and a novel kynurenic acid analogue on tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by mononuclear cells, HMGB1 production by monocytes and HNP1-3 secretion by neutrophils
    Zoltán Tiszlavicz
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 383:447-55. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KynA), a broad spectrum antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors, may serve as a protective agent in neurological disorders...
  65. ncbi Kynurenic acid in synovial fluid and serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, and osteoarthritis
    Jolanta Parada-Turska
    Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    J Rheumatol 40:903-9. 2013
    Previously we demonstrated that kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous metabolite of kynurenine, is present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). KYNA inhibits proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro...
  66. ncbi Relationship of neurologic status in macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus to cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid
    M P Heyes
    Section of Analytical Biochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Brain Res 570:237-50. 1992
    ..Increases in serum QUIN and CSF kynurenic acid also occurred but generally to a lesser degree than the increases in CSF QUIN...
  67. pmc Kynurenic acid in plasma and endometrium in bitches with pyometra
    Roman Dabrowski
    Department and Clinic of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głeboka 30, 20 612, Lublin, Poland
    Inflammation 36:131-5. 2013
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is produced enzymatically in humans and animals from kynurenine. Reports concerning changes of kynurenine metabolism during inflammation are available in the literature...
  68. ncbi Plasma kynurenic acid/tryptophan ratio: a sensitive and reliable biomarker for the assessment of renal function
    Jianxing Zhao
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Ruijin Hospital and Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    Ren Fail 35:648-53. 2013
    Decreased tryptophan (TRP) and increased kynurenine (KYN) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) in blood have been reported in patients and experimental animals with renal diseases...
  69. ncbi Kynurenic acid in honey from arboreal plants: MS and NMR evidence
    Giangiacomo Beretta
    Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica Pietro Pratesi, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Planta Med 73:1592-5. 2007
    ..Moreover, kynureninates, owing to their antimicrobial properties, can favour the successful outcome of wounds and burns...
  70. ncbi Micromolar concentration of kynurenic acid in rat small intestine
    D Kuc
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    Amino Acids 35:503-5. 2008
    b>Kynurenic acid is an antagonist of glutamate and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and an agonist of the G: -protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in immune and gastrointestinal tissues...
  71. ncbi Pharmacologically elevated levels of endogenous kynurenic acid prevent nicotine-induced activation of nigral dopamine neurons
    S Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 363:21-7. 2001
    ..The aim of the present electrophysiological study was to investigate if manipulation of brain kynurenic acid, an endogenous excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, can affect the response of nigral dopamine neurons ..
  72. ncbi Endogenous kynurenines as targets for drug discovery and development
    Trevor W Stone
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 1:609-20. 2002
    ..As a result, the pathway presents a multitude of potential sites for drug discovery in neuroscience, oncology and visceral pathology...
  73. pmc Early developmental elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility in adults: reversal with galantamine
    K S Alexander
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    Neuroscience 238:19-28. 2013
    Levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) antagonist, are elevated in the brain of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and might contribute to the pathophysiology and cognitive deficits ..
  74. ncbi beta-adrenergic enhancement of brain kynurenic acid production mediated via cAMP-related protein kinase A signaling
    Elzbieta Luchowska
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Skubiszewski Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:519-29. 2009
    The central levels of endogenous tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), an antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha7-nicotinic receptors, affect glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission...
  75. ncbi Dual effect of DL-homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine on brain synthesis of the glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid
    E Luchowska
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Skubiszewski Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
    J Neurosci Res 79:375-82. 2005
    ..The effect of homocysteine and metabolically related compounds on brain production of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of glutamate ionotropic receptors, was studied...
  76. pmc Fluctuations in endogenous kynurenic acid control hippocampal glutamate and memory
    Ana Pocivavsek
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:2357-67. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived metabolite, antagonizes the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor at endogenous brain concentrations...
  77. ncbi Kynurenic acid in ALS patients
    Y Iwasaki
    Acta Neurol Scand 109:236; author reply 437. 2004
  78. ncbi Endogenous activation of nAChRs and NMDA receptors contributes to the excitability of CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons in rat hippocampal slices: effects of kynurenic acid
    Manickavasagom Alkondon
    Division of Translational Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 S Pine Street, Suite 900, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States
    Biochem Pharmacol 82:842-51. 2011
    ..b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived kynurenine metabolite whose levels are increased in the brains of patients with ..
  79. ncbi Ammonia at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations activates kynurenic acid synthesis in cultured astrocytes and neurons
    Katarzyna Wejksza
    Department of Virology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20 033 Lublin, Poland
    Neurotoxicology 27:619-22. 2006
    The synthesis of the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added kynurenine was measured in cultured cerebral cortical neurons, cortical astrocytes and an oligodendroglial cell line OLN-93, incubated ..
  80. ncbi The pentylenetetrazole-induced activity in the hippocampus can be inhibited by the conversion of L-kynurenine to kynurenic acid: an in vitro study
    Eva Rozsa
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, POB 533, H 6701 Szeged, Hungary
    Brain Res Bull 76:474-9. 2008
    ..including L-kynurenine, which in turn can be converted into the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid. The ionotropic glutamate receptors have been considered to be attractive targets for new anticonvulsants in ..
  81. ncbi Alteration of kynurenic acid concentration in rat plasma following optically pure kynurenine administration: a comparative study between enantiomers
    Takeshi Fukushima
    Division of Bio Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
    Chirality 21:468-72. 2009
    L-Kynurenine (KYN), a tryptophan metabolite, is metabolized to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which is an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, by kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) I and KAT II...
  82. ncbi Enhancement of brain kynurenic acid production by anticonvulsants--novel mechanism of antiepileptic activity?
    Tomasz Kocki
    Department of Pharmacology, Skubiszewski Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    Eur J Pharmacol 541:147-51. 2006
    In this study, we describe the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the production of kynurenic acid in rat cortical slices, and on the activity of kynurenic acid biosynthetic enzymes, kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs I and II) in the brain ..
  83. ncbi Changes in the plasma concentrations of D-kynurenine and kynurenic acid in rats after intraperitoneal administration of tryptophan enantiomers
    Kana Ishii
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi shi, Chiba 274 8510, Japan
    Chirality 22:901-6. 2010
    ..The time-course profiles of the rat plasma concentrations of D-kynurenine (KYN), L-KYN, and kynurenic acid (KYNA), which are metabolites of D- or L-Trp, were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (..
  84. ncbi Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants
    Michal P Turski
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
    Planta Med 77:858-64. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as well as an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35...
  85. ncbi Kynurenic acid, an endogenous constituent of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid, inhibits proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro
    Jolanta Parada-Turska
    Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20 950 Lublin, Poland
    Rheumatol Int 26:422-6. 2006
    b>Kynurenic acid is an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors. It has been found that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of different human tumor cells...
  86. ncbi Radical scavenging properties of tryptophan metabolites. Estimation of their radical reactivity
    K Goda
    Faculty of Nutrition, Kobe Gakuin University, Japan
    Adv Exp Med Biol 467:397-402. 1999
    ..the reactivity of the second group (xanthurenic acid, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin) is similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); the third group (kynurenic acid, melatonin, and other ones) is less reactive than BHT.
  87. ncbi Modulation of quinolinic and kynurenic acid content in the rat brain: effects of endotoxins and nicotinylalanine
    F Moroni
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Italy
    J Neurochem 57:1630-5. 1991
    Quinolinic acid, an endogenous excitotoxin, and kynurenic acid, an antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors, are believed to be synthesized from tryptophan after the opening of the indole ring...
  88. ncbi Curiosity to kill the KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase): structural insights into brain kynurenic acid synthesis
    Franca Rossi
    DiSCAFF Department of Chemical, Food, Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale A Avogadro, I 28100 Novara, Italy
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 18:748-55. 2008
    Kynurenine aminotransferases are pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, which catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid, a highly neuroactive metabolite whose impairment is associated with a number of severe brain disorders...
  89. ncbi Kynurenic acid synthesis in cerebral cortical slices of rats with progressing symptoms of thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy
    Tomasz Saran
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    J Neurosci Res 75:436-40. 2004
    ..vitro and in vivo inhibits the production of a broad-spectrum antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors, kynurenic acid (KYNA)...
  90. ncbi Clenbuterol enhances the production of kynurenic acid in brain cortical slices and glial cultures
    Elzbieta Luchowska
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Skubiszewski Medical School, Jaczewskiego 8, PL 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 60:574-7. 2008
    The effect of a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol on the production of a glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid was studied in vitro. Clenbuterol enhanced the production of kynurenic acid in brain cortical slices (0.1-1...
  91. pmc Neuroprotection by acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate against NMDA-induced RGC damage in rat--possible involvement of kynurenic acid
    Sebastian Thaler
    Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 248:1729-35. 2010
    ..Additionally, the influence of ACA and BHB on kynurenic acid (KYNA) production was assessed in vitro in bovine retinal slices.
  92. ncbi Changes in extracellular kynurenic acid concentrations in rat prefrontal cortex after D-kynurenine infusion: an in vivo microdialysis study
    Tadahiro Ogaya
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi shi, Chiba, Japan
    Neurochem Res 35:559-63. 2010
    ..used column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography to assess the alterations in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA)-an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors-in the extracellular ..
  93. ncbi The peripheral antinociceptive effects of endomorphin-1 and kynurenic acid in the rat inflamed joint model
    Laszlo Mecs
    Department of Orthopedics, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Anesth Analg 109:1297-304. 2009
    ..the antinociceptive potency of the endogenous opioid peptide, endomorphin-1 (EM1), and the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), and their interaction at the peripheral level in the rat inflamed joint model.
  94. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits the release of the neurotrophic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and enhances proliferation of glia cells, in vitro
    Claudia Di Serio
    Department of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery, Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Florence, School of Medicine, Viale Pieraccini n 6, Florence, 50139, Italy
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 25:981-93. 2005
    ..4. Our data suggest that minor changes of local KYNA concentration may modulate FGF-1 release, cell proliferation, and ultimately tissue damage in different pathological conditions...
  95. ncbi High tryptophan diet reduces extracellular dopamine release via kynurenic acid production in rat striatum
    Alato Okuno
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Human Cultures, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga, Japan
    J Neurochem 118:796-805. 2011
    At endogenous brain concentrations, the neuroinhibitory tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)...
  96. ncbi Increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of D retrovirus-infected rhesus macaques: relationship to clinical and viral status
    M P Heyes
    Section on Analytical Biochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Ann Neurol 27:666-75. 1990
    ..b>Kynurenic acid, an antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors as well as the excitotoxic effects of quinolinic acid, was ..
  97. ncbi The kynurenate analog SZR-72 prevents the nitroglycerol-induced increase of c-fos immunoreactivity in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus: comparative studies of the effects of SZR-72 and kynurenic acid
    E Knyihar-Csillik
    Department of Neurology, Albert Szent Gyorgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, 6 Semmelweis utca, H 6726 Szeged, Hungary
    Neurosci Res 61:429-32. 2008
    ..and second-order trigeminal neurons are mediated by excitatory amino acids, NMDA receptors are inhibited by kynurenic acid, though this crosses the blood-brain barrier only poorly...
  98. ncbi The Janus-face kynurenic acid
    Eva Rozsa
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    J Neural Transm 115:1087-91. 2008
    b>Kynurenic acid is an endogenous product of the tryptophan metabolism...
  99. ncbi Quantitative differences in the effects of de novo produced and exogenous kynurenic acid in rat brain slices
    H E Scharfman
    Neurology Research Center, Helen Hayes Hospital, West Haverstraw, NY 10993 1195, USA
    Neurosci Lett 274:111-4. 1999
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and it blocks the glycine site of the NMDA receptor preferentially (IC50 = 7...
  100. pmc Kynurenic acid triggers firm arrest of leukocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions
    Marita C Barth
    Cardiology Division and Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:19189-95. 2009
    Recent studies have demonstrated that kynurenic acid (KYNA), a compound produced endogenously by the interferon-gamma-induced degradation of tryptophan by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, activates the previously orphaned G protein-coupled ..
  101. ncbi Age-related increase of kynurenic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid - IgG and beta2-microglobulin changes
    Berthold Kepplinger
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum Mostviertel Amstetten, General Hospital, Amstetten, Austria
    Neurosignals 14:126-35. 2005
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation and is an antagonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate as well as at the alpha 7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors...

Research Grants60

  1. TRYPTOPHAN METABOLISM IN MOSQUITOES
    Jianyong Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), kynurenic acid (KA) and xanthurenic acid (XA) are the key components in the tryptophan catabolism, and kynurenine to KA and 3-..
  2. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY OF DRUGS OF ABUSE: AMPHETAMINE
    GEORGE REBEC; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Collectively, our results will provide important, new information on the involvement of PFC neurons and their DA input in relapse to cocaine seeking. ..
  3. Phenotyping Major Depression with Increased Inflammation
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CSF) concentrations of metabolites of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase including kynurenine, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, which has been shown to reduce dopamine release in the basal ganglia...
  4. Pathogenesis of cognitive/neurologic deficits in central nervous system malaria
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., CSF levels of ROS and RNS, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, quinolinic and kynurenic acid, and tau and neuron- specific enolase),;and c) genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein-E and HO-1, which may ..
  5. Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Cytokine-Induced Behavioral Change
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..activation of MAPK has been shown to upregulate monoamine transporters, and cytokine-induced activation of kynurenic acid has been shown to decrease DA release...
  6. Kynurenic Acid Synthesis in Mouse Brain
    Jianyong Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA, a tryptophan metabolite) acts as a glutamate receptor antagonist and is believed to play a role in ..
  7. Biobehavioral Role of Brain Kynurenine Metabolism in Mental Illness
    JASON C O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Conversely, endothelial cells and astrocytes produce kynurenic acid, which is a glutamate and 17-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist...
  8. Metabolite Profiling and Cardiovascular Mortality in End-stage Renal Disease
    Eugene P Rhee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in select metabolic pathways in ESRD, and specifically advances 3 candidate metabolites - adipic acid, kynurenic acid, and choline - with potential relevance to cardiovascular outcomes...
  9. Endogenous Kynurenic Acid Modulates Prefrontal ACh Levels and Cognitive Behavior
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Conversely, dysregulation of cortical 17nAChRs has been implicated in the etiology of SZ. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an astrocyte-derived neuromodulator that, at endogenous concentrations, inhibits 17nAChR activity in ..
  10. Clinical Development of 4-Cl-KYN to Treat Pain
    RALPH SNODGRASS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..4-CI-KYN is a pro-drug of 7-Chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), a chlorinated analogue of kynurenic acid, which is a natural neuromodulator and one of the most potent and specific GlyB antagonists known to man, ..
  11. Nicotinic receptors: Role in hippocampal synaptic function
    Edson X Albuquerque; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In these disorders, decreased a7* nAChR activity is accompanied by increased brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived kynurenine metabolite that blocks a7* nAChRs and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ..
  12. Dopaminergic Regulation of Pyramidal Cells
    Ariel Y Deutch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in changes in key astrocytic factors that modulate extracellular Glu levels, including GLT1, mGluR3, xCT, and kynurenic acid. Changes in astrocytic proteins will be compared to changes in neuronal proteins (including VGluT1 and 2, ..
  13. DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF GATING DEFICITS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Mark A Geyer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of this grant are to examine the mechanistic role of alterations in the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), and the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in isolation- and immune-..
  14. Regulation of Airway Protective Behaviors
    Teresa E Pitts; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..model of dystussia and dysphagia induced by microinjection of the endogenous excitatory amino acid antagonist, kynurenic acid, into the medial reticular formation...
  15. EXCITOTOXIN EFFECTS ON SPINAL CORD IN VITRO
    JOHN DELFS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..two possible mechanisms for the decreased effect of glutamate: the role of glutamate uptake and the role of kynurenic acid as an endogenous EAA antagonist...
  16. Neuroprotective Effects of Estrogen in Serotonin Neurons
    Jessica Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..tryptophan metabolism away from pathways in which tryptophan is converted to serotonin or the neuroprotective kynurenic acid, towards pathways in which tryptophan is converted to several neurotoxic metabolites...
  17. ROLE OF AMINO ACID RECEPTORS IN EPILEPTOGENESIS
    ROBERT BRADY; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..We have observed that the putative NMR-receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid, has anticonvulsant-like properties when applied by bath application to slices undergoing penicillin-induced ..
  18. EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY ON HIPPOCAMPAL MICROCULTURES
    Michael Segal; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..that are grown for prolonged periods in culture in the presence of blockers of synaptic activity (such as kynurenic acid and magnesium)...
  19. KYNURENINES, GLIA AND EPILEPSY
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These data suggest that kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha7 nicotinic ..
  20. PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY MODULATION OF SYMPATHETIC DRIVE
    Linda Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In the long term it is hoped that the results of these studies will stimulate new investigations into the role of the dlPAG, A5 and the PBN in normal and pathophysiological cardiovascular regulation. ..
  21. Supramedullary control of respiration
    Linda Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, the results of this study will provide new insights into understanding of the role of supramedullary structures in modulating respiratory timing. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Genetic Polymorphism of a Schizophrenia Endophenotype
    Ikwunga Wonodi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Deciphering the genetic mechanisms of prefrontal dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia would advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may help identify novel treatments. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. NEUROPEPTIDES AND CARDIOVASCULAR REGULATION
    VIRGINIA BROOKS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  24. Humoral Interactions in long-term blood pressure control
    VIRGINIA BROOKS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Supraspinal prostaglandins and descending control
    Mary Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL BY FOREBRAIN & BRAINSTEM NEURONS
    SUSAN BARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Dopamine cell impulse flow, reward and schizophrenia
    Paul Shepard; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Interneuron Diversity and Hippocampal Network Dynamics
    Gianmaria Maccaferri; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Relating different interneurons and GABAergic inputs to clear functions may lead to important insight into the organizing principles of cortical networks in the normal brain and during disease. ..
  29. Behavioral Influences on Drug Tolerance
    James Smith; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Additionally, "multi-chamber" procedures will study generalization of those discriminative effects to performance of the same subjects in different circumstances. ..
  30. CHRONIC NEURAL CONTROL OF BLOOD PRESSURE
    ALAN SVED; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It is expected that these studies will increase our understanding of the role of the brain in the pathophysiology of hypertension, and may provide new insight to the treatment and prevention of hypertension. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. BRAIN GALANIN RECEPTORS AND EPILEPSY
    Andrey Mazarati; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Targets for selenium in prostate cancer prevention
    JOHN PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The long-term goal of our reseach is to design appropriate dietary strategies for prevention of prostate cancer. ..
  33. CNS DA NEURONS--CELLULAR BASIS OF PATTERNED ACTIVITY
    Paul Shepard; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Interleukin-1Beta in Central Pain Modulating Circuits
    Mary Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In providing additional tools to manipulate these systems, this work may ultimately lead to improved clinical treatment of pain. ..
  35. Kynurenic Acid Regulation of Stimulus Processing
    Amy Chess; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This proposal tests the hypothesis that elevated levels of brain kynurenic acid (KYNA) interferes with attentional processing...
  36. Spontaneous Activity of Mitral Cells
    EDWIN GRIFF; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Increased knowledge of the normal and basic physiology of olfactory neurons is essential for developing strategies to treat olfactory deficits. ..
  37. Migraine headache and central pain facilitating systems
    Mary M Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This idea is attractive because a central dysfunction could potentially explain the multiple triggers for migraine attached, as well as the range of associated symptoms, including nausea and aversion to light and sound. ..
  38. Neuronal Mechanisms of Opioid Action
    Hong Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These experiments will improve our understanding of neuronal mechanisms of opioid action, which is crucial for understanding and perhaps treating of opioid addiction. ..
  39. Morphine Like Brain Peptides-Cellular Neurobiology
    GEORGE SIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies may help define the role of opioids and their receptors in behavior and provide rational targets for therapeusis of opiate "craving. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. SENESCENCE ALTERS SYMPATHETIC REGULATION TO HEAT STRESS
    MICHAEL KENNEY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed studies will, for the first time, advance the hypothesis that the working strategies employed by sympathetic neural circuits to respond to heat stress are modified by aging. ..
  41. MYELINATION--ASSEMBLY OF LIPIDS AND PROTEINS
    JOYCE BENJAMINS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. SOMATOSTATIN RELATED PEPTIDES AND BRAIN FUNCTION
    GEORGE SIGGINS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. CENTRAL NEURONAL MECHANISMS--DECOMPENSATED HEMORRHAGE
    PATRICE GUYENET; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms triggered by hypotensive hemorrhage should lead to improved ability to manage this all too frequent clinical problem. ..
  44. Contribution of the PAG to morphine tolerance
    Michael Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In the long term, such knowledge should improve the treatment of pain by allowing therapies that disrupt tolerance to be developed. ..
  45. SUBCORTICAL MODULATION OF THE DORSAL VAGAL COMPLEX
    Xueguo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  46. BRAIN/PELVIC VISCERA INTERACTIONS IN PSYCHIATRIC DISEASE
    RITA VALENTINO; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  47. ETHANOL SENSITIVITY OF NATIVE AND CLONED NMDA RECEPTORS
    John Woodward; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 3 will express ethanol-insensitive receptors identified in Aims 1 and 2 in neurons in vitro and in vivo to address which effects of ethanol are mediated by inhibition of NMDA receptors. ..
  48. Electrical Synapses and Network Signaling
    Gianmaria Maccaferri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Discovering new mechanisms of synaptic modulation could reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention that could be exploited by a new generation of drugs, which is currently under development and testing. ..
  49. Protein ubiquitination based neuroprotection for stroke
    Robert Meller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  50. Medullary Circuitry of Opioid Analgesia
    Mary Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed work should advance our understanding of central processes involved in bi-directional pain modulation, and should ultimately lead to improved clinical treatment of pain. ..
  51. Ethanol sensitivity--native /recombinant NMDA receptors
    John Woodward; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The successful completion of this training plan will substantially enhance the PI's research expertise and his ability to fulfill the goals of his research. ..
  52. Bladder Regulation by Corticotropin-Releasing Factor
    RITA VALENTINO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies unite complementary expertise from laboratories in urology and basic neuroscience to increase our knowledge of the central regulation of urinary function in normal and pathological state. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. Intertrigeminal region control of apnea
    Miodrag Radulovacki; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Pharmacoresistant limbic epilepsy: model validation
    Edward Bertram; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This project will meet the program goals by establishing baseline data and introducing new methods for evaluating the therapeutic potential of novel compounds for the treatment of epilepsy. ..
  55. BIOGENIC AMINE SYSTEMS, CRF, AND STRESS
    RITA VALENTINO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Like the previous K02 award, the K05 award will promote future career development by providing stable salary support and flexibility to enhance technical skills and conceptual bases and promoting leadership. ..
  56. Rapid ischemic tolerance: Ubiquitin-mediated structural reorganization
    Robert Meller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Indeed, the long-term aim of these studies is to discover endogenous protective mechanisms that can be translated into effective rapid acting neuroprotective agents for stroke. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL SYMPATHETIC PATHWAYS
    PATRICE GUYENET; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The research will contribute to the basic physiological knowledge needed to understand how syrr pathetic tone is regulated in health and in diseases such as arrhythmias, hypertension and dysautonomias. ..
  58. Sympathetic-Immune Interface: Central Sites & Function
    MICHAEL KENNEY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Ultimately, these findings may allow for the design of intervention strategies in immune regulation fostering robust and appropriate communication between the immune and nervous systems. ..
  59. Neural circuitry of improgran analgesia
    Mary M Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  60. Volatile Anesthetic Action in Vertebrate Locomotor Systems
    Steven L Jinks; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from these projects will increase our understanding of how and where anesthetics act in the nervous system, contributing to the development of safer anesthetics and clinical practices. ..