kynurenic acid

Summary

Summary: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia
    Sophie Erhardt
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Stockholm, Sweden
    Physiol Behav 92:203-9. 2007
  2. ncbi The commissure of the inferior colliculus shapes frequency response areas in rat: an in vivo study using reversible blockade with microinjection of kynurenic acid
    Manuel S Malmierca
    Laboratory for the Neurobiology of Hearing, Institute for Neuroscience of Castilla y León and Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
    Exp Brain Res 153:522-9. 2003
  3. doi Pharmacological manipulation of kynurenic acid: potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders
    Sophie Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    CNS Drugs 23:91-101. 2009
  4. ncbi Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of male patients with schizophrenia
    L K Nilsson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Schizophr Res 80:315-22. 2005
  5. pmc Age dependency of inhibition of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and tonically active N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by endogenously produced kynurenic acid in the brain
    Manickavasagom Alkondon
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 S Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337:572-82. 2011
  6. ncbi Neuropharmacology of quinolinic and kynurenic acids
    T W Stone
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Glasgow, Scotland
    Pharmacol Rev 45:309-79. 1993
  7. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits intestinal hypermotility and xanthine oxidase activity during experimental colon obstruction in dogs
    J Kaszaki
    Institute of Surgical Research, Szent Györgyi Albert Medical and Pharmaceutical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 20:53-62. 2008
  8. pmc Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: linkage through astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid?
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:652-3. 2007
  9. doi N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism decreases motility and inflammatory activation in the early phase of acute experimental colitis in the rat
    G Varga
    Institute of Surgical Research, Szent Györgyi Albert Medical and Pharmaceutical Centre, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:217-25, e68. 2010
  10. doi The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Mol Neurosci 40:204-10. 2010

Detail Information

Publications257 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia
    Sophie Erhardt
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Stockholm, Sweden
    Physiol Behav 92:203-9. 2007
    ..b>Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl-D-..
  2. ncbi The commissure of the inferior colliculus shapes frequency response areas in rat: an in vivo study using reversible blockade with microinjection of kynurenic acid
    Manuel S Malmierca
    Laboratory for the Neurobiology of Hearing, Institute for Neuroscience of Castilla y León and Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
    Exp Brain Res 153:522-9. 2003
    ..In this study, we injected the glutamate receptor blocker kynurenic acid into one IC while recording the frequency response areas (FRAs) of neurons in the other, to test the ..
  3. doi Pharmacological manipulation of kynurenic acid: potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders
    Sophie Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    CNS Drugs 23:91-101. 2009
    ..quinolinic acid is an excitotoxic NMDA receptor agonist, 3-hydroxykynurenine is a free-radical generator and kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist at glutamate and nicotinic receptors...
  4. ncbi Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of male patients with schizophrenia
    L K Nilsson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Schizophr Res 80:315-22. 2005
    Previous studies have shown that endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a glutamate receptor antagonist, are elevated in patients with schizophrenia...
  5. pmc Age dependency of inhibition of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and tonically active N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by endogenously produced kynurenic acid in the brain
    Manickavasagom Alkondon
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 S Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337:572-82. 2011
    In the mouse hippocampus normal levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite synthesized in astrocytes primarily by kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II)-catalyzed transamination of L-kynurenine, maintain a degree of tonic ..
  6. ncbi Neuropharmacology of quinolinic and kynurenic acids
    T W Stone
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Glasgow, Scotland
    Pharmacol Rev 45:309-79. 1993
    ..The pathway includes two compounds, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, which are remarkably specific in their pharmacological profiles: one is a selective agonist at receptors ..
  7. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits intestinal hypermotility and xanthine oxidase activity during experimental colon obstruction in dogs
    J Kaszaki
    Institute of Surgical Research, Szent Györgyi Albert Medical and Pharmaceutical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 20:53-62. 2008
    b>Kynurenic acid (KynA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, protects the central nervous system in excitotoxic neurological diseases...
  8. pmc Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: linkage through astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid?
    Robert Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:652-3. 2007
  9. doi N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism decreases motility and inflammatory activation in the early phase of acute experimental colitis in the rat
    G Varga
    Institute of Surgical Research, Szent Györgyi Albert Medical and Pharmaceutical Centre, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:217-25, e68. 2010
    ....
  10. doi The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex
    Hui Qiu Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    J Mol Neurosci 40:204-10. 2010
    ..hypothesized that these impairments may be secondary to increased levels of the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which inhibits alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7AChR) and may thereby reduce glutamate ..
  11. doi Induction of the kynurenine pathway by neurotropic influenza A virus infection
    Maria Holtze
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurosci Res 86:3674-83. 2008
    ..b>Kynurenic acid, an end product of tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway, is an endogenous NMDA receptor ..
  12. doi Kynurenic acid: a metabolite with multiple actions and multiple targets in brain and periphery
    Flavio Moroni
    Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy
    J Neural Transm 119:133-9. 2012
    It is usually assumed that kynurenic acid (KYNA) modifies neuronal function because it antagonizes the glycine site of the NMDA receptors and/or the neuronal cholinergic α7 nicotine receptors...
  13. doi Increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity and elevated serum levels of tryptophan catabolites in patients with chronic kidney disease: a possible link between chronic inflammation and uraemic symptoms
    Jörg C Schefold
    Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care, Charite University Medicine, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin, Germany
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 24:1901-8. 2009
    ..Here we investigate Trp catabolism, IDO activity and the role of inflammation in moderate to very severe CKD and haemodialysis...
  14. doi Presence of kynurenic acid in food and honeybee products
    Michal P Turski
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20 950, Lublin, Poland
    Amino Acids 36:75-80. 2009
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors and the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, showing anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity...
  15. ncbi Kynurenic acid and schizophrenia
    Sophie Erhardt
    Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Adv Exp Med Biol 527:155-65. 2003
    ..Thus, schizophrenia may be regarded as a glutamate deficiency disorder. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycinesite of the N-methyl D-..
  16. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits circulatory responses to intracisternally injected L-proline in conscious rats
    Y Takemoto
    Department of Physiology II, Hiroshima University Faculty of Medicine, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 261:121-3. 1999
    ..Prior injection of kynurenic acid (0...
  17. doi Time course of changes in the concentration of kynurenic acid in the brain of pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats
    Piotr Maciejak
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, 26 28 Krakowskie Przedmiescie Street, 00 927 Warsaw, Poland
    Brain Res Bull 78:299-305. 2009
    The time response of changes in the brain concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA) was examined in rats subjected to the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling of seizures (n=32)...
  18. pmc Reduction of endogenous kynurenic acid formation enhances extracellular glutamate, hippocampal plasticity, and cognitive behavior
    Michelle C Potter
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1734-42. 2010
    At endogenous brain concentrations, the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) antagonizes the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor...
  19. doi l-kynurenine combined with probenecid and the novel synthetic kynurenic acid derivative attenuate nitroglycerin-induced nNOS in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus
    Eniko Vamos
    Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neuropharmacology 57:425-9. 2009
    ..b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its analogues may exert modulatory effects in many neuropathological conditions, probably via N-..
  20. ncbi Kynurenic acid levels are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia
    S Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurosci Lett 313:96-8. 2001
    b>Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor...
  21. doi Kynurenines in chronic neurodegenerative disorders: future therapeutic strategies
    D Zadori
    Department of Neurology, Albert Szent Gyorgyi Clinical Centre, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    J Neural Transm 116:1403-9. 2009
    ..considerations, possibilities that come into account include increasing the neuroprotective effect of kynurenic acid, or decreasing the levels of neurotoxic 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid...
  22. pmc Modulation of glycine potency in rat recombinant NMDA receptors containing chimeric NR2A/2D subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes
    Philip E Chen
    Centre for Neuroscience Research, Hugh Robson Building, University of Edinburgh, George Square, Edinburgh, UK
    J Physiol 586:227-45. 2008
    ....
  23. ncbi Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35
    Jinghong Wang
    Amgen Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:22021-8. 2006
    ..previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, functions as a receptor for the kynurenine pathway intermediate kynurenic acid. Kynurenic acid elicits calcium mobilization and inositol phosphate production in a GPR35-dependent manner in ..
  24. doi Kynurenic acid synthesis and kynurenine aminotransferases expression in colon derived normal and cancer cells
    Katarzyna Walczak
    Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
    Scand J Gastroenterol 46:903-12. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite, was found in human saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice and mucus of rat small intestine.
  25. ncbi Kynurenic acid has a dual action on AMPA receptor responses
    Christina Prescott
    Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Neurosci Lett 402:108-12. 2006
    ..Here we demonstrate that kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, acts upon heterologous AMPA receptors via two distinct mechanisms...
  26. doi Micromolar concentration of kynurenic acid in rat small intestine
    D Kuc
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    Amino Acids 35:503-5. 2008
    b>Kynurenic acid is an antagonist of glutamate and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and an agonist of the G: -protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in immune and gastrointestinal tissues...
  27. ncbi Kynurenic acid in honey from arboreal plants: MS and NMR evidence
    Giangiacomo Beretta
    Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica Pietro Pratesi, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Planta Med 73:1592-5. 2007
    ..Moreover, kynureninates, owing to their antimicrobial properties, can favour the successful outcome of wounds and burns...
  28. doi Electrophysiological characterisation of the actions of kynurenic acid at ligand-gated ion channels
    M H Selina Mok
    Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, United Kingdom
    Neuropharmacology 57:242-9. 2009
    To better understand the effects of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (kynA) in the brain, we characterised its actions at five ligand-gated ion channels: NMDA, AMPA, GABA(A), glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  29. ncbi Pharmacologically elevated levels of endogenous kynurenic acid prevent nicotine-induced activation of nigral dopamine neurons
    S Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 363:21-7. 2001
    ..The aim of the present electrophysiological study was to investigate if manipulation of brain kynurenic acid, an endogenous excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, can affect the response of nigral dopamine neurons ..
  30. ncbi Increased cortical kynurenate content in schizophrenia
    R Schwarcz
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 50:521-30. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate an impairment of brain kynurenine pathway metabolism in schizophrenia, resulting in elevated kynurenate levels and suggesting a possible concomitant reduction in glutamate receptor function...
  31. doi beta-adrenergic enhancement of brain kynurenic acid production mediated via cAMP-related protein kinase A signaling
    Elzbieta Luchowska
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Skubiszewski Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:519-29. 2009
    The central levels of endogenous tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), an antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha7-nicotinic receptors, affect glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission...
  32. ncbi Dual effect of DL-homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine on brain synthesis of the glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid
    E Luchowska
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Skubiszewski Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
    J Neurosci Res 79:375-82. 2005
    ..The effect of homocysteine and metabolically related compounds on brain production of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of glutamate ionotropic receptors, was studied...
  33. pmc Kynurenic acid is a potent endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that synergistically induces interleukin-6 in the presence of inflammatory signaling
    Brett C Dinatale
    Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16803, USA
    Toxicol Sci 115:89-97. 2010
    ..We screened the metabolites of this pathway for their ability to activate the AHR; results revealed that kynurenic acid (KA) is an efficient agonist for the human AHR...
  34. ncbi Endogenous kynurenines as targets for drug discovery and development
    Trevor W Stone
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 1:609-20. 2002
    ..As a result, the pathway presents a multitude of potential sites for drug discovery in neuroscience, oncology and visceral pathology...
  35. pmc Early developmental elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility in adults: reversal with galantamine
    K S Alexander
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    Neuroscience 238:19-28. 2013
    Levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) antagonist, are elevated in the brain of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and might contribute to the pathophysiology and cognitive deficits ..
  36. ncbi Hyperglycemia enhances the inhibitory effect of mitochondrial toxins and D,L-homocysteine on the brain production of kynurenic acid
    Iwona Chmiel-Perzyńska
    Family Medicine Department, Skubiszewski Medical University of Lublin, Staszica 13, PL 20 081 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 59:268-73. 2007
    We have evaluated the effect of diabetes-mimicking conditions on the inhibition of kynurenic acid (KYNA) production exerted by mitochondrial toxins: 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), by endogenous agonists of ..
  37. doi Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid is associated with manic and psychotic features in patients with bipolar I disorder
    Sara K Olsson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Bipolar Disord 14:719-26. 2012
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an end metabolite of tryptophan degradation, antagonizes glutamatergic and cholinergic receptors in the brain...
  38. doi Interaction and transport of kynurenic acid via human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3
    Yuichi Uwai
    Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1 100 Kusumoto cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya shi, Japan
    Pharmacol Res 65:254-60. 2012
    b>Kynurenic acid, a catabolite of tryptophan, is suggested to be involved in schizophrenia, and is known to be a uremic toxin, although there is little information about the mechanism of its disposition...
  39. pmc Fluctuations in endogenous kynurenic acid control hippocampal glutamate and memory
    Ana Pocivavsek
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:2357-67. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived metabolite, antagonizes the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor at endogenous brain concentrations...
  40. ncbi Kynurenic acid in ALS patients
    Y Iwasaki
    Acta Neurol Scand 109:236; author reply 437. 2004
  41. doi Endogenous activation of nAChRs and NMDA receptors contributes to the excitability of CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons in rat hippocampal slices: effects of kynurenic acid
    Manickavasagom Alkondon
    Division of Translational Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 S Pine Street, Suite 900, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States
    Biochem Pharmacol 82:842-51. 2011
    ..b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived kynurenine metabolite whose levels are increased in the brains of patients with ..
  42. ncbi Ammonia at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations activates kynurenic acid synthesis in cultured astrocytes and neurons
    Katarzyna Wejksza
    Department of Virology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20 033 Lublin, Poland
    Neurotoxicology 27:619-22. 2006
    The synthesis of the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added kynurenine was measured in cultured cerebral cortical neurons, cortical astrocytes and an oligodendroglial cell line OLN-93, incubated ..
  43. doi The pentylenetetrazole-induced activity in the hippocampus can be inhibited by the conversion of L-kynurenine to kynurenic acid: an in vitro study
    Eva Rozsa
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, POB 533, H 6701 Szeged, Hungary
    Brain Res Bull 76:474-9. 2008
    ..including L-kynurenine, which in turn can be converted into the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid. The ionotropic glutamate receptors have been considered to be attractive targets for new anticonvulsants in ..
  44. ncbi Kynurenic acid synthesis in cerebral cortical slices of rats with progressing symptoms of thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy
    Tomasz Saran
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    J Neurosci Res 75:436-40. 2004
    ..vitro and in vivo inhibits the production of a broad-spectrum antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors, kynurenic acid (KYNA)...
  45. ncbi Clenbuterol enhances the production of kynurenic acid in brain cortical slices and glial cultures
    Elzbieta Luchowska
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Skubiszewski Medical School, Jaczewskiego 8, PL 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 60:574-7. 2008
    The effect of a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol on the production of a glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid was studied in vitro. Clenbuterol enhanced the production of kynurenic acid in brain cortical slices (0.1-1...
  46. ncbi Enhancement of brain kynurenic acid production by anticonvulsants--novel mechanism of antiepileptic activity?
    Tomasz Kocki
    Department of Pharmacology, Skubiszewski Medical University, Lublin, Poland
    Eur J Pharmacol 541:147-51. 2006
    In this study, we describe the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the production of kynurenic acid in rat cortical slices, and on the activity of kynurenic acid biosynthetic enzymes, kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs I and II) in the brain ..
  47. doi Alteration of kynurenic acid concentration in rat plasma following optically pure kynurenine administration: a comparative study between enantiomers
    Takeshi Fukushima
    Division of Bio Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
    Chirality 21:468-72. 2009
    L-Kynurenine (KYN), a tryptophan metabolite, is metabolized to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which is an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, by kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) I and KAT II...
  48. doi Curiosity to kill the KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase): structural insights into brain kynurenic acid synthesis
    Franca Rossi
    DiSCAFF Department of Chemical, Food, Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale A Avogadro, I 28100 Novara, Italy
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 18:748-55. 2008
    Kynurenine aminotransferases are pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, which catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid, a highly neuroactive metabolite whose impairment is associated with a number of severe brain disorders...
  49. ncbi Kynurenic acid, an endogenous constituent of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid, inhibits proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro
    Jolanta Parada-Turska
    Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20 950 Lublin, Poland
    Rheumatol Int 26:422-6. 2006
    b>Kynurenic acid is an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors. It has been found that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of different human tumor cells...
  50. doi Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants
    Michal P Turski
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland
    Planta Med 77:858-64. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as well as an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35...
  51. ncbi Modulation of quinolinic and kynurenic acid content in the rat brain: effects of endotoxins and nicotinylalanine
    F Moroni
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Italy
    J Neurochem 57:1630-5. 1991
    Quinolinic acid, an endogenous excitotoxin, and kynurenic acid, an antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors, are believed to be synthesized from tryptophan after the opening of the indole ring...
  52. doi On the antioxidant properties of kynurenic acid: free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of oxidative stress
    R Lugo-Huitrón
    Laboratorio de Aminoácidos Excitadores, Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, S S A, México D F 14269, Mexico
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:538-47. 2011
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway for tryptophan degradation and an antagonist of both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nACh) receptors...
  53. ncbi Radical scavenging properties of tryptophan metabolites. Estimation of their radical reactivity
    K Goda
    Faculty of Nutrition, Kobe Gakuin University, Japan
    Adv Exp Med Biol 467:397-402. 1999
    ..the reactivity of the second group (xanthurenic acid, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin) is similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); the third group (kynurenic acid, melatonin, and other ones) is less reactive than BHT.
  54. doi Changes in the plasma concentrations of D-kynurenine and kynurenic acid in rats after intraperitoneal administration of tryptophan enantiomers
    Kana Ishii
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi shi, Chiba 274 8510, Japan
    Chirality 22:901-6. 2010
    ..The time-course profiles of the rat plasma concentrations of D-kynurenine (KYN), L-KYN, and kynurenic acid (KYNA), which are metabolites of D- or L-Trp, were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (..
  55. doi Changes in extracellular kynurenic acid concentrations in rat prefrontal cortex after D-kynurenine infusion: an in vivo microdialysis study
    Tadahiro Ogaya
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi shi, Chiba, Japan
    Neurochem Res 35:559-63. 2010
    ..used column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography to assess the alterations in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA)-an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors-in the extracellular ..
  56. pmc Neuroprotection by acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate against NMDA-induced RGC damage in rat--possible involvement of kynurenic acid
    Sebastian Thaler
    Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 248:1729-35. 2010
    ..Additionally, the influence of ACA and BHB on kynurenic acid (KYNA) production was assessed in vitro in bovine retinal slices.
  57. doi The kynurenate analog SZR-72 prevents the nitroglycerol-induced increase of c-fos immunoreactivity in the rat caudal trigeminal nucleus: comparative studies of the effects of SZR-72 and kynurenic acid
    E Knyihar-Csillik
    Department of Neurology, Albert Szent Gyorgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, 6 Semmelweis utca, H 6726 Szeged, Hungary
    Neurosci Res 61:429-32. 2008
    ..and second-order trigeminal neurons are mediated by excitatory amino acids, NMDA receptors are inhibited by kynurenic acid, though this crosses the blood-brain barrier only poorly...
  58. doi The Janus-face kynurenic acid
    Eva Rozsa
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    J Neural Transm 115:1087-91. 2008
    b>Kynurenic acid is an endogenous product of the tryptophan metabolism...
  59. ncbi Kynurenic acid inhibits the release of the neurotrophic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and enhances proliferation of glia cells, in vitro
    Claudia Di Serio
    Department of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery, Geriatric Medicine Unit, University of Florence, School of Medicine, Viale Pieraccini n 6, Florence, 50139, Italy
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 25:981-93. 2005
    ..4. Our data suggest that minor changes of local KYNA concentration may modulate FGF-1 release, cell proliferation, and ultimately tissue damage in different pathological conditions...
  60. ncbi Increased ratio of quinolinic acid to kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of D retrovirus-infected rhesus macaques: relationship to clinical and viral status
    M P Heyes
    Section on Analytical Biochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Ann Neurol 27:666-75. 1990
    ..b>Kynurenic acid, an antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors as well as the excitotoxic effects of quinolinic acid, was ..
  61. doi The peripheral antinociceptive effects of endomorphin-1 and kynurenic acid in the rat inflamed joint model
    Laszlo Mecs
    Department of Orthopedics, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Anesth Analg 109:1297-304. 2009
    ..the antinociceptive potency of the endogenous opioid peptide, endomorphin-1 (EM1), and the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), and their interaction at the peripheral level in the rat inflamed joint model.
  62. ncbi Quantitative differences in the effects of de novo produced and exogenous kynurenic acid in rat brain slices
    H E Scharfman
    Neurology Research Center, Helen Hayes Hospital, West Haverstraw, NY 10993 1195, USA
    Neurosci Lett 274:111-4. 1999
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an antagonist of (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and it blocks the glycine site of the NMDA receptor preferentially (IC50 = 7...
  63. ncbi Kynurenic acid in human saliva--does it influence oral microflora?
    Damian Kuc
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, PL 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Pharmacol Rep 58:393-8. 2006
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and all ionotropic glutamate receptors. Its neuroprotective activity has been suggested...
  64. doi High tryptophan diet reduces extracellular dopamine release via kynurenic acid production in rat striatum
    Alato Okuno
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Human Cultures, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga, Japan
    J Neurochem 118:796-805. 2011
    At endogenous brain concentrations, the neuroinhibitory tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)...
  65. doi G-protein coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) activation and inflammatory pain: Studies on the antinociceptive effects of kynurenic acid and zaprinast
    Cristina Cosi
    Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 60:1227-31. 2011
    G-protein coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) is a former "orphan receptor" expressed in brain and activated by either kynurenic acid or zaprinast...
  66. ncbi The brain metabolite kynurenic acid inhibits alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity and increases non-alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression: physiopathological implications
    C Hilmas
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 21:7463-73. 2001
    The tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) has long been recognized as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Here, interactions between KYNA and the nicotinic system in the brain were investigated using the patch-clamp technique and HPLC...
  67. pmc Kynurenic acid triggers firm arrest of leukocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions
    Marita C Barth
    Cardiology Division and Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:19189-95. 2009
    Recent studies have demonstrated that kynurenic acid (KYNA), a compound produced endogenously by the interferon-gamma-induced degradation of tryptophan by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, activates the previously orphaned G protein-coupled ..
  68. ncbi Age-related increase of kynurenic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid - IgG and beta2-microglobulin changes
    Berthold Kepplinger
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum Mostviertel Amstetten, General Hospital, Amstetten, Austria
    Neurosignals 14:126-35. 2005
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation and is an antagonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate as well as at the alpha 7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors...
  69. pmc Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bipolar disorder
    Sara K Olsson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 35:195-9. 2010
    Patients with schizophrenia show elevated brain levels of the neuroactive tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). This astrocyte-derived mediator acts as a neuroprotectant and modulates sensory gating and cognitive function...
  70. doi Inhibitory effects of kynurenic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, and its derivatives on cytosolic sulfotransferases
    Laddawan Senggunprai
    Division of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8578, Japan
    Biochem J 422:455-62. 2009
    KYNA (kynurenic acid) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway and has been characterized as an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors...
  71. pmc Elevations of endogenous kynurenic acid produce spatial working memory deficits
    Amy C Chess
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, 6207 Moore Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Schizophr Bull 33:797-804. 2007
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a tryptophan metabolite that is synthesized and released by astrocytes and acts as a competitive antagonist of the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at high concentrations and as a noncompetitive ..
  72. doi Elevated Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and accumulation of kynurenic acid in the pathogenesis of STZ-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats
    Vangipurapu Rajani Kanth
    Department of Zoology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India
    Curr Eye Res 34:274-81. 2009
    ..Therefore, it has been suggested that lenticular IDO is involved in diabetic cataractogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role(s) of IDO in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cataract in rats...
  73. ncbi Kynurenic acid enhances electroacupuncture analgesia in normal and carrageenan-injected rats
    Yu Qiu Zhang
    Institute of Neurobiology, Fudan University, 220 Han Dan Road, 200433, Shanghai, China
    Brain Res 966:300-7. 2003
    ..EA) and an intrathecally administered wide-spectrum excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor(s) antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA) on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression was investigated. Intrathecal (i...
  74. ncbi Kynurenic acid antagonists and kynurenine pathway inhibitors
    T W Stone
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 10:633-45. 2001
    ..It includes both an agonist (quinolinic acid) at NMDA receptors and an antagonist (kynurenic acid)...
  75. ncbi Development and therapeutic potential of kynurenic acid and kynurenine derivatives for neuroprotection
    T W Stone
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 21:149-54. 2000
    ..This pathway is involved in the production of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid and the neuroprotectant kynurenic acid. Approaches used in the development of therapeutic agents include production of analogues or pro-drugs of ..
  76. ncbi Blood-brain barrier transport of kynurenines: implications for brain synthesis and metabolism
    S Fukui
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Neurochem 56:2007-17. 1991
    ..L-KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HKYN), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HANA), anthranilic acid (ANA), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats using an in situ brain perfusion ..
  77. ncbi Prostaglandin-mediated control of rat brain kynurenic acid synthesis--opposite actions by COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms
    L Schwieler
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neural Transm 112:863-72. 2005
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous glutamate-receptor antagonist preferentially blocking NMDA-receptors, has analgesic properties and has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
  78. ncbi Targeted deletion of the kynurenine aminotransferase ii gene reveals a critical role of endogenous kynurenic acid in the regulation of synaptic transmission via alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the hippocampus
    Manickavasagon Alkondon
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Neurosci 24:4635-48. 2004
    It has been postulated that endogenous kynurenic acid (KYNA) modulates alpha7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and NMDA receptor activities in the brain...
  79. ncbi Nanomolar concentrations of kynurenic acid reduce extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum
    Arash Rassoulpour
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Neurochem 93:762-5. 2005
    ..We report here that nanomolar concentrations of the astrocyte-derived neuroinhibitory metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) potently reduce the extracellular levels of striatal dopamine in unanesthetized rats in vivo...
  80. ncbi Kynurenic acid leads, dopamine follows: a new case of volume transmission in the brain?
    H Q Wu
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA
    J Neural Transm 114:33-41. 2007
    Intrastriatal infusion of nanomolar concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived neuroinhibitory tryptophan metabolite, reduces basal extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the rat striatum...
  81. ncbi Systemically administered glucosamine-kynurenic acid, but not pure kynurenic acid, is effective in decreasing the evoked activity in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus
    Hermina Robotka
    Department of Comparative Physiology, University of Szeged, Hungary
    Eur J Pharmacol 513:75-80. 2005
    The metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway yields several neuroactive intermediates, including kynurenic acid, which is one of the few known endogenous N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor inhibitors; in parallel with this, it is ..
  82. ncbi Demonstration of kynurenine aminotransferases I and II and characterization of kynurenic acid synthesis in cultured cerebral cortical neurons
    Wojciech Rzeski
    Department of Virology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie Skodowska University, Lublin, Poland
    J Neurosci Res 80:677-82. 2005
    The present study characterizes the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added kynurenine and its regulation by extrinsic factors, in cultured cerebral cortical neurons and, for comparison, in astrocytes incubated under ..
  83. ncbi Acute psychotic symptoms in HIV-1 infected patients are associated with increased levels of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid
    Ann Atlas
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Behav Immun 21:86-91. 2007
    ..b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of these metabolites is a glutamate-receptor antagonist, preferentially blocking the glycine site ..
  84. ncbi Determination of rat brain kynurenic acid by column-switching HPLC with fluorescence detection
    Takeshi Fukushima
    Division of Bio Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52 1 Yada, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    Biomed Chromatogr 21:514-9. 2007
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of the tryptophan metabolites, serves as an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate and the alpha7 nicotinic receptors in mammalian brains...
  85. ncbi Decreased serum and red blood cell kynurenic acid levels in Alzheimer's disease
    Zsuzsanna Hartai
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Neurochem Int 50:308-13. 2007
    ..aminotransferases (KAT I and KAT II) are responsible for the transamination of kynurenine (KYN) to form kynurenic acid (KYNA), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist...
  86. ncbi Kynurenic acid synthesis in bovine retinal slices--effect of glutamate agonists
    T Zarnowski
    Tadeusz Krwawicz Chair of Ophthalmology and 1st Eye Hospital, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
    J Neural Transm 113:1367-72. 2006
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of glutamate agonists upon kynurenic acid (KYNA) production in bovine retinal slices...
  87. ncbi Kynurenic acid blocks nicotinic synaptic transmission to hippocampal interneurons in young rats
    Trevor W Stone
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8Q, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 25:2656-65. 2007
    The tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid can block glutamate at ionotropic receptors, but recent evidence suggests a more potent antagonistic action at alpha7 nicotinic receptors for acetylcholine on cultured neurons...
  88. ncbi Effects of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors on the firing of rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons--possible involvement of endogenous kynurenic acid
    Lilly Schwieler
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 59:290-8. 2006
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous glutamate-receptor antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the NMDA-receptor...
  89. ncbi Demonstration of kynurenine aminotransferases I and II and characterization of kynurenic acid synthesis in oligodendrocyte cell line (OLN-93)
    Katarzyna Wejksza
    Department of Virology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20 033, Lublin, Poland
    Neurochem Res 30:963-8. 2005
    ..Moreover, we provide evidence that OLN-93 cells are able to synthesize kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added L-kynurenine and we characterize its regulation by extrinsic factors...
  90. doi Resistance to kynurenic acid of the NMDA receptor-dependent toxicity of 3-nitropropionic acid and cyanide in cerebellar granule neurons
    Amos A Fatokun
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, West Medical Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Brain Res 1215:200-7. 2008
    ..the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism is activated, leading to the production of quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid which can modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors as agonist and antagonist respectively...
  91. ncbi Increased concentration of cerebral kynurenic acid alters stimulus processing and conditioned responding
    Amy C Chess
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, 6207 Moore Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Behav Brain Res 170:326-32. 2006
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a tryptophan metabolite synthesized and released by glia and recently shown to be a non-competitive antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations, and NMDA ..
  92. ncbi Activation of rat ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons by endogenous kynurenic acid: a pharmacological analysis
    Klas R Linderholm
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuropharmacology 53:918-24. 2007
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist as well as a blocker of the alpha7* nicotinic receptor and mounting evidence suggests that the compound participates in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
  93. doi Kynurenic acid attenuates MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death via a Bax-mediated mitochondrial pathway
    Do Yeon Lee
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Dongjak Ku, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Eur J Cell Biol 87:389-97. 2008
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite in the kynurenine pathway, is protective against various insults. However, the molecular mechanism of this protective effect has not been identified...
  94. ncbi Endogenous kynurenic acid disrupts prepulse inhibition
    Sophie Erhardt
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biol Psychiatry 56:255-60. 2004
    Recent studies show that endogenous levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients...
  95. doi Elevated levels of kynurenic acid change the dopaminergic response to amphetamine: implications for schizophrenia
    Sara K Olsson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:501-12. 2009
    b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous compound implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
  96. ncbi Increased cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid, kynurenic acid, and L-kynurenine in acute septicemia
    M P Heyes
    Section on Analytical Biochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Neurochem 55:338-41. 1990
    ..CSF and serum quinolinic acid concentrations were markedly elevated and were accompanied by increases in CSF kynurenic acid levels that were of a smaller magnitude...
  97. doi Astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid modulates basal and evoked cortical acetylcholine release
    A Zmarowski
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 29:529-38. 2009
    We tested the hypothesis that fluctuations in the levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor, modulate extracellular ACh levels in the medial prefrontal cortex in rats...
  98. ncbi Decreased level of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis patients
    Konrad Rejdak
    Department of Neurology, Medical University, 8 Jaczewskiego Street, 20 090, Lublin, Poland
    Neurosci Lett 331:63-5. 2002
    The present study was undertaken to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in patients with relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) during remission or not progressing for at least 2 months...
  99. ncbi Micromolar brain levels of kynurenic acid are associated with a disruption of auditory sensory gating in the rat
    Paul D Shepard
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1454-62. 2003
    Brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of glycine(B)/NMDA and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, are elevated in individuals with schizophrenia...
  100. ncbi Relationship of neurologic status in macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus to cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid
    M P Heyes
    Section of Analytical Biochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Brain Res 570:237-50. 1992
    ..Increases in serum QUIN and CSF kynurenic acid also occurred but generally to a lesser degree than the increases in CSF QUIN...
  101. ncbi 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and 3-nitropropionic acid diminish cortical synthesis of kynurenic acid via interference with kynurenine aminotransferases in rats
    Piotr Luchowski
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical University, Jaczewskiego 8, 20 090 Lublin, Poland
    Neurosci Lett 330:49-52. 2002
    ..MPP(+)) and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), on the brain production of endogenous glutamate antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA). MPP(+) and 3-NPA dose-dependently impaired the synthesis of KYNA in rat cortical slices...

Research Grants72

  1. TRYPTOPHAN METABOLISM IN MOSQUITOES
    Jianyong Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), kynurenic acid (KA) and xanthurenic acid (XA) are the key components in the tryptophan catabolism, and kynurenine to KA and 3-..
  2. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY OF DRUGS OF ABUSE: AMPHETAMINE
    GEORGE REBEC; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Collectively, our results will provide important, new information on the involvement of PFC neurons and their DA input in relapse to cocaine seeking. ..
  3. Endogenous Kynurenic Acid Modulates Prefrontal ACh Levels and Cognitive Behavior
    Robert Schwarcz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Conversely, dysregulation of cortical 17nAChRs has been implicated in the etiology of SZ. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an astrocyte-derived neuromodulator that, at endogenous concentrations, inhibits 17nAChR activity in ..
  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Estrogen in Serotonin Neurons
    Jessica Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..tryptophan metabolism away from pathways in which tryptophan is converted to serotonin or the neuroprotective kynurenic acid, towards pathways in which tryptophan is converted to several neurotoxic metabolites...
  5. Phenotyping Major Depression with Increased Inflammation
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CSF) concentrations of metabolites of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase including kynurenine, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, which has been shown to reduce dopamine release in the basal ganglia...
  6. Nicotinic Receptor & Hippocampal Synaptic Function
    EDSON ALBUQUERQUE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In a recent study, we have demonstrated that the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which is largely produced and released by astrocytes in the brain, modulates nicotinic cholinergic ..
  7. Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Cytokine-Induced Behavioral Change
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..activation of MAPK has been shown to upregulate monoamine transporters, and cytokine-induced activation of kynurenic acid has been shown to decrease DA release...
  8. Nicotinic receptors: Role in hippocampal synaptic function
    Edson X Albuquerque; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In these disorders, decreased a7* nAChR activity is accompanied by increased brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived kynurenine metabolite that blocks a7* nAChRs and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ..
  9. Pathogenesis of cognitive/neurologic deficits in central nervous system malaria
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., CSF levels of ROS and RNS, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, quinolinic and kynurenic acid, and tau and neuron- specific enolase),;and c) genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein-E and HO-1, which may ..
  10. Pathogenesis of cognitive/neurologic deficits in central nervous system malaria
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., CSF levels of ROS and RNS, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, quinolinic and kynurenic acid, and tau and neuron- specific enolase),;and c) genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein-E and HO-1, which may ..
  11. Pathogenesis of cognitive/neurologic deficits in central nervous system malaria
    Chandy John; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., CSF levels of ROS and RNS, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, quinolinic and kynurenic acid, and tau and neuron- specific enolase),; and c) genetic polymorphisms in apolipoprotein-E and HO-1, which may ..
  12. Biobehavioral Role of Brain Kynurenine Metabolism in Mental Illness
    JASON C O apos CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Conversely, endothelial cells and astrocytes produce kynurenic acid, which is a glutamate and 17-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist...
  13. Mechanistic enzymology of quinolinic acid biosynthesis
    Tadhg Begley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Kynurenine is a precursor to kynurenic acid, an antagonist of the glutamate receptor...
  14. Kynurenic Acid Synthesis in Mouse Brain
    Jianyong Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Kynurenic acid (KYNA, a tryptophan metabolite) acts as a glutamate receptor antagonist and is believed to play a role in ..
  15. DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF GATING DEFICITS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Mark Geyer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of this grant are to examine the mechanistic role of alterations in the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), and the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in isolation- and immune-..
  16. DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF GATING DEFICITS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Mark Geyer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..of this grant are to examine the mechanistic role of alterations in the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), and the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in isolation- and immune-..