scopolamine derivatives

Summary

Summary: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Donald P Tashkin
    David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1690, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1543-54. 2008
  2. pmc Efficacy and safety of NVA237 versus placebo and tiotropium in patients with COPD: the GLOW2 study
    Edward Kerwin
    Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon, PC, Medford, OR, USA
    Eur Respir J 40:1106-14. 2012
  3. ncbi Once-daily bronchodilators for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: indacaterol versus tiotropium
    James F Donohue
    University of North Carolina, 4125 Bioinformatics Building, 130 Mason Farm Road, CB 7020, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:155-62. 2010
  4. ncbi Effect of tiotropium on outcomes in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UPLIFT): a prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial
    Marc Decramer
    Respiratory Division, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Lancet 374:1171-8. 2009
  5. ncbi Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD
    Claus Vogelmeier
    Hospital of the Universities of Giessen and Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    N Engl J Med 364:1093-1103. 2011
  6. ncbi Comparative safety of inhaled medications in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    Yaa Hui Dong
    Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Thorax 68:48-56. 2013
  7. ncbi Blinded 12-week comparison of once-daily indacaterol and tiotropium in COPD
    R Buhl
    Pulmonary Department, Mainz University Hospital, Langenbeckstrasse 1, Mainz, D 55131, Germany
    Eur Respir J 38:797-803. 2011
  8. pmc Efficacy of once-daily indacaterol 75 μg relative to alternative bronchodilators in COPD: a study level and a patient level network meta-analysis
    Shannon Cope
    Mapi Consultancy, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Pulm Med 12:29. 2012
  9. ncbi Tiotropium versus placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Charlotta Karner
    Population Health Sciences and Education, St George s, University of London, London, UK
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD009285. 2012
  10. ncbi Formoterol mono- and combination therapy with tiotropium in patients with COPD: a 6-month study
    Claus Vogelmeier
    Klinik für Innere Medizin mit Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Universitätsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Standort Marburg Baldingerstrasse, D 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Respir Med 102:1511-20. 2008

Research Grants

  1. SCLERODERMA LUNG STUDY
    Donald Tashkin; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. LUNG HEALTH STUDY--LONG TERM FOLLOW UP
    Donald Tashkin; Fiscal Year: 2002
  3. Distal Lung Inflammation Effect on Asthma Exacerbations
    Donald Tashkin; Fiscal Year: 2008
  4. The Placebo Effect in Asthma
    Robert Wise; Fiscal Year: 2005
  5. SCLERODERMA LUNG STUDY
    Robert Wise; Fiscal Year: 2003
  6. Clinical Trial of Acid Reflux Therapy in Asthma
    Robert Wise; Fiscal Year: 2007
  7. Response to Beta2-Agonists in Acute Severe Asthma
    Nicola Hanania; Fiscal Year: 2008
  8. Strategies to Improve COPD Management
    Richard Casaburi; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. ASTHMA CLINICAL RESEARCH NETWORK (ACRN)
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. Fish Oil Intake, Biomarkers and Change in Lung Function
    R Barr; Fiscal Year: 2008

Detail Information

Publications202 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Donald P Tashkin
    David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1690, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1543-54. 2008
    ..Previous studies showing that tiotropium improves multiple end points in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) led us to examine the long-term effects of tiotropium therapy...
  2. pmc Efficacy and safety of NVA237 versus placebo and tiotropium in patients with COPD: the GLOW2 study
    Edward Kerwin
    Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon, PC, Medford, OR, USA
    Eur Respir J 40:1106-14. 2012
    ..NVA237 can potentially be an alternative choice of LAMA for COPD patients...
  3. ncbi Once-daily bronchodilators for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: indacaterol versus tiotropium
    James F Donohue
    University of North Carolina, 4125 Bioinformatics Building, 130 Mason Farm Road, CB 7020, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:155-62. 2010
    ..Indacaterol is the first once-daily, long-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonist bronchodilator studied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  4. ncbi Effect of tiotropium on outcomes in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UPLIFT): a prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial
    Marc Decramer
    Respiratory Division, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Lancet 374:1171-8. 2009
    ..However, there are few data for treatment in the early stages of the disease. We examined the effect of tiotropium on outcomes in a large subgroup of patients with moderate COPD...
  5. ncbi Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD
    Claus Vogelmeier
    Hospital of the Universities of Giessen and Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    N Engl J Med 364:1093-1103. 2011
    ..We investigated whether the anticholinergic drug tiotropium is superior to the β(2)-agonist salmeterol in preventing exacerbations of COPD...
  6. ncbi Comparative safety of inhaled medications in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    Yaa Hui Dong
    Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Thorax 68:48-56. 2013
    ..We aimed to compare the risk of overall and cardiovascular death for inhaled medications in patients with COPD...
  7. ncbi Blinded 12-week comparison of once-daily indacaterol and tiotropium in COPD
    R Buhl
    Pulmonary Department, Mainz University Hospital, Langenbeckstrasse 1, Mainz, D 55131, Germany
    Eur Respir J 38:797-803. 2011
    ..Both bronchodilators demonstrated spirometric efficacy. The two treatments were well tolerated with similar adverse event profiles. Compared with tiotropium, indacaterol provided significantly greater improvements in clinical outcomes...
  8. pmc Efficacy of once-daily indacaterol 75 μg relative to alternative bronchodilators in COPD: a study level and a patient level network meta-analysis
    Shannon Cope
    Mapi Consultancy, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Pulm Med 12:29. 2012
    ....
  9. ncbi Tiotropium versus placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Charlotta Karner
    Population Health Sciences and Education, St George s, University of London, London, UK
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD009285. 2012
    ....
  10. ncbi Formoterol mono- and combination therapy with tiotropium in patients with COPD: a 6-month study
    Claus Vogelmeier
    Klinik für Innere Medizin mit Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Universitätsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Standort Marburg Baldingerstrasse, D 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Respir Med 102:1511-20. 2008
    ..Combined bronchodilator therapy may be a valuable treatment option for patients with COPD...
  11. ncbi Efficacy and tolerability of budesonide/formoterol added to tiotropium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Tobias Welte
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:741-50. 2009
    ..Budesonide/formoterol and tiotropium are commonly used maintenance treatments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Combining these medications may provide additional benefits...
  12. ncbi Comparison of tiotropium once daily, formoterol twice daily and both combined once daily in patients with COPD
    J A Van Noord
    Dept of Respiratory Diseases, Atrium Medisch Centrum, Henri Dunantstraat 5, 6419 PC Heerlen, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 26:214-22. 2005
    ..i.d. A combination of both drugs q.d. was most effective and provided an additive effect throughout the 24-h dosing interval...
  13. ncbi Effects of tiotropium with and without formoterol on airflow obstruction and resting hyperinflation in patients with COPD
    Jan A van Noord
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Atrium Medisch Centrum, Henri Dunantstraat 5, 6419 PC Heerlen, The Netherlands
    Chest 129:509-17. 2006
    ..The combination of short-acting beta(2)-agonists and anticholinergics in the treatment of COPD has been well documented, but data on combination of long-acting agents are lacking...
  14. ncbi Minimal important difference of the transition dyspnoea index in a multinational clinical trial
    T J Witek
    Respiratory Development and Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany
    Eur Respir J 21:267-72. 2003
    ....
  15. pmc Mortality associated with tiotropium mist inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    Sonal Singh
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 E Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    BMJ 342:d3215. 2011
    ..To systematically review the risk of mortality associated with long term use of tiotropium delivered using a mist inhaler for symptomatic improvement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
  16. ncbi Mortality in the 4-year trial of tiotropium (UPLIFT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Bartolome Celli
    Brigham and Women s Hospital and St Elizabeth s Medical Center, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:948-55. 2009
    ..Mortality and its causes was a secondary endpoint in UPLIFT...
  17. pmc Muscarinic receptor signaling in the pathophysiology of asthma and COPD
    Reinoud Gosens
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Respir Res 7:73. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc Efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat SMI in COPD in two 1-year randomized studies
    Eric Bateman
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 5:197-208. 2010
    ..Tiotropium Respimat SMI 5 microg demonstrated sustained improvements in patients with COPD relative to placebo and similar to the 10 microg dose but with a lower frequency of anticholinergic adverse events...
  19. pmc Indacaterol provides 24-hour bronchodilation in COPD: a placebo-controlled blinded comparison with tiotropium
    Claus Vogelmeier
    Novartis Pharmaceuticals Inc, One Health Plaza, East Hanover, NJ 07936 1080, USA
    Respir Res 11:135. 2010
    ..This randomized, double-blind study compared the bronchodilator efficacy of indacaterol with that of placebo and tiotropium in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD...
  20. ncbi Efficacy of aclidinium bromide 400 μg twice daily compared with placebo and tiotropium in patients with moderate to severe COPD
    Rainard Fuhr
    Early Phase Clinical Unit Berlin, PAREXEL International GmbH, Berlin, Germany
    Chest 141:745-52. 2012
    ..The efficacy and safety of aclidinium bromide bid, a novel, long-acting, muscarinic antagonist, was assessed in patients with moderate to severe COPD...
  21. ncbi Tiotropium 5microg via Respimat and 18microg via HandiHaler; efficacy and safety in Japanese COPD patients
    M Ichinose
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Kimiidera, Wakayama, Japan
    Respir Med 104:228-36. 2010
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of tiotropium inhaled via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler, a multidose propellant-free inhaler and HandiHaler, a single-dose dry powder inhaler, in a phase 2 study of Japanese COPD patients...
  22. ncbi Tiotropium as a first maintenance drug in COPD: secondary analysis of the UPLIFT trial
    T Troosters
    Respiratory Division and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Eur Respir J 36:65-73. 2010
    ..6 units (p<0.001) with tiotropium compared to placebo. In patients with COPD who are not on maintenance therapy, tiotropium is associated with significant benefits in disease progression...
  23. ncbi The pharmacodynamic effects of single inhaled doses of formoterol, tiotropium and their combination in patients with COPD
    Mario Cazzola
    Unit of Pneumology and Allergology, Department of Respiratory Medicine, A Cardarelli Hospital, Via del Parco Margherita 24, Naples 80121, Italy
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 17:35-9. 2004
    ..Since tiotropium ensures prolonged bronchodilation, whereas formoterol adds fast onset and a greater peak effect, the two drugs appear complementary...
  24. ncbi Cardio- and cerebrovascular safety of indacaterol vs formoterol, salmeterol, tiotropium and placebo in COPD
    Heinrich Worth
    Medical Department I, Klinikum Fürth, Jakob Henle Str 1, D 90766 Fürth, Germany
    Respir Med 105:571-9. 2011
    ..As COPD patients commonly suffer cardio- and cerebrovascular (CCV) co-morbidities, our purpose was to establish the CCV safety profile of indacaterol, a novel, inhaled, long-acting β(2)-agonist for COPD...
  25. ncbi A one-year trial of tiotropium Respimat plus usual therapy in COPD patients
    E D Bateman
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Mowbray, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respir Med 104:1460-72. 2010
    ..The protocol is registered on the European Clinical Trials Database as trial number 2006-001009-27 and in the ClinicalTrials.gov database as NCT00387088...
  26. pmc Safety, tolerability and risk benefit analysis of tiotropium in COPD
    Yuji Oba
    University of Missouri, School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3:575-84. 2008
    ..However, caution should be advised in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease given the paucity of data in such patients...
  27. ncbi Tiotropium for treatment of stable COPD: a meta-analysis of clinically relevant outcomes
    Abebaw Mengistu Yohannes
    Department of Health Professions, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom, UK
    Respir Care 56:477-87. 2011
    ....
  28. pmc Effect of tiotropium on health-related quality of life as a primary efficacy endpoint in COPD
    A B Tonnel
    Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire CHRU de Lille, Service de Pneumologie et Immuno Allergologie, Lille Cedex, France
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3:301-10. 2008
    ..01 +/- 0.02 L; between-group difference: 0.10 +/- 0.03 L, p = 0.0001) and reduced exacerbations vs placebo. Maintenance treatment with tiotropium provided significant and clinically relevant improvements in HRQoL, as measured by the SGRQ...
  29. ncbi Effects of tiotropium on lung hyperinflation, dyspnoea and exercise tolerance in COPD
    D E O'Donnell
    Respiratory Investigation Unit, Dept of Medicine, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Eur Respir J 23:832-40. 2004
    ..Resultant increases in inspiratory capacity permitted greater expansion of tidal volume and contributed to improvements in both exertional dyspnoea and exercise endurance...
  30. ncbi Formoterol and tiotropium compared with tiotropium alone for treatment of COPD
    Donald P Tashkin
    David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    COPD 6:17-25. 2009
    ..04) were seen at endpoint with combination FORM + TIO versus TIO monotherapy. Both treatments were well tolerated. This study demonstrated that concurrent treatment with FORM + TIO results in greater therapeutic benefits than TIO alone...
  31. ncbi Combination of formoterol and tiotropium in the treatment of COPD: effects on lung function
    Mario Cazzola
    Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    COPD 6:404-15. 2009
    ..Once-daily or twice-daily formoterol, added to tiotropium, are both better than tiotropium alone, but the published evidence suggests twice-daily formoterol is the best add-on option...
  32. ncbi The efficacy of tiotropium administered via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler or HandiHaler in COPD patients
    J A Van Noord
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Atrium Medisch Centrum, Heerlen, The Netherlands
    Respir Med 103:22-9. 2009
    ..The Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI), a novel, propellant-free inhaler, has been developed and proposed as an alternative delivery device for use with tiotropium...
  33. pmc Efficacy and safety of tiotropium in COPD patients in primary care--the SPiRiva Usual CarE (SPRUCE) study
    Daryl Freeman
    Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    Respir Res 8:45. 2007
    ..In primary care, which is the most common setting for COPD management, many patients may have milder disease, and also may take a broad range of concomitant medication...
  34. ncbi Inhibition of allergen-induced airway remodelling by tiotropium and budesonide: a comparison
    I S T Bos
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 30:653-61. 2007
    ....
  35. ncbi Tiotropium in combination with placebo, salmeterol, or fluticasone-salmeterol for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial
    Shawn D Aaron
    The Ottawa Health Research Institute and University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Intern Med 146:545-55. 2007
    ..Treatment of moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with combinations of inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta-agonists, and long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators is common but unstudied...
  36. ncbi The effect of inhaled tiotropium bromide on lung mucociliary clearance in patients with COPD
    Amir Hasani
    Department of Medical Physics, Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust and Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Chest 125:1726-34. 2004
    ..To assess the effects of tiotropium on lung mucociliary clearance in COPD...
  37. ncbi A randomized study of tiotropium Respimat Soft Mist inhaler vs. ipratropium pMDI in COPD
    T Voshaar
    Medizinische Klinik III, Stiftung Krankenhaus Bethanien für die, Grafschaft Moers, Bethanienstr 21, D 47441 Moers, Germany
    Respir Med 102:32-41. 2008
    ..04). The incidence of adverse events was comparable across groups. In conclusion, tiotropium 5 and 10 microg daily, delivered via Respimat SMI, significantly improved lung function compared with ipratropium pMDI and placebo...
  38. ncbi Bronchodilator response to formoterol after regular tiotropium or to tiotropium after regular formoterol in COPD patients
    Mario Cazzola
    Antonio Cardarelli Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Unit of Pneumology and Allergology, Naples, Italy
    Respir Med 99:524-8. 2005
    ..Differences between the two treatments were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The addition of second different long-acting bronchodilator to a regularly administered long-acting bronchodilator seems to be to patient's advantage...
  39. ncbi Tiotropium Handihaler and the risk of cardio- or cerebrovascular events and mortality in patients with COPD
    K M C Verhamme
    Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 25:19-26. 2012
    ..Recent data from RCTs suggests tiotropium Handihaler to be safe, but its safety has not yet been fully investigated under real-life circumstances...
  40. ncbi Cost-utility analysis of indacaterol in Germany: a once-daily maintenance bronchodilator for patients with COPD
    David Price
    Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill Health Centre, Westburn Road, Aberdeen AB25 2AY, UK
    Respir Med 105:1635-47. 2011
    ....
  41. ncbi Comparison of tiotropium plus formoterol to tiotropium alone in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis
    Jianmiao Wang
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Key Lab of Pulmonary Diseases of Health Ministry, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
    Respirology 16:350-8. 2011
    ..This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences in efficacy and adverse events associated with combination therapy compared with tiotropium alone, in patients with stable COPD...
  42. ncbi Tiotropium and risk for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review with meta-analysis
    Gustavo J Rodrigo
    Departamento de Emergencia, Hospital Central de las Fuerzas Armadas, Av 8 de octubre 3020, Montevideo 11600, Uruguay
    Respir Med 103:1421-9. 2009
    ..The purpose of this review was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk of regular use of inhaled tiotropium bromide in patients with COPD of any severity...
  43. ncbi The role of anticholinergics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Peter J Barnes
    Department of Thoracic Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Med 117:24S-32S. 2004
    ..Once-daily administration of tiotropium is well tolerated and has shown significant advantages over ipratropium bromide, given 4 times daily, in the control of COPD...
  44. ncbi The impact of tiotropium on mortality and exacerbations when added to inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonist therapy in COPD
    Philip M Short
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland
    Chest 141:81-6. 2012
    ..It remains unclear whether benefits are seen when tiotropium is used in conjunction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus long-acting β-agonists (LABAs)...
  45. ncbi Healthcare costs associated with initial maintenance therapy with fluticasone propionate 250 μg/salmeterol 50 μg combination versus anticholinergic bronchodilators in elderly US Medicare-eligible beneficiaries with COPD
    Anand A Dalal
    GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    J Med Econ 12:339-47. 2009
    ....
  46. ncbi Tiotropium improves FEV1 in patients with COPD irrespective of smoking status
    J Moita
    Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra, Pneumology Service, Quinta dos Vales, 3041 853 Coimbra, Portugal
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 21:146-51. 2008
    ..placebo in both smokers and ex-smokers suggests that tiotropium is an effective and well-tolerated therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), regardless of smoking status...
  47. ncbi Improvements in symptom-limited exercise performance over 8 h with once-daily tiotropium in patients with COPD
    Francois Maltais
    Centre de Recherche, Hopital Laval, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de l Universite Laval, 725 Chemin Ste Foy, Quebec, QC, G1V 4G5, Canada
    Chest 128:1168-78. 2005
    ..The present study was designed to gain further insight into the duration of improvements...
  48. ncbi Efficacy and safety of nebulized formoterol as add-on therapy in COPD patients receiving maintenance tiotropium bromide: Results from a 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial
    Nicola A Hanania
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Drugs 69:1205-16. 2009
    ..The addition of nebulized formoterol to tiotropium in maintenance treatment of COPD provided clinically meaningful, statistically significant and sustained improvements in pulmonary function without additional adverse effects...
  49. ncbi Tiotropium suppresses acetylcholine-induced release of chemotactic mediators in vitro
    Frank Buhling
    Institute of Immunology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Leipziger Str 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Respir Med 101:2386-94. 2007
    ..This may contribute to the decreased rate of exacerbations in COPD, which was observed in clinical trials...
  50. ncbi Effects of arformoterol twice daily, tiotropium once daily, and their combination in patients with COPD
    D P Tashkin
    David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1690, USA
    Respir Med 103:516-24. 2009
    ..This 2-week, multi-center (34 sites), randomized, modified-blind, parallel group study evaluated the efficacy and safety of concomitant treatment with nebulized arformoterol (the formoterol(R,R)-isomer) BID and tiotropium DPI QD...
  51. pmc Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions
    Mattias Neyt
    Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre KCE, Brussels, Belgium
    BMC Pulm Med 10:47. 2010
    ..Questions however remain on this product's value for money. The purpose of this study is to calculate tiotropium's cost-effectiveness under real-world conditions...
  52. pmc Suppressive activity of tiotropium bromide on matrix metalloproteinase production from lung fibroblasts in vitro
    Kazuhito Asano
    Division of Physiology, School of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, Japan
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3:781-9. 2008
    ..There is also increasing evidence that metalloproteinases (MMPs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD, but the influence of agents that used for the treatment of COPD is not well understood...
  53. ncbi Outcomes associated with tiotropium use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Todd A Lee
    Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines, Illinois, USA
    Arch Intern Med 169:1403-10. 2009
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of regimens containing tiotropium bromide vs other medication regimens for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in real-world clinical settings...
  54. pmc A dose-ranging study of tiotropium delivered via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler or HandiHaler in COPD patients
    Denis Caillaud
    CHU Clermont Ferrand, Pulmonary Department, Hopital G Montpied, Clermont Ferrand, France
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2:559-65. 2007
    ..Tiotropium 5 and 10 microg Respimat improve lung function in COPD patients and appear to be comparable with tiotropium 18 microg HandiHaler...
  55. ncbi Incorporating tiotropium into a respiratory therapist-directed bronchodilator protocol for managing in-patients with COPD exacerbations decreases bronchodilator costs
    Gail S Drescher
    Pulmonary Services Department, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA
    Respir Care 53:1678-84. 2008
    ..Tiotropium is used in maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there are no guidelines on when to start tiotropium following an exacerbation...
  56. ncbi A 6-month, placebo-controlled study comparing lung function and health status changes in COPD patients treated with tiotropium or salmeterol
    James F Donohue
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7020, USA
    Chest 122:47-55. 2002
    ..A trial was designed to examine the efficacy and safety of both compounds with multiple outcome measures, including lung function, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with COPD...
  57. ncbi Benefits of adding fluticasone propionate/salmeterol to tiotropium in moderate to severe COPD
    Nicola A Hanania
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    Respir Med 106:91-101. 2012
    ..In this study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of fluticasone/salmeterol (FSC) (250/50 mcg twice daily) when added to tiotropium (18 mcg once daily) (TIO) in subjects with symptomatic moderate to severe COPD...
  58. ncbi Aclidinium bromide, a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist for COPD with improved preclinical renal and urinary safety profile
    Amadeu Gavaldá
    Almirall S A, Biology Department, Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
    Life Sci 90:301-5. 2012
    ..Since urinary difficulty and retention have been reported for anticholinergic agents such as tiotropium and ipratropium, it is important to examine the preclinical urinary and renal safety profile of aclidinium...
  59. ncbi The additive effect of theophylline on a combination of formoterol and tiotropium in stable COPD: a pilot study
    Mario Cazzola
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Unit of Pneumology and Allergology, A Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy
    Respir Med 101:957-62. 2007
    ....
  60. ncbi A long-term evaluation of once-daily inhaled tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    R Casaburi
    Harbor UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Eur Respir J 19:217-24. 2002
    ..This suggests that tiotropium will make an important contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy...
  61. ncbi Anticholinergic agents in asthma and COPD
    Nicholas J Gross
    Stritch Loyola School of Medicine, Voluntary Attending Physician, Hines VA Hospital, Chicago, Hines, IL 60141, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 533:36-9. 2006
    ..All of the above agents have a wide therapeutic margin and are safe and well tolerated by patients...
  62. ncbi The effect of tiotropium on hyperinflation and exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    C Verkindre
    Centre Hospitalier Germon et Gauthier, Bethune, France
    Respiration 73:420-7. 2006
    ..Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation, which results in the progressive development of dyspnea and exercise limitation...
  63. ncbi Alternative mechanisms for tiotropium
    E D Bateman
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 22:533-42. 2009
    ..This article summarizes data from a variety of investigations that provide insights into possible mechanisms to account for the effects of tiotropium. The report summarizes the discussion on basic and clinical research in this field...
  64. pmc Study design considerations in a large COPD trial comparing effects of tiotropium with salmeterol on exacerbations
    Kai Michael Beeh
    insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 4:119-25. 2009
    ..Other challenges in designing exacerbation trials such as differential discontinuation and follow-up of discontinued patients are discussed...
  65. ncbi Prevention of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with tiotropium, a once-daily inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator: a randomized trial
    Dennis E Niewoehner
    Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA
    Ann Intern Med 143:317-26. 2005
    ..Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently develop exacerbations, leading to major clinical and health resource use ramifications...
  66. pmc Plethysmography and impulse oscillometry assessment of tiotropium and ipratropium bromide; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in healthy subjects
    D Singh
    Medicines Evaluation Unit, North West Lung Research Centre, Manchester, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 61:398-404. 2006
    ..These methods have not been compared for their ability to assess long- and short-acting anticholinergic agents. We therefore performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way cross-over study in 30 healthy subjects...
  67. pmc Quantifying the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled antagonists at the muscarinic M3 receptor
    Mark R Dowling
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Wimblehurst Road, Horsham, West Sussex RH12 5AB
    Br J Pharmacol 148:927-37. 2006
    ....
  68. pmc Comparative cost-effectiveness of a fluticasone-propionate/salmeterol combination versus anticholinergics as initial maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Anand A Dalal
    US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 6:13-22. 2011
    ....
  69. ncbi Effects of formoterol and tiotropium bromide on mucus clearance in patients with COPD
    Thomas Meyer
    Inamed GmbH, Robert Koch Allee 29, 82131 Gauting, Germany
    Respir Med 105:900-6. 2011
    ..Treatment guidelines recommend that patients with COPD receive maintenance therapy with long-acting beta-agonists and anticholinergic agents...
  70. ncbi Tiotropium bromide, a new, once-daily inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator for chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease
    Alicia R ZuWallack
    St Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT 06105, USA
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 5:1827-35. 2004
    ..Preliminary data suggest that combining tiotropium with long-acting beta-agonists may produce additional bronchodilator action in COPD...
  71. ncbi Bronchodilator responsiveness in patients with COPD
    D P Tashkin
    David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
    Eur Respir J 31:742-50. 2008
    ..The majority of patients with moderate-to-very-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease demonstrate meaningful increases in lung function following administration of inhaled anticholinergic plus sympathomimetic bronchodilators...
  72. ncbi Premature discontinuation during the UPLIFT study
    Marc Decramer
    Respiratory Division, University Hospital, University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, Leuven, Belgium
    Respir Med 105:1523-30. 2011
    ..Placebo-controlled clinical trials on COPD are characterized by premature discontinuation. At present, no clear insight into this phenomenon is available...
  73. ncbi The effect of tiotropium on exacerbations and airflow in patients with COPD
    D Dusser
    Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Cochin, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75679 Paris, Cedex 14, France
    Eur Respir J 27:547-55. 2006
    ..In conclusion, tiotropium reduced exacerbations and associated health resource use, and improved airflow over 1 yr in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
  74. ncbi Tiotropium induced bronchodilation and protection from dynamic hyperinflation is independent of extent of emphysema in COPD
    Arthur F Gelb
    Pulmonary Division, Department of Medicine, Lakewood Regional Medical Center, Lakewood, CA, USA
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 22:237-42. 2009
    ..The magnitude of tiotropium (1) induced bronchodilation and (2) protection against dynamic hyperinflation in COPD phenotypes has not been studied...
  75. ncbi Comparison of risk of neurovascular and cardiovascular side effects between tiotropium and other anticholinergic agents
    Reem Alzayer
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
    Qual Prim Care 18:189-99. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the risk of cardiovascular diseases among users of both inhaled (ipratropium bromide or tiotropium bromide) and oral (oxybutynin and propantheline, solifenacin, tolterodine) anticholinergics...
  76. pmc Does tiotropium lower exacerbation and hospitalization frequency in COPD patients: results of a meta-analysis
    Ann Van den Bruel
    Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre KCE, Brussels, Belgium
    BMC Pulm Med 10:50. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of tiotropium, a long-acting anticholinergic inhalant, on exacerbation and hospitalisation frequency...
  77. pmc Impact of frequency of COPD exacerbations on pulmonary function, health status and clinical outcomes
    A Anzueto
    Audie L Murphy Division, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 4:245-51. 2009
    ..COPD exacerbations are responsible for the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The relationship between exacerbations and patient-related clinical outcomes is not clearly understood...
  78. ncbi Cardiovascular safety of tiotropium in patients with COPD
    Bartolome Celli
    Carita St Elizabeth s Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Chest 137:20-30. 2010
    ..The clinical trial safety database for tiotropium has been augmented with a 4-year trial in patients with COPD, which provides an opportunity to better evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) profile of tiotropium...
  79. ncbi The connection between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms and hyperinflation and its impact on exercise and function
    Christopher B Cooper
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1690, USA
    Am J Med 119:21-31. 2006
    ..Furthermore, therapeutic interventions--including pharmacotherapy and lung volume--reduction surgery--that reduce hyperinflation improve these outcomes...
  80. ncbi Probabilistic Markov model to assess the cost-effectiveness of bronchodilator therapy in COPD patients in different countries
    Jan B Oostenbrink
    Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Value Health 8:32-46. 2005
    ..In this article we compare The Netherlands and Canada...
  81. pmc Tiotropium for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A meta-analysis
    R G Barr
    Division of General Medicine, PH 9 East Room 105, Columbia University Medical Centre, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Thorax 61:854-62. 2006
    ....
  82. ncbi Superiority of "triple" therapy with salmeterol/fluticasone propionate and tiotropium bromide versus individual components in moderate to severe COPD
    D Singh
    Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester, University of Manchester, Manchester M33 3TR, UK
    Thorax 63:592-8. 2008
    ..We compared the effects of SFC 50/500 microg twice daily in addition to TIO 18 microg once daily with the individual treatments alone...
  83. pmc Health outcomes following treatment for six months with once daily tiotropium compared with twice daily salmeterol in patients with COPD
    V Brusasco
    Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Genova, Genova, Italy
    Thorax 58:399-404. 2003
    ..A study was undertaken to record exacerbations and health resource use in patients with COPD during 6 months of treatment with tiotropium, salmeterol, or matching placebos...
  84. pmc A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of tiotropium in Canadian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Charles K N Chan
    University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Canada
    Can Respir J 14:465-72. 2007
    ..Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who smoke have a greater annual rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) than those patients who have stopped smoking...
  85. ncbi Enhanced persistence with tiotropium compared with other respiratory drugs in COPD
    Nancy S Breekveldt-Postma
    PHARMO Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Respir Med 101:1398-405. 2007
    ..Tiotropium is a once-daily inhaled anticholinergic maintenance treatment with demonstrated effectiveness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  86. pmc Tiotropium HandiHaler in the treatment of COPD: a safety review
    Steven Kesten
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Ridgefield, CT 06877 0368, USA
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 4:397-409. 2009
    ..We sought to update an evaluation of the safety of tiotropium in the HandiHaler formulation as significant clinical trial data have become available over time...
  87. ncbi Absence of electrocardiographic findings and improved function with once-daily tiotropium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Henry Covelli
    Pulmonary Consultants of North Idaho, Coeur d Alene, Idaho 83814, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 25:1708-18. 2005
    ..To examine electrocardiographic findings after short- and long-term tiotropium therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to establish previously reported symptomatic efficacy...
  88. pmc Improvement in self-reported exercise participation with the combination of tiotropium and rehabilitative exercise training in COPD patients
    Steven Kesten
    Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany 2Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3:127-36. 2008
    ..Improvements in ventilatory mechanics with tiotropium increases exercise tolerance during pulmonary rehabilitation. We wondered whether tiotropium also increased physical activities outside of pulmonary rehabilitation...
  89. ncbi The spirometric efficacy of once-daily dosing with tiotropium in stable COPD: a 13-week multicenter trial. The US Tiotropium Study Group
    R Casaburi
    Harbor UCLA Research and Education Institute Dr Casaburi, Torrance, CA 90509, USA
    Chest 118:1294-302. 2000
    ..To compare the bronchodilator efficacy and safety of tiotropium and placebo...
  90. ncbi Inhaled anticholinergics and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sonal Singh
    Department of Medicine, One Medical Center Blvd, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    JAMA 300:1439-50. 2008
    ..Inhaled anticholinergics (ipratropium bromide or tiotropium bromide) are widely used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but their effect on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes is unknown...
  91. ncbi The INSPIRE study: influence of prior use and discontinuation of inhaled corticosteroids
    Stephan F Lanes
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:543-4; author reply 544. 2008
  92. ncbi Survival with tiotropium compared to long-acting Beta-2-agonists in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    Andrea S Gershon
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    COPD 5:229-34. 2008
    ..This result suggests that tiotropium might also be associated with decreased mortality compared to no treatment at all. Randomized placebo-control trials are needed to confirm these findings...
  93. pmc Effect of add-on therapy of tiotropium in COPD treated with theophylline
    Tomotaka Kawayama
    Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3:137-47. 2008
    ..Although combination therapy with bronchodilators is recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of some combinations of long-acting bronchodilators...
  94. pmc Impairment of small airways in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations and effects of treatment with tiotropium
    Cristoforo Incorvaia
    Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3:123-6. 2008
    ..Treatment with tiotropium in COPD subjects with frequent exacerbations proved to be effective in improving small airway impairment...
  95. ncbi A dose-ranging study of indacaterol in obstructive airways disease, with a tiotropium comparison
    Stephen Rennard
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 5885, USA
    Respir Med 102:1033-44. 2008
    ..Indacaterol demonstrated a good overall safety and tolerability profile...
  96. pmc Small airways ventilation heterogeneity and hyperinflation in COPD: response to tiotropium bromide
    Sylvia Verbanck
    Respiratory Division, University Hospital Brussels, Belgium
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2:625-34. 2007
    ..We conclude that the sustained improvements in trough IC and FEV1 with tiotropium bromide predominantly observed in COPD patients with considerable hyperinflation, are unrelated to small airways ventilation heterogeneity...
  97. ncbi Comparative safety of long-acting inhaled bronchodilators: a cohort study using the UK THIN primary care database
    Michele Jara
    Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ridgefield, CT 06877 0368, USA
    Drug Saf 30:1151-60. 2007
    ..In COPD, the organ system most frequently requiring medical care, other than the respiratory system, is the cardiac system...
  98. ncbi Pharmacodynamic steady state of tiotropium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    J A Van Noord
    Dept of Respiratory Diseases, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 19:639-44. 2002
    ..The continued increases in forced vital capacity beyond 48 h suggests that maintenance bronchodilator therapy is required to achieve maximal changes in hyperinflation...
  99. ncbi Improved daytime spirometric efficacy of tiotropium compared with salmeterol in patients with COPD
    D D Briggs
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, 459 Boshell Diabetes Building, 1808 7th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 18:397-404. 2005
    ..A study was conducted comparing the long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium with the long-acting beta-agonist salmeterol to confirm the significant improvements in daytime bronchodilator efficacy seen with tiotropium in previous studies...
  100. ncbi Efficacy and safety of oxitropium bromide, theophylline and their combination in COPD patients: a double-blind, randomized, multicentre study (BREATH Trial)
    V Bellia
    Istituto Clinica delle Malattie Apparato Respiration, Palermo, Italy
    Respir Med 96:881-9. 2002
    ..Oxitropium bromide in combination with theophylline provided a greater improvement in evening post-dosing PEFR. Oxitropium bromide alone or in combination with theophylline improved the quality of life better than theophylline alone...
  101. ncbi One-year cost-effectiveness of tiotropium versus ipratropium to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    J B Oostenbrink
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 23:241-9. 2004
    ..Substituting tiotropium for ipratropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients offers improved health outcomes and is associated with increased costs of 180 Euro per patient per year...

Research Grants15

  1. SCLERODERMA LUNG STUDY
    Donald Tashkin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. LUNG HEALTH STUDY--LONG TERM FOLLOW UP
    Donald Tashkin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..All ten of the original LHS clinical centers plan to participate in this study. To minimize bias, all surviving participants of the LHS will be invited to participate, giving a potential sample size of 5600. ..
  3. Distal Lung Inflammation Effect on Asthma Exacerbations
    Donald Tashkin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This study has the potential to clarify the contribution of the "silent zone" to the persistent morbidity encountered with asthma. ..
  4. The Placebo Effect in Asthma
    Robert Wise; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Understanding the placebo response can lead to improvements in research and treatment of asthma. ..
  5. SCLERODERMA LUNG STUDY
    Robert Wise; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Clinical Trial of Acid Reflux Therapy in Asthma
    Robert Wise; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Pre-specified subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine if there are clinical or demographic characteristics that predict benefit from treatment of GERD in asthma. ..
  7. Response to Beta2-Agonists in Acute Severe Asthma
    Nicola Hanania; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Strategies to Improve COPD Management
    Richard Casaburi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies should have immediate impact on treatment strategies for large poor-prognosis subgroups of COPD patients. ..
  9. ASTHMA CLINICAL RESEARCH NETWORK (ACRN)
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  10. Fish Oil Intake, Biomarkers and Change in Lung Function
    R Barr; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Use of this existing cohort with previously collected blood samples will provide relatively cost-effective results about this potentially promising and safe therapy for COPD. ..
  11. RAT GENE EXPRESSION ANATOMY
    Norman Lee; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. V & Q Disturbances in Obliterative Bronchiolitis
    David Lipson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH GRADIENTS IN HOSPITAL WORKERS: THE
    Paul Blanc; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The study team will also work with a labor-management team to develop possible interventions for the problems that are identified by this study. ..
  14. CONTROL OF IGE MEDIATED PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN HUMANS
    Stephen Peters; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....