Genomes and Genes
Summary: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
Publications216 found, 100 shown here
- Novel spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene, aadA14, from Pasteurella multocidaCorinna Kehrenberg
Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystr 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3046-9. 2005A novel spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene, designated aadA14, was detected on the mobilizable 5,198-bp plasmid pCCK647 from Pasteurella multocida. The aadA14 gene encodes an aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase of 261 amino acids...
- Ribosomal RNA and protein mutants resistant to spectinomycinN Bilgin
Department of Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden
EMBO J 9:735-9. 1990We have compared the influence of spectinomycin (Spc) on individual partial reactions during the elongation phase of translation in vitro by wild-type and mutant ribosomes...
- Spectinomycin resistance in Neisseria spp. due to mutations in 16S rRNAM Galimand
Unite des Agents Antibacteriens, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:1365-6. 2000b>Spectinomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was found to be due to mutations G1064C and C1192U (Escherichia coli numbering) in 16S rRNA genes, respectively.
- Mutations conferring aminoglycoside and spectinomycin resistance in Borrelia burgdorferiDaniel Criswell
Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 4824, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:445-52. 2006..and characterized in vitro mutants of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi that are resistant to spectinomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, or streptomycin, antibiotics that target the small subunit of the ribosome...
- Marking cell layers with spectinomycin provides a new tool for monitoring cell fate during leaf developmentK Pyke
School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK
J Exp Bot 51:1713-20. 2000b>Spectinomycin, an inhibitor of plastid protein synthesis, can be used to mark specific cell layers in the shoot meristem of Brassica napus...
- Efficacy of spectinomycin against Mycoplasma bovis induced pneumonia in conventionally reared calvesF Poumarat
Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, Site de Lyon, 31 av Tony Garnier, F 69364 Cedex 07, Lyon, France
Vet Microbiol 80:23-35. 2001..On the 6th day, spectinomycin 20mg/kg was given intramuscularly in three repeated doses at 24h intervals to six randomly chosen calves...
- In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae to oxytetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin-spectinomycinG R Loria
Institute Zooprofilattico, Sperimentale della Sicilia, Via Rocco Dicillo, 4 I 90129, Palermo, Sicily, Italy
Res Vet Sci 75:3-7. 2003..The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline, enrofloxacin, tylosin, spiramycin and a lincomycin:spectinomycin 1:2 combination, against 24 Sicilian isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae, the causative organism of contagious ..
- Spectinomycin interacts specifically with the residues G1064 and C1192 in 16S rRNA, thereby potentially freezing this molecule into an inactive conformationM F Brink
Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, The Netherlands
Nucleic Acids Res 22:325-31. 1994..the base-paired sequences C1063G1064U1065 and A1191C1192G1193, is suggested to be involved in the binding of spectinomycin. In E. coli 16S rRNA, each of the three mutations at position C1192 confers resistance to spectinomycin...
- Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of spectinomycin after i.v., i.m., s.c. and oral administration in broiler chickensE A Abu-Basha
Department of Veterinary Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30:139-44. 2007A pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of spectinomycin was conducted in healthy broiler chickens following administration of a single (50 mg/kg bw) intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c...
- Novel streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance gene as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron isolated from Escherichia coliD Sandvang
Danish Veterinary Laboratory, DK 1790 Copenhagen V, and Department of Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:3036-8. 1999The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species...
- Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibioticsA P Carter
MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
Nature 407:340-8. 2000..describe the crystal structure of the 30S subunit complexed with the antibiotics paromomycin, streptomycin and spectinomycin, which interfere with decoding and translocation...
- Analysis of a genome fragment of a deep-sea uncultivated Group II euryarchaeote containing 16S rDNA, a spectinomycin-like operon and several energy metabolism genesDavid Moreira
UMR CNRS 8079, Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 360, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
Environ Microbiol 6:959-69. 2004..This genome fragment exhibits a compact organization, including a few overlapping genes in the canonical spectinomycin-like (spc) operon for ribosomal proteins that is immediately upstream the 16S rDNA...
- Lincomycin and spectinomycin concentrations in liquid swine manure and their persistence during simulated manure storageSandra L Kuchta
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:1-10. 2009..In the prairie region of Canada, lincomycin and spectinomycin are two antimicrobials that are frequently administered to pigs for prevention of post-weaning diarrhea...
- Spectinomycin resistance at site 1192 in 16S ribosomal RNA of E. coli: an analysis of three mutantsP C Makosky
Section of Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912
Biochimie 69:885-9. 1987..coli using site-directed mutagenesis. All 3 mutants conferred different levels of resistance to spectinomycin in transformed cells but none affected the growth rate in the absence of the antibiotic...
- Pharmacokinetic profile of spectinomycin in ratsD B Madhura
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, 881 Madison Ave, Suite 444, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
Pharmazie 68:675-6. 2013Following intravenous (IV) administration, the pharmacokinetics of spectinomycin in rats was found to be on par with its profile in other mammalian species including humans with respect to its overall excretion and half-life at effective ..
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with high-level resistance to spectinomycin due to a novel resistance mechanism (mutated ribosomal protein S5) verified in NorwayMagnus Unemo
WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and Other STIs, Swedish Reference Laboratory for Pathogenic Neisseria, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:1057-61. 2013Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. Verified resistance to spectinomycin is exceedingly rare...
- Spectinomycin resistance mutations in the rrn16 gene are new plastid markers in Medicago sativaBrigitta Dudas
Agricultural Biotechnology Center, Szent Gyorgyi Albert u 4, 2100, Godollo, Hungary
Theor Appl Genet 125:1517-23. 2012We report here the isolation of spectinomycin-resistant mutants in cultured cells of Medicago sativa line RegenSY-T2...
- The region of the IncN plasmid R46 coding for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, streptomycin/spectinomycin and sulphonamides is closely related to antibiotic resistance segments found in IncW plasmids and in Tn21-like transposonsR M Hall
CSIRO Division of Molecular Biology, North Ryde, NSW, Australia
Nucleic Acids Res 15:7491-501. 1987..The possibility that this antibiotic resistance segment is a discrete mobile DNA element is discussed...
- Nucleotide sequence of a spectinomycin adenyltransferase AAD(9) determinant from Staphylococcus aureus and its relationship to AAD(3") (9)E Murphy
Mol Gen Genet 200:33-9. 1985..This gene encodes a spectinomycin adenyltransferase, AAD(9), that mediates resistance to spectinomycin but not to streptomycin...
- The Escherichia coli cmlA gene encodes the multidrug efflux pump Cmr/MdfA and is responsible for isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside exclusion and spectinomycin sensitivityC Bohn
Laboratoire des Réseaux de Régulations, Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Universite Paris Sud, CNRS URA2225, F 91405 Orsay cedex, France
J Bacteriol 180:6072-5. 1998..The previously reported cmlA1 mutation confers a similar phenotype. cmlA1 contains an IS30 insertion upstream of cmr/mdfA, which creates a putative promoter. CmlA overproduction also causes spectinomycin hypersensitivity.
- Fitness cost due to mutations in the 16S rRNA associated with spectinomycin resistance in Chlamydia psittaci 6BCRachel Binet
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 4799, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4455-64. 2005..we studied the growth of four genetically defined spectinomycin-resistant (Spc(r)) clonal variants of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC isolated in the plaque assay...
- In vivo selection of spectinomycin-binding RNAsJeff M Zimmerman
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street SW, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 30:5425-35. 2002..present case, we report short RNA transcripts whose expression confers bacterial resistance to the antibiotic spectinomycin. We provide evidence that such RNAs cause drug resistance by direct antibiotic binding, demonstrating a class ..
- First case of spectinomycin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in New Delhi, IndiaM Bala
Sex Transm Infect 81:186-7. 2005
- Analysis of a formulation containing lincomycin and spectinomycin by liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detectionJ Szúnyog
Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Chemie en Analyse van Geneesmiddelen, Faculteit Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, E Van Evenstraat 4, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
J Pharm Biomed Anal 29:213-20. 2002..It allows the separation of a mixture of spectinomycin sulfate, lincomycin hydrochloride and their related substances...
- A steric block in translation caused by the antibiotic spectinomycinMaria A Borovinskaya
Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
ACS Chem Biol 2:545-52. 2007The widely used antibiotic spectinomycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking translocation of messenger RNA and transfer RNAs on the ribosome...
- Detection of a novel aph(2") allele (aph[2"]-Ie) conferring high-level gentamicin resistance and a spectinomycin resistance gene ant(9)-Ia (aad 9) in clinical isolates of enterococciMohammed Mahbub Alam
Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8556, Japan
Microb Drug Resist 11:239-47. 2005..ant(9)-Ia had been reported only in Staphylococcus aureus and encodes spectinomycin adenylyltransferase ANT(9)-I, which confers resistance to spectinomycin...
- Development of a hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for spectinomycin and lincomycin in liquid hog manure supernatant and run-off from croplandKerry M Peru
National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Sask, Canada S7N 3H5
J Chromatogr A 1107:152-8. 2006A specific and sensitive analytical method was developed to extract and quantify spectinomycin and lincomycin in liquid hog manure supernatant and simulated rainfall run-off from manure-treated cropland...
- Single-dose treatment of male patients with gonococcal urethritis using 2g spectinomycin: microbiological and clinical evaluationsMunekado Kojima
Department of Urology, Nagoya Urology Hospital, 5 34 Matsuba, Nagoya, Japan
Int J Antimicrob Agents 32:50-4. 2008The microbiological and clinical efficacies of a single-dose treatment of 2g spectinomycin administered by intramuscular injection were studied in 365 male patients with gonococcal urethritis. A total of 210 patients (57...
- Simultaneous determination of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in animal tissues by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extractionY Tao
National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 28:145-54. 2011..spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for qualitative and quantitative measurement of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in food animal tissues...
- New gene cassettes for trimethoprim resistance, dfr13, and Streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance, aadA4, inserted on a class 1 integronP V Adrian
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of the Witwatersrand, and the South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg, South Africa
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:355-61. 2000..a new cassette, an aminoglycoside resistance gene of the class AADA ¿ANT(3")(9)-I, which encodes streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance, was identified...
- A generic method for the quantitative analysis of aminoglycosides (and spectinomycin) in animal tissue using methylated internal standards and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometryFrederique L van Holthoon
RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, Bornsesteeg 45, 6708 PD, P O Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands
Anal Chim Acta 637:135-43. 2009..for the quantitative determination and confirmation of seven aminoglycosides (and relevant isomers) and spectinomycin in animal tissues...
- Development and validation of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods for the determination of gentamicin, lincomycin, and spectinomycin in the presence of their impurities in pharmaceutical formulationsK Vucićević-Prcetić
DSP Chromatography, Bul Zorana Đinđića 166, Belgrade, Serbia
J Pharm Biomed Anal 56:736-42. 2011..with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods for the determination of gentamicin, lincomycin and spectinomycin in the presence of their impurities were developed and tested...
- HPLC determination of residues of spectinomycin in various tissue types from husbandry animalsA A Bergwerff
Department of the Science of Food of Animal Origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
Analyst 123:2139-44. 1998An HPLC method was developed for the determination of bacteriostatic aminocyclitol spectinomycin (SP) in animal tissue products...
- Non-penicillinase producing Neisseria gonnorhoeae: are they still in existence in Ibadan, Nigeria?R A Bakare
Special Treatment Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Afr J Med Med Sci 30:281-3. 2001..The present study revealed that non-PPNG strains have reduced considerably to 5.4% from 100% in 1977. This has posed a great threat to the usefulness of penicillin and ampicillin as the drugs of choice in gonococcal therapy in Nigeria...
- A pilot study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from NepalChintamani Chaudhary
AMDA, Kathmandu, Nepal
Sex Transm Dis 32:641-3. 2005
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Guangzhou, China, 1996-2001H P Zheng
Guangzhou Center for STD Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, P R China
Sex Transm Infect 79:399-402. 2003..To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant trends of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Guangzhou, from 1996 to 2001...
- Persistence of unselected transgenic DNA during a plastid transformation and segregation approach to herbicide resistanceGuang Ning Ye
Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA
Plant Physiol 133:402-10. 2003The use of a nonlethal selection scheme, most often using the aadA gene that confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin, has been considered critical for recovery of plastid transformation events...
- [Antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae epidemic strains in Changsha]Ming xiang Zou
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China
Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 28:53-5. 2003..To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae epidemic strains in Changsha and to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of gonorrhea...
- Variant Salmonella genomic island 1-L antibiotic resistance gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar NewportAxel Cloeckaert
Unité Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique site 213, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3944-6. 2006..The isolate carried another class 1 integron containing the aacC5 and aadA7 gene cassettes conferring resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin/spectinomycin, respectively.
- Revised analysis of aadA2 gene of plasmid pSaA Bito
Institut für Genetik und Allgemeine Biologie, Universitat Salzburg, Austria
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:1172-5. 1994..These deviations are located in the coding region and in the 3' noncoding region. By making deletions in the region for initiation of protein synthesis, we identified a GTG triplet as the most probable start codon for translation...
- Analysis of gene cassettes of streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance of Hungarian Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strainsNoémi Nógrády
Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H 1581 Budapest, P O Box 18, Hungary
Acta Vet Hung 51:137-51. 2003By PCR using the ant(3")-Ia primer pair the aadA gene was detected in 34 streptomycin- and spectinomycin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains. Out of them 12 belonged to DT104 and 22 to non-DT104 phage type...
- Plastid transformation in Lesquerella fendleri, an oilseed BrassicaceaMarina Skarjinskaia
Waksman Institute, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 190 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8020, USA
Transgenic Res 12:115-22. 2003..Transformation vector pZS391B carried an aadA16gfp marker gene conferring streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance and green fluorescence under UV light...
- Hypermutable Haemophilus influenzae with mutations in mutS are found in cystic fibrosis sputumMichael E Watson
Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, 307 Westlake Ave N, Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Microbiology 150:2947-58. 2004..isolates were screened for an increased frequency of mutation to resistance to rifampicin, nalidixic acid and spectinomycin: of the 14 hypermutable isolates identified, 12 were isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum...
- aadA confers streptomycin resistance in Borrelia burgdorferiKristi L Frank
Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA
J Bacteriol 185:6723-7. 2003..Borrelia burgdorferi, we assayed the aadA gene for the ability to confer resistance to the antibiotics spectinomycin and streptomycin...
- [Clinical study of male urethritis in Oogaki Municipal Hospital]Hisao Komeda
The Department of Urology, Oogaki Municipal Hospital
Hinyokika Kiyo 51:57-60. 2005..The clinical curative rate of NGCU and NGNCU was 93% (38/41) and 80% (20/25), respectively...
- A plasmid-encoded class 1 integron carrying sat, a putative phosphoserine phosphatase gene and aadA2 from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O159 isolated in JapanAshraf M Ahmed
Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Hygiene, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1 4 4 Kagamiyama, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739 8528, Japan
FEMS Microbiol Lett 235:243-8. 2004..and the last is an aminoglycoside adenyltransferase gene, aadA2, which confers resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The putative PSP gene product was found to be 39%, 38%, 28%, and 27% identical to PSP gene products of Vibrio ..
- In vitro effects of spectinomycin and ceftriaxone alone or in combination with other antibiotics against Chlamydia trachomatisShuxian Shang
National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing 210042, China
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1584-6. 2005The in vitro effects of spectinomycin and ceftriaxone, alone or in combination with erythromycin, ofloxacin, and doxycycline, against Chlamydia trachomatis were investigated by the checkerboard method and compared by Ridit (reference ..
- Antibiotic multiresistance plasmid pRSB101 isolated from a wastewater treatment plant is related to plasmids residing in phytopathogenic bacteria and carries eight different resistance determinants including a multidrug transport systemRafael Szczepanowski
Fakultat fur Biologie, Lehrstuhl fur Genetik, Universitat Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
Microbiology 150:3613-30. 2004..pRSB101, mediates resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, roxythromycin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, spectinomycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid and low concentrations of norfloxacin...
- Frequency of spontaneous mutations that confer antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia sppRachel Binet
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 4799, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2865-73. 2005..trachomatis L2 (two rrn operons) and Chlamydophila psittaci 6BC (one rrn operon) to the aminoglycoside spectinomycin as a model...
- Characterization of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella Kinshasa from dairy calves in TexasK M Bischoff
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, TX, USA
Lett Appl Microbiol 38:140-5. 2004..To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolated from a central Texas dairy calf farm that raises animals for dairy-beef production...
- Spectinomycin resistance in rpsE mutants is recessive in Streptomyces roseosporusXiaowei He
Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Lexington, MA 02421, USA
J Antibiot (Tokyo) 58:284-8. 2005Eight spontaneous mutants of Streptomyces roseosporus resistant to spectinomycin (SpcR) were mapped to distinct transversions or deletions in the rpsE gene. Most of the mutations were strongly recessive to the wild type SpcS allele...
- Frequency of alterations in the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV in 19 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Tokyo in 2002Kenichi Sato
J Infect Chemother 9:361. 2003
- Frequency of alterations in the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV in 19 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Tokyo in 2002Hiroyuki Abe
Department of Urology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
J Infect Chemother 9:310-3. 2003..063 and 1 micro g/ml, and they increased to 4 and 8 micro g/ml, respectively, in the present study. All 19 cases of gonoccocal urethritis in the present study were cured with a single intramuscular injection of 2 g spectinomycin.
- Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Port ElizabethS Govender
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa
S Afr Med J 96:225-6. 2006..To survey the antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates...
- Influences of biofilm structure and antibiotic resistance mechanisms on indirect pathogenicity in a model polymicrobial biofilmHeather A O'Connell
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5013-9. 2006..Escherichia coli ATCC 33456 was transformed with vectors conferring either ampicillin or spectinomycin resistance, creating two distinct populations with different resistance mechanisms...
- An efficient approach for cloning the dNDP-glucose synthase gene from actinomycetes and its application in Streptomyces spectabilis, a spectinomycin producerC Hyun
Department of Biological Science, Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Myong Ji University, Yongin, South Korea
FEMS Microbiol Lett 183:183-9. 2000..In addition, we have cloned a 45-kb region of DNA from Streptomyces spectabilis ATCC27741, a spectinomycin producer which contained the dTDP-glucose synthase and dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase genes named spcD and spcE, ..
- Mutations in 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein S5 associated with high-level spectinomycin resistance in Pasteurella multocidaCorinna Kehrenberg
Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystr 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2244-6. 2007Pasteurella multocida isolates with high-level spectinomycin resistance in which no adenyltransferase genes could be demonstrated exhibited a C1192G transversion in the 16S rRNA of all six or five of the six rRNA operons and/or two ..
- Emergence of cephem- and aztreonam-high-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae that does not produce beta-lactamaseS Akasaka
Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan
J Infect Chemother 7:49-50. 2001..These isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. In N. gonorrhoeae, the emergence of these beta-lactam-resistant isolates is of serious concern...
- Activity of translation system and abundance of tmRNA during development of Streptomyces aureofaciens producing tetracyclineP Palecková
Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czechia
Folia Microbiol (Praha) 51:517-24. 2006..These experiments suggest that the main role of the rising tmRNA level at the beginning of the Ttc production is connected with ribosome rescue...
- In vitro mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis by using a modified Tn7 transposon with an outward-facing inducible promoterChristophe Bordi
Department of Microbiology, Wing Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 8101, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3419-25. 2008..This new mini-Tn7, mTn7SX, contains a spectinomycin resistance cassette and an outward-facing, xylose-inducible promoter, thereby allowing for the regulated ..
- Antimicrobial resistance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1988 to 2003: the spread of fluoroquinolone resistanceSusan A Wang
National Center for HIV AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emory University School of Medicine, and Emory Center for AIDS Research, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Ann Intern Med 147:81-8. 2007..Over the past 60 years, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has acquired clinically significant resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, penicillins, and ciprofloxacin...
- Susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to ten chemotherapeutic agentsR Sobetzko
Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 269:245-50. 1988..0, erythromycin and streptomycin-4.0, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, rosoxacin-8.0, spectinomycin-32.0...
- National surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2005-2006 and recommendations of first-line antimicrobial drugs for gonorrhoea treatment in RussiaA Kubanova
Central Research Institute of Dermato Venereology, Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia
Sex Transm Infect 84:285-9. 2008..To investigate comprehensively the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae during 2005-2006 in a national survey and to recommend effective antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Russia...
- Effect of antibiotics in extender on bacterial and spermatozoal quality of cooled buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semenS Akhter
Department of Zoology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Reprod Domest Anim 43:272-8. 2008..and penicillin; SP) and relatively modern combination of antibiotics (gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin; GTLS) in extender on bacterial control and spermatozoal quality of liquid buffalo bull semen stored at 5 ..
- Characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence genes of Salmonella serovars collected at a commercial turkey processing plantC W Nde
Department of Veterinary and Microbiological Sciences, The Great Plains Institute of Food Safety, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
J Appl Microbiol 104:215-23. 2008....
- Gonococcal resistance: evolving from penicillin, tetracycline to the quinolones in South Africa -- implications for treatment guidelinesMari De Jongh
Department of Microbiological Pathology, University of Limpopo Medunsa Campus, Ga Rankuwa, Medunsa, South Africa
Int J STD AIDS 18:697-9. 2007..Overall, the gonococcal isolates in the Pretoria region remain susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime and spectinomycin.
- Dual spectinomycin-streptomycin resistance marker in Brucella sppJon P Woods
Infect Immun 76:3357; author reply 3357. 2008
- Comparison of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from the genital tract and pharynx of two gonorrhea patientsT Saika
Chemotherapy Division, Mitsubishi Kagaku Bio-Clinical Laboratories, 3-30-1 Shimura, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 174-8555, Japan
J Infect Chemother 7:175-9. 2001..This method may contribute to the successful treatment and epidemiological investigation of gonococcal infections...
- Antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae in Trinidad and TobagoD Castor
Department of Epidemiology and International Health, School of Public Health and Medical Statistics Section, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294-0022, USA
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 47:987-95. 2001..gonorrhoeae isolates to six antimicrobials; penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, and examined whether certain demographic or behavioral factors ..
- PsbI affects the stability, function, and phosphorylation patterns of photosystem II assemblies in tobaccoSerena Schwenkert
Department Biology I, Botany, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Menzingerstrasse 67, 80638 Munich, Germany
J Biol Chem 281:34227-38. 2006..higher plants, we generated homoplastomic knock-out plants by replacing most of the tobacco psbI gene with a spectinomycin resistance cartridge...
- Isolation of spectinomycin resistance mutations in the 16S rRNA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and expression in Escherichia coli and SalmonellaMICHAEL O'CONNOR
J W Wilson Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, 69 Brown Street, Providence RI 02912, USA
Curr Microbiol 45:429-33. 2002Two single-base mutations in 16S rRNA conferring high-level resistance to spectinomycin were isolated on a plasmid-borne copy of the rrnD operon from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
- Susceptibility of bacterial pathogens against lincomycin/spectinomycin (1/2), penicillin G/neomycin (1/1), and penicillin G/dihydrostreptomycin (1/1) as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006Stefan Schwarz
Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Neustadt Mariensee
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 120:363-71. 2007..were investigated for their susceptibility to the three combinations of antimicrobial agents lincomycin/spectinomycin (1/2), penicillin G/neomycin (1/1), and penicillin G/dihydrostreptomycin (1/1) in comparison to their ..
- The 27.8-kb R-plasmid pTET3 from Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes the aminoglycoside adenyltransferase gene cassette aadA9 and the regulated tetracycline efflux system Tet 33 flanked by active copies of the widespread insertion sequence IS6100Andreas Tauch
Degussa AG, Kantstrasse 2, D 33790 Halle Künsebeck, Germany
Plasmid 48:117-29. 2002..8-kb R-plasmid pTET3 from Corynebacterium glutamicum LP-6 which encodes streptomycin, spectinomycin, and tetracycline resistance...
- The gene cluster for spectinomycin biosynthesis and the aminoglycoside-resistance function of spcM in Streptomyces spectabilisKyoung Rok Kim
Division of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, College of Natural Science, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggi Do, Korea
Curr Microbiol 57:371-4. 2008The gene cluster for spectinomycin biosynthesis from Streptomyces spectabilis was analyzed completely and registered under the accession number EU255259 at the National Center for Biotechnology Information...
- Contribution of the Rv2333c efflux pump (the Stp protein) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis to intrinsic antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium bovis BCGSantiago Ramón-García
Departamento de Microbiologia, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
J Antimicrob Chemother 59:544-7. 2007..To characterize the efflux pump encoded by the gene Rv2333c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and assess its contribution to intrinsic antibiotic resistance using Mycobacterium bovis BCG as a model organism...
- Development of a method for heterologous gene expression in Enterobacter amnigenus, a potential host for the biological control of mosquito larviNawarat Nantapong
Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, Nakornpathom, 73170 Thailand
J Microbiol Methods 49:329-34. 2002..3 kb fragment of chromosomal DNA from Enterobacter amnigenus was constructed. The Omega fragment encoding spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance was cloned into the unique BglII site of the resulting plasmid, and the interrupted ..
- Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from Bordetella avium and expression of the gene in Salmonella typhimuriumC R Gentry-Weeks
Laboratory of Microbial Ecology, National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
J Bacteriol 174:7729-42. 1992..in Escherichia coli LE392 by using the cosmid vectors pCP13 and pYA2329, a derivative of pCP13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. The cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-B...
- Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 isolated from Denmark and comparison with isolates from Europe and the United StatesD L Baggesen
Danish Veterinary Laboratory, DK 1790 Copenhagen V, Denmark
J Clin Microbiol 38:1581-6. 2000..All but 10 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline...
- Fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Bali, Indonesia: 2004Elizabeth A Donegan
University of California, San Francisco, 94143, USA
Sex Transm Dis 33:625-9. 2006..To assess the importance of this observation, we determined antimicrobial susceptibilities and strain types of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from FSWs seen in a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia...
- Identification of plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum and AmpC beta-lactamases in Enterobacter spp. isolated from dogsHanna E Sidjabat
School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, and Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Women s and Children s Hospital, North Adelaide, SA, Australia
J Med Microbiol 56:426-34. 2007..plasmid (approximately 140 kb) that also conferred resistance to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfonamides...
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Cuba (1995-1999): implications for treatment of gonorrheaRafael Llanes
Microbiology Branch, Tropical Medicine Institute Pedro Kouri, Havana, Cuba
Sex Transm Dis 30:10-4. 2003..Antibiotic-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, especially those resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, have spread with remarkable rapidity in many Caribbean countries...
- Reduced susceptibility to azithromycin and high percentages of penicillin and tetracycline resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Manaus, Brazil, 1998J A Dillon
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Sex Transm Dis 28:521-6. 2001..several reports document resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, and the sporadic isolation of spectinomycin-resistant isolates continues unabated...
- tet(L)-mediated tetracycline resistance in bovine Mannheimia and Pasteurella isolatesCorinna Kehrenberg
Institut für Tierzucht, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft FAL, Höltystr 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
J Antimicrob Chemother 56:403-6. 2005..Tetracycline-resistant Mannheimia and Pasteurella isolates, which were negative for the tetracycline resistance genes (tet) commonly detected among these bacteria, were investigated for other tet genes present and their location...
- Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Java, IndonesiaMargareta Ieven
Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Antwerp, UIA, Antwerp, Belgium
Sex Transm Dis 30:25-9. 2003..Despite the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance in gonococci all over Southeast Asia, there is only limited surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility in Indonesia...
- The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogenMichael E Reith
NRC Institute for Marine Biosciences, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3Z1, Canada
BMC Genomics 9:427. 2008..salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish...
- Molecular epidemiology of sequential outbreaks of Acinetobacter baumannii in an intensive care unit shows the emergence of carbapenem resistanceRaffaele Zarrilli
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Preventive, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
J Clin Microbiol 42:946-53. 2004..two open reading frames (ORFs) coding for unknown products; and aadA1a, which confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin...
- Effects of flavophospholipol on resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and enterococci of fattening pigsA E van den Bogaard
Department of Medical Microbiology, University Maastricht, NL 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:110-8. 2002..after disturbance of the colonization resistance of the intestinal flora by a 3-day course of lincomycin and spectinomycin. At the end of the study, the overall prevalence and degree of resistance of E...
- Class 1 integrons and resistance gene cassettes among multidrug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from slaughter animals and foods of animal origin in EthiopiaBayleyegn Molla
Department of Microbiology and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, P O Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia
Acta Trop 103:142-9. 2007..6%), tetracycline (75.5%), sulfamethoxazole (60.2%), spectinomycin (53.1%), ampicillin (42.8%), nalidixic acid (34.7%), nitrofurantoin (30.6%), trimethoprim (27...
- Antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Arkhangelsk, RussiaVeronica Vorobieva
Department of Microbiology and Virology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
Sex Transm Infect 83:133-5. 2007..To characterise comprehensively the antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Arkhangelsk, Russia, and to investigate whether the recommended treatment guidelines are updated and effective...
- Identification and characterization of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolatesS Zhao
Division of Animal and Food Microbiology, Office of Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, 8401 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, MD 20708, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1558-64. 2001..O111:NM, O45:H2, and O26:H11 isolates contained the aadA gene encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. Integrons identified among the O157:H7 and O103:H2 isolates also possessed a similar aadA gene...
- Application of flow cytometry for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration of several antibacterial agents on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniaeP Assunção
Unidad de Epidemiologia y Medicina Preventiva, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Arucas, Spain
J Appl Microbiol 102:1132-7. 2007..of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antibacterial agents (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, tylosin, lincomycin, gentamycin, spectinomycin and streptomycin) against M. hyopneumoniae.
- Integrons and gene cassettes in clinical isolates of co-trimoxazole-resistant Gram-negative bacteriaM Grape
Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center MTC, Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital L2 02, Stockholm SE 171 76, Sweden
Clin Microbiol Infect 11:185-92. 2005..Thus, only resistance to trimethoprim, streptomycin, spectinomycin and sulphonamides could be explained by the presence of integrons in these isolates...
- Prediction of antibiotic resistance using Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typingH M Palmer
Scottish Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections Reference Laboratory SBSTIRL, Department of Medical Microbiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 5SA, UK
Sex Transm Infect 84:280-4. 2008..To establish whether antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is uniform within a given sequence type as determined by N gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST)...
- Molecular characterization of plasmid pBM300 from Bacillus megaterium QM B1551Muthusamy Kunnimalaiyaan
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb 60115, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3068-76. 2005..The entire plasmid was isolated from the plasmid array by integrating a spectinomycin resistance gene and transforming a plasmidless strain, PV361...
- Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella typhimurium DTI04 on Ontario swine farmsAbdolvahab Farzan
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1
Can J Vet Res 72:188-94. 2008..antimicrobials with the most frequent resistance being to sulfonamides (Su), ampicillin (A), streptomycin (S), spectinomycin (Sp), chloramphenicol (C), tetracycline (T), and florfenicol (F)...
- Tendency toward increase in the frequency of isolation of beta-lactamase-nonproducing Neisseria gonorrhoeae exhibiting penicillin resistance, and recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates in JapanIntetsu Kobayashi
Chemotherapy Division, Mitsubishi Kagaku Bio Clinical Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan
J Infect Chemother 9:126-30. 2003..to their beta-lactamase production and susceptibility to penicillin G, cefixime, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin. The frequency of isolation of penicillinase-producing N...
- Analysis and distribution of class 1 and class 2 integrons and associated gene cassettes among Escherichia coli isolates from swine, horses, cats and dogs collected in the BfT-GermVet monitoring studyKristina Kadlec
Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Höltystr 10, 31535 Neustadt Mariensee, Germany
J Antimicrob Chemother 62:469-73. 2008..This study dealt with the identification of integron-associated resistance genes among these isolates...
- Development of a toxicogenomics in vitro assay for the efficient characterization of compoundsYi Yang
Abbott Laboratories, Department of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, 100 Abbott Park Rd, Abbott Park, IL 60064 6123, USA
Pharmacogenomics 7:177-86. 2006..bezafibrate, clofibrate, and Wy-14643 as peroxisome proliferators, and chlorpheniramine, penicillin and spectinomycin as negative controls...
- Antibiotic susceptibility of Riemerella anatipestifer field isolatesChong Yue Zhong
Avian Disease Research Centre, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agriculture University, Ya an, Sichuan, 625014, China
Avian Dis 53:601-7. 2009..anatipestifer to cefoperazone, piperacillin, spectinomycin, and aztreonam. In addition to determining the antibiotic-resistance profiles of R...
- Detection of a streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferase gene (aadA) in Enterococcus faecalisN C Clark
Hospital Infections Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:157-60. 1999Genes encoding streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferases [ANT(3")(9)] have been reported to exist in gram-negative organisms and Staphylococcus aureus...
- Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomalleiR A Moore
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary Health Sciences Centre, Alberta, Canada
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:465-70. 1999..their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and ..
- Novel Spectinamide Antibiotics for the Treatment of MDR/XDR TuberculosisMichelle M Butler; Fiscal Year: 2013..The novel spectinomycin analogs outlined in this proposal possess potent in vitro activity against MDR/XDR TB (MIC 0.4-1...
- Development of novel proteins synthesis inhibitors for MDR tuberculosisRICHARD EDWARD LEE; Fiscal Year: 2013..We focused on the low molecular weight aminocyclitol spectinomycin as it: has been under studied;has a safe pharmacological profile;targets a ribosomal binding site highly ..
- SITE SPECIFIC RECOMBINATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUSEllen Murphy; Fiscal Year: 1990Tn554 is a transposable element in Staphylococcus aureus that encodes resistances to spectinomycin and to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Tn554 inserts efficiently into a unique site in the S. aureus chromosome...
- TRANSPOSITION OF TN7Nancy Craig; Fiscal Year: 1999..of the bacterial transposition Tn7 which encodes resistances to trimethoprim and to streptomycin and spectinomycin. In contrast to most other transposable elements which move at low frequency and show little target site ..
- STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF RIBOSOMAL RNA IN THE RIBSOMEPaul Wollenzien; Fiscal Year: 2002..and 70S ribosome; (2) Determine the details of the structural changes that occur during tetracycline and spectinomycin binding and determine how these changes interfere with tRNA binding and the translocation process; (3) ..
- Postsynthetic Modifications of Bacterial Membrane LipidsJohn Cronan; Fiscal Year: 2006..These processes will be studied by a combination of biochemical, genetic, and molecular biological approaches including tests of pathogenesis in a mouse model system ..
- Peer Intervention as Pedagogic Paradigm in Kinshasa SPHFrieda Behets; Fiscal Year: 2006..Main outcome measures will be self reported sexual risk behaviors and STI/HIV incidence. The work will inform HIV prevention policy and strengthen research and training at KSPH ..
- Expression of Human Therapeutic Proteins in Transgenic Tobacco ChloroplastsHenry Daniell; Fiscal Year: 2010..Successful completion of these studies would make transgenic chloroplasts ideal bioreactors for the production of safe and less expensive therapeutic proteins and open the door for in depth studies of membrane proteins. ..
- Gonococcal Pilus Structure and FunctionH Seifert; Fiscal Year: 2008..These studies will provide new findings and insights into the structure and functions of the gonococcal pilus. ..
- MECHANISMS OF GONOCOCCAL PILIN ANTIGENIC/PHASE VARIATIONH Seifert; Fiscal Year: 2002..Through these investigations, this project will continue to define the molecular mechanism used to allow these high frequency recombination reactions that are of critical importance to the pathogenesis of gonorrhea. ..