Genomes and Genes
Summary: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589)
Publications275 found, 100 shown here
- A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic fieldE Choleris
Room 9222D, Department of Psychology, Social Science Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 25:235-60. 2001..Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10...
- A case with atypical childhood occipital epilepsy "Gastaut type": an ictal migraine manifestation with a good response to intravenous diazepamPasquale Parisi
Child Neurology and Pediatric Sleep Centre, Chair of Pediatrics La Sapienza University, II Faculty of Medicine Sant Andrea Hospital, Via di Grottarossa 1035 1039, Rome, Italy
Epilepsia 48:2181-6. 2007..Seven minutes after intravenous administration of 10 mg diazepam under continuous EEG recording, a suppression of the epileptiform discharges over the right occipital was seen, ..
- Interaction between cannabinoid compounds and diazepam on anxiety-like behaviour of miceNima Naderi
Neuroscience Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University Medical Sciences, PO Box 19615 1178, Tehran, Iran
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 89:64-75. 2008..25-5 mg/kg), the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.25-2 mg/kg) and diazepam (0...
- Ethanol effects on impulsivity in two mouse strains: similarities to diazepam and ketamineYolanda Peña Oliver
Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:679-92. 2009..The effects of ethanol on attention and impulsivity have been contradictory...
- The octadecaneuropeptide [diazepam-binding inhibitor (33-50)] exerts potent anorexigenic effects in rodentsJ G de Mateos-Verchere
, , France
Eur J Pharmacol 414:225-31. 2001..At a dose of 100 ng, ODN almost completely suppressed food intake. Treatment of rats with diazepam (2 mg/kg s.c.; 15 min before ODN administration) did not affect the anorexigenic response evoked by 100 ng ODN...
- Acute and chronic effects of the synthetic neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone, against the convulsive and lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol in seizure-kindled mice: comparison with diazepam and valproateM Gasior
Drug Development Group, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Addiction Research Center, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Neuropharmacology 39:1184-96. 2000..Two classical antiepileptic drugs, diazepam and valproate, were tested for comparison...
- Efficacy of immediate and subsequent therapies against soman-induced seizures and lethality in ratsTrond Myhrer
Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Protection Division, P O Box 25, NO 2027 Kjeller, Norway
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 98:184-91. 2006..3 or 4 x LD(50) of soman could not be terminated unless an adjunct therapy consisting of procyclidine (6 mg/kg), diazepam (10 mg/kg), and pentobarbital (30 kg/kg) was given, and the mortality rate was comparatively high (78%)...
- The effects of pentobarbital, fentanyl-droperidol, ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam on arterial blood pH, blood gases, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate in adult male ratsS K Wixson
Department of Comparative Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey 17033
Lab Anim Sci 37:736-42. 1987..four different injectable drugs, pentobarbital, fentanyl-droperidol (Innovar-Vet), ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of rats...
- Short-term effects of intravenous benzodiazepines on autonomic neurocardiac regulation in humans: a comparison between midazolam, diazepam, and lorazepamMarcus W Agelink
Department of Neurocardiology, Institute of Biological Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Evangelical Clinics Gelsenkirchen, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany
Crit Care Med 30:997-1006. 2002OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intravenously applied diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam on autonomic neurocardiac regulation assessed by standardized measurements of heart rate variability...
- Diazepam-induced changes in sleep: role of the alpha 1 GABA(A) receptor subtypeI Tobler
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6464-9. 2001..BZs such as diazepam (Dz) potentiate GABA(A) receptor activation...
- Intravenous anesthetic diazepam does not induce amyloid-beta peptide oligomerization but diazepam co-administered with halothane oligomerizes amyloid-beta peptide: an NMR studyPravat K Mandal
Neurospectroscopy and Neuroimaging Laboratory, National Brain Research Center, Manesar, Gurgaon, India
J Alzheimers Dis 20:127-34. 2010..nuclear magnetic resonance, we have monitored the influence of a larger sized intravenous anesthetic, diazepam, as well as diazepam co-administered with halothane, on Abeta...
- Diazepam-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: design and characterizationGhada Abdelbary
Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini Street, Cairo, Egypt
AAPS PharmSciTech 10:211-9. 2009The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of the inclusion of a water-insoluble drug (diazepam, DZ) into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), which offer combined advantages of rapid onset and prolonged release of the ..
- Requirement of alpha5-GABAA receptors for the development of tolerance to the sedative action of diazepam in miceCarolien van Rijnsoever
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
J Neurosci 24:6785-90. 2004..The acute sedative action of diazepam is mediated via alpha1-GABA(A) receptors...
- Diazepam-induced changes on sleep and the EEG spectrum in mice: role of the alpha3-GABA(A) receptor subtypeC Kopp
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Eur J Neurosci 17:2226-30. 2003..We investigated the role of these receptors in the mediation of diazepam effects on the sleep EEG by studying point-mutated mice in which the alpha3-GABAA receptor is diazepam-..
- Effects of HI 6, diazepam and atropine on soman-induced IL-1 beta protein in rat brainI Svensson
Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of NBC Defence, SE 901 82 Umea, Sweden
Neurotoxicology 26:173-81. 2005..HI 6 and atropine; the effects of different combinations of HI 6 and atropine; and also the effects of antidotes diazepam and atropine following soman-intoxication...
- Phase II study of lonidamine and diazepam in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiformeStephane Oudard
Department of Oncology, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
J Neurooncol 63:81-6. 2003..We report an open-label, uncontrolled, multicentre phase II trial of lonidamine (LND) and diazepam in 16 patients with GBM at first relapse and a Karnofsky performance status > or = 70...
- Buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam effects in a zebrafish model of anxietyZachary Bencan
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, 340 Bell Building, Box 3412, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 94:75-80. 2009..three anxiolytic drugs from two different chemical and pharmacological classes: buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam. When the test tank was novel the diving response was clearly seen whereas it was significantly reduced when the ..
- Modulation of rhythmic brain activity by diazepam: GABA(A) receptor subtype and state specificityC Kopp
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3674-9. 2004..The effects of diazepam on the electroencephalogram were compared between alpha(2)(H101R) knock-in mice in which the alpha(2)GABA(A) ..
- Effects of benzodiazepines receptor agonists on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axisJens D Mikkelsen
Department of Functional Neuroanatomy and Biomarkers, Neurosearch A S, Pederstrupvej 93, 2750 Ballerup, Denmark
Eur J Pharmacol 519:223-30. 2005..More surprisingly, the non-selective full agonists diazepam and zopiclone induced a lower increase in circulating corticosterone than after zolpidem...
- Cortisol response to diazepam: its relationship to age, dose, duration of treatment, and presence of generalized anxiety disorderNunzio Pomara
Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Building 35, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 178:1-8. 2005Acute diazepam administration has been shown to decrease plasma cortisol levels consistent with decreased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially in individuals experiencing stress...
- Contrasting effects of diazepam and repeated restraint stress on latent inhibition in miceRaymond Mongeau
Neuroscienze PharmaNess S c a r l, Scientific and Technological Park of Sardinia, ma c o Sardegna Ricerche, Ed 5, Loc Piscinamanna, 09010 PULA CA, Italy
Behav Brain Res 183:147-55. 2007..when a CS has been pre-exposed without consequences) of repeated restraint stress and the anxiolytic drug diazepam were examined in C57BL/6 mice to know whether previous aversive events or anxiolysis are factors determining the ..
- Allosteric uncoupling and up-regulation of benzodiazepine and GABA recognition sites following chronic diazepam treatment of HEK 293 cells stably transfected with alpha1beta2gamma2S subunits of GABA (A) receptorsDanka Pericić
Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Molecular Neuropharmacology, P O Box 180, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 375:177-87. 2007..expressing recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2s GABA(A) receptors were exposed for 72 h to a high concentration of diazepam (50 microM) in the absence or presence of other drugs...
- Antiglutamatergic strategies for ethanol detoxification: comparison with placebo and diazepamEvgeny M Krupitsky
St Petersburg Regional Center of Addictions and Psychopharmacology, Pavlov State Medical University, St Petersburg, Russia
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:604-11. 2007..study compared 3 antiglutamatergic strategies for ethanol detoxification with placebo and to the benzodiazepine, diazepam: the glutamate release inhibitor, lamotrigine; the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine; ..
- Diazepam-induced neuronal plasticity attenuates locomotor responses to morphine and amphetamine challenges in miceA E Panhelainen
Institute of Biomedicine, Pharmacology, Biomedicum Helsinki, POB 63 Haartmaninkatu 8, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Neuroscience 192:312-21. 2011..We now wanted to test if the plasticity induced by diazepam would also affect behaviors elicited by other drugs of abuse...
- Anticonvulsant and behavioral effects of neuroactive steroids alone and in conjunction with diazepamM Gasior
Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Addiction Research Center, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 282:543-53. 1997..Consistent with their GABAergic actions, the neuroactive steroids as well as diazepam and phenobarbital dose-dependently protected against clonic convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol; the N-..
- Sigmoidal kinetic model for two co-operative substrate-binding sites in a cytochrome P450 3A4 active site: an example of the metabolism of diazepam and its derivativesM Shou
Department of Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
Biochem J 340:845-53. 1999..In the present study, diazepam, temazepam and nordiazepam were employed as substrates of CYP3A4 to propose a kinetic model...
- Unraveling the metabolic transformation of tetrazepam to diazepam with mass spectrometric methodsBirthe Schubert
Institute of Legal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Muellerstrasse 44, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria
Anal Bioanal Chem 392:1299-308. 2008..Possible metabolic routes from tetrazepam to diazepam (C(16)H(13)ClN(2)O, average mass: 284...
- Putative diazepam binding inhibitor peptide: cDNA clones from ratI Mocchetti
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:7221-5. 1986cDNA clones corresponding to the polypeptide that has been shown to be an endogenous diazepam binding inhibitor and may act as a physiological ligand for the benzodiazepine/beta-carboline receptor have been isolated from bacteriophage ..
- Genuine antihyperalgesia by systemic diazepam revealed by experiments in GABAA receptor point-mutated miceJulia Knabl
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Pain 141:233-8. 2009..engineered mice, which carry specific benzodiazepine-insensitive GABA(A) receptor subunits, to test whether diazepam, a frequently used classical benzodiazepine, exerts antihyperalgesia after systemic administration in the ..
- Variations in illumination, closed wall transparency and/or extramaze space influence both baseline anxiety and response to diazepam in the rat elevated plus-mazeNicolas Violle
URAFPA, INRA UC340, Nancy Universite, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
Behav Brain Res 203:35-42. 2009..and (2) to investigate the effects of such parameters on the relevance of the maze for detecting the effects of diazepam orally administrated at the anxiolytic dose of 3 mg/kg...
- Cyclodextrin-based potentiometric sensors for midazolam and diazepamC G Amorim
REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica Fisica, Fac Farmácia U P, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099 030 Porto, Portugal
J Pharm Biomed Anal 48:1064-9. 2008..The solid-contact electrodes for midazolam and diazepam are based on polymeric membranes incorporating respectively beta-cyclodextrin and (2-hydroxiproyl)-gamma-..
- Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on diazepam metabolism: a pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese male subjectsXiao Cong Zuo
Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology Research Institute, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013, China
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66:503-9. 2010It has been reported that Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is an inducer or inhibitor of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19, and diazepam is a substrate of CYP2C19. Thus, it could be expected that GBE may alter the metabolism of diazepam.
- Transcriptional analysis of rat piriform cortex following exposure to the organophosphonate anticholinesterase sarin and induction of seizuresKimberly D Spradling
Cell and Molecular Biology Branch, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
J Neuroinflammation 8:83. 2011..Therefore, there is a need to discover drug treatments that are effective when administered after the onset of seizures and secondary responses that lead to brain injury...
- Progressive encephalopathy with cerebral oedema and infarctions associated with valproate and diazepam overdoseJ Rupasinghe
Neurology Department, Frankston Hospital, PO Box 52, Frankston, Victoria 3199, Australia
J Clin Neurosci 18:710-1. 2011..effects of cerebral odema and infarctions associated with Valproate overdose which would have been aggravated by Diazepam. This patient's presentation emphasizes the role of early detection and therapy of cerebral odema in Valproate ..
- Methamphetamine and diazepam suppress antigen-specific cytokine expression and antibody production in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c miceShiaw Pyng Wey
Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC
Toxicol Lett 181:157-62. 2008..The present study investigated the effect of diazepam, a central depressant, on methamphetamine-induced immunosuppression...
- Different effects of diazepam in Fischer rats and two stocks of Wistar rats in tests of anxietyB Bert
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, , Koserstr. 20, D-14195 Berlin, Germany
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 70:411-20. 2001..of Wistar rats were examined in two animal tests of anxiety: the X-maze and a modified open-field test following diazepam treatment (0.5-4.0 mg/kg)...
- Diazepam leads to enhanced severity of orthopoxvirus infection and immune suppressionHartwig P Huemer
Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Fritz Pregl Str 3, R 301, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Vaccine 28:6152-8. 2010..We treated Balb/c mice with diazepam and infected them with cowpox (CPXV) and vaccinia virus (VACV)...
- Intravenous diazepam for dissociative disorder: memory lost and foundLaurie Ballew
University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
Psychosomatics 44:346-7. 2003
- Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and diazepam antagonize a rapid increase in GABA(A) receptors alpha(4) subunit mRNA abundance induced by ethanol withdrawal in cerebellar granule cellsPaolo Follesa
Department of Experimental Biology Bernardo Loddo, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
Mol Pharmacol 63:896-907. 2003..b>Diazepam (10 microM) or GHB (100 mM) prevented the increase in the amount of the alpha(4) subunit mRNA, the metabolic ..
- Individual and combined effects of N6-cyclopentyladenosine, flunarizine and diazepam on aminophylline-induced recurrent generalized seizures in miceJuliet Jaishree
Department of Pharmacology, St John's Medical College, Bangalore--560 034, India
Pol J Pharmacol 55:559-64. 2003..CPA (2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg) delayed the time to onset of clonic convulsions (p < 0.05). The standard drug diazepam (DZP, 2...
- Diazepam reduces both arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humanTsuyoshi Kitajima
Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1 98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake cho, Toyoake City, Aichi 470 1192, Japan
Neurosci Lett 355:77-80. 2004..To clarify whether this effect is due to central or peripheral mechanism, we administered 5 mg of diazepam or saline intravenously to healthy volunteers and assessed the change in blood pressure, heart rate, muscle ..
- The effects of acute treatment with tandospirone, diazepam, and placebo on driving performance and cognitive function in healthy volunteersMasahiro Takahashi
Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Hum Psychopharmacol 25:260-7. 2010To assess the effects of two anxiolytics, diazepam and tandospirone, on driving performance from methodological viewpoints taking frequent rear-end collisions into account.
- Effects of different doses and schedules of diazepam treatment on lymphocyte parameters in ratsCamila Bento de Lima
Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Int Immunopharmacol 10:1335-43. 2010..The present study was designed to analyze the effects of diazepam on rat lymphocyte parameters, specifically on phenotype, cell proliferation and cell death...
- Diazepam as a treatment for metronidazole toxicosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 21 casesJason Evans
Veterinary Neurological Center, Las Vegas, NV 89108, USA
J Vet Intern Med 17:304-10. 2003..The records of 21 dogs with metronidazole toxicosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether diazepam improved recovery...
- Targeted mutation of CCK2 receptor gene modifies the behavioural effects of diazepam in female miceSirli Raud
Department of Physiology, Biomedicum, University of Tartu, 19 Ravila Street, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:417-25. 2003..Evidence suggests that GABA and CCK have opposite roles in the regulation of anxiety...
- Increased cardiac risk in concomitant methadone and diazepam treatment: pharmacodynamic interactions in cardiac ion channelsYuri A Kuryshev
ChanTest Corporation, Cleveland, OH 44128, USA
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 56:420-30. 2010..Concomitant use of diazepam or other benzodiazepines in methadone maintenance treatment can increase the risk of sudden death...
- Analysis of homotropic and heterotropic cooperativity of diazepam oxidation by CYP3A4 using site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic modelingYou Ai He
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555 1031, USA
Arch Biochem Biophys 409:92-101. 2003The structural basis for the cooperativity of diazepam oxidation catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and 40 mutants has been investigated...
- Randomized double-blind trial of psychotropic analgesic nitrous oxide compared with diazepam for alcohol withdrawal stateMark A Gillman
South African Brain Research Institute, 6 Campbell Street, Waverley, 2090, Johannesburg, South Africa
J Subst Abuse Treat 22:129-34. 2002..a single dose of benzodiazepine (diazepam) for treating acute alcoholic withdrawal states...
- T-pattern analysis of diazepam-induced modifications on the temporal organization of rat behavioral response to anxiety in hole boardMaurizio Casarrubea
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Human Physiology Section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 215:177-89. 2011....
- Immunomodulating effects of tofizopam (Grandaxin) and diazepam in vitroSergey V Kalashnikov
Medical Centre for Russian Federation President's Office, Moscow
Mediators Inflamm 11:53-9. 2002..In the present study, the influence of two different BDZs (diazepam (Dz) and tofizopam (Tof) on several immune functions has been examined in vitro...
- A comparison between Dark Agouti and Sprague-Dawley rats in their behaviour on the elevated plus-maze, open-field apparatus and activity meters, and their response to diazepamAnnis O Mechan
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 159:188-95. 2002..The response of both strains on the elevated plus maze following diazepam (1 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) administration was subsequently investigated...
- Modulation of passive avoidance in mice by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan: comparison with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist diazepamMinoru Tsuji
Department of Pharmacology, Intractable Diseases Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, Japan
Neuropsychopharmacology 28:664-74. 2003..agonist flesinoxan on passive avoidance in mice were compared with those of the benzodiazepine receptor agonist diazepam. In preliminary experiments, the retention latency to enter a dark compartment in mice subjected to single-..
- Anxiety- and activity-related effects of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide in the rat light/dark and dark/light testsF Chaouloff
Génétique du Stress, INSERM CJF 94 05, INRA, Universite Bordeaux II, France
Behav Brain Res 85:27-35. 1997..Thus, vehicle-, diazepam (DZ)-, and chlordiazepoxide (CDP)-treated rats were submitted 30 min later to 5-min light/dark or dark/light ..
- Use of phenytoin, phenobarbital, or diazepam during pregnancy and risk of congenital abnormalities: a case-time-control studyDorte Kjaer
The Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:181-8. 2007..We studied congenital abnormalities following exposure to phenytoin, phenobarbital, and diazepam in early pregnancy, i.e., second and third month, compared to mid-pregnancy, i.e...
- No association found between use of very large doses of diazepam by 112 pregnant women for a suicide attempt and congenital abnormalities in their offspringJ Gidai
Foundation for the Community Control of Hereditary Diseases, Budapest, Hungary
Toxicol Ind Health 24:29-39. 2008The teratogenic potential of diazepam is debated. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of extremely high doses of diazepam used for attempted suicide during pregnancy on embryo-fetal development...
- Prenatal malnutrition alters diazepam-mediated suppression of ultrasonic vocalizations in an age dependent mannerJohn Tonkiss
Center for Behavioral Development and Mental Retardation, M923, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Behav Brain Res 182:337-43. 2007The sensitivity of prenatally malnourished rats to the ultrasonic vocalization (USV) suppressant effect of diazepam (a non-specific benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor agonist) was investigated...
- Comparison of the novel subtype-selective GABAA receptor-positive allosteric modulator NS11394 [3'-[5-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-benzoimidazol-1-yl]-biphenyl-2-carbonitrile] with diazepam, zolpidem, bretazenil, and gaboxadol in rat models of inflammatory G Munro
Neurosearch A S, Ballerup, Denmark
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327:969-81. 2008Spinal administration of GABA(A) receptor modulators, such as the benzodiazepine drug diazepam, partially alleviates neuropathic hypersensitivity that manifests as spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia...
- Diazepam impairs temporal dynamics of visual attentionMuriel Boucart
Laboratoire Neurosciences Fonctionnelles et Pathologies, Centre National de la Recerche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche UMR 8160, Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, France
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:115-22. 2007..The authors investigated the effect of a benzodiazepine (diazepam) on attentional shifting in the temporal domain...
- Bacopa monniera exerts antiamnesic effect on diazepam-induced anterograde amnesia in miceSudesh Prabhakar
Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh, 160012, India
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 200:27-37. 2008As Benzodiazepines are known to produce amnesia by involvement of the GABAergic system, we examined Bacopa monniera, an herb known for memory enhancement for reversal of memory deficits caused by diazepam.
- Acute pulmonary edema after diazepam-ketamine in a dogJoseph Boutureira
Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Vet Anaesth Analg 34:371-6. 2007..premedication with glycopyrrolate, acepromazine, and hydromorphone, and anesthesia was induced by IV injection of diazepam and ketamine...
- Pharmacodynamics of diazepam co-administered with methadone or buprenorphine under high dose conditions in opioid dependent patientsNicholas Lintzeris
National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, and South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, P O Box 48, 4 Windsor Walk, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
Drug Alcohol Depend 91:187-94. 2007..Benzodiazepine abuse is common among methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained patients; however interactions between these drugs under high dose conditions have not been adequately examined under controlled conditions...
- Reproductive experience reduces the sedative, but not anxiolytic effects of diazepamElizabeth M Byrnes
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA
Psychoneuroendocrinology 31:988-96. 2006..of the present study was to determine whether reproductive experience alters sensitivity to the benzodiazepine, diazepam. Two groups of subjects were generated, a primparous group (pregnancy+21 days of lactation) and an age-matched, ..
- Diazepam attenuates phenylephrine-induced contractions in rat aortaSoon-Eun Park
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of Korea
Anesth Analg 102:682-9. 2006In this in vitro study we examined the effects of diazepam on a phenylephrine-induced contraction in rat aorta and determined the associated cellular mechanism focusing on the endothelium-derived vasodilators...
- The impact of diazepam's discovery on the treatment and understanding of status epilepticusHoward P Goodkin
Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
Epilepsia 50:2011-8. 2009..The GABAA receptors that mediate synaptic inhibition typically contain a gamma2 subunit and are diazepam-sensitive...
- Comparison of the effects of diazepam, the CRF1 antagonist CP-154,526 and the group II mGlu receptor agonist LY379268 on stress-evoked extracellular norepinephrine levelsDaniel S Lorrain
Department of Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, 3535 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Neuropharmacology 48:927-35. 2005The present study used an elevated platform procedure to investigate the effects of diazepam, a CRF1 antagonist CP-154,526 and a group II mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 on stress-evoked increase in extracellular norepinephrine (NE)...
- Vitreous humour as a complementary sample to blood for the detection/confirmation of diazepam: ante-mortem and post-mortem studies in an animal modelH M Teixeira
National Institute of Legal Medicine, Delegation of Coimbra, Largo da Se Nova, 3000 213 Coimbra, Portugal
Hum Exp Toxicol 23:571-7. 2004..To determine a correlation ratio between blood and VH diazepam (DZ) levels, we performed an experimental study using rabbits administered with a sub-toxic dose of DZ under ..
- Stress-induced c-Fos expression is differentially modulated by dexamethasone, diazepam and imipramineMagda Alves de Medeiros
Department of Physiological Sciences, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Neuropsychopharmacology 30:1246-56. 2005..in 40 different areas of the rat brain the effects of dexamethasone (SDX, a synthetic glucocorticoid), diazepam (SBDZ, a benzodiazepine), and imipramine (IMI, an antidepressant) on the c-Fos expression induced by restraint ..
- Neuropeptide S produces hyperlocomotion and prevents oxidative stress damage in the mouse brain: a comparative study with amphetamine and diazepamA A Castro
Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC, Brazil
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:636-42. 2009..This study aimed to compare behavioral and biochemical effects of NPS with amphetamine (AMPH), and diazepam (DZP). To this aim, the effects of NPS (0.01, 0...
- Remifentanil for fetal immobilization and maternal sedation during fetoscopic surgery: a randomized, double-blind comparison with diazepamMarc Van de Velde
Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Anesth Analg 101:251-8, table of contents. 2005..induce adequate maternal sedation and provide fetal immobilization, which is equal or superior to that induced by diazepam. Fifty-four second trimester pregnant women were included in this randomized, double-blind trial...
- Diazepam decreases leukocyte-endothelium interactions in situR Lazzarini
Neuroimmunomodulation Research Group, Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 32:402-9. 2010High doses of diazepam reduce the inflammatory paw edema in rats. This effect was attributed to an action of diazepam on the Translocator Protein (TSPO)...
- Rectal diazepam gel in the home management of seizures in childrenShlomo Shinnar
Department of Neurology, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467, USA
Pediatr Neurol 33:166-72. 2005This study assessed the utility of rectal diazepam gel in the home management of prolonged or repetitive seizures in children. Thirty-eight children being prescribed rectal diazepam gel by their clinician were prospectively recruited...
- The effect of chronic diazepam administration on lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ -ATPase activity in rat liverSule Seckin
Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Capa, 34093 Istanbul, Turkey
Acta Biol Hung 58:441-3. 2007Chronic administration of diazepam (DZP) caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) content. DZP also markedly lowered Ca2+ATPase activity...
- A randomized comparison of low-dose ketamine and lignocaine infiltration with ketamine-diazepam anaesthesia for post partum tubal ligation in VanuatuR F Grace
Department of Anaesthetics, Vila Central Hospital, Port Vila, Vanuatu
Anaesth Intensive Care 29:30-3. 2001..9 mg/kg and diazepam 0.07 mg/kg with ketamine 0...
- The effects of pentobarbital, fentanyl-droperidol, ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam on core and surface body temperature regulation in adult male ratsS K Wixson
Department of Comparative Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey 17033
Lab Anim Sci 37:743-9. 1987..This study compared the effects of three parenteral anesthetics (pentobarbital, ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam) and a neuroleptanalgesic (fentanyl-droperidol) on core and surface body temperature regulation in rats...
- Effects of melatonin, morphine and diazepam on formalin-induced nociception in miceC S Pang
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Life Sci 68:943-51. 2001..1, 5, and 20, mg/kg body weight. The combined effects of melatonin with diazepam and/or morphine, were also investigated...
- Characterization of the behavioral profile of the non-peptide CRF receptor antagonist CP-154,526 in anxiety models in rodents. Comparison with diazepam and buspironeG Griebel
CNS Research Department, Synthelabo Recherche, Bagneux, France
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 138:55-66. 1998..of experiments compared the behavioral effects of the novel non-peptide CRF antagonist CP-154,526 with those of diazepam and the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist buspirone in classical animal models of anxiety including conflict tests (..
- Negative inotropic effect of diazepam in isolated guinea pig heartY Hara
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Aomori, Japan
J Vet Med Sci 63:135-43. 2001The inotropic effect of diazepam, a benzodiazepine derivative, and its mechanism of action were examined using guinea pig heart and single ventricular cell preparations...
- Phencyclidine- and diazepam-like discriminative stimulus effects of inhalants in miceS E Bowen
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:28-37. 1999..Several vapors were tested for diazepam (DZ)- and phencyclidine (PCP)-like discriminative stimulus effects to further explore their pharmacological ..
- Diazepam neuroprotection in excitotoxic and oxidative stress involves a mitochondrial mechanism additional to the GABAAR and hypothermic effectsAnna Sarnowska
NeuroRepair Department, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Neurochem Int 55:164-73. 2009The aim of the present investigation was to analyze the molecular mechanism(s) of diazepam neuroprotection in two models of selective neuronal death in CA1 sector of hippocampus: in vivo following transient gerbil brain ischemia and in ..
- A combination of ketamine and diazepam synergistically controls refractory status epilepticus induced by cholinergic stimulationBrandon S Martin
Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 800394, U S A
Epilepsia 49:248-55. 2008..New treatments are needed for status epilepticus (SE) that is refractory to drugs modulating GABA(A) receptors, and NMDA receptor antagonists are candidate drugs...
- Benzodiazepines have no effect on fear-potentiated startle in humansJohanna M P Baas
Mood and Anxiety Disorder Program, NIMH, NIH, 15k North Drive MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 161:233-47. 2002..Pre-clinical and clinical investigations have provided a great deal of evidence that the fear-potentiated startle paradigm represents a valid model for the objective assessment of emotional states of anxiety and fear...
- The anxioselective agent 7-(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)pyrazolo-[1,5-a]-pyrimidin-3-yl](pyridin-2-yl)methanone (DOV 51892) is more efficacious than diazepam at enhancing GABA-gated currents at alpha1 subunit-containing GABAA receptorsPiotr Popik
Behavioral Neuroscience, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:1244-52. 2006..DOV 51892, at alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) constructs of the GABA(A) receptor was significantly higher (148%) than diazepam. In contrast, DOV 51892 was considerably less efficacious and/or potent than diazepam in enhancing GABA-..
- The effects of compounds varying in selectivity as 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists in three rat models of anxietyG Griebel
Sanofi Synthelabo, 31 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 92220, Bagneux, France
Neuropharmacology 39:1848-57. 2000..To assess the cross-species generality of these findings, the present experiments compared the effects of diazepam (0.625-5 mg/kg) with those of several non-selective (MM-77, 0.03-1 mg/kg and pindobind-5-HT(1A), 0...
- Sedative but not anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepines are mediated by the GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subtypeR M McKernan
Neuroscience Research Centre, Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Terlings Park, Eastwick Road, Harlow, Essex CM20 2QR, UK
Nat Neurosci 3:587-92. 2000..anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant and cognition-impairing effects of clinically used BZs such as diazepam. We created genetically modified mice (alpha1 H101R) with a diazepam-insensitive alpha1 subtype and a selective ..
- Neuropharmacological effects of an ethanol extract of the Magnolia dealbata Zucc. leaves in miceA L Martinez
Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente, Calz Mexico Xochimilco 101, Col Sn Lorenzo Huipulco, 14370 Mexico, D F, Mexico
J Ethnopharmacol 106:250-5. 2006..hypnosis and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in comparison to honokiol, buspirone, ethosuximide and diazepam as corresponding reference drugs...
- The novel anxiolytic ELB139 displays selectivity to recombinant GABA(A) receptors different from diazepamHolger Rabe
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str 8, 55131 Mainz, Germany
Neuropharmacology 52:796-801. 2007..Most 1,4-BZs like diazepam recognize all GABA(A)/BZ receptors containing the alpha1-3 or alpha5 together with any beta and the gamma2 ..
- Oxidative metabolism of limbic structures after acute administration of diazepam, alprazolam and zolpidemHector Gonzalez-Pardo
Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Facultad de Psicologia, Universidad de Oviedo, Plaza Feijoo s n, E 33003 Oviedo, Spain
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:1020-6. 2006..b>Diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p.) and alprazolam (0.5 mg/kg i.p...
- Efficacy and the discriminative stimulus effects of negative GABAA modulators, or inverse agonists, in diazepam-treated rhesus monkeysLance R McMahon
Department of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 318:907-13. 2006..e., inverse agonist activity). A flumazenil discriminative stimulus in diazepam (5...
- Nociceptin/orphanin FQ increases anxiety-related behavior and circulating levels of corticosterone during neophobic tests of anxietyFabian Fernandez
Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 29:59-71. 2004..N/OFQ also enhanced thigmotactic responses in the open field test. The effects of diazepam and of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG 7142 were also assessed in independent groups of rats...
- Both alpha2 and alpha3 GABAA receptor subtypes mediate the anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepine site ligands in the conditioned emotional response paradigmH V Morris
Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK
Eur J Neurosci 23:2495-504. 2006Mice with point-mutated alpha2 GABAA receptor subunits (rendering them diazepam insensitive) are resistant to the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) in unconditioned models of anxiety...
- [Psychotropic effects of diazepam in male mice with alternative psycho-emotional statuses]A V Amikishieva
Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 92:488-98. 2006Effects of diazepam (0.1, 0.5 and 1 microg/kg, i. p.) on communicative, anxious behaviors, exploratory activities and sexual motivation of C57BL/6J male mice with alternative psychoemotional statuses (intact and anxious) were studied...
- Effect of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB 269970 in animal models of anxiety and depressionAnna Wesołowska
Department of New Drugs Research, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smetna Street, Kraków PL 31 343, Poland
Neuropharmacology 51:578-86. 2006..25-20 mg/kg) in the behavioral tests commonly used for predicting anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like activity. Diazepam and imipramine were used as standard drugs. SB 269970 (in one medium dose of 0...
- Extracts of kava (Piper methysticum) induce acute anxiolytic-like behavioral changes in miceKennon M Garrett
Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, PO Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170:33-41. 2003..Demonstration of kava's anxiolytic effects in animals under controlled conditions would provide additional support for its clinical potential as an anxiolytic and would facilitate investigation of its mechanism(s) of action...
- Influence of pharmacologically-induced experimental anxiety on nociception and antinociception in ratsGuadalupe Jiménez-Velázquez
Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados Sede Sur, Calz de los Tenorios 235, Col Granjas Coapa, C P 14330, Mexico D F, Mexico
Eur J Pharmacol 547:83-91. 2006..Experimental anxiety levels were measured using the rat burying behavior test. Diazepam (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or yohimbine (0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p...
- Effect of diazepam on anxiety, sexual motivation, and blood testosterone in anxious male miceA V Amikishieva
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk
Bull Exp Biol Med 140:658-63. 2005The effects of diazepam on anxious behavior, sexual motivation, and blood level of testosterone in the presence of a female were studied in male mice with elevated anxiety...
- Ethological comparison of the effects of a bovine alpha s1-casein tryptic hydrolysate and diazepam on the behaviour of rats in two models of anxietyNicolas Violle
Neurosciences Comportementales, URAFPA, INRA UC12340, INPL-UHP, , France
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 84:517-23. 2006..of this tryptic hydrolysate after an oral administration in rats faced to the same behavioural situations using diazepam as a reference...
- Anticonvulsant and antiepileptogenic effects of GABAA receptor ligands in pentylenetetrazole-kindled miceSuzanne L Hansen
Department of Neuropharmacology, H. Lundbeck A/S, Ottiliavej 9, DK-2500 Copenhagen-Valby, Denmark
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 28:105-13. 2004..b>Diazepam and alphaxalone produced potent anticonvulsant effects and completely suppressed the development of kindling...
- Influence of the post-ovariectomy time frame on the experimental anxiety and the behavioural actions of some anxiolytic agentsOfir Picazo
Escuela Superior de Medicina del IPN Plan de San Luis y Diaz Mirón, Col Sto Tomás, Mexico DF
Eur J Pharmacol 530:88-94. 2006..on the basal experimental anxiety of rats and the influence of this condition on the anxiolytic properties of diazepam and the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT)...
- Influence of inflammatory nociception on the anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam and buspirone in ratsA Fernandez-Guasti
Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Calz de los Tenorios 235, Col Granjas Coapa, Mexico, 14330, DF, Mexico
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 180:399-407. 2005..The effect of anxiety on nociception has been evaluated but not that of nociception on anxiety...
- Benzodiazepine system is involved in hyperalgesia in rats induced by the exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fieldsJi Hoon Jeong
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chung Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea
Arch Pharm Res 28:238-42. 2005..In order to further confirm this effect of MFs, we used diazepam and/or flumazenil with MFs exposure...
- A possible mechanism for anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of alpha- and beta-amyrin from Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) MarchG F Aragão
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Federal University of Ceará UFC, Rua Cel Nunes de Melo 1127, Fortaleza 60431 970, Brazil
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 85:827-34. 2006..5 mg/kg, i.p.), similarly to those observed with diazepam used as a positive standard...
- Next Generation Oxime Therapeutic for Chemical Agent Inhibited CNS (Brain) ChEsRichard Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2007..of a cholinesterase reactivator (oxime), a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) and an anticonvulsant (diazepam)...
- NEUROSTEROIDS: PHYSIOLOGICAL RELEVANCEAlessandro Guidotti; Fiscal Year: 1999..Glial cells also contain a receptor on the outer layer of mitochondria called MDR [for mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI)] which favors the intramitochondrial transfer of cholesterol to the p450acc enzyme...
- Neuroactive Steroid Therapy of Catamenial EpilepsyDOODIPALA REDDY; Fiscal Year: 2007..To develop a drug therapy for catamenial seizure exacerbation, we will examine two drugs, diazepam and the "neuroactive steroid" ganaxolone, using a 2-day pulse-therapy protocol for two withdrawal cycles...
- GABAA RECEPTOR CHANNEL ALTERATION BY PROLONGED SEIZURESRobert MacDonald; Fiscal Year: 2003..to benzodiazepines, 2) time course of development of decreased sensitivity of granule cell GABAR currents to diazepam and zinc, 3) sensitivity of granule cell GABAR currents GABAR modulators following prolonged seizures, 4) ..
- LICIT AND ILLICIT ABUSED DRUGS/BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONROLAND GRIFFITHS; Fiscal Year: 1993..previous research of the effects of commonly taken psychoactive drugs on smoking by characterizing the effects of diazepam and chlorpromazine on smoking in both normal and drug abuser subjects...
- The Involvement of the VMH in Maternal Behavior in RatsPHYLLIS MANN; Fiscal Year: 2007..Experiments 7 and 8 will determine if anxiolytic drugs, e.g., diazepam or flumazenil, will stimulate the onset of maternal behavior in primigravid and estrogen-treated primigravid rats...
- Internet as Supplier: Preventing Adolescent Use of Non-Medical Addictive RxAmelia Arria; Fiscal Year: 2009..This study will obtain information directly from adolescents about their use of the internet and other sources to obtain drugs. ..
- BEHAVIORAL PHARMACOLOGY OF PHENCYCLIDINERobert Balster; Fiscal Year: 1999..the effects of NMDA antagonists will be compared to those of site-selective GABA agonists such as pentobarbital, diazepam and muscimol...
- TREATMENT OF STATUS EPILEPTICUSJaideep Kapur; Fiscal Year: 2005..In experimental animals diazepam controlled brief seizures but failed after prolonged status epilepticus...
- The Involvement of the VMH in Maternal Behavior in RatsPhyllis E Mann; Fiscal Year: 2010..Experiments 7 and 8 will determine if anxiolytic drugs, e.g., diazepam or flumazenil, will stimulate the onset of maternal behavior in primigravid and estrogen-treated primigravid rats...
- Novel Mechanism of Ethanol DiscriminationJoyce Besheer; Fiscal Year: 2007..ethanol discrimination and in mGluRS and mGluR2/3 modulation of ethanol discrimination and ethanol substitutes (diazepam and MK-801)...
- Amygdalar neuropeptides and anxietyMARLENE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2006..that overexpression of enkephalin in the amygdala enhances the anxiety-reducing influences of the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium) in rats...