diazepam

Summary

Summary: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field
    E Choleris
    Room 9222D, Department of Psychology, Social Science Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 25:235-60. 2001
  2. ncbi Anxiolytic-like effects of human amniotic fluid and its fatty acids in Wistar rats
    Carlos M Contreras
    Unidad Periférica Xalapa, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
    Behav Pharmacol 22:655-62. 2011
  3. ncbi Pentylenetetrazole induced changes in zebrafish behavior, neural activity and c-fos expression
    S C Baraban
    Epilepsy Research Laboratory, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, Box 0520, 503 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuroscience 131:759-68. 2005
  4. pmc Dissociated effects of diazepam and lorazepam on short-latency afferent inhibition
    Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
    Istituto di Neurologia, Universita Cattolica, L go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
    J Physiol 569:315-23. 2005
  5. ncbi A case with atypical childhood occipital epilepsy "Gastaut type": an ictal migraine manifestation with a good response to intravenous diazepam
    Pasquale Parisi
    Child Neurology and Pediatric Sleep Centre, Chair of Pediatrics La Sapienza University, II Faculty of Medicine Sant Andrea Hospital, Via di Grottarossa 1035 1039, Rome, Italy
    Epilepsia 48:2181-6. 2007
  6. pmc Buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam effects in a zebrafish model of anxiety
    Zachary Bencan
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, 340 Bell Building, Box 3412, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 94:75-80. 2009
  7. ncbi Comparison of the interaction potential of a new proton pump inhibitor, E3810, versus omeprazole with diazepam in extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation
    T Ishizaki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 58:155-64. 1995
  8. pmc A novel α5GABA(A)R-positive allosteric modulator reverses hyperactivation of the dopamine system in the MAM model of schizophrenia
    Kathryn M Gill
    Departments of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1903-11. 2011
  9. ncbi Intense (18)F-FDG uptake in brown fat can be reduced pharmacologically
    Mitsuaki Tatsumi
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    J Nucl Med 45:1189-93. 2004
  10. ncbi Effects of diazepam on gene expression and link to physiological effects in different life stages in zebrafish Danio rerio
    Daniela M Oggier
    School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 44:7685-91. 2010

Detail Information

Publications348 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field
    E Choleris
    Room 9222D, Department of Psychology, Social Science Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 25:235-60. 2001
    ..Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10...
  2. ncbi Anxiolytic-like effects of human amniotic fluid and its fatty acids in Wistar rats
    Carlos M Contreras
    Unidad Periférica Xalapa, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
    Behav Pharmacol 22:655-62. 2011
    ..We then used the defensive burying and elevated plus maze tests to compare the action of diazepam (2 mg/kg), fresh amniotic fluid, and a mixture of its fatty acids with two vehicles (i.e...
  3. ncbi Pentylenetetrazole induced changes in zebrafish behavior, neural activity and c-fos expression
    S C Baraban
    Epilepsy Research Laboratory, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, Box 0520, 503 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuroscience 131:759-68. 2005
    ..Epileptiform discharges were suppressed by commonly used antiepileptic drugs, valproate and diazepam, in a concentration-dependent manner...
  4. pmc Dissociated effects of diazepam and lorazepam on short-latency afferent inhibition
    Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
    Istituto di Neurologia, Universita Cattolica, L go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
    J Physiol 569:315-23. 2005
    ..formation, but do not do so uniformly, with a maximum amnesic effect after lorazepam but less or no effect after diazepam, we were interested in testing in this non-behavioural study to what extent the effects of lorazepam and diazepam ..
  5. ncbi A case with atypical childhood occipital epilepsy "Gastaut type": an ictal migraine manifestation with a good response to intravenous diazepam
    Pasquale Parisi
    Child Neurology and Pediatric Sleep Centre, Chair of Pediatrics La Sapienza University, II Faculty of Medicine Sant Andrea Hospital, Via di Grottarossa 1035 1039, Rome, Italy
    Epilepsia 48:2181-6. 2007
    ..Seven minutes after intravenous administration of 10 mg diazepam under continuous EEG recording, a suppression of the epileptiform discharges over the right occipital was seen, ..
  6. pmc Buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam effects in a zebrafish model of anxiety
    Zachary Bencan
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, 340 Bell Building, Box 3412, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 94:75-80. 2009
    ..three anxiolytic drugs from two different chemical and pharmacological classes: buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam. When the test tank was novel the diving response was clearly seen whereas it was significantly reduced when the ..
  7. ncbi Comparison of the interaction potential of a new proton pump inhibitor, E3810, versus omeprazole with diazepam in extensive and poor metabolizers of S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation
    T Ishizaki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 58:155-64. 1995
    ..interaction potential of E3810, [(+/-)-sodium 2-[[4-(3-methoxpropoxy)-3-methylpyridin-2-yl]methylsulfinyl] -1H-benzimidazole] a new proton pump inhibitor, and omeprazole with diazepam in relation to S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation status.
  8. pmc A novel α5GABA(A)R-positive allosteric modulator reverses hyperactivation of the dopamine system in the MAM model of schizophrenia
    Kathryn M Gill
    Departments of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1903-11. 2011
    ..This study supports a novel treatment of schizophrenia that targets abnormal HPC output, which in turn normalizes dopaminergic neuronal activity...
  9. ncbi Intense (18)F-FDG uptake in brown fat can be reduced pharmacologically
    Mitsuaki Tatsumi
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    J Nucl Med 45:1189-93. 2004
    ..In this study, we evaluated (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT of rats to determine whether pharmacologic or physiologic interventions affect the uptake, knowing that BAT has a high density of adrenergic innervation...
  10. ncbi Effects of diazepam on gene expression and link to physiological effects in different life stages in zebrafish Danio rerio
    Daniela M Oggier
    School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, CH 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 44:7685-91. 2010
    We applied zebrafish whole genome microarrays to identify molecular effects of diazepam, a neuropharmaceutical encountered in wastewater-contaminated environments, and to elucidate its neurotoxic mode of action...
  11. ncbi Risk of fractures requiring hospitalization after an initial prescription for zolpidem, alprazolam, lorazepam, or diazepam in older adults
    William D Finkle
    Consolidated Research, Inc, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 59:1883-90. 2011
    ..To determine whether zolpidem is a safer alternative to benzodiazepines...
  12. ncbi Pharmacological validation of a chronic social stress model of depression in rats: effects of reboxetine, haloperidol and diazepam
    Rafal Rygula
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Behav Pharmacol 19:183-96. 2008
    ..The anxiolytic diazepam (1 mg/kg) was administered acutely at the end of the stress period...
  13. pmc Diazepam-bound GABAA receptor models identify new benzodiazepine binding-site ligands
    Lars Richter
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Nat Chem Biol 8:455-64. 2012
    ..By using multiple homology models and an unbiased docking protocol, we identified a binding hypothesis for the diazepam-bound structure of the benzodiazepine site, which was confirmed by experimental evidence...
  14. ncbi Unraveling the metabolic transformation of tetrazepam to diazepam with mass spectrometric methods
    Birthe Schubert
    Institute of Legal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Muellerstrasse 44, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria
    Anal Bioanal Chem 392:1299-308. 2008
    ..Possible metabolic routes from tetrazepam to diazepam (C(16)H(13)ClN(2)O, average mass: 284...
  15. ncbi Efficacy of buccal midazolam compared to intravenous diazepam in controlling convulsions in children: a randomized controlled trial
    Bibek Talukdar
    Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Asssociated Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya CNBC, Delhi 110031, India
    Brain Dev 31:744-9. 2009
    ..examine the efficacy of buccal midazolam in controlling convulsion in children by comparing it with intravenous diazepam, a standard mode of treating convulsions...
  16. ncbi Intranasal midazolam vs rectal diazepam for the home treatment of acute seizures in pediatric patients with epilepsy
    Maija Holsti
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 164:747-53. 2010
    To compare intranasal midazolam, using a Mucosal Atomization Device (IN-MMAD), with rectal diazepam (RD) for the home treatment of seizures in children with epilepsy.
  17. ncbi Targeted deletion of the GABRA2 gene encoding alpha2-subunits of GABA(A) receptors facilitates performance of a conditioned emotional response, and abolishes anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and barbiturates
    C I Dixon
    Department of Psychology University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:1-8. 2008
    Mice with point-mutated alpha2 GABA(A) receptor subunits (rendering them diazepam insensitive) are resistant to the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) in the conditioned emotional response (CER) test, but show normal ..
  18. ncbi Interaction between cannabinoid compounds and diazepam on anxiety-like behaviour of mice
    Nima Naderi
    Neuroscience Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University Medical Sciences, PO Box 19615 1178, Tehran, Iran
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 89:64-75. 2008
    ..25-5 mg/kg), the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.25-2 mg/kg) and diazepam (0...
  19. ncbi Development of a humanized in vitro blood-brain barrier model to screen for brain penetration of antiepileptic drugs
    Luca Cucullo
    Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Epilepsia 48:505-16. 2007
    ....
  20. ncbi Co-treatment with diazepam prevents the effects of fluoxetine on the proliferation and survival of hippocampal dentate granule cells
    Xuefei Wu
    Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Biol Psychiatry 66:5-8. 2009
    ..Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase proliferation of neuronal progenitors in rodent hippocampus after a delay of approximately 2 weeks...
  21. ncbi Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice
    H Hosseinzadeh
    Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamy and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
    Phytomedicine 11:56-64. 2004
    ..These results indicate that thymoquinone may have anticonvulsant activity in the petit mal epilepsy probably through an opioid receptor-mediated increase in GABAergic tone...
  22. ncbi The effect of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP in rodent tests of anxiety and cognition: a comparison
    Theresa M Ballard
    PRBD N, Neuroscience Research, F Hoffmann La Roche Ltd, 4070 Basel, Switzerland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:218-29. 2005
    ..However, there is evidence that mGlu5 receptor antagonists may also impair working memory and spatial learning following intracerebroventricular administration...
  23. ncbi Variations in illumination, closed wall transparency and/or extramaze space influence both baseline anxiety and response to diazepam in the rat elevated plus-maze
    Nicolas Violle
    URAFPA, INRA UC340, Nancy Universite, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
    Behav Brain Res 203:35-42. 2009
    ..and (2) to investigate the effects of such parameters on the relevance of the maze for detecting the effects of diazepam orally administrated at the anxiolytic dose of 3 mg/kg...
  24. ncbi Parallel anxiolytic-like and antinociceptive actions of diazepam in the anterior basolateral amygdala and dorsal periaqueductal gray
    Guadalupe Jiménez-Velázquez
    Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados Sede Sur, Calz de los Tenorios 235, Col Granjas Coapa, C P 14330, Mexico D F, Mexico
    Brain Res 1349:11-20. 2010
    The antinociceptive actions of diazepam and other benzodiazepines are partly due to their anxiolytic-like properties.
  25. ncbi Extrasynaptic GABA(A) channels activated by THIP are modulated by diazepam in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain hippocampal slice
    Catarina E L Lindquist
    Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Tornavagen 10 BMC F11, 22184 Lund, Sweden
    Mol Cell Neurosci 24:250-7. 2003
    ..THIP activated GABA(A) channels after a delay that was concentration-dependent and decreased by 1 microM diazepam. The currents showed outward rectification...
  26. ncbi Differential effects of diazepam, tandospirone, and paroxetine on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor level under mental stress
    Ai Tamaji
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai Cho, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    Hum Psychopharmacol 27:329-33. 2012
    ..We investigated the influence of psychotropic drugs on plasma BDNF levels under mental stress using a driving simulator (DS) task...
  27. ncbi Effect of omeprazole treatment on diazepam plasma levels in slow versus normal rapid metabolizers of omeprazole
    T Andersson
    Research Laboratories, AB Häsle, Molndal, Sweden
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 47:79-85. 1990
    The effect of omeprazole treatment on diazepam plasma levels was studied in four slow and six rapid metabolizers of omeprazole. Single intravenous doses of diazepam (0...
  28. ncbi [Case with difficulty in differentiating between transient neuroleptic malignant syndrome and catatonia after neuroleptic analgesia]
    Youichi Yanagawa
    Department of Traumatology and Critical Care Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa 359 8513
    Masui 59:235-7. 2010
    ..Infusion of diazepam 10 mg resulted in dramatical improvement of her symptoms...
  29. ncbi Modulation of c-fos expression in the rat striatum by diazepam
    L P Niles
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Neurosci Lett 236:5-8. 1997
    The benzodiazepine agonist, diazepam, inhibits cAMP production in the rat brain. Since cAMP influences c-fos activity, we examined the effects of diazepam on expression of this immediate early gene, as indicated by Western blot analysis...
  30. ncbi The anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic drug caramiphen reduces seizure duration in soman-exposed rats: synergism with the benzodiazepine diazepam
    M K Schultz
    US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 259:376-86. 2012
    ..of seizure activity following exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) includes treatment with the anticonvulsant diazepam (DZP), an allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors...
  31. ncbi Severe neuroleptic malignant syndrome: successful treatment with high-dose lorazepam and diazepam: a case report
    Meng Chang Tsai
    Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Chang Gung Med J 33:576-80. 2010
    ..Here, we report a patient with severe NMS who was successfully treated with highdose lorazepam and diazepam. A 61-year-old man with bipolar I disorder was admitted to the hospital because of manic episodes...
  32. ncbi Intranasal midazolam vs rectal diazepam in acute childhood seizures
    Madhumita Bhattacharyya
    Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India
    Pediatr Neurol 34:355-9. 2006
    One hundred eighty-eight seizure episodes in 46 children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with rectal diazepam and intranasal midazolam with doses of 0.3 mg/kg body weight and 0.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively...
  33. pmc Midazolam versus diazepam for the treatment of status epilepticus in children and young adults: a meta-analysis
    Jason McMullan
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 17:575-82. 2010
    Rapid treatment of status epilepticus (SE) is associated with better outcomes. Diazepam and midazolam are commonly used, but the optimal agent and administration route is unclear.
  34. ncbi A comparison of midazolam nasal spray and diazepam rectal solution for the residential treatment of seizure exacerbations
    Gerrit Jan de Haan
    SEIN Epilepsy Institute in The Netherlands Foundation Heemstede, The Netherlands
    Epilepsia 51:478-82. 2010
    Rectal diazepam is established as a standard rescue or emergency treatment for seizure or status epilepticus; however, the rectal route of administration has not been universally accepted...
  35. pmc The effect of diazepam on motor cortical oscillations and corticomuscular coherence studied in man
    Mark R Baker
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    J Physiol 546:931-42. 2003
    ..The benzodiazepine diazepam enhances the size of GABA(A) IPSPs; its effects are reversed by the antagonist flumazenil...
  36. ncbi Methamphetamine and diazepam suppress antigen-specific cytokine expression and antibody production in ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice
    Shiaw Pyng Wey
    Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC
    Toxicol Lett 181:157-62. 2008
    ..The present study investigated the effect of diazepam, a central depressant, on methamphetamine-induced immunosuppression...
  37. ncbi [Effect of diazepam on the effectiveness of antidote therapy in eliminating the acute lethal effects of soman in mice]
    J Kassa
    Vojenská lékarská akademie JEP, Hradec Kralove
    Cas Lek Cesk 140:497-9. 2001
    ..an anticholinergic drug and an acetylcholinesterase reactivator, is often completed with the anticonvulsive drug diazepam to prevent poisoned organisms from centrally mediated seizures and subsequent tonic-clonic convulsions...
  38. ncbi Genuine antihyperalgesia by systemic diazepam revealed by experiments in GABAA receptor point-mutated mice
    Julia Knabl
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Pain 141:233-8. 2009
    ..engineered mice, which carry specific benzodiazepine-insensitive GABA(A) receptor subunits, to test whether diazepam, a frequently used classical benzodiazepine, exerts antihyperalgesia after systemic administration in the ..
  39. ncbi Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating acute seizures in children
    T Mahmoudian
    Department of Child Neurology, Medical University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
    Epilepsy Behav 5:253-5. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether intranasal midazolam is as safe and effective as intravenous diazepam in the treatment of acute childhood seizures...
  40. ncbi Differential effects of MPEP and diazepam in tests of conditioned emotional response and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer suggests 'anxiolytic' effects are mediated by different mechanisms
    S A George
    Department of Psychology, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:499-509. 2009
    ..The standard test of the ability of Pavlovian cues to motivate responding is the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm and it has recently been suggested that CER may be 'negative PIT'...
  41. ncbi Ethanol effects on impulsivity in two mouse strains: similarities to diazepam and ketamine
    Yolanda Peña Oliver
    Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:679-92. 2009
    ..The effects of ethanol on attention and impulsivity have been contradictory...
  42. ncbi Acute and chronic effects of the synthetic neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone, against the convulsive and lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol in seizure-kindled mice: comparison with diazepam and valproate
    M Gasior
    Drug Development Group, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Addiction Research Center, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuropharmacology 39:1184-96. 2000
    ..Two classical antiepileptic drugs, diazepam and valproate, were tested for comparison...
  43. ncbi Efficacy of immediate and subsequent therapies against soman-induced seizures and lethality in rats
    Trond Myhrer
    Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Protection Division, P O Box 25, NO 2027 Kjeller, Norway
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 98:184-91. 2006
    ..3 or 4 x LD(50) of soman could not be terminated unless an adjunct therapy consisting of procyclidine (6 mg/kg), diazepam (10 mg/kg), and pentobarbital (30 kg/kg) was given, and the mortality rate was comparatively high (78%)...
  44. ncbi Intravenous anesthetic diazepam does not induce amyloid-beta peptide oligomerization but diazepam co-administered with halothane oligomerizes amyloid-beta peptide: an NMR study
    Pravat K Mandal
    Neurospectroscopy and Neuroimaging Laboratory, National Brain Research Center, Manesar, Gurgaon, India
    J Alzheimers Dis 20:127-34. 2010
    ..nuclear magnetic resonance, we have monitored the influence of a larger sized intravenous anesthetic, diazepam, as well as diazepam co-administered with halothane, on Abeta...
  45. ncbi Short-term effects of intravenous benzodiazepines on autonomic neurocardiac regulation in humans: a comparison between midazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam
    Marcus W Agelink
    Department of Neurocardiology, Institute of Biological Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Evangelical Clinics Gelsenkirchen, Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany
    Crit Care Med 30:997-1006. 2002
    To evaluate the effects of intravenously applied diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam on autonomic neurocardiac regulation assessed by standardized measurements of heart rate variability.
  46. pmc Diazepam-induced changes in sleep: role of the alpha 1 GABA(A) receptor subtype
    I Tobler
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6464-9. 2001
    ..BZs such as diazepam (Dz) potentiate GABA(A) receptor activation...
  47. pmc Mechanism of action of benzodiazepines on GABAA receptors
    Claudia Campo-Soria
    Department of Neurobiology, UAB School of Medicine, 1719 Sixth Avenue South, CIRC410 Birmingham, AL 25394, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 148:984-90. 2006
    ..Dose-response relationships for GABA were compared in the absence and presence of 1 microM diazepam (DZP) or methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM)...
  48. ncbi Functional mapping of GABA A receptor subtypes in the amygdala
    Anne Marowsky
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 20:1281-9. 2004
    ..Using mice, which carry a point mutation that renders specific subtypes of GABA A receptors diazepam insensitive, it was recently discovered that particular types of GABA A receptors are involved in specific, ..
  49. ncbi Effects of benzodiazepines receptor agonists on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis
    Jens D Mikkelsen
    Department of Functional Neuroanatomy and Biomarkers, Neurosearch A S, Pederstrupvej 93, 2750 Ballerup, Denmark
    Eur J Pharmacol 519:223-30. 2005
    ..More surprisingly, the non-selective full agonists diazepam and zopiclone induced a lower increase in circulating corticosterone than after zolpidem...
  50. ncbi Mouse strain differences in autonomic responses to stress
    M J V van Bogaert
    Department of Psychopharmacology, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Behavioural Genomics Section, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, The Netherlands
    Genes Brain Behav 5:139-49. 2006
    ..Finally, sensitivity to the anxiolytic diazepam (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) was tested using the stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm...
  51. ncbi Diazepam-induced adaptive plasticity revealed by alpha1 GABAA receptor-specific expression profiling
    Laura Huopaniemi
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurochem 88:1059-67. 2004
    ..Changes of transcript levels in cerebral cortex induced by acute diazepam administration were therefore compared by microarray analysis between wild-type and point mutated alpha1(H101R) ..
  52. ncbi The impact of diazepam's discovery on the treatment and understanding of status epilepticus
    Howard P Goodkin
    Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Epilepsia 50:2011-8. 2009
    ..The GABAA receptors that mediate synaptic inhibition typically contain a gamma2 subunit and are diazepam-sensitive...
  53. ncbi Sedative but not anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepines are mediated by the GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subtype
    R M McKernan
    Neuroscience Research Centre, Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Terlings Park, Eastwick Road, Harlow, Essex CM20 2QR, UK
    Nat Neurosci 3:587-92. 2000
    ..anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant and cognition-impairing effects of clinically used BZs such as diazepam. We created genetically modified mice (alpha1 H101R) with a diazepam-insensitive alpha1 subtype and a selective ..
  54. ncbi Modulation of passive avoidance in mice by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan: comparison with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist diazepam
    Minoru Tsuji
    Department of Pharmacology, Intractable Diseases Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, Japan
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:664-74. 2003
    ..agonist flesinoxan on passive avoidance in mice were compared with those of the benzodiazepine receptor agonist diazepam. In preliminary experiments, the retention latency to enter a dark compartment in mice subjected to single-..
  55. pmc Diazepam-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: design and characterization
    Ghada Abdelbary
    Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini Street, Cairo, Egypt
    AAPS PharmSciTech 10:211-9. 2009
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of the inclusion of a water-insoluble drug (diazepam, DZ) into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), which offer combined advantages of rapid onset and prolonged release of the ..
  56. ncbi Comparison of the novel subtype-selective GABAA receptor-positive allosteric modulator NS11394 [3'-[5-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-benzoimidazol-1-yl]-biphenyl-2-carbonitrile] with diazepam, zolpidem, bretazenil, and gaboxadol in rat models of inflammatory
    G Munro
    Neurosearch A S, Ballerup, Denmark
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327:969-81. 2008
    Spinal administration of GABA(A) receptor modulators, such as the benzodiazepine drug diazepam, partially alleviates neuropathic hypersensitivity that manifests as spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia...
  57. ncbi A randomized comparison of low-dose ketamine and lignocaine infiltration with ketamine-diazepam anaesthesia for post partum tubal ligation in Vanuatu
    R F Grace
    Department of Anaesthetics, Vila Central Hospital, Port Vila, Vanuatu
    Anaesth Intensive Care 29:30-3. 2001
    ..9 mg/kg and diazepam 0.07 mg/kg with ketamine 0...
  58. ncbi Effect of the gene dosage of CgammaP2C19 on diazepam metabolism in Chinese subjects
    X P Qin
    Pharmacogenetics Research Institute, Hunan Medical University, China
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 66:642-6. 1999
    To determine whether the gene dosage of CYP2C19 affects the metabolism of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam in healthy Chinese subjects.
  59. ncbi Diazepam reduces both arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in human
    Tsuyoshi Kitajima
    Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1 98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake cho, Toyoake City, Aichi 470 1192, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 355:77-80. 2004
    ..To clarify whether this effect is due to central or peripheral mechanism, we administered 5 mg of diazepam or saline intravenously to healthy volunteers and assessed the change in blood pressure, heart rate, muscle ..
  60. ncbi The effects of pentobarbital, fentanyl-droperidol, ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam on arterial blood pH, blood gases, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate in adult male rats
    S K Wixson
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey 17033
    Lab Anim Sci 37:736-42. 1987
    ..four different injectable drugs, pentobarbital, fentanyl-droperidol (Innovar-Vet), ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-diazepam on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of rats...
  61. ncbi Differential effects of two chronic diazepam treatment regimes on withdrawal anxiety and AMPA receptor characteristics
    Claire Allison
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:602-19. 2006
    ..We have employed two diazepam treatment regimes known to produce differing effects on withdrawal aversion in the rat and examined whether ..
  62. ncbi Diazepam inhibits the induction and maintenance of LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn of rats
    Xiao Dong Hu
    Department of Physiology, Zhongshan Medical School of Sun Yat Sen University, 74 Zhongshan Rd 2, Guangzhou 510089, PR China
    Neuropharmacology 50:238-44. 2006
    The benzodiazepine diazepam impairs memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus...
  63. ncbi A comparison between Dark Agouti and Sprague-Dawley rats in their behaviour on the elevated plus-maze, open-field apparatus and activity meters, and their response to diazepam
    Annis O Mechan
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 159:188-95. 2002
    ..We wished to confirm and extend this initial finding...
  64. ncbi The octadecaneuropeptide [diazepam-binding inhibitor (33-50)] exerts potent anorexigenic effects in rodents
    J G de Mateos-Verchere
    , , France
    Eur J Pharmacol 414:225-31. 2001
    ..At a dose of 100 ng, ODN almost completely suppressed food intake. Treatment of rats with diazepam (2 mg/kg s.c.; 15 min before ODN administration) did not affect the anorexigenic response evoked by 100 ng ODN...
  65. ncbi Diazepam-induced changes on sleep and the EEG spectrum in mice: role of the alpha3-GABA(A) receptor subtype
    C Kopp
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 17:2226-30. 2003
    ..We investigated the role of these receptors in the mediation of diazepam effects on the sleep EEG by studying point-mutated mice in which the alpha3-GABAA receptor is diazepam-..
  66. ncbi Effects of HI 6, diazepam and atropine on soman-induced IL-1 beta protein in rat brain
    I Svensson
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of NBC Defence, SE 901 82 Umea, Sweden
    Neurotoxicology 26:173-81. 2005
    ..HI 6 and atropine; the effects of different combinations of HI 6 and atropine; and also the effects of antidotes diazepam and atropine following soman-intoxication...
  67. ncbi Phase II study of lonidamine and diazepam in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
    Stephane Oudard
    Department of Oncology, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
    J Neurooncol 63:81-6. 2003
    ..We report an open-label, uncontrolled, multicentre phase II trial of lonidamine (LND) and diazepam in 16 patients with GBM at first relapse and a Karnofsky performance status > or = 70...
  68. pmc Modulation of rhythmic brain activity by diazepam: GABA(A) receptor subtype and state specificity
    C Kopp
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3674-9. 2004
    ..The effects of diazepam on the electroencephalogram were compared between alpha(2)(H101R) knock-in mice in which the alpha(2)GABA(A) ..
  69. ncbi Diazepam terminates brief but not prolonged seizures in young, naïve rats
    Howard P Goodkin
    Department of Neurology, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Epilepsia 44:1109-12. 2003
    ..This relationship has not been well studied in the developing nervous system...
  70. ncbi Male and female C57BL/6 mice respond differently to diazepam challenge in avoidance learning tasks
    J Podhorna
    Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 72:13-21. 2002
    ..The goal of this study was to examine sex differences in the effects of diazepam on learning and memory of C57BL/6 mice in avoidance paradigms...
  71. ncbi Blockade of corticosteroid receptors induces anxiolytic-like effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and synergizes with diazepam
    Carolina López-Rubalcava
    Department of Pharmacobiology, CINVESTAV IPN, CP 14330, Mexico City, Mexico
    Behav Pharmacol 24:320-7. 2013
    ..is increased in these patients and corticosteroids levels are augmented, whereas the anxiolytic actions of diazepam are reduced...
  72. ncbi Diazepam inhibits reproduction and reproductive behavior of oriental hornet. A possible role for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor
    Jacob S Ishay
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR 38:31-42. 2006
    Feeding of diazepam to young hornets completely inhibits or delays development of their ovaries for a relatively long period...
  73. ncbi A comparison of the effects of a beta-adrenergic blocker and a benzodiazepine upon the recognition of human facial expressions
    Andrea Zangara
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1H 6BT, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:36-41. 2002
    ..Recent evidence implies that the processing of different facial expressions may also be dissociable pharmacologically by GABAergic and noradrenergic compounds, although no study has directly compared the two types of drugs...
  74. ncbi Requirement of alpha5-GABAA receptors for the development of tolerance to the sedative action of diazepam in mice
    Carolien van Rijnsoever
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 24:6785-90. 2004
    ..The acute sedative action of diazepam is mediated via alpha1-GABA(A) receptors...
  75. ncbi Evaluation of interactions between cannabinoid compounds and diazepam in electroshock-induced seizure model in mice
    Nima Naderi
    Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran, Iran
    J Neural Transm 115:1501-11. 2008
    ..this study was to evaluate the possible interactions between antiepileptic effects of cannabinoid compounds and diazepam using electroshock-induced model of seizure in mice...
  76. ncbi An improved HPLC method for rapid quantitation of diazepam and its major metabolites in human plasma
    Mohammad Reza Rouini
    Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetic Division, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, 14155 6451 Tehran, Iran
    Talanta 75:671-6. 2008
    A rapid and specific HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of diazepam and its main active metabolites, desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in human plasma...
  77. ncbi Anxiolytic effects of the melatonin MT(2) receptor partial agonist UCM765: comparison with melatonin and diazepam
    Rafael Ochoa-Sanchez
    Neurobiological Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 39:318-25. 2012
    ..Adult male rats were acutely injected with UCM765 (5-10-20mg/kg), MLT (20mg/kg) or diazepam (DZ, 1mg/kg)...
  78. pmc 5-HT1A receptor blockade reverses GABA(A) receptor alpha3 subunit-mediated anxiolytic effects on stress-induced hyperthermia
    Christiaan H Vinkers
    Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584CA, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211:123-30. 2010
    ..As there is evidence that the GABA(A) and the serotonin receptor system interact, a serotonergic component in the anxiolytic actions of benzodiazepines could be present...
  79. ncbi Intravenous sodium valproate in mainland China for the treatment of diazepam refractory convulsive status epilepticus
    Lei Chen
    Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Wai Nanguo Xuexiang 37, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    J Clin Neurosci 16:524-6. 2009
    ..v.) sodium valproate (VPA) for diazepam (DZP) refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE)...
  80. ncbi Selective modulation of different GABAA receptor isoforms by diazepam and etomidate in hippocampal neurons
    Victoria A L Seymour
    The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 44:1491-500. 2012
    b>Diazepam modulation of native γ2-containing GABA(A) (γGABA(A)) receptors increases channel conductance by facilitating protein interactions involving the γ2-subunit amphipathic (MA) region, which is found in the cytoplasmic loop ..
  81. ncbi Genetic determinants of sensitivity to diazepam in inbred mice
    J C Crabbe
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health Sciences University, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland 97201, USA
    Behav Neurosci 112:668-77. 1998
    Mice from 15 standard inbred strains were tested for sensitivity to several effects of acute diazepam (DZ)...
  82. pmc Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex
    T K Hensch
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Science 282:1504-8. 1998
    ..Specific networks of inhibitory interneurons intrinsic to visual cortex may detect perturbations in sensory input to drive experience-dependent plasticity during development...
  83. ncbi Effects of acute and repeated zolpidem treatment on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold and on locomotor activity: comparison with diazepam
    Josipa Vlainić
    Laboratory for Molecular Neuropharmacology, Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia
    Neuropharmacology 56:1124-30. 2009
    Zolpidem and diazepam are widely used drugs acting via benzodiazepine binding sites on GABA(A) receptors. While diazepam is non-selective, zolpidem has a high affinity for alpha1-, and no affinity for alpha5-containing receptors...
  84. ncbi Different neuroprotection and therapeutic time windows by two specific diazepam regimens on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve transection in adult rats
    Ling Liu
    Institute of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, China
    Restor Neurol Neurosci 30:335-43. 2012
    To compare neuroprotection and therapeutic time windows of two diazepam regimens on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after rat optic nerve transection (ONT).
  85. ncbi Biotransformation of diazepam in a clinically relevant flat membrane bioreactor model using primary porcine hepatocytes
    Michael Maringka
    Centre for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Department of Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 25:343-53. 2011
    ..To address this situation, we investigated the biotransformation potential of diazepam in primary porcine hepatocytes with a flat membrane bioreactor (FMB); we used human plasma exposure and serum-..
  86. ncbi Sex-specific effects of in utero manipulation of GABA(A) receptors on pre- and postnatal expression of BDNF in rats
    C K Kellogg
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Room 186, Meliora Hall, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 121:157-67. 2000
    Exposure to diazepam (DZ) during the last week of in utero development in rats induces neurobehavioral effects that do not become apparent in exposed animals until young adult ages. Some of the effects are sex specific...
  87. ncbi Interethnic difference in omeprazole's inhibition of diazepam metabolism
    Y Caraco
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 58:62-72. 1995
    To compare the effect of omeprazole, a substrate and inhibitor of CYP2C19, on diazepam metabolism in white and Chinese subjects.
  88. ncbi Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on diazepam metabolism: a pharmacokinetic study in healthy Chinese male subjects
    Xiao Cong Zuo
    Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology Research Institute, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013, China
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66:503-9. 2010
    It has been reported that Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is an inducer or inhibitor of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19, and diazepam is a substrate of CYP2C19. Thus, it could be expected that GBE may alter the metabolism of diazepam.
  89. ncbi Detection of aneuploidy in rodent and human sperm by multicolor FISH after chronic exposure to diazepam
    A Baumgartner
    Institute of Experimental Genetics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85758, Neuherberg, Germany
    Mutat Res 490:11-9. 2001
    Aneuploidy induction in male germ cells of mice and men after chronic exposure to diazepam (DZ; CAS 439-14-5; Valium was assessed by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
  90. ncbi Effects of multiple-dose esomeprazole and pantoprazole on diazepam pharmacokinetic profile and pharmacodynamic effects on cognitive and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers
    Bernd Drewelow
    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Arzneimittelforschung 60:483-91. 2010
    ..CAS 102625-70-7), both 1 x 40 mg orally for 11 days, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam (CAS 439-14-5). Single-dose intravenous diazepam 0.1 mg/kg was administered on day 6...
  91. ncbi Rebound insomnia induced by abrupt withdrawal of hypnotics in sleep-disturbed rats
    Masahiro Hirase
    Department of Medicinal Pharmacology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 597:46-50. 2008
    ..From these findings, a rebound phenomenon in terms of sleep latency was confirmed with etizolam and triazolam in rats. Furthermore, the 5-HT(1A) agonist, tandospirone, caused no rebound phenomenon regarding sleep latency in rats...
  92. ncbi A higher inherent trait for fearfulness is associated with increased anxiety-like behaviours and diazepam sensitivity in Japanese quail
    J Boulay
    INRA, UMR85 Physiologie de Reproduction et des Comportements, F 37380 Nouzilly, France
    Behav Brain Res 237:124-8. 2013
    ..The behavioural effects of intraperitoneal injections of diazepam, an anxiolytic drug, were assessed in two lines of quail selected either for their short (STI) or long (LTI) ..
  93. ncbi Xylazine-/diazepam-ketamine and isoflurane differentially affect hemodynamics and organ injury under hemorrhagic/traumatic shock and resuscitation in rats
    Soheyl Bahrami
    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology in the Research Center of AUVA, Vienna, Austria
    Shock 35:573-8. 2011
    ..Animals were anesthetized with ketamine/diazepam (K/D), ketamine/xylazine (K/X), or isoflurane (ISO)...
  94. ncbi Relative positioning of diazepam in the benzodiazepine-binding-pocket of GABA receptors
    Kelly R Tan
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Bern, Bühlstrasse, Switzerland
    J Neurochem 111:1264-73. 2009
    ..We describe here such proximity-accelerated chemical coupling reactions of alpha(1)S205C and alpha(1)T206C with a diazepam derivative modified at the C-3 position with a reactive isothiocyanate group (-NCS)...
  95. ncbi Diazepam-induced disruption of classically-conditioned fear-potentiation of late-latency auditory evoked potentials is prevented by flumazenil given before, but not after, CS/US pairing
    J C Scaife
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 21:93-101. 2007
    ..Recently we reported that the N1/P2 auditory evoked potential was enhanced by fear conditioning in humans. Diazepam 10 mg, given before CS/US pairing, prevented subsequent expression of fear potentiation when the response was ..
  96. ncbi The role of diazepam in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning in a civilian population
    Timothy C Marrs
    Food Standards Agency, London and National Poisons Information Service, Birmingham Centre, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK
    Toxicol Rev 23:145-57. 2004
    The main site of action of diazepam, as with other benzodiazepines, is at the GABA(A) receptor, although it has been suggested that some of the potentially beneficial actions of diazepam in nerve agent poisoning are mediated through other ..
  97. ncbi Buccal midazolam or rectal diazepam for treatment of residential adult patients with serial seizures or status epilepticus
    K O Nakken
    National Centre for Epilepsy, Oslo University Hospital, Norway
    Acta Neurol Scand 124:99-103. 2011
    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam as emergency treatment in residential adults with convulsive or non-convulsive serial seizures or status epilepticus (SE), and ascertain the preference ..
  98. ncbi Two compartment model of diazepam biotransformation in an organotypical culture of primary human hepatocytes
    Ali Acikgöz
    Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, Universitat Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 234:179-91. 2009
    ..limitation, we used an organotypical model of human primary hepatocytes for the biotransformation of the drug diazepam with special reference to metabolites in both the cell matrix phase and supernatant and its interaction of three ..
  99. ncbi Effects of the aqueous extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in rats
    Qiao Jinping
    Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China
    J Pharm Pharmacol 55:1163-7. 2003
    ..the effects of the aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (danshen in Chinese) on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in rats...
  100. ncbi GABA homeostasis contributes to the developmental programming of anxiety-related behavior
    Amaicha Mara Depino
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory EMBL, Mouse Biology Unit, Via Ramarini 32, 00016 Monterotondo, Italy
    Brain Res 1210:189-99. 2008
    ..during the major period of forebrain synaptogenesis (P14-28) with the GABA-A receptor positive modulator diazepam and assessed anxiety-related behavior in adulthood...
  101. ncbi Development of an ethyl laurate-based microemulsion for rapid-onset intranasal delivery of diazepam
    Lianli Li
    Drug Delivery Systems Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, St John s University, Jamaica, NY 11439, USA
    Int J Pharm 237:77-85. 2002
    ..with Tween 80 as surfactant, propylene glycol and ethanol as cosolvents was developed for intranasal delivery of diazepam. Phase behavior and solubilization capacity of the microemulsion system were characterized and in vivo nasal ..

Research Grants64

  1. Efficacy of GABAA a5 receptor inverse agonists in learning impaired rats
    EARL MICHAEL GIBBS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Patients with learning disorders and those suffering from complications due to neurodegenerative diseases will greatly benefit as PWZ-029 moves another step closer to the clinic. ..
  2. Intranasal CNS delivery of drugs against organophosphorous threat agents
    ARYAN MANGALAM NAMBOODIRI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inhibited AChE;2) atropine to antagonize the action of excess acetylcholine formed at muscarinic receptors and 3) diazepam or midazolam to allosterically potentiate the action of inhibitory neurotransmitter -amino butyric acid (GABA) at ..
  3. Mechanism and Treatment of nerve agent-induced seizures
    Jaideep Kapur; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and galanin are held in reserve and will be tested in case either one of the two proposed agents fail to control diazepam refractory seizures in 50% of experimental animals...
  4. In vivo mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced neuronal necrosis
    Denson G Fujikawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of [unreadable]II-spectrin, a calpain substrate, to document calpain I activation;(5) parentera administration of diazepam and phenobarbital after METH administration to stop electrographic seizures, which we predict will also provide ..
  5. Next Generation Oxime Therapeutic for Chemical Agent Inhibited CNS (Brain) ChEs
    Richard K Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of a cholinesterase reactivator (oxime), a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) and an anticonvulsant (diazepam)...
  6. Protection against sarin-induced neurotoxicity via an in vivo caspase inhibitor
    David R Cool; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Efficacy will be compared at 48 hours and 14 days with and without the anticonvulsant, diazepam and the negative cell death control, Q-VE-OPh...
  7. Validation of High-Throughput Screening of Candidate Antiepileptogenic Drugs
    Andrey Mazarati; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..consist of analysis of the effects of fifteen compounds with established pharmacological profiles (bumetanide, diazepam, ethosuximide felbamate, gabapentin, ganaxolone, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, MK-801;phenytoin, retigabine, ..
  8. Use of a mouse model of anxious depression to assess the safety of pediatric anti
    Bernhard Luscher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These effects are reminiscent of detrimental behavioral effects observed upon treatment of young mice with diazepam, a prototype benzodiazepine that potentiates the function of GABA via GABA-A receptors...
  9. GABAA subtype-specific pharmacological modulation of reward-related behavior
    Uwe Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Diazepam (ValiumR), a non-subtype-selective benzodiazepine decreases the reward threshold, however, the GABAA receptor ..
  10. Efficacy of flupirtine for treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
    Yogendra H Raol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our recent study showed that unlike diazepam and phenobarbital, flupirtine a potassium channel opener, effectively treated chemoconvulsant- induced neonatal ..
  11. Improved standard of care reactivaters and facilitative transport into the centra
    GREGORY EDWARD GARCIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AChE) reactivator pralidoxime (2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-1-methylpyridinium, 2-PAM), and symptom modulator diazepam. From a single intramuscular (IM) dose these compounds do provide some immediate protection, but for persistent ..
  12. Neurosteroid Treatment for OP Intoxication
    Doodipala Samba Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To develop neurosteroids as superior countermeasures than diazepam, we will address three specific aims: (Aim 1): Determine the efficacy of ganaxolone against DFP- and soman-..
  13. Fullerenes Counteracting Organophosphorus Threats
    Marion F Ehrich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..as OP antidotes, either alone or in combination with currently accepted treatments (IV atropine, pralidoxime, diazepam)...
  14. Structural investigation of a GABA receptor subtype
    DEREK CLAXTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, binding of commonly prescribed benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, enhances the observed Cl- conductance of receptors composed of 1/2/3 subunit isoforms...
  15. Anxiety and Alcoholism: Novel Benzodiazpine Treatments
    Harry L June; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..model of SDl binding sites to synthesize novel a1 subtype-preferring ligands with reduced efficacies at diazepam sensitive (DS) subtypes (e.g., a1,2,3,5)'Once the two agents (e.g...
  16. Genetic Mapping of Neuronal Circuits Involved in Regulation of Anxiety and Fear
    Uwe Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The ?2-containing GABAA receptors, which have been shown to mediate the anxiolytic-like action of diazepam in ethological tests of anxiety will be deleted from hippocampal principal neurons in the CA1, CA3, and DG ..
  17. Saliva Analyzer for Diagnosing SRD Patient Drug Use
    Stuart Farquharson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The overall aim of the Phase I program is to demonstrate feasibility by detecting two priority drugs (cocaine and diazepam) in saliva at physiologically relevant concentrations and analysis time...
  18. Estimating the Price Elasticities of Demand for Illicit Drugs
    Todd A Olmstead; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  19. PHENCYCLIDINE: A BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL STUDY
    Herbert Meltzer; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Baclofen significantly antagonized the behavioral effects of PCP but other drugs with GABA agonist properties, diazepam and muscimol, increased PCP ataxia...
  20. A novel developmental mouse model of major depressive disorder
    Bernhard Luscher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary experiment indicate that treatment of mice with diazepam (DZP) between postnatal day (P)10 and P21 leads selectively to increased anxiety-like behavior...
  21. Novel Mechanism of Ethanol Discrimination
    Joyce Besheer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ethanol discrimination and in mGluRS and mGluR2/3 modulation of ethanol discrimination and ethanol substitutes (diazepam and MK-801)...
  22. Identification of novel therapeutic approaches for TETS and OP intoxication
    Michael A Rogawski; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..protection and are able to block seizures when administered at later times when there is refractoriness to diazepam, the benzodiazepine typically used to treat acute TETS and OP intoxication...
  23. TREATMENT OF STATUS EPILEPTICUS
    Jaideep Kapur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In preliminary studies, hippocampal slices were prepared from animals in diazepam refractory or late stage of SE or controls and AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated EPSCS were recorded from ..
  24. Synaptic plasticity in young versus aged visual cortex
    ELIZABETH MARY QUINLAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, we propose that the enhancement of GABAergic inhibition with diazepam will block these reactivation of anatomical, physiological and behavioral plasticity by dark exposure...
  25. EFFECTS OF ANTICONVULSANTS ON GLIAL ION TRANSPORT
    Steve White; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..exposed to therapeutic concentrations of the prototype anticonvulsants phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, diazepam, ethosuximide, acetazolamide, and to the calcium channel blocker flunarizine...
  26. Neuroactive Steroid Therapy of Catamenial Epilepsy
    DOODIPALA REDDY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..To develop a drug therapy for catamenial seizure exacerbation, we will examine two drugs, diazepam and the "neuroactive steroid" ganaxolone, using a 2-day pulse-therapy protocol for two withdrawal cycles...
  27. Internet as Supplier: Preventing Adolescent Use of Non-Medical Addictive Rx
    Amelia M Arria; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study will obtain information directly from adolescents about their use of the internet and other sources to obtain drugs. ..
  28. GABAA RECEPTOR CHANNEL ALTERATION BY PROLONGED SEIZURES
    Robert MacDonald; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..to benzodiazepines, 2) time course of development of decreased sensitivity of granule cell GABAR currents to diazepam and zinc, 3) sensitivity of granule cell GABAR currents GABAR modulators following prolonged seizures, 4) ..
  29. ANXIETY--GABA RECEPTOR AND OPIOID GENE TRANSFER
    MARLENE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the ability of enkephalin overexpression in the amygdala to enhance the anxiety-reducing effects of BZ agonists (diazepam)...
  30. Emotional regulation: Modeling GABA A receptor subtype specific agents in mice
    Uwe Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..genetic and pharmacological approach to create a model system (triple point-mutated mice + the non-selective drug diazepam) in which diazepam is a true ?1-specific, ?2-specific, ?3-specific, or ?5-specific full agonist, respectively, ..
  31. BETA-CARBOLINES: VALIUM AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS
    James Cook; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  32. ORAL BENZODIAZEPINE SELF ADMINISTRATION
    RICHARD MEISCH; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Upon completion of this procedure midozalam functioned as a reinforcer. The procedure used with diazepam was simple, diazepam was substituted for midazolam...
  33. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENZODIAZEPINE DEPENDENCE
    MICHAEL OGLESBY; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A second portion of the proposed experiments will test for tolerance to the discriminative stimulus properties of diazepam. There is surprisingly little information available about this type of tolerance, and the proposes studies will ..
  34. BZ RECEPTOR EFFECTS OF PRENATAL ETHANOL/BENSODIAZEPINE
    Domenic Ciraulo; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We have chosen to study the three BZ which are most commonly prescribed and abused - diazepam, alprazolam, and lorazepam...
  35. ETHANOL AFFECTS HYPOTHALAMIC-DENTATE GYRUS INTERACTIONS
    MATTHEW WAYNER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Both the impairment of maze learning and LTP inhibition can be prevented by pretreatment with losartan. Because diazepam produces similar effects and these effects can also be prevented by pretreatment with losartan, we also assume ..
  36. Correlating drug effects on the VOR and motion sickness
    Phillip Kramer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Immediately following the first set of tests the subject will ingest placebo, diazepam, meclizine, or nothing (randomized double blind order)...
  37. DIAZEPAM DISCRIMINATION IN GABA SUBUNIT KNOCKOUT MICE
    KEITH SHELTON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the drug discrimination paradigm to examine the receptor-mediated subjective discriminative stimulus effects of diazepam in delta subunit knockout mice...
  38. The Role of GABA A Receptor Subtypes in Benzodiazepine Abuse Liability
    Uwe Rudolph; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This will be achieved by using the non- selective benzodiazepine drugs diazepam and midazolam in triple point-mutated mice, in which these drugs are a true ?1-specific, ? 2-specific, ? 3-..
  39. FEEDBACK REGULATIION OF PANCREATIC ENZYME SECRETION
    Chung Owyang; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This has now been purified and sequenced to demonstrate its identity with the diazepam-binding inhibitor...
  40. Non-sedating modulators of GABA-A receptors for anxiety
    KELVIN GEE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Few viable alternatives other than benzodiazepines (BZs), like diazepam, are used for the treatment of GAD...
  41. STIMULUS PROPERTIES OF ANXIOLYTICS IN HUMANS
    Chris Ellyn Johanson; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..to further delineate behavioral and pharmacological variables that contribute to the reinforcing properties of diazepam and to investigate the discriminative stimulus (DS) properties and subjective effects of diazepam...
  42. Conformational changes neurosteroids at GABA-A receptors
    Daniel Williams; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Using SCAM at the TM3 region of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit, GABA, diazepam and two different concentrations of propofol were found to change the pattern of water accessible residues in TM3...
  43. GENETIC SELECTION FOR BENZODIAZEPINE SENSITIVITY
    EDWARD GALLAHER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In a pilot study mass selection was used to breed divergent lines of mice which are resistant and sensitive to diazepam (DZ). Mice were selected for mating based on the duration of impairment on the rotarod (i.e...
  44. FLUMAZENIL IN ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL
    David Nutt; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..If this hypothesis is correct then the actions of the conventional benzodiazepines such as diazepam in treating withdrawal could be due to competition at the receptor...
  45. GHB Tolerance and Dependence
    Cynthia Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Cross-tolerance to GABA-B (baclofen) and GABA-A (pentobarbital, diazepam) agonists will be assessed with the same behavioral measures...
  46. Pupillometry and Gaze-Tracking in Unrestrained Monkeys
    MICHAEL WEED; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Sensitivity of the smooth pursuit task will be validated by testing the effects of diazepam on oculomotor performance of rhesus monkeys...
  47. BENZODIAZEPINE ACTIONS ON ALCOHOL REINFORCEMENT
    HARRY JUNE; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..ligands can selectively attenuate measures of ETOH reinforcement; this may be related to their binding at diazepam sensitive (DS), and to a lesser degree at diazepam insensitive (DI) conformations of GABAA-BDZ receptors...
  48. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF DIAZEPAM TOLERANCE
    Erminio Costa; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..b>Diazepam, (a FAM), but not imidazenil, (a PAM) induces tolerance in rodents...
  49. BENZODIAZEPINE ACTIONS ON ALCOHOL REINFORCEMENT
    HARRY JUNE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..ligands can selectively attenuate measures of ETOH reinforcement; this may be related to their binding at diazepam sensitive (DS), and to a lesser degree at diazepam insensitive (DI) conformations of GABAA-BDZ receptors...
  50. Melatonin Analog PD6735 and Anxiety
    Frank Zemlan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..the time course of the anti-anxiety effect of acute PD6735 in the rodent open field test employing melatonin and diazepam as controls...
  51. BZ INVERSE AGONISTS IN PENTOBARBITAL DEPENDENCE
    GERALD YUTRZENKA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Again the effect of benzodiazepine agonists (diazepam), antagonists (R015-1788) and inverse agonists (R015-4513 and FG7142) on chloride ion flux in brain samples from ..
  52. Flumazenil on Multiple Stress and Withdrawal Anxiety
    George Breese; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..will be antagonized by flumazenil and whether this treatment results in an increase in mRNA expression for diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), an endogenous BZD-inverse agonist, allowing identification of brain sites where adaptive ..
  53. COMPARISON OF SPINAL AND SUPRASPINAL PAIN THRESHOLDS
    GEORGE BORSZCZ; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..treatments include systemic administration of the narcotics morphine and fentanyl, and of the benzodiazepine diazepam. Also included is presentation of a warning signal prior to application of the noxious stimulus...
  54. APOE E4 AND LORAZEPAM EFFECTS ON ELDERLY
    Nunzio Pomara; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Our preliminary data from studies examining the acute effects of various benzodiazepines (diazepam, alprazolam, and lorazepam) on performance of cognitively intact normal volunteers suggest that possession of the ..
  55. LORAZEPAM AND ALPRAZOLAM: PERFORMANCE EFFECTS IN ELDERLY
    Nunzio Pomara; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Our current NIMH-sponsored study has found that diazepam, a benzodiazepine with a long elimination half-life (t 1/2), produced profound memory and psychomotor impairment ..
  56. ETHANOL AND AMNESIC DRUGS IN P AND NP RATS
    GALEN WENGER; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The performance of the rats will be assessed under control conditions and following doses of ethanol, diazepam, scopolamine and methscopolamine...
  57. EFFECTS OF ACUTE BENZODIAZEPINE GROWING WITH TIME
    SEYMOUR ANTELMAN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..present application is based on preliminary findings indicating that: 1) a single pretreatment with a low dose of diazepam significantly enhances the anticonvulsant effect of the same dose readministered two weeks later; 2) one ..
  58. MECHANISM OF SEDATIVE HYPNOTIC TOLERANCE AND DEPENDENCE
    Andrea Allan; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..GABA-mediated 36CI- uptake as well as (35S)TBPS and (3H)diazepam binding parameters will be examined following in vitro acute in vivo and chronic treatment with diazepam and ..
  59. DIAZEPAM BINDING INHIBITOR IN HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Jeffrey Rothstein; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The role of diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy will be studied in humans and animals...
  60. BENZODIAZEPINE SENSITIVITY IN HUMAN ANXIETY
    Peter Roy Byrne; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..a role in pathologic states of anxiety, our original study examined sensitivity to successive injections of IV diazepam in panic disorder patients and controls, using saccadic eye velocity as the major pharmacodynamic measure...
  61. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF ETHANOL ACTION ON RECEPTORS
    George Breese; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, we will determine if diazepam-insensitive receptors, containing alpha4 or alpha6 subunits, are sensitive to ethanol...
  62. DIAZEPAM, ALCOHOL AND HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING
    OSCAR PARSONS; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These methods have not been fully exploited in studies of the effects of diazepam or alcohol, two drugs which are commonly abused and often taken together...
  63. PHARMACOGENETIC RISK FACTORS IN DRUG ABUSE--CYP VARIANTS
    Edward Sellers; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..g. codeine, methamphetamine, nicotine, flunitrazepam, diazepam) can be a risk- or protection-factor in drug dependence, depending on the activity of the parent drug and its ..
  64. ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS AND CONTROL OF DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS
    Robert Roth; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..repeated stressors will be evaluated in normal rats and rats in which DA function has been altered by perinatal diazepam exposure...