- Structure of the AvrBs3-DNA complex provides new insights into the initial thymine-recognition mechanism
Structural Biology and Biocomputing Programme, Spanish Cancer Research Centre CNIO, Melchor Fernandez Almagro, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 69:1707-16. 2013
..in complex with its target DNA sequence is presented, revealing a new mode of interaction with the initial thymine of the target sequence, together with an analysis of both the binding specificity and the thermodynamic ..
- Enzymatic capture of an extrahelical thymine in the search for uracil in DNA
Jared B Parker
Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical School, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Nature 449:433-7. 2007
..Here we establish for the human and Escherichia coli enzymes that discrimination of thymine and uracil is initiated by thermally induced opening of T*A and U*A base pairs and not by active participation of ..
- MercuryII-mediated formation of thymine-HgII-thymine base pairs in DNA duplexes
Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami Ohsawa 1 1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 0397 Japan
J Am Chem Soc 128:2172-3. 2006
The very specific binding of the HgII ion unexpectedly and significantly stabilizes naturally occurring thymine-thymine base mispairing in DNA duplexes...
- Noncovalent SUMO-1 binding activity of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is required for its SUMO-1 modification and colocalization with the promyelocytic leukemia protein
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
J Biol Chem 280:5611-21. 2005
..This screening resulted in the isolation of cDNAs encoding the b isoform of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDGb)...
- Specific binding of human MSH2.MSH6 mismatch-repair protein heterodimers to DNA incorporating thymine- or uracil-containing UV light photoproducts opposite mismatched bases
Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 7301, USA
J Biol Chem 274:16894-900. 1999
..Equilibrium binding of hMutSalpha to DNA containing (photoproduct/base) mismatches and to (T/G)-mismatched DNA was reduced similarly by ATP (in the absence of magnesium)...
- Mechanistic studies of the radical SAM enzyme spore photoproduct lyase (SPL)
Department of Chemistry, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis IUPUI, 402 N Blackford Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Biochim Biophys Acta 1824:1264-77. 2012
Spore photoproduct lyase (SPL) repairs a special thymine dimer 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, which is commonly called spore photoproduct or SP at the bacterial early germination phase...
- Excision of thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil by the MBD4 DNA glycosylase domain: structural basis and implications for active DNA demethylation
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 40:8276-84. 2012
..MBD4 can excise the mismatched base paired with a guanine (G:X), where X is uracil, thymine or 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU)...
- Epigenetic regulation of transcription and virulence in Trypanosoma cruzi by O-linked thymine glucosylation of DNA
Dilrukshi K Ekanayake
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, 120 Green Street, Life Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602 7229, USA
Mol Cell Biol 31:1690-700. 2011
..Here, we show that the glucosylated thymine DNA base (β-d-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil or base J) is present within sequences flanking the polycistronic ..
- The guanine-thymine dinucleotide repeat polymorphism within the tenascin-C gene is associated with achilles tendon injuries
Gaonyadiwe G Mokone
UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
Am J Sports Med 33:1016-21. 2005
..The tenascin-C gene, which has been mapped to chromosome 9q32-q34, encodes for a structural component of tendons...
- DNA polymerases beta and lambda bypass thymine glycol in gapped DNA structures
Ekaterina A Belousova
Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Biochemistry 49:4695-704. 2010
Here we investigated the ability of the human X-family DNA polymerases beta and lambda to bypass thymine glycol (Tg) in gapped DNA substrates with the damage located in a defined position of the template strand...
- Molecular genetics of para-aminosalicylic acid resistance in clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Laboratory of Molecular Pathology of Tuberculosis, Pasteur Institute, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2100-9. 2009
..acid (PAS) resistance by analysis of six genes of the folate metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of thymine nucleotides (thyA, dfrA, folC, folP1, folP2, and thyX) and three N-acetyltransferase genes [nhoA, aac(1), and aac(..
- Role of RecA and the SOS response in thymineless death in Escherichia coli
Natalie C Fonville
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
PLoS Genet 6:e1000865. 2010
..documented in bacterial, yeast, and human cells, whereby cells lose viability rapidly when deprived of thymine. Despite its being the essential mode of action of important chemotherapeutic agents, and despite having been ..
- 15N-15N J-coupling across Hg(II): direct observation of Hg(II)-mediated T-T base pairs in a DNA duplex
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8578, Japan
J Am Chem Soc 129:244-5. 2007
- Excision of cytosine and thymine from DNA by mutants of human uracil-DNA glycosylase
UNIGEN Center for Molecular Biology, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
EMBO J 15:3442-7. 1996
..of the DNA-binding groove of human UDG and the specificity for uracil over the structurally related DNA bases thymine and cytosine is conferred by shape complementarity, as well as by main chain and Asn204 side chain hydrogen bonds...
- A new class of uracil-DNA glycosylases related to human thymine-DNA glycosylase
Istituto di Richerche di Biologia Molecolare P Angeletti, Pomezia, Italy
Nature 383:735-8. 1996
Mispairs in DNA of guanine with uracil and thymine can arise as a result of deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine, respectively. In humans such mispairs are removed by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG)...
- Affinity of mismatch-binding protein MutS for heteroduplexes containing different mismatches
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton S016 7PX, UK
Biochem J 354:627-33. 2001
..Studies with base analogues show good binding to phiT (where phi represents 1',2'-dideoxyribose), but much weaker binding to Gphi...
- A thymine tetrad in d(TGGGGT) quadruplexes stabilized with Tl+/Na+ ions
Departament d Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avinguda Diagonal 647, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Nucleic Acids Res 32:1097-102. 2004
..In one of them a thymine tetrad is found...
- Processing of thymine glycol in a clustered DNA damage site: mutagenic or cytotoxic
DNA Damage Group, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
Nucleic Acids Res 37:4430-40. 2009
..Since thymine glycol (Tg) is non-mutagenic but a strong block to replicative polymerases, we have investigated whether clusters ..
- Structural basis of error-prone replication and stalling at a thymine base by human DNA polymerase iota
Kevin N Kirouac
Department of Biochemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
EMBO J 28:1644-54. 2009
..We present three crystal structures of pol complexed with DNA containing a thymine base, paired with correct or incorrect incoming nucleotides...
- dUTP pyrophosphatase is an essential enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
M H Gadsden
Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
EMBO J 12:4425-31. 1993
..This latter effect suggests that the extensive stable substitution of uracil for thymine in DNA leads to a general failure in macromolecular synthesis...
- Human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 4 (MBD4) excise thymine glycol (Tg) from a Tg:G mispair
Jung Hoon Yoon
Division of Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 31:5399-404. 2003
The repair enzymes thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 4 (MBD4) remove thymines from T:G mismatches resulting from deamination of 5-methylcytosine...
- Biochemical and structural characterization of the glycosylase domain of MBD4 bound to thymine and 5-hydroxymethyuracil-containing DNA
Laboratoire d Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette Cedex, F 91198, France
Nucleic Acids Res 40:9917-26. 2012
..Excision and replacement of these intermediates is initiated by DNA glycosylases such as thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), methyl-binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) and single-strand specific monofunctional uracil-..
- Human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ exhibits potential for bypass and mutagenesis at UV-induced cyclobutane thymine dimers
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
J Biol Chem 287:9222-9. 2012
Cyclobutane thymine dimers (T-T) comprise the majority of DNA damage caused by short wavelength ultraviolet radiation...
- Hg(II) ion specifically binds with T:T mismatched base pair in duplex DNA
Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1 3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8601, Japan
Chemistry 16:13218-25. 2010
..The novel T-Hg-T base pair involving the natural base thymine is more convenient than the metal-mediated base pairs involving artificial bases due to the lack of time-..
- Disintegration of nascent replication bubbles during thymine starvation triggers RecA- and RecBCD-dependent replication origin destruction
Kawai J Kuong
Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 3709, USA
J Biol Chem 287:23958-70. 2012
..b>Thymine starvation stalls replication forks, whereas accumulating evidence indicates the replication origin is also ..
- Endogenous formation and repair of oxidatively induced G[8-5 m]T intrastrand cross-link lesion
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 0403, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 40:7368-74. 2012
..Together, our studies established that d(G[8-5 m]T) can be induced endogenously in mammalian tissues and constitutes a substrate for NER in vivo...
- Insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated AKT activation postpones the onset of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis, providing more time for cyclobutane thymine dimer removal in primary human keratinocytes
Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
J Biol Chem 277:32587-95. 2002
..This delay allowed IGF-1-supplemented keratinocytes to repair significantly more cyclobutane thymine dimers than their growth factor-deprived counterparts...
- Efficient removal of uracil from G.U mispairs by the mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase from HeLa cells
Department of Biochemistry, Istituto di Richerche di Biologia Molecolare P Angeletti, Pomezia, Italy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:1642-6. 1994
..The enzyme, a 55-kDa polypeptide, was previously characterized as a mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase and was thought to be responsible solely for the correction (to G.C) of G...
- The thymine glycosylase MBD4 can bind to the product of deamination at methylated CpG sites
Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
Nature 401:301-4. 1999
..In humans, the mutation rate from 5-methylcytosine (m5C) to thymine (T) is 10-50-fold higher than other transitions and the methylated sequence CpG is consequently under-represented...
- A new chitosan-thymine conjugate: synthesis, characterization and biological activity
Department of Textile Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143 701, South Korea
Int J Biol Macromol 50:493-502. 2012
..Here, we report the synthesis of a novel chitosan-thymine conjugate by the reaction between chitosan and thymine-1-yl-acetic acid followed by acylation...
- Does cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) expansion size predict cardiac events and electrocardiographic progression in myotonic dystrophy?
N R Clarke
Cardiology Department, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford, UK
Heart 86:411-6. 2001
To assess whether the size of the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) expansion mutation in myotonic dystrophy predicts progression of conduction system disease and cardiac events.
- Small-molecule binding at an abasic site of DNA: strong binding of lumiflavin for improved recognition of thymine-related single nucleotide polymorphisms
N B Sankaran
Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
J Phys Chem B 113:1522-9. 2009
..Lumiflavin binds selectively to thymine (T) opposite the AP site in a DNA duplex over other nucleobases...
- Selective recognition of pyrimidine-pyrimidine DNA mismatches by distance-constrained macrocyclic bis-intercalators
Institute of Organic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, D 52056 Aachen, Germany
Nucleic Acids Res 36:5000-12. 2008
..The macrocyclic bis-intercalators bind to duplexes containing mismatched thymine bases with high selectivity over the fully matched ones, whereas the acyclic model compounds are much less ..
- Cu2+/+ cation coordination to adenine--thymine base pair. Effects on intermolecular proton-transfer processes
Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Spain
J Phys Chem B 112:4817-25. 2008
Intermolecular proton-transfer processes in the Watson & Crick adenine-thymine Cu+ and Cu2+ cationized base pairs have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT) methods...
- A crystallographic study of the role of sequence context in thymine glycol bypass by a replicative DNA polymerase serendipitously sheds light on the exonuclease complex
Department of Microbiology andMolecular Genetics, Stafford Hall, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
J Mol Biol 412:22-34. 2011
b>Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases...
- Error-free replicative bypass of thymine glycol by the combined action of DNA polymerases kappa and zeta in human cells
Jung Hoon Yoon
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1061, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14116-21. 2010
b>Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common DNA lesion of thymine induced by interaction with reactive oxygen species...
- New insights in the removal of the hydantoins, oxidation product of pyrimidines, via the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways
Groupe Réparation de l ADN, CNRS UMR8200, Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
PLoS ONE 6:e21039. 2011
..as 5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-Hyd) and 5-methyl-5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-5Me-Hyd), major products of cytosine and thymine oxidative degradation pathways, respectively, have been detected in cancer cells and ancient DNA...
- The influence of the thymine C5 methyl group on spontaneous base pair breathing in DNA
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 277:28491-7. 2002
..to the dampening of the base pair-opening fluctuations in A-tracts comes from the C5 methylation of the thymine base...
- Structure and activity of Y-class DNA polymerase DPO4 from Sulfolobus solfataricus with templates containing the hydrophobic thymine analog 2,4-difluorotoluene
Department of Biochemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
J Biol Chem 282:36421-33. 2007
The 2,4-difluorotoluene (DFT) analog of thymine has been used extensively to probe the relative importance of shape and hydrogen bonding for correct nucleotide insertion by DNA polymerases...
- Stalled replication fork repair and misrepair during thymineless death in Escherichia coli
Kawai J Kuong
Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Genes Cells 15:619-34. 2010
..We found that the rate of DNA synthesis in thymine-starved cells decreases exponentially, indicating replication fork stalling...
- Structural diversity and extreme stability of unimolecular Oxytricha nova telomeric G-quadruplex
Ja Yil Lee
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, San 56 1, Shillimdong, Kwanakgu, Seoul, 151 742, South Korea
Biochemistry 47:3389-96. 2008
..In addition to cation coordination, we propose that other factors such as base stacking and the size of the thymine loop may contribute to the stability of O. nova G-quadruplexes; this is based on the fact that the O...
- Thymine metabolism and thymineless death in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
S I Ahmad
Department of Life Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, England
Annu Rev Microbiol 52:591-625. 1998
For many years it has been known that thymine auxotrophic microorganisms undergo cell death in response to thymine starvation [thymineless death (TLD)]...
- Efficient formation of the tandem thymine glycol/8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine lesion in isolated DNA and the mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of the tandem lesions in Escherichia coli cells
Department of Chemistry and, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 0403, USA
Chem Res Toxicol 23:11-9. 2010
..coli cells. Together, our results support that complex lesions could exert greater cytotoxic and mutagenic effects than when the composing individual lesions are present alone...
- Kinetics of the action of thymine DNA glycosylase
T R Waters
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 273:20007-14. 1998
The time course of removal of thymine by thymine DNA glycosylase has been measured in vitro. Each molecule of thymine DNA glycosylase removes only one molecule of thymine from DNA containing a G...
- Excision of 5-halogenated uracils by human thymine DNA glycosylase. Robust activity for DNA contexts other than CpG
Michael T Morgan
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
J Biol Chem 282:27578-86. 2007
b>Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) excises thymine from G.T mispairs and removes a variety of damaged bases (X) with a preference for lesions in a CpG.X context...
- Recognition and kinetics for excision of a base lesion within clustered DNA damage by the Escherichia coli proteins Fpg and Nth
M H David-Cordonnier
Medical Research Council, Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RD, United Kingdom
Biochemistry 40:5738-46. 2001
- Formation of modified DNA bases in cells exposed either to gamma radiation or to high-LET particles
J P Pouget
Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Département de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matière Condensée SCIB and UMR 5046, CEA Grenoble, F 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
Radiat Res 157:589-95. 2002
..097 thymine glycols per 10(6) DNA bases...
- RutR is the uracil/thymine-sensing master regulator of a set of genes for synthesis and degradation of pyrimidines
Department of Frontier Bioscience and Micro Nano Technology Research Centre, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184 8584, Japan
Mol Microbiol 66:744-57. 2007
..Adding either uracil or thymine abolished RutR binding in vitro to the carAB P1 promoter...
- Hydrogen bonds of RNA are stronger than those of DNA, but NMR monitors only presence of methyl substituent in uracil/thymine
Afdeling Theoretische Chemie, Scheikundig Laboratorium der Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1083, NL 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Am Chem Soc 126:16718-9. 2004
..Our study shows that NMR merely probes the presence/absence of the methyl group in thymine/uracil, without any relation to the strength of the hydrogen bonds involved...
- Lesion processing by a repair enzyme is severely curtailed by residues needed to prevent aberrant activity on undamaged DNA
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:8091-6. 2012
..A key player is thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), which excises thymine from mutagenic G·T mispairs that arise by deamination of 5-..
- Oxidation of single-stranded oligonucleotides by carbonate radical anions: generating intrastrand cross-links between guanine and thymine bases separated by cytosines
Chemistry Department and Radiation and Solid State Laboratory, 31 Washington Place, New York University, New York, NY 10003 5180, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 36:742-55. 2008
..P1 and alkaline phosphatase and identified by LC-MS/MS as an unusual intrastrand cross-link between guanine and thymine. In order to further characterize the structure of this lesion, 5'-d(GpCpT) was exposed to CO3*- radicals, and ..
- Thymine-rich single-stranded DNA activates Mcm4/6/7 helicase on Y-fork and bubble-like substrates
Department of Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 18 22 Honkomagome 3 chome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
EMBO J 22:6148-60. 2003
The presence of multiple clusters of runs of asymmetric adenine or thymine is a feature commonly found in eukaryotic replication origins...
- Chemical synthesis and translesion replication of a cis-syn cyclobutane thymine-uracil dimer
Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1 3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 8531, Japan
Nucleic Acids Res 32:1738-45. 2004
..We have synthesized a phosphoramidite building block of a cis-syn cyclobutane thymine-uracil dimer (TU), which is the deaminated form of the CPD at a TC site, and incorporated it into ..
- Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates IGFBP-1 gene transcription through the thymine-rich insulin response element
Department of Pathology and Neurosciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Medical School and Hospital, Dundee, DD1 9SY United Kingdom
BMC Mol Biol 5:15. 2004
..is mediated through the regulation of a DNA element present in each of these gene promoters, that we call the Thymine-rich Insulin Response Element (TIRE)...
- Nanoswitches based on DNA base pairs: why adenine-thymine is less suitable than guanine-cytosine
Célia Fonseca Guerra
Theoretische Chemie, Scheikundig Laboratorium der Vrije Universiteit De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Chemphyschem 7:1971-9. 2006
..Here, we address the question: Can such supramolecular switches also be based on Watson-Crick adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs? We have theoretically analyzed AT pairs in which purine-C8 and/or pyrimidine-C6 positions carry ..
- Formation of a thymine-Hg(II)-thymine metal-mediated DNA base pair: proposal and theoretical calculation of the reaction pathway
Department of Functional Materials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v v i Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic
Chemistry 19:9884-94. 2013
A reaction mechanism that describes the substitution of two imino protons in a thymine:thymine (T:T) mismatched DNA base pair with a Hg(II) ion, which results in the formation of a (T)N3-Hg(II)-N3(T) metal-mediated base pair was proposed ..
- Effect of thymine glycol on transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase and mammalian RNA polymerase II
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5020, USA
J Biol Chem 276:45367-71. 2001
b>Thymine glycols are formed in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation or oxidative stress. Although these lesions are repaired by the base excision repair pathway, they have been shown also to be subject to transcription-coupled repair...
- Manganese-induced oxidative DNA damage in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells: attenuation of thymine base lesions by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine
Adrienne P Stephenson
College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
Toxicol Lett 218:299-307. 2013
..and accumulation of DNA single strand breaks (via alkaline comet assay analysis) and oxidatively modified thymine bases (via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis)...
- Thymine hydroperoxide as a potential source of singlet molecular oxygen in DNA
Fernanda M Prado
Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 05513 970, CP 26077, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Free Radic Biol Med 47:401-9. 2009
..This study shows that 5-(hydroperoxymethyl)uracil (5-HPMU), a thymine hydroperoxide within DNA, reacts with metal ions or HOCl, generating O2 (1Deltag)...
- Comparison of Tc-99m THY and Tc-99m MIBI scans for diagnosis of breast lesions
Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
J Exp Clin Cancer Res 20:385-91. 2001
..Twenty three malignant lesions were taken up by labeled thymine. Of the 12 benign cases there was one false-positive uptake with Tc-99m THY...
- DNA tandem lesions containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and formamido residues arise from intramolecular addition of thymine peroxyl radical to guanine
DRFMC, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, Laboratoire des Lésions des Acides Nucléiques, CEA Grenoble, 17, avenue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
Chem Res Toxicol 15:445-54. 2002
..Therefore, an extensive mechanistic study of the formation of 8-oxodG/dF was carried out with thymine and guanine containing dinucleoside monophosphates (dGpdT and dTpdG)...
- 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoadenine, a highly mutagenic adduct, is repaired by Escherichia coli and human mismatch-specific uracil/thymine-DNA glycosylases
Groupe Réparation de l ADN, Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire Stabilité Génétique et Oncogenèse CNRS, UMR 8200, Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, F 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
Nucleic Acids Res 41:912-23. 2013
..Here, we report for the first time that human thymine-DNA glycosylase (hTDG) and Escherichia coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (MUG) can remove 8oxoA from ..
- DNA polymorphism as an origin of adenine-thymine tract length-dependent threading intercalation rate
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
J Am Chem Soc 130:14651-8. 2008
..intercalation have recently been found to exhibit an exceptional kinetic selectivity for long polymeric adenine-thymine (AT) DNA...
- Novel Hg2+-imprinted polymers based on thymine-Hg2+-thymine interaction for highly selective preconcentration of Hg2+ in water samples
Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
J Hazard Mater 237:347-54. 2012
A novel functional monomer T-IPTS, 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane (IPTS) bearing thymine (T) bases, was synthesized for imprinting Hg(2+)...
- Structural, energetic and dynamic properties of guanine(C8)-thymine(N3) cross-links in DNA provide insights on susceptibility to nucleotide excision repair
Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 40:2506-17. 2012
..with the inflammatory response, can lead to the formation of intrastrand cross-links between guanine and thymine bases [Crean et al...
- A role for DNA polymerase θ in promoting replication through oxidative DNA lesion, thymine glycol, in human cells
Jung Hoon Yoon
From the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas 77555 1061
J Biol Chem 289:13177-85. 2014
..Here we identify a role of polθ in translesion synthesis (TLS) in human cells. We show that TLS through the thymine glycol (TG) lesion, the most common oxidation product of thymine, occurs via two alternative pathways, in one of ..
- Oxidation of thymine to 5-formyluracil in DNA: mechanisms of formation, structural implications, and base excision by human cell free extracts
Division for Environmental Toxicology, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway
Biochemistry 34:14758-64. 1995
..With this method, it is shown that 5-foU residues are formed with high frequency from thymine by quinone-sensitized UV-A photooxidation...
- The paradoxical influence of thymine analogues on restriction endonuclease cleavage of oligodeoxynucleotides
Division of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
Biochemistry 35:11522-8. 1996
b>Thymine residues in the DNA of eucaryotes may be replaced occasionally by uracil (U) or 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (H) as consequences of dUMP misincorporation or thymine oxidation, respectively...
- In vitro alpha1-adrenoceptor pharmacology of Ro 70-0004 and RS-100329, novel alpha1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonists
T J Williams
New Leads Discovery, Center for Biological Research, Neurobiology Unit, Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
Br J Pharmacol 127:252-8. 1999
- Use of thymine limitation and thymine starvation to study bacterial physiology and cytology
Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Be er Sheva 84105, Israel
J Bacteriol 188:1667-79. 2006
- Detection of mercury-TpT dinucleotide binding by Raman spectra: a computational study
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences, Praha 6, Czech Republic
J Phys Chem A 116:8313-20. 2012
The Hg(2+) ion stabilizes the thymine-thymine mismatched base pair and provides new ways of creating various DNA structures. Recently, such T-Hg-T binding was detected by the Raman spectroscopy...
- The dgt gene of Escherichia coli facilitates thymine utilization in thymine-requiring strains
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
Mol Microbiol 81:1221-32. 2011
..Here, we have investigated the possible involvement of dgt in facilitating thymine utilization through its ability to provide intracellular deoxyguanosine, which is readily converted by the DeoD ..
- Solution structure and dynamics of DNA duplexes containing the universal base analogues 5-nitroindole and 5-nitroindole 3-carboxamide
Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda Autopista del Saler 16, 46013 Valencia, Spain
Nucleic Acids Res 35:2904-12. 2007
..The structure of these nitroindole-containing duplexes explains the mechanism by which these artificial moieties behave as universal bases...
- DEMETER and REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases
Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6853-8. 2006
..Both enzymes also remove thymine, but not uracil, mismatched to guanine...
- NMR spectroscopic study of a DNA duplex with mercury-mediated T-T base pairs
Laboratory of Molecular Transformation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8578, Japan
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 25:613-24. 2006
..Because of the above mentioned assignments, we could confirm the existence of mono-mercurated species, because individual components gave independent NMR signals in the titration spectra...
- YjjG, a dUMP phosphatase, is critical for thymine utilization by Escherichia coli K-12
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
J Bacteriol 189:2186-9. 2007
Exogenous thymine must be converted to thymidine to enable a thyA (thymidylate synthase) mutant to grow. The deoxyribose in the thymidine comes from dUMP, which must first be dephosphorylated...
- Stereoselective excision of thymine glycol lesions by mammalian cell extracts
Monica M McTigue
Department of Pharmacological Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8651, USA
DNA Repair (Amst) 3:313-22. 2004
b>Thymine glycols (Tg) are major pyrimidine oxidation products produced by chemical agents and ionizing radiation...
- Probing the hierarchy of thymine-thymine interactions in self-assembled structures by manipulation with scanning tunneling microscopy
Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center iNANO and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Small 3:2011-4. 2007
- Bond energies and attachments sites of sodium and potassium cations to DNA and RNA nucleic acid bases in the gas phase
Dipartimento di Chimica and Centro di Calcolo ad Alte Prestazioni per Elaborazioni Parallele e Distribuite-Centro d'Eccellenza MURST, Universita' della Calabria, I-87030 Arcavacata di Rende (CS, Italy
J Am Chem Soc 123:10272-9. 2001
..Structural features of the sodium and potassium complexes were found to be similar except in some uracil and thymine compounds in which the tendency of potassium ion toward monocoordination appeared evident...
- Cloning and characterization of Rhodotorula glutinis thymine hydroxylase
Jonathan W Neidigh
Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Alumni Hall for Basic Science, Room 101, 11021 Campus Street, Loma Linda, California 92350, USA
Chem Res Toxicol 22:885-93. 2009
b>Thymine hydroxylase (TH) is a member of the alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent nonheme iron dioxygenase family that includes a series of DNA repair proteins including alkB...
- Electronic coupling mediated by stacked [Thymine-Hg-Thymine] base pairs
Alexander A Voityuk
Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Institute of Computational Chemistry, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Spain
J Phys Chem B 110:21010-3. 2006
Very recently it has been shown that stable metal-mediated base pairs [Thymine-Hg-Thymine] can form in DNA...
- Repair of oxidative damage of thymine by HeLa whole-cell extracts: simultaneous analysis using a microsupport and comparison with traditional PAGE analysis
Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, CEA DSM Département de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matière Condensée, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
Biochimie 87:151-9. 2005
..We report in this study, the parallelized fluorescent analysis of excision of several oxidation products of thymine by cell extracts...
- Thymine at -5 is crucial for cpc promoter activity of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6714
School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji 192 0392 CREST, Japan
J Bacteriol 185:6477-80. 2003
..strain PCC 7942 but not the in vivo activity in Escherichia coli. This suggests that the requirement of -5T appears to be specific for a cyanobacterial RNA polymerase-promoter combination...
- A bridged nucleic acid, 2',4'-BNA COC: synthesis of fully modified oligonucleotides bearing thymine, 5-methylcytosine, adenine and guanine 2',4'-BNA COC monomers and RNA-selective nucleic-acid recognition
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Nucleic Acids Res 37:1225-38. 2009
..Here, BNA(COC) consisting of 2',4'-BNA(COC) monomers bearing all four bases, namely thymine, 5-methylcytosine, adenine and guanine was efficiently synthesized and properties of duplexes containing the 2',4'..
- Pairing geometry of the hydrophobic thymine analogue 2,4-difluorotoluene in duplex DNA as analyzed by X-ray crystallography
Pradeep S Pallan
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
J Am Chem Soc 131:12548-9. 2009
..Therefore, shape and H-bonding are inherently related, and steric constraints at a pol active site, or conferred by stacking or the DNA backbone conformation, may enable H-bonding by F...
- A nuclear family A DNA polymerase from Entamoeba histolytica bypasses thymine glycol
Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para la Biodiversidad, CINVESTAV, Irapuato, Mexico
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e786. 2010
..histolytica (EhDNApolA) localizes to the nucleus and that its biochemical properties indicate that this DNA polymerase may be involved in translesion DNA synthesis...
- Oxidation of thymine to 5-formyluracil in DNA promotes misincorporation of dGMP and subsequent elongation of a mismatched primer terminus by DNA polymerase
Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
J Biol Chem 276:16501-10. 2001
5-Formyluracil (fU) is a major oxidative thymine lesion generated by ionizing radiation and reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we have assessed the influence of fU on DNA replication to elucidate its genotoxic potential...
- Method for detection of Hg2+ based on the specific thymine-Hg2+-thymine interaction in the DNA hybridization on the surface of quartz crystal microbalance
Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences BNLMS, Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 87:289-92. 2011
..was developed for the detection of mercury ions with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), based on the specific thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) interaction and gold nanoparticle-mediated signal amplification...
- Role of human DNA polymerase κ in extension opposite from a cis-syn thymine dimer
Rodrigo Vasquez-Del Carpio
Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1677, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
J Mol Biol 408:252-61. 2011
- Ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor for Hg(2+) based on heptamethine cyanine containing a thymine moiety
Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The MOE Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Org Lett 14:1986-9. 2012
Based on a T-Hg(2+)-T binding mode, a sensitive ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor for aqueous Hg(2+) was developed with a heptamethine cyanine chromophore containing a thymine moiety.
- Interaction of fission yeast ORC with essential adenine/thymine stretches in replication origins
Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1 1 Machikaneyama cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 0043 Japan
Genes Cells 6:837-49. 2001
..Multiple adenine/thymine clusters are essential for replication, but no short consensus sequences are found...
- Direct measurement of the dynamics of excess electron transfer through consecutive thymine sequence in DNA
Man Jae Park
The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research SANKEN, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8 1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 0047, Japan
J Am Chem Soc 133:15320-3. 2011
..In the present paper, we directly measured the rate of excess electron transfer (EET) through a consecutive thymine (T) sequence in nicked-dumbbell DNAs conjugated with a tetrathiophene derivative (4T) as an electron donor and ..
- Preliminary observation of 99mTc-thymine imaging in breast neoplasms
Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Nucl Med Commun 22:1133-7. 2001
..In this paper, we report the labelling of a precursor, the nitrogenate base thymine, with 99mTc. It has been used to evaluate breast lesions...
- Ab initio base-pairing energies of an oxidized thymine product, 5-formyluracil, with standard DNA bases at the BSSE-free DFT and MP2 theory levels
David E Volk
Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1157, USA
Org Biomol Chem 5:1554-8. 2007
Oxidation of the thymine methyl group produces two stable products, non-mutagenic 5-hydroxymethyluracil and highly mutagenic 5-formyluracil...
- The addition of low numbers of 3' thymine bases can be used to improve the hybridization signal of oligonucleotides for use within arrays on nylon supports
T J Brown
Department of Microbiology, St Thomas Hospital, Guy s and St Thomas Hospital Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK
J Microbiol Methods 42:203-7. 2000
..This paper demonstrates low numbers of thymine bases added to the 3' end of oligonucleotides during synthesis can improve hybridisation signal intensity where ..
- Effects of hydration on the proton transfer mechanism in the adenine-thymine base pair
J P Cerón-Carrasco
Departamento de Química Física Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
J Phys Chem A 113:7892-8. 2009
..functional study of water catalytic effect in the double proton transfer (DPT) taking place in the adenine-thymine (AT) base pair...
- Interaction of sodium and potassium ions with sandwiched cytosine-, guanine-, thymine-, and uracil-base tetrads
Revotar Biopharmaceuticals AG, Neuendorfstrasse 24a, D 16761 Hennigsdorf, Germany
J Comput Chem 26:352-64. 2005
..A microsolvation model explains the ion selectivity preference of K+ over Na+ in a qualitative sense...
- Structure and mechanism of hydroxyl radical-induced formation of a DNA-protein cross-link involving thymine and lysine in nucleohistone
Center for Chemical Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899
Cancer Res 49:3463-7. 1989
Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of a DNA-protein cross-link involving thymine and lysine in calf thymus nucleohistone in vitro is reported...
- Double-proton transfer in adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine base pairs. A post-Hartree-Fock ab initio study
Computational Center for Molecular Structure and Interactions, Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, 1325 J R Lynch St, P O Box 17910, Jackson, Mississippi 39217 0510, USA
J Am Chem Soc 126:10119-29. 2004
The results of a comprehensive study on the double-proton transfer in Adenine-Thymine (AT) and Guanine-Cytosine (GC) base pairs at room temperature in gas phase and with the inclusion of environmental effects are obtained...
- The role of the Escherichia coli mug protein in the removal of uracil and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine from DNA
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA
J Biol Chem 274:31034-8. 1999
The human thymine-DNA glycosylase has a sequence homolog in Escherichia coli that is described to excise uracils from U.G mismatches (Gallinari, P., and Jiricny, J...
- Binding of the human nucleotide excision repair proteins XPA and XPC/HR23B to the 5R-thymine glycol lesion and structure of the cis-(5R,6S) thymine glycol epimer in the 5'-GTgG-3' sequence: destabilization of two base pairs at the lesion site
Kyle L Brown
Department of Chemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 38:428-40. 2010
The 5R thymine glycol (5R-Tg) DNA lesion exists as a mixture of cis-(5R,6S) and trans-(5R,6R) epimers; these modulate base excision repair...