thymine

Summary

Top Publications

  1. pmc Structure of the AvrBs3-DNA complex provides new insights into the initial thymine-recognition mechanism
    Stefano Stella
    Structural Biology and Biocomputing Programme, Spanish Cancer Research Centre CNIO, Melchor Fernandez Almagro, 28029 Madrid, Spain
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 69:1707-16. 2013
  2. pmc Enzymatic capture of an extrahelical thymine in the search for uracil in DNA
    Jared B Parker
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical School, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 449:433-7. 2007
  3. ncbi MercuryII-mediated formation of thymine-HgII-thymine base pairs in DNA duplexes
    Yoko Miyake
    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami Ohsawa 1 1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 0397 Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 128:2172-3. 2006
  4. ncbi Noncovalent SUMO-1 binding activity of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is required for its SUMO-1 modification and colocalization with the promyelocytic leukemia protein
    Hidehisa Takahashi
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:5611-21. 2005
  5. ncbi Specific binding of human MSH2.MSH6 mismatch-repair protein heterodimers to DNA incorporating thymine- or uracil-containing UV light photoproducts opposite mismatched bases
    H Wang
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 7301, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:16894-900. 1999
  6. pmc Mechanistic studies of the radical SAM enzyme spore photoproduct lyase (SPL)
    Lei Li
    Department of Chemistry, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis IUPUI, 402 N Blackford Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1824:1264-77. 2012
  7. pmc Excision of thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil by the MBD4 DNA glycosylase domain: structural basis and implications for active DNA demethylation
    Hideharu Hashimoto
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:8276-84. 2012
  8. pmc Epigenetic regulation of transcription and virulence in Trypanosoma cruzi by O-linked thymine glucosylation of DNA
    Dilrukshi K Ekanayake
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, 120 Green Street, Life Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602 7229, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 31:1690-700. 2011
  9. ncbi The guanine-thymine dinucleotide repeat polymorphism within the tenascin-C gene is associated with achilles tendon injuries
    Gaonyadiwe G Mokone
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Am J Sports Med 33:1016-21. 2005
  10. ncbi DNA polymerases beta and lambda bypass thymine glycol in gapped DNA structures
    Ekaterina A Belousova
    Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Biochemistry 49:4695-704. 2010

Detail Information

Publications290 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Structure of the AvrBs3-DNA complex provides new insights into the initial thymine-recognition mechanism
    Stefano Stella
    Structural Biology and Biocomputing Programme, Spanish Cancer Research Centre CNIO, Melchor Fernandez Almagro, 28029 Madrid, Spain
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 69:1707-16. 2013
    ..in complex with its target DNA sequence is presented, revealing a new mode of interaction with the initial thymine of the target sequence, together with an analysis of both the binding specificity and the thermodynamic ..
  2. pmc Enzymatic capture of an extrahelical thymine in the search for uracil in DNA
    Jared B Parker
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical School, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 449:433-7. 2007
    ..Here we establish for the human and Escherichia coli enzymes that discrimination of thymine and uracil is initiated by thermally induced opening of T*A and U*A base pairs and not by active participation of ..
  3. ncbi MercuryII-mediated formation of thymine-HgII-thymine base pairs in DNA duplexes
    Yoko Miyake
    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami Ohsawa 1 1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 0397 Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 128:2172-3. 2006
    The very specific binding of the HgII ion unexpectedly and significantly stabilizes naturally occurring thymine-thymine base mispairing in DNA duplexes...
  4. ncbi Noncovalent SUMO-1 binding activity of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is required for its SUMO-1 modification and colocalization with the promyelocytic leukemia protein
    Hidehisa Takahashi
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:5611-21. 2005
    ..This screening resulted in the isolation of cDNAs encoding the b isoform of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDGb)...
  5. ncbi Specific binding of human MSH2.MSH6 mismatch-repair protein heterodimers to DNA incorporating thymine- or uracil-containing UV light photoproducts opposite mismatched bases
    H Wang
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 7301, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:16894-900. 1999
    ..Equilibrium binding of hMutSalpha to DNA containing (photoproduct/base) mismatches and to (T/G)-mismatched DNA was reduced similarly by ATP (in the absence of magnesium)...
  6. pmc Mechanistic studies of the radical SAM enzyme spore photoproduct lyase (SPL)
    Lei Li
    Department of Chemistry, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis IUPUI, 402 N Blackford Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1824:1264-77. 2012
    Spore photoproduct lyase (SPL) repairs a special thymine dimer 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, which is commonly called spore photoproduct or SP at the bacterial early germination phase...
  7. pmc Excision of thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil by the MBD4 DNA glycosylase domain: structural basis and implications for active DNA demethylation
    Hideharu Hashimoto
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:8276-84. 2012
    ..MBD4 can excise the mismatched base paired with a guanine (G:X), where X is uracil, thymine or 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU)...
  8. pmc Epigenetic regulation of transcription and virulence in Trypanosoma cruzi by O-linked thymine glucosylation of DNA
    Dilrukshi K Ekanayake
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, 120 Green Street, Life Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602 7229, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 31:1690-700. 2011
    ..Here, we show that the glucosylated thymine DNA base (β-d-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil or base J) is present within sequences flanking the polycistronic ..
  9. ncbi The guanine-thymine dinucleotide repeat polymorphism within the tenascin-C gene is associated with achilles tendon injuries
    Gaonyadiwe G Mokone
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands 7725, South Africa
    Am J Sports Med 33:1016-21. 2005
    ..The tenascin-C gene, which has been mapped to chromosome 9q32-q34, encodes for a structural component of tendons...
  10. ncbi DNA polymerases beta and lambda bypass thymine glycol in gapped DNA structures
    Ekaterina A Belousova
    Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Biochemistry 49:4695-704. 2010
    Here we investigated the ability of the human X-family DNA polymerases beta and lambda to bypass thymine glycol (Tg) in gapped DNA substrates with the damage located in a defined position of the template strand...
  11. pmc Molecular genetics of para-aminosalicylic acid resistance in clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Vanessa Mathys
    Laboratory of Molecular Pathology of Tuberculosis, Pasteur Institute, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2100-9. 2009
    ..acid (PAS) resistance by analysis of six genes of the folate metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of thymine nucleotides (thyA, dfrA, folC, folP1, folP2, and thyX) and three N-acetyltransferase genes [nhoA, aac(1), and aac(..
  12. pmc Role of RecA and the SOS response in thymineless death in Escherichia coli
    Natalie C Fonville
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000865. 2010
    ..documented in bacterial, yeast, and human cells, whereby cells lose viability rapidly when deprived of thymine. Despite its being the essential mode of action of important chemotherapeutic agents, and despite having been ..
  13. ncbi 15N-15N J-coupling across Hg(II): direct observation of Hg(II)-mediated T-T base pairs in a DNA duplex
    Yoshiyuki Tanaka
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8578, Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 129:244-5. 2007
  14. pmc Excision of cytosine and thymine from DNA by mutants of human uracil-DNA glycosylase
    B Kavli
    UNIGEN Center for Molecular Biology, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    EMBO J 15:3442-7. 1996
    ..of the DNA-binding groove of human UDG and the specificity for uracil over the structurally related DNA bases thymine and cytosine is conferred by shape complementarity, as well as by main chain and Asn204 side chain hydrogen bonds...
  15. ncbi A new class of uracil-DNA glycosylases related to human thymine-DNA glycosylase
    P Gallinari
    Istituto di Richerche di Biologia Molecolare P Angeletti, Pomezia, Italy
    Nature 383:735-8. 1996
    Mispairs in DNA of guanine with uracil and thymine can arise as a result of deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine, respectively. In humans such mispairs are removed by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG)...
  16. pmc Affinity of mismatch-binding protein MutS for heteroduplexes containing different mismatches
    J Brown
    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton S016 7PX, UK
    Biochem J 354:627-33. 2001
    ..Studies with base analogues show good binding to phiT (where phi represents 1',2'-dideoxyribose), but much weaker binding to Gphi...
  17. pmc A thymine tetrad in d(TGGGGT) quadruplexes stabilized with Tl+/Na+ ions
    Carmen Cáceres
    Departament d Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avinguda Diagonal 647, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:1097-102. 2004
    ..In one of them a thymine tetrad is found...
  18. pmc Processing of thymine glycol in a clustered DNA damage site: mutagenic or cytotoxic
    Sophie Bellon
    DNA Damage Group, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:4430-40. 2009
    ..Since thymine glycol (Tg) is non-mutagenic but a strong block to replicative polymerases, we have investigated whether clusters ..
  19. pmc Structural basis of error-prone replication and stalling at a thymine base by human DNA polymerase iota
    Kevin N Kirouac
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    EMBO J 28:1644-54. 2009
    ..We present three crystal structures of pol complexed with DNA containing a thymine base, paired with correct or incorrect incoming nucleotides...
  20. pmc dUTP pyrophosphatase is an essential enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    M H Gadsden
    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    EMBO J 12:4425-31. 1993
    ..This latter effect suggests that the extensive stable substitution of uracil for thymine in DNA leads to a general failure in macromolecular synthesis...
  21. pmc Human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 4 (MBD4) excise thymine glycol (Tg) from a Tg:G mispair
    Jung Hoon Yoon
    Division of Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:5399-404. 2003
    The repair enzymes thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 4 (MBD4) remove thymines from T:G mismatches resulting from deamination of 5-methylcytosine...
  22. pmc Biochemical and structural characterization of the glycosylase domain of MBD4 bound to thymine and 5-hydroxymethyuracil-containing DNA
    Solange Morera
    Laboratoire d Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette Cedex, F 91198, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:9917-26. 2012
    ..Excision and replacement of these intermediates is initiated by DNA glycosylases such as thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), methyl-binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) and single-strand specific monofunctional uracil-..
  23. pmc Human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ exhibits potential for bypass and mutagenesis at UV-induced cyclobutane thymine dimers
    Rajesh Kasiviswanathan
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:9222-9. 2012
    Cyclobutane thymine dimers (T-T) comprise the majority of DNA damage caused by short wavelength ultraviolet radiation...
  24. ncbi Hg(II) ion specifically binds with T:T mismatched base pair in duplex DNA
    Hidetaka Torigoe
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1 3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8601, Japan
    Chemistry 16:13218-25. 2010
    ..The novel T-Hg-T base pair involving the natural base thymine is more convenient than the metal-mediated base pairs involving artificial bases due to the lack of time-..
  25. pmc Disintegration of nascent replication bubbles during thymine starvation triggers RecA- and RecBCD-dependent replication origin destruction
    Kawai J Kuong
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 3709, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:23958-70. 2012
    ..b>Thymine starvation stalls replication forks, whereas accumulating evidence indicates the replication origin is also ..
  26. pmc Endogenous formation and repair of oxidatively induced G[8-5 m]T intrastrand cross-link lesion
    Jin Wang
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 0403, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:7368-74. 2012
    ..Together, our studies established that d(G[8-5 m]T) can be induced endogenously in mammalian tissues and constitutes a substrate for NER in vivo...
  27. ncbi Insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated AKT activation postpones the onset of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis, providing more time for cyclobutane thymine dimer removal in primary human keratinocytes
    David Decraene
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 277:32587-95. 2002
    ..This delay allowed IGF-1-supplemented keratinocytes to repair significantly more cyclobutane thymine dimers than their growth factor-deprived counterparts...
  28. pmc Efficient removal of uracil from G.U mispairs by the mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase from HeLa cells
    P Neddermann
    Department of Biochemistry, Istituto di Richerche di Biologia Molecolare P Angeletti, Pomezia, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:1642-6. 1994
    ..The enzyme, a 55-kDa polypeptide, was previously characterized as a mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase and was thought to be responsible solely for the correction (to G.C) of G...
  29. ncbi The thymine glycosylase MBD4 can bind to the product of deamination at methylated CpG sites
    B Hendrich
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nature 401:301-4. 1999
    ..In humans, the mutation rate from 5-methylcytosine (m5C) to thymine (T) is 10-50-fold higher than other transitions and the methylated sequence CpG is consequently under-represented...
  30. ncbi A new chitosan-thymine conjugate: synthesis, characterization and biological activity
    Santosh Kumar
    Department of Textile Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143 701, South Korea
    Int J Biol Macromol 50:493-502. 2012
    ..Here, we report the synthesis of a novel chitosan-thymine conjugate by the reaction between chitosan and thymine-1-yl-acetic acid followed by acylation...
  31. pmc Does cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) expansion size predict cardiac events and electrocardiographic progression in myotonic dystrophy?
    N R Clarke
    Cardiology Department, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford, UK
    Heart 86:411-6. 2001
    To assess whether the size of the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) expansion mutation in myotonic dystrophy predicts progression of conduction system disease and cardiac events.
  32. ncbi Small-molecule binding at an abasic site of DNA: strong binding of lumiflavin for improved recognition of thymine-related single nucleotide polymorphisms
    N B Sankaran
    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    J Phys Chem B 113:1522-9. 2009
    ..Lumiflavin binds selectively to thymine (T) opposite the AP site in a DNA duplex over other nucleobases...
  33. pmc Selective recognition of pyrimidine-pyrimidine DNA mismatches by distance-constrained macrocyclic bis-intercalators
    Matthias Bahr
    Institute of Organic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, D 52056 Aachen, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:5000-12. 2008
    ..The macrocyclic bis-intercalators bind to duplexes containing mismatched thymine bases with high selectivity over the fully matched ones, whereas the acyclic model compounds are much less ..
  34. ncbi Cu2+/+ cation coordination to adenine--thymine base pair. Effects on intermolecular proton-transfer processes
    Marc Noguera
    Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Spain
    J Phys Chem B 112:4817-25. 2008
    Intermolecular proton-transfer processes in the Watson & Crick adenine-thymine Cu+ and Cu2+ cationized base pairs have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT) methods...
  35. pmc A crystallographic study of the role of sequence context in thymine glycol bypass by a replicative DNA polymerase serendipitously sheds light on the exonuclease complex
    Pierre Aller
    Department of Microbiology andMolecular Genetics, Stafford Hall, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    J Mol Biol 412:22-34. 2011
    b>Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases...
  36. pmc Error-free replicative bypass of thymine glycol by the combined action of DNA polymerases kappa and zeta in human cells
    Jung Hoon Yoon
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1061, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14116-21. 2010
    b>Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common DNA lesion of thymine induced by interaction with reactive oxygen species...
  37. pmc New insights in the removal of the hydantoins, oxidation product of pyrimidines, via the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways
    Modesto Redrejo-Rodríguez
    Groupe Réparation de l ADN, CNRS UMR8200, Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e21039. 2011
    ..as 5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-Hyd) and 5-methyl-5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-5Me-Hyd), major products of cytosine and thymine oxidative degradation pathways, respectively, have been detected in cancer cells and ancient DNA...
  38. ncbi The influence of the thymine C5 methyl group on spontaneous base pair breathing in DNA
    Sebastian Warmlander
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 277:28491-7. 2002
    ..to the dampening of the base pair-opening fluctuations in A-tracts comes from the C5 methylation of the thymine base...
  39. ncbi Structure and activity of Y-class DNA polymerase DPO4 from Sulfolobus solfataricus with templates containing the hydrophobic thymine analog 2,4-difluorotoluene
    Adriana Irimia
    Department of Biochemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:36421-33. 2007
    The 2,4-difluorotoluene (DFT) analog of thymine has been used extensively to probe the relative importance of shape and hydrogen bonding for correct nucleotide insertion by DNA polymerases...
  40. pmc Stalled replication fork repair and misrepair during thymineless death in Escherichia coli
    Kawai J Kuong
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Genes Cells 15:619-34. 2010
    ..We found that the rate of DNA synthesis in thymine-starved cells decreases exponentially, indicating replication fork stalling...
  41. ncbi Structural diversity and extreme stability of unimolecular Oxytricha nova telomeric G-quadruplex
    Ja Yil Lee
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, San 56 1, Shillimdong, Kwanakgu, Seoul, 151 742, South Korea
    Biochemistry 47:3389-96. 2008
    ..In addition to cation coordination, we propose that other factors such as base stacking and the size of the thymine loop may contribute to the stability of O. nova G-quadruplexes; this is based on the fact that the O...
  42. ncbi Thymine metabolism and thymineless death in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    S I Ahmad
    Department of Life Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, England
    Annu Rev Microbiol 52:591-625. 1998
    For many years it has been known that thymine auxotrophic microorganisms undergo cell death in response to thymine starvation [thymineless death (TLD)]...
  43. pmc Efficient formation of the tandem thymine glycol/8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine lesion in isolated DNA and the mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of the tandem lesions in Escherichia coli cells
    Bifeng Yuan
    Department of Chemistry and, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 0403, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 23:11-9. 2010
    ..coli cells. Together, our results support that complex lesions could exert greater cytotoxic and mutagenic effects than when the composing individual lesions are present alone...
  44. ncbi Kinetics of the action of thymine DNA glycosylase
    T R Waters
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 273:20007-14. 1998
    The time course of removal of thymine by thymine DNA glycosylase has been measured in vitro. Each molecule of thymine DNA glycosylase removes only one molecule of thymine from DNA containing a G...
  45. pmc Excision of 5-halogenated uracils by human thymine DNA glycosylase. Robust activity for DNA contexts other than CpG
    Michael T Morgan
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:27578-86. 2007
    b>Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) excises thymine from G.T mispairs and removes a variety of damaged bases (X) with a preference for lesions in a CpG.X context...
  46. ncbi Recognition and kinetics for excision of a base lesion within clustered DNA damage by the Escherichia coli proteins Fpg and Nth
    M H David-Cordonnier
    Medical Research Council, Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RD, United Kingdom
    Biochemistry 40:5738-46. 2001
    ....
  47. ncbi Formation of modified DNA bases in cells exposed either to gamma radiation or to high-LET particles
    J P Pouget
    Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Département de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matière Condensée SCIB and UMR 5046, CEA Grenoble, F 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Radiat Res 157:589-95. 2002
    ..097 thymine glycols per 10(6) DNA bases...
  48. ncbi RutR is the uracil/thymine-sensing master regulator of a set of genes for synthesis and degradation of pyrimidines
    Tomohiro Shimada
    Department of Frontier Bioscience and Micro Nano Technology Research Centre, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184 8584, Japan
    Mol Microbiol 66:744-57. 2007
    ..Adding either uracil or thymine abolished RutR binding in vitro to the carAB P1 promoter...
  49. ncbi Hydrogen bonds of RNA are stronger than those of DNA, but NMR monitors only presence of methyl substituent in uracil/thymine
    Marcel Swart
    Afdeling Theoretische Chemie, Scheikundig Laboratorium der Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1083, NL 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Am Chem Soc 126:16718-9. 2004
    ..Our study shows that NMR merely probes the presence/absence of the methyl group in thymine/uracil, without any relation to the strength of the hydrogen bonds involved...
  50. pmc Lesion processing by a repair enzyme is severely curtailed by residues needed to prevent aberrant activity on undamaged DNA
    Atanu Maiti
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:8091-6. 2012
    ..A key player is thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), which excises thymine from mutagenic G·T mispairs that arise by deamination of 5-..
  51. pmc Oxidation of single-stranded oligonucleotides by carbonate radical anions: generating intrastrand cross-links between guanine and thymine bases separated by cytosines
    Conor Crean
    Chemistry Department and Radiation and Solid State Laboratory, 31 Washington Place, New York University, New York, NY 10003 5180, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:742-55. 2008
    ..P1 and alkaline phosphatase and identified by LC-MS/MS as an unusual intrastrand cross-link between guanine and thymine. In order to further characterize the structure of this lesion, 5'-d(GpCpT) was exposed to CO3*- radicals, and ..
  52. pmc Thymine-rich single-stranded DNA activates Mcm4/6/7 helicase on Y-fork and bubble-like substrates
    Zhiying You
    Department of Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 18 22 Honkomagome 3 chome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    EMBO J 22:6148-60. 2003
    The presence of multiple clusters of runs of asymmetric adenine or thymine is a feature commonly found in eukaryotic replication origins...
  53. pmc Chemical synthesis and translesion replication of a cis-syn cyclobutane thymine-uracil dimer
    Kohei Takasawa
    Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1 3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 8531, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:1738-45. 2004
    ..We have synthesized a phosphoramidite building block of a cis-syn cyclobutane thymine-uracil dimer (T[]U), which is the deaminated form of the CPD at a TC site, and incorporated it into ..
  54. pmc Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates IGFBP-1 gene transcription through the thymine-rich insulin response element
    David Finlay
    Department of Pathology and Neurosciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Medical School and Hospital, Dundee, DD1 9SY United Kingdom
    BMC Mol Biol 5:15. 2004
    ..is mediated through the regulation of a DNA element present in each of these gene promoters, that we call the Thymine-rich Insulin Response Element (TIRE)...
  55. ncbi Nanoswitches based on DNA base pairs: why adenine-thymine is less suitable than guanine-cytosine
    Célia Fonseca Guerra
    Theoretische Chemie, Scheikundig Laboratorium der Vrije Universiteit De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Chemphyschem 7:1971-9. 2006
    ..Here, we address the question: Can such supramolecular switches also be based on Watson-Crick adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs? We have theoretically analyzed AT pairs in which purine-C8 and/or pyrimidine-C6 positions carry ..
  56. ncbi Formation of a thymine-Hg(II)-thymine metal-mediated DNA base pair: proposal and theoretical calculation of the reaction pathway
    Jakub Sebera
    Department of Functional Materials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v v i Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic
    Chemistry 19:9884-94. 2013
    A reaction mechanism that describes the substitution of two imino protons in a thymine:thymine (T:T) mismatched DNA base pair with a Hg(II) ion, which results in the formation of a (T)N3-Hg(II)-N3(T) metal-mediated base pair was proposed ..
  57. pmc Effect of thymine glycol on transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase and mammalian RNA polymerase II
    S Tornaletti
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5020, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:45367-71. 2001
    b>Thymine glycols are formed in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation or oxidative stress. Although these lesions are repaired by the base excision repair pathway, they have been shown also to be subject to transcription-coupled repair...
  58. pmc Manganese-induced oxidative DNA damage in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells: attenuation of thymine base lesions by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine
    Adrienne P Stephenson
    College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
    Toxicol Lett 218:299-307. 2013
    ..and accumulation of DNA single strand breaks (via alkaline comet assay analysis) and oxidatively modified thymine bases (via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis)...
  59. ncbi Thymine hydroperoxide as a potential source of singlet molecular oxygen in DNA
    Fernanda M Prado
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 05513 970, CP 26077, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Free Radic Biol Med 47:401-9. 2009
    ..This study shows that 5-(hydroperoxymethyl)uracil (5-HPMU), a thymine hydroperoxide within DNA, reacts with metal ions or HOCl, generating O2 (1Deltag)...
  60. ncbi Comparison of Tc-99m THY and Tc-99m MIBI scans for diagnosis of breast lesions
    B Gutfilen
    Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res 20:385-91. 2001
    ..Twenty three malignant lesions were taken up by labeled thymine. Of the 12 benign cases there was one false-positive uptake with Tc-99m THY...
  61. ncbi DNA tandem lesions containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and formamido residues arise from intramolecular addition of thymine peroxyl radical to guanine
    Thierry Douki
    DRFMC, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, Laboratoire des Lésions des Acides Nucléiques, CEA Grenoble, 17, avenue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Chem Res Toxicol 15:445-54. 2002
    ..Therefore, an extensive mechanistic study of the formation of 8-oxodG/dF was carried out with thymine and guanine containing dinucleoside monophosphates (dGpdT and dTpdG)...
  62. pmc 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoadenine, a highly mutagenic adduct, is repaired by Escherichia coli and human mismatch-specific uracil/thymine-DNA glycosylases
    Ibtissam Talhaoui
    Groupe Réparation de l ADN, Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire Stabilité Génétique et Oncogenèse CNRS, UMR 8200, Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, F 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:912-23. 2013
    ..Here, we report for the first time that human thymine-DNA glycosylase (hTDG) and Escherichia coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (MUG) can remove 8oxoA from ..
  63. ncbi DNA polymorphism as an origin of adenine-thymine tract length-dependent threading intercalation rate
    Pär Nordell
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
    J Am Chem Soc 130:14651-8. 2008
    ..intercalation have recently been found to exhibit an exceptional kinetic selectivity for long polymeric adenine-thymine (AT) DNA...
  64. ncbi Novel Hg2+-imprinted polymers based on thymine-Hg2+-thymine interaction for highly selective preconcentration of Hg2+ in water samples
    Shoufang Xu
    Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
    J Hazard Mater 237:347-54. 2012
    A novel functional monomer T-IPTS, 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane (IPTS) bearing thymine (T) bases, was synthesized for imprinting Hg(2+)...
  65. pmc Structural, energetic and dynamic properties of guanine(C8)-thymine(N3) cross-links in DNA provide insights on susceptibility to nucleotide excision repair
    Shuang Ding
    Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:2506-17. 2012
    ..with the inflammatory response, can lead to the formation of intrastrand cross-links between guanine and thymine bases [Crean et al...
  66. pmc A role for DNA polymerase θ in promoting replication through oxidative DNA lesion, thymine glycol, in human cells
    Jung Hoon Yoon
    From the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas 77555 1061
    J Biol Chem 289:13177-85. 2014
    ..Here we identify a role of polθ in translesion synthesis (TLS) in human cells. We show that TLS through the thymine glycol (TG) lesion, the most common oxidation product of thymine, occurs via two alternative pathways, in one of ..
  67. ncbi Oxidation of thymine to 5-formyluracil in DNA: mechanisms of formation, structural implications, and base excision by human cell free extracts
    S Bjelland
    Division for Environmental Toxicology, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Kjeller, Norway
    Biochemistry 34:14758-64. 1995
    ..With this method, it is shown that 5-foU residues are formed with high frequency from thymine by quinone-sensitized UV-A photooxidation...
  68. ncbi The paradoxical influence of thymine analogues on restriction endonuclease cleavage of oligodeoxynucleotides
    M Mazurek
    Division of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Biochemistry 35:11522-8. 1996
    b>Thymine residues in the DNA of eucaryotes may be replaced occasionally by uracil (U) or 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (H) as consequences of dUMP misincorporation or thymine oxidation, respectively...
  69. pmc In vitro alpha1-adrenoceptor pharmacology of Ro 70-0004 and RS-100329, novel alpha1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonists
    T J Williams
    New Leads Discovery, Center for Biological Research, Neurobiology Unit, Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 127:252-8. 1999
    ....
  70. pmc Use of thymine limitation and thymine starvation to study bacterial physiology and cytology
    Arieh Zaritsky
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Be er Sheva 84105, Israel
    J Bacteriol 188:1667-79. 2006
  71. ncbi Detection of mercury-TpT dinucleotide binding by Raman spectra: a computational study
    Ladislav Benda
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences, Praha 6, Czech Republic
    J Phys Chem A 116:8313-20. 2012
    The Hg(2+) ion stabilizes the thymine-thymine mismatched base pair and provides new ways of creating various DNA structures. Recently, such T-Hg-T binding was detected by the Raman spectroscopy...
  72. pmc The dgt gene of Escherichia coli facilitates thymine utilization in thymine-requiring strains
    Mark Itsko
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Mol Microbiol 81:1221-32. 2011
    ..Here, we have investigated the possible involvement of dgt in facilitating thymine utilization through its ability to provide intracellular deoxyguanosine, which is readily converted by the DeoD ..
  73. pmc Solution structure and dynamics of DNA duplexes containing the universal base analogues 5-nitroindole and 5-nitroindole 3-carboxamide
    Jose Gallego
    Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda Autopista del Saler 16, 46013 Valencia, Spain
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:2904-12. 2007
    ..The structure of these nitroindole-containing duplexes explains the mechanism by which these artificial moieties behave as universal bases...
  74. pmc DEMETER and REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 encode 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases
    Teresa Morales-Ruiz
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6853-8. 2006
    ..Both enzymes also remove thymine, but not uracil, mismatched to guanine...
  75. ncbi NMR spectroscopic study of a DNA duplex with mercury-mediated T-T base pairs
    Yoshiyuki Tanaka
    Laboratory of Molecular Transformation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8578, Japan
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 25:613-24. 2006
    ..Because of the above mentioned assignments, we could confirm the existence of mono-mercurated species, because individual components gave independent NMR signals in the titration spectra...
  76. pmc YjjG, a dUMP phosphatase, is critical for thymine utilization by Escherichia coli K-12
    Bernard Weiss
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Bacteriol 189:2186-9. 2007
    Exogenous thymine must be converted to thymidine to enable a thyA (thymidylate synthase) mutant to grow. The deoxyribose in the thymidine comes from dUMP, which must first be dephosphorylated...
  77. ncbi Stereoselective excision of thymine glycol lesions by mammalian cell extracts
    Monica M McTigue
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8651, USA
    DNA Repair (Amst) 3:313-22. 2004
    b>Thymine glycols (Tg) are major pyrimidine oxidation products produced by chemical agents and ionizing radiation...
  78. ncbi Probing the hierarchy of thymine-thymine interactions in self-assembled structures by manipulation with scanning tunneling microscopy
    Wei Xu
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center iNANO and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Small 3:2011-4. 2007
  79. ncbi Bond energies and attachments sites of sodium and potassium cations to DNA and RNA nucleic acid bases in the gas phase
    N Russo
    Dipartimento di Chimica and Centro di Calcolo ad Alte Prestazioni per Elaborazioni Parallele e Distribuite-Centro d'Eccellenza MURST, Universita' della Calabria, I-87030 Arcavacata di Rende (CS, Italy
    J Am Chem Soc 123:10272-9. 2001
    ..Structural features of the sodium and potassium complexes were found to be similar except in some uracil and thymine compounds in which the tendency of potassium ion toward monocoordination appeared evident...
  80. ncbi Cloning and characterization of Rhodotorula glutinis thymine hydroxylase
    Jonathan W Neidigh
    Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Alumni Hall for Basic Science, Room 101, 11021 Campus Street, Loma Linda, California 92350, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 22:885-93. 2009
    b>Thymine hydroxylase (TH) is a member of the alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent nonheme iron dioxygenase family that includes a series of DNA repair proteins including alkB...
  81. ncbi Electronic coupling mediated by stacked [Thymine-Hg-Thymine] base pairs
    Alexander A Voityuk
    Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Institute of Computational Chemistry, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Spain
    J Phys Chem B 110:21010-3. 2006
    Very recently it has been shown that stable metal-mediated base pairs [Thymine-Hg-Thymine] can form in DNA...
  82. ncbi Repair of oxidative damage of thymine by HeLa whole-cell extracts: simultaneous analysis using a microsupport and comparison with traditional PAGE analysis
    Valérie Guerniou
    Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, CEA DSM Département de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matière Condensée, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Biochimie 87:151-9. 2005
    ..We report in this study, the parallelized fluorescent analysis of excision of several oxidation products of thymine by cell extracts...
  83. pmc Thymine at -5 is crucial for cpc promoter activity of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6714
    Masahiko Imashimizu
    School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji 192 0392 CREST, Japan
    J Bacteriol 185:6477-80. 2003
    ..strain PCC 7942 but not the in vivo activity in Escherichia coli. This suggests that the requirement of -5T appears to be specific for a cyanobacterial RNA polymerase-promoter combination...
  84. pmc A bridged nucleic acid, 2',4'-BNA COC: synthesis of fully modified oligonucleotides bearing thymine, 5-methylcytosine, adenine and guanine 2',4'-BNA COC monomers and RNA-selective nucleic-acid recognition
    Yasunori Mitsuoka
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:1225-38. 2009
    ..Here, BNA(COC) consisting of 2',4'-BNA(COC) monomers bearing all four bases, namely thymine, 5-methylcytosine, adenine and guanine was efficiently synthesized and properties of duplexes containing the 2',4'..
  85. pmc Pairing geometry of the hydrophobic thymine analogue 2,4-difluorotoluene in duplex DNA as analyzed by X-ray crystallography
    Pradeep S Pallan
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:12548-9. 2009
    ..Therefore, shape and H-bonding are inherently related, and steric constraints at a pol active site, or conferred by stacking or the DNA backbone conformation, may enable H-bonding by F...
  86. pmc A nuclear family A DNA polymerase from Entamoeba histolytica bypasses thymine glycol
    Guillermo Pastor-Palacios
    Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para la Biodiversidad, CINVESTAV, Irapuato, Mexico
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e786. 2010
    ..histolytica (EhDNApolA) localizes to the nucleus and that its biochemical properties indicate that this DNA polymerase may be involved in translesion DNA synthesis...
  87. ncbi Oxidation of thymine to 5-formyluracil in DNA promotes misincorporation of dGMP and subsequent elongation of a mismatched primer terminus by DNA polymerase
    A Masaoka
    Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
    J Biol Chem 276:16501-10. 2001
    5-Formyluracil (fU) is a major oxidative thymine lesion generated by ionizing radiation and reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we have assessed the influence of fU on DNA replication to elucidate its genotoxic potential...
  88. ncbi Method for detection of Hg2+ based on the specific thymine-Hg2+-thymine interaction in the DNA hybridization on the surface of quartz crystal microbalance
    Zhonghan Sheng
    Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences BNLMS, Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 87:289-92. 2011
    ..was developed for the detection of mercury ions with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), based on the specific thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) interaction and gold nanoparticle-mediated signal amplification...
  89. pmc Role of human DNA polymerase κ in extension opposite from a cis-syn thymine dimer
    Rodrigo Vasquez-Del Carpio
    Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1677, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Mol Biol 408:252-61. 2011
    ....
  90. ncbi Ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor for Hg(2+) based on heptamethine cyanine containing a thymine moiety
    Hong Zheng
    Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The MOE Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
    Org Lett 14:1986-9. 2012
    Based on a T-Hg(2+)-T binding mode, a sensitive ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor for aqueous Hg(2+) was developed with a heptamethine cyanine chromophore containing a thymine moiety.
  91. ncbi Interaction of fission yeast ORC with essential adenine/thymine stretches in replication origins
    T Takahashi
    Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1 1 Machikaneyama cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 0043 Japan
    Genes Cells 6:837-49. 2001
    ..Multiple adenine/thymine clusters are essential for replication, but no short consensus sequences are found...
  92. ncbi Direct measurement of the dynamics of excess electron transfer through consecutive thymine sequence in DNA
    Man Jae Park
    The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research SANKEN, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8 1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 0047, Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 133:15320-3. 2011
    ..In the present paper, we directly measured the rate of excess electron transfer (EET) through a consecutive thymine (T) sequence in nicked-dumbbell DNAs conjugated with a tetrathiophene derivative (4T) as an electron donor and ..
  93. ncbi Preliminary observation of 99mTc-thymine imaging in breast neoplasms
    B Gutfilen
    Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Nucl Med Commun 22:1133-7. 2001
    ..In this paper, we report the labelling of a precursor, the nitrogenate base thymine, with 99mTc. It has been used to evaluate breast lesions...
  94. ncbi Ab initio base-pairing energies of an oxidized thymine product, 5-formyluracil, with standard DNA bases at the BSSE-free DFT and MP2 theory levels
    David E Volk
    Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1157, USA
    Org Biomol Chem 5:1554-8. 2007
    Oxidation of the thymine methyl group produces two stable products, non-mutagenic 5-hydroxymethyluracil and highly mutagenic 5-formyluracil...
  95. ncbi The addition of low numbers of 3' thymine bases can be used to improve the hybridization signal of oligonucleotides for use within arrays on nylon supports
    T J Brown
    Department of Microbiology, St Thomas Hospital, Guy s and St Thomas Hospital Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK
    J Microbiol Methods 42:203-7. 2000
    ..This paper demonstrates low numbers of thymine bases added to the 3' end of oligonucleotides during synthesis can improve hybridisation signal intensity where ..
  96. ncbi Effects of hydration on the proton transfer mechanism in the adenine-thymine base pair
    J P Cerón-Carrasco
    Departamento de Química Física Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
    J Phys Chem A 113:7892-8. 2009
    ..functional study of water catalytic effect in the double proton transfer (DPT) taking place in the adenine-thymine (AT) base pair...
  97. ncbi Interaction of sodium and potassium ions with sandwiched cytosine-, guanine-, thymine-, and uracil-base tetrads
    Michael Meyer
    Revotar Biopharmaceuticals AG, Neuendorfstrasse 24a, D 16761 Hennigsdorf, Germany
    J Comput Chem 26:352-64. 2005
    ..A microsolvation model explains the ion selectivity preference of K+ over Na+ in a qualitative sense...
  98. ncbi Structure and mechanism of hydroxyl radical-induced formation of a DNA-protein cross-link involving thymine and lysine in nucleohistone
    M Dizdaroglu
    Center for Chemical Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899
    Cancer Res 49:3463-7. 1989
    Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of a DNA-protein cross-link involving thymine and lysine in calf thymus nucleohistone in vitro is reported...
  99. ncbi Double-proton transfer in adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine base pairs. A post-Hartree-Fock ab initio study
    Leonid Gorb
    Computational Center for Molecular Structure and Interactions, Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, 1325 J R Lynch St, P O Box 17910, Jackson, Mississippi 39217 0510, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 126:10119-29. 2004
    The results of a comprehensive study on the double-proton transfer in Adenine-Thymine (AT) and Guanine-Cytosine (GC) base pairs at room temperature in gas phase and with the inclusion of environmental effects are obtained...
  100. ncbi The role of the Escherichia coli mug protein in the removal of uracil and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine from DNA
    E Lutsenko
    Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:31034-8. 1999
    The human thymine-DNA glycosylase has a sequence homolog in Escherichia coli that is described to excise uracils from U.G mismatches (Gallinari, P., and Jiricny, J...
  101. pmc Binding of the human nucleotide excision repair proteins XPA and XPC/HR23B to the 5R-thymine glycol lesion and structure of the cis-(5R,6S) thymine glycol epimer in the 5'-GTgG-3' sequence: destabilization of two base pairs at the lesion site
    Kyle L Brown
    Department of Chemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:428-40. 2010
    The 5R thymine glycol (5R-Tg) DNA lesion exists as a mixture of cis-(5R,6S) and trans-(5R,6R) epimers; these modulate base excision repair...

Research Grants63

  1. Prevention of UV-induced carcinogenesis by cyanidin-3-glucoside
    Xianglin Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These markers include changes in thymine-positive cells, proliferative cell nuclear antigen, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end ..
  2. Folate Status, Genomic Uracil, and the Balance of Base Excision Repair Activity
    Michael D Wyatt; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..There is an additional link that is yet to be explored. MBD4 (MED1) specifically removes uracil or thymine when paired opposite guanine in CpG sequences...
  3. Regulation of Genomic and Epigenomic Stability at CpG Sites
    Alfonso Bellacosa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and unmethylated cytosines have a tendency - higher for the former - to spontaneously deaminate, generating thymine and uracil, respectively...
  4. The role of human DNA polymerase eta in the mutagenic response to oxidative stres
    SCOTT DAVID MCCULLOCH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Bypass of the UV-light induced thymine-thymine dimer is performed by the Y-family member polymerase 7 and occurs with high efficiency but somewhat low ..
  5. Imaging Cellular Stress and Treatment Response Using Positron Emission Tomography
    ANTHONY FRANK SHIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..One of the analogs under study is FMAU {1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D- arabinofuranosyl)-thymine}, which we have labeled with 18F and studied in cell culture, animals and humans...
  6. Base-selective heavy atom labels for electron microscopy-based DNA sequencing
    F D Toste; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For the complimentary pyrimidine label, osmium tetraoxide bipyridine will be the selective binding agent thymine and cytosine...
  7. Structure and mechanism of CpG specific DNA glycosylases
    ALEX C DROHAT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two DNA glycosylases recognize G.T lesions, thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and methyl binding domain IV (MBD4)...
  8. Biosynthesis and function of base J in T. brucei
    Robert S Sabatini; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of a VSG ESs correlate with the presence of a uniquely modified DNA base, represented by the glycosylation of thymine residues and called base J...
  9. INTER AND INTRAMOLECULAR COMMUNICATIONS IN TRANSCRIPTION
    Tomasz Heyduk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In aim 1 we will determine the role of conserved nontemplate -7 thymine in promoter melting by bacterial RNA polymerase...
  10. Mechanisms of thymide phosphorylase angiogenesis
    Edward L Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to be identical to human thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate (dR-1-P)...
  11. Oxidative pathways of guanine in DNA
    Vladimir Shafirovich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1) that the one-electron oxidation of guanine is base-sequence dependent, (2) the discovery of a novel guanine-thymine (G*-T*) intrastrand cross-linked lesion that competes with the formation of 8-oxoG, spiroiminodihydantoins (Sp), ..
  12. Role of human DNA polymerase kappa in replicative bypass of DNA lesions
    Satya Prakash; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Among the DNA lesions to be studied are 8- oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and thymine glycol (TG) that result from cellular oxidative DNA damage;the ring-opened N2-(3-hydroxyl propyl-2'-..
  13. Activation-induced Deaminase and Antibody Maturation
    Ashok S Bhagwat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AID will also be mutated to change its poor efficiency of converting 5-methylcytosine (mC) in DNA to thymine. Such conversions have been tied to DNA demethylation that is essential for reprogramming of embryonic cells and ..
  14. Structure and Mechanism in DNA Excision Repair
    GREGORY LAWRENCE VERDINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..respect to the normal nucleobases in DNA, whereas NER repairs a wide variety of bulky nucleobase lesions such as thymine dimers...
  15. DNA targeting by TAL effectors
    Daniel F Voytas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specificity and by making modifications outside the repeat region that are predicted to relax the requirement for thymine at position -1 of each binding site...
  16. Mechanistic Insights into TET-Mediated Demethylation in Leukemia
    Louis C Dore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, we will identify genome-wide occupancy maps for TET1 and TET2, as well as thymine DNA glycosylase, the enzyme responsible for removing 5fC and 5caC from DNA to allow for replacement with an ..
  17. Labeling and sequencing of 5-hmC 5-caC and 5-fC in genomic DNA - Resubmission 0
    Chuan He; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Significantly, when paired with a normal G, the 5-fC and 5-caC modification can be excised by the human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) without the need for base deamination...
  18. MITDNA MUTAGENESIS BY ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENS
    Keshav Singh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..because human mitDNA is rich in cytosine and uracil mispairs with guanine in DNA, thus causing cytosine to thymine mutations during replication...
  19. Processing of Free Radical Radiation Damage by Human DNA Polymerases
    Susan S Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..types of human DNA polymerases, replicative and specialized, in the context of ionization-induced lesions such as thymine glycol and abasic sites...
  20. METALS/NUCLEOSIDE HYDROPEROXIDE MEDIATED GENETIC DAMAGE
    Krystyna Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..These hydroperoxides undergo gradual decomposition yielding more stable derivatives. The hydroperoxides of thymine moiety are formed most readily and have been studied quite extensively...
  21. DEOXYRIBONUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM IN ESCHERICHIA COLI
    James Fuchs; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..To understand the molecular details of nrd regulation, experiments to date have utilized thymine deprivation to alter nrd expression...
  22. Imaging of O6-Alkylguanine-DNA Alkyltransferase
    Ganesan Vaidyanathan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The drug resistance is due to the repair of DNA lesions, generated by alkylation of guanine and thymine residues by the alkylating agents, by the repair protein O6 alkyl-DNA alkyltrasferase (AGT)...
  23. Repair of oxidative damage in mammalian genomes
    Tapas K Hazra; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, the lack of phenotype and continued repair of 8-oxoG and thymine glycol from the transcribed DNA sequences of OGG1- and NTH1-null mouse cells suggested the presence of additional ..
  24. MECHANISTIC PROBES OF FLAVOENZYME CATALYSIS
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..3) Cyclobutane-containing intrachain thymine dimers are the major lesions in UV-damaged DNA, and in several species (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) these can be ..
  25. MED1 MUTATIONS IN COLORECTAL CANCER
    Alfonso Bellacosa; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..MED1 displays thymine and uracil glycosylase activity, removing these bases from G:T and G:U mismatches...
  26. HOST/TUMOR RESPONSE TO BUDR/IUDR ADMINISTRATION
    PHILIP STETSON; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Since the crucial target effect of BUDR or IUDR is the replacement of DNA thymine by 5-bromouracil (BU) or 5-iodouracil (IU), a sensitive and specific GC/MS-SIM assay of DNA thymine and BU (or IU)..
  27. MUTATIONAL HOT SPOTS AND DEAMINATION OF 5 METHYLCYTOSINE
    ASHOK BHAGWAT; Fiscal Year: 1999
    High frequencies of 5-methylcytosine (5meC) to thymine mutations dominate spectra of spontaneous mutations in genes...
  28. REPLICON MISFUNCTIONS IN HUMAN CARCINOGENESIS
    JEAN MICHEL VOS; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..identifying and understanding the molecular factors in human cells involved in bypass replication of cyclobotane thymine-thymine dimers (T=T)...
  29. IN VITRO MODEL FOR MEASURING SUNSCREEN PROTECTION
    Patrick Hayden; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..DNA strand breaks, thymine dimer photoproducts, 8-hydroxyguanosine and p53 protein expression will be determined by various convenient ..
  30. MODULATION BY TEA OF EARLY EFFECTS OF UV ON SKIN
    Allan Conney; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The formation of thymine dimers, oxidized bases and strand breaks in DNA will also be determined...
  31. Metabolism and Detoxification of Base Propenals
    Sanjay Srivastava; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..metabolites of base propenals generated by COS-7 and HepG2 cells or mice exposed to radiolabeled adenine and thymine propenals (Aim 1)...
  32. DNA STRUCTURE AND RECOMBINATIONAL INTERMEDIATES
    Brian Johnston; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..dA)n (dT)n, exhibits hyperreactivity to osmium tetroxide at the 3'-most thymine. Further experiments will aim at developing this observation into a simple assay for bent DNA, as well as ..
  33. FORMATION, MUTAGENICITY & REPAIR OF PHOTOHYDRATES IN DNA
    George Teebor; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..HmUra), which is repaired by HmUra-DNA glycosylase and does not block replication, will be compared to that of thymine glycol and related lesions which are repaired by E. coli endonuclease III and do block replication...
  34. Transcription coupled DNA repair in E. Coli
    Philip Hanawalt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition, the nature of repair synthesis following thymine deprivation, its dependence upon transcription, and the possibility that it may reflect "gratuitous" TC-NER will ..
  35. MOLECULAR BASIS OF ANTIGENIC SPECIFICITY
    Jindrich Kopecek; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..In solution, the protein exhibited a base specificity for pyrimidines, with greater affinity for thymine than uracil...
  36. MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY OF ANTICANCER DRUGS
    IRVING GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..by intercalation, and damages DNA when activated by thiol by selectively attacking C-5' of deoxyribose of mainly thymine residues to produce, in the presence of O2, strand breaks with nucleoside 5'-aldehyde at the 5'-end and ..
  37. NICKEL-DEPENDENT ENZYMES IN METHANOGENESIS
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..reactions and other roles as coenzymes in the action of DNA photolyase, involved in photomonomerization of thymine dimer lesions in DNA...
  38. DNA BASE DAMAGE INDUCED BY GAMMA RADIATION
    JOHN ZIMBRICK; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The quantities and types of damage to thymine and adenine bases produced by ionizing radiation in vivo will be determined in bacterial strains selected for ..
  39. LYMPHOMAGENESIS OF O6-METHYLGUANINE
    Stanton Gerson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..has been thought to be entirely due to G to A point mutations because the O6-mG preferentially mispairs with thymine during DNA synthesis...
  40. ULTRASONIC RADIATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AND COMPONENTS
    SHIH WANG; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..In this study the threshold energies and kinetics of sonodegradation of thymine were investigated under different experimental conditions and explained on the basis of the "interphase diffusion"..
  41. METABOLISM OF DNA
    Huber Warner; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..It is possible to vary the percent replacement of thymine by uracil in phage DNA over a range from 0% to about 30%...
  42. RATIONAL APPROACHES TO COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY
    ALEXANDER BLOCH; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..between inbalances in the deoxynucleoside triphosphate pools and the induction of cellular cytotoxicity (thymine-less death) and e) to evaluate the contributions of salvage pathways in vivo in altering the effectiveness and ..
  43. Using Zinc Finger Nucleases to Stimulate Gene Targeting in HSC
    Matthew Porteus; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For sickle cell disease this would entail converting the mutated thymine back to an adenine in codon 6 of the p-globin gene in hematopoietic stem cells and then retrieving the corrected ..
  44. Linking Enzyme and DNA Dynamics: The Mechanism of Extrahelical Damaged based dete
    Jared Parker; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to trap an otherwise energetically unstable extrahelical intermediate that occurs very early on the pathway for thymine and uracil flipping by uracil DNA glycosylase...
  45. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF TRANSLESION DNA POLYMERASES
    Aneel Aggarwal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..functional Pol0, which has the remarkable ability to replicate through UV lesions such as a cis-syn cyclobutane thymine-thymine (T-T) dimer in an error-free way...
  46. PAH ADDUCT ORIENTATION IN DNA
    ALBERT CHEH; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The effect that adjacent thymine methyl groups have on dA adduct orientation will be determined by the relative resistance to digestion by 3' and ..
  47. RADIATION BIOCHEMISTRY OF DNA BASE DAMAGE
    H Claycamp; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Monoclonal antibody assays include recently-developed ELISA procedures to measure thymine glycol and dihydrothymine in cellular DNA isolates...
  48. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Thymineless Death
    Kenneth Dornfeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Chemotherapy agents which act to deplete thymine stores have long been used to sensitize cancer to the oxidative stress of exogenously applied ionizing radiation...
  49. DYNAMICS OF DNA DAMAGE RECOGNITION BY REPAIR ENZYMES
    Roman Osman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the proposed new project period, two mechanisms of thymine dimer (TD) repair will be studied...
  50. MECHANISMS OF MAMMALIAN DNA REPAIR
    JOHN TURCHI; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Specifically, their binding and incision activities will be tested on thymine dimers, psoralen, 2-aminofluorine and cc1065 DNA adducts...
  51. Biosynthesis and Function of Base J
    Robert S Sabatini; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ES correlates with the absence or presence of a uniquely modified DMA base, represented by the glycosylation of thymine residues and called base J...
  52. ALKYLATION & MUTAGENESIS BY PANCREAS CARCINOGENS
    Terence Lawson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..This work could indicate whether alkylation at the 0-4 position of thymine or the 0-6 position of guanine is the crucial site for BOP carcinogenicity...
  53. DNA SOLUTION STRUCTURES
    DON EDEN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..will be used to determine the rotational and internal bending dynamics of DNA fragments of known sequence with thymine dimers located in-phase on the helix. The results will be compared with the same fragments without the dimer...
  54. Ring-Opened and Tandem DNA Damages
    Ashis K Basu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..site adjacent to 8-oxoguanine, S- and R-8,5'-cyclo-2'- deoxyguanosine, and intrastrand vicinal guanine-thymine cross-link...
  55. EXCISION-REPAIR OF BENZO(A) PYRENE-MODIFIED DNA
    Krystyna Frenkel; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..A rapid method of purification of 5, 6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol, TG) was developed...
  56. Assays for ROS-induced DNA damage
    HAROLD BOX; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..namely: the formamido remnant of pyrimidine bases, the 8-oxo-7, 9-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-guanine) lesion, the thymine glycol lesion, the 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine lesion, the abasic lesion and two double base lesions...
  57. ASSAYS FOR ROS INDUCED DNA DAMAGE
    HAROLD BOX; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..ROS-induced DNA lesions will be of particular interest, namely, the formamido remnant of pyrimidine bases, the thymine glycol lesion and the 6-hydroxy-5, 6-dihydrothymine lesion...
  58. Structures of Human DNA Polymerase Eta & Iota Complexes
    Samer Lone; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Pol eta, for example, is unique in its ability to replicate through a UV-induced cis-syn Thymine- Tymine dimer efficiently and accurately [6]...
  59. REPLICATION OF DAMAGED DNA IN HUMAN CELLS
    Marila Cordeiro Stone; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This defect renders XP-V cells deficient in bypass replication of cyclobutane thymine dieters [(cis,syn)TT]...
  60. CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH TRAINING
    Douglas Zipes; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In addition, the program is ideally suited to effectively recruit under-represented minorities. We proposed to train 3 postdoctoral Fellows each year for 2 years as part of this grant. ..
  61. FLP-102: Rationally Engineered Antiviral Protein
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The preclinical data on FLP-102 will be essential to further explore the utility of this novel recombinant PAP mutant for Phase II. ..
  62. Post-translational Modifications of High-mobility Group Proteins
    Yinsheng Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, the outcome of proposed studies may provide important molecular biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. ..
  63. Vanadocenes as a New Class of Spermicidal Drugs
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..