- Distinct functional and pharmacological properties of tonic and quantal inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors in hippocampal neurons
Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Mol Pharmacol 59:814-24. 2001
..In summary, the receptors underlying the tonic current are functionally and pharmacologically distinct from quantally activated synaptic receptors and these receptors represent a novel target for neurodepressive drugs...
- Levosimendan as a rescue drug in experimental propranolol-induced myocardial depression: a randomized study
Department of Anaesthesia, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Ann Emerg Med 54:811-817.e1-3. 2009
..We hypothesize that levosimendan could reverse propranolol-induced severe negative inotropy in a porcine model of beta-blocker intoxication...
- Inhibitors of PIM-1 kinase: a computational analysis of the binding free energies of a range of imidazo [1,2-b] pyridazines
School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
J Chem Inf Model 50:368-79. 2010
..The potential of mean force for the displacement of the glycine-rich phosphate binding loop (P-loop) has also been estimated and shown to be an important feature in the binding of these ligands...
- Inhibition of endothelin receptors in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: does selectivity matter?
Christian F Opitz
Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Kliniken Berlin, Köpenick, Berlin, Germany
Eur Heart J 29:1936-48. 2008
..These characteristics bear more relation to the chemical or pharmacological properties of the drugs than to receptor selectivity itself...
- Evidence-based use of levosimendan in different clinical settings
Leonardo De Luca
Division of Cardiology, European Hospital, Rome, Italy
Eur Heart J 27:1908-20. 2006
..This review summarizes the evidence from published scientific literature regarding the use of levosimendan in various clinical settings...
- Ambrisentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of the ambrisentan in pulmonary arterial hypertension, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, efficacy (ARIES) study 1 and 2
Institute of Cardiology, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
Circulation 117:3010-9. 2008
..Ambrisentan is a propanoic acid-based, A-selective endothelin receptor antagonist for the once-daily treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
- Ambrisentan therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who discontinued bosentan or sitaxsentan due to liver function test abnormalities
Michael D McGoon
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Chest 135:122-9. 2009
..Because ambrisentan may provide benefits in PAH patients who have discontinued ERA therapy due to LFT abnormalities, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ambrisentan in this patient population...
- Levosimendan for the treatment of acute severe heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Intensive Care Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, Pacific Highway, St Leonards, NSW, 2065, Australia
Int J Cardiol 138:281-9. 2010
..The objective of this study was to critically review the literature to evaluate whether levosimendan compared to standard therapy, in patients with acute severe heart failure, is associated with improved clinical outcomes...
- Levosimendan improves hemodynamics and coronary flow reserve after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction
Leonardo De Luca
Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
Am Heart J 150:563-8. 2005
- Ambrisentan, an endothelin receptor type A-selective endothelin receptor antagonist, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Heart and Lung Center, 5939 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Expert Opin Pharmacother 10:1847-58. 2009
..Despite these data, the FDA requires monthly liver function tests monitoring. As with other ERAs, monthly pregnancy testing is required in all women of child bearing potential...
- Levosimendan in septic shock: another piece in the puzzle, but many pieces are still lacking
Daniel De Backer
Intensive Care Med 33:403-5. 2007
- Levosimendan reduces mortality in critically ill patients. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
Minerva Anestesiol 76:276-86. 2010
..Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer that is able to enhance myocardial contractility without increasing myocardial oxygen use. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the impact of levosimendan on mortality in critically ill patients...
- 5-aryl-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridazines: potent inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Neurology Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Essex CM19 5AW, Harlow, UK
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:1581-4. 2003
..Rationalisation of the binding mode suggested participation of a putative structural water molecule, which was subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
- Effects of levosimendan on systemic and regional hemodynamics in septic myocardial depression
Intensive Care Med 32:790; author reply 791-2. 2006
- Electrophysiologic effects of a calcium sensitizer inotrope levosimendan administered intravenously in patients with normal cardiac function
Division of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 35:664-9. 2000
..The effects on the ventricle were not substantial, and therefore the likelihood of provoking serious cardiac arrhythmias is not estimated to be high...
- Phase I dose escalation study of telatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and 3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, and c-Kit, in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors
Ferry A L M Eskens
Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus University Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands
J Clin Oncol 27:4169-76. 2009
..This phase I dose escalation study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of telatinib, with additional pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and efficacy assessments...
- An HPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous quantification of the HIV integrase inhibitor raltegravir, the new nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor etravirine, and 11 other antiretroviral agents in the plasma of HIV-infected patients
Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Torino, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy
Ther Drug Monit 30:662-9. 2008
- Reducing the risk of major elective non-cardiac surgery: is there a role for levosimendan in the preoperative optimization of cardiac function?
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Rome, La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
Curr Drug Targets 10:863-71. 2009
..Nevertheless, large-scale trials are needed before final conclusions can be drawn on the use of levosimendan in this indication...
- Glucose inhibition of glucagon secretion from rat alpha-cells is mediated by GABA released from neighboring beta-cells
Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Diabetes 53:1038-45. 2004
..This effect was not observed in the presence of SR95531, and we therefore conclude that isradipine stimulates glucagon secretion by inhibition of GABA release...
- Pharmacokinetics of levosimendan and its circulating metabolites in patients with heart failure after an extended continuous infusion of levosimendan
Orion Pharma, Research Centre, Espoo, Finland
Br J Clin Pharmacol 57:412-5. 2004
..The purpose of the study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of levosimendan and its metabolites OR-1855 and OR-1896 in patients with congestive heart failure...
- Anti-ischemic effects of inotropic agents in experimental right ventricular infarction
Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital of Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53:941-8. 2009
..Therefore, we used a porcine model of RV ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury to study the influence of milrinone, levosimendan and dobutamine on the extent and degree of myocardial injury...
- Preclinical characterization of A-582941: a novel alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist with broad spectrum cognition-enhancing properties
Karin R Tietje
Neuroscience Research, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064, USA
CNS Neurosci Ther 14:65-82. 2008
- Role of levosimendan in sepsis and septic shock
Bernardo Bollen Pinto
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 21:168-77. 2008
..To present the pharmacologic and biologic profile of levosimendan and discuss potential indications in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock, with a special focus on myocardial and pulmonary dysfunction...
- Is there a place for levosimendan in the intensive care unit?
Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Crit Care Resusc 9:290-2. 2007
..Until their results can be fully scrutinised, and placed in the context of all available evidence, we should conclude that there is no place for levosimendan in the ICU...
- Duration of the beneficial effects of levosimendan in decompensated heart failure as measured by echocardiographic indices and B-type natriuretic peptide
Anthony S McLean
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Sydney, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, New South Wales 2750, Australia
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 46:830-5. 2005
..In conclusion, LS transiently improved the cardiac function, and the effects lasted for at least 7 days after discontinuation of infusion. Most effects, except LVEF, were not significantly different from baseline on day 30...
- Aminopyridazines attenuate hippocampus-dependent behavioral deficits induced by human beta-amyloid in a murine model of neuroinflammation
Jeffrey M Craft
Drug Discovery Program, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
J Mol Neurosci 24:115-22. 2004
- Levosimendan is superior to milrinone and dobutamine in selectively increasing microvascular gastric mucosal oxygenation in dogs
Lothar A Schwarte
Department of Anesthesiology, , Germany
Crit Care Med 33:135-42; discussion 246-7. 2005
..If our experimental data apply to the clinical setting, levosimendan may serve as an option to selectively increase gastrointestinal mucosa oxygenation in patients at risk to develop splanchnic ischemia...
- Human amyloid beta-induced neuroinflammation is an early event in neurodegeneration
Jeffrey M Craft
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Glia 53:484-90. 2006
- Glia as a therapeutic target: selective suppression of human amyloid-beta-induced upregulation of brain proinflammatory cytokine production attenuates neurodegeneration
Hantamalala Ralay Ranaivo
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
J Neurosci 26:662-70. 2006
- Levosimendan: from basic science to clinical practice
John T Parissis
Heart Failure Clinic and Second Cardiology Department, Attikon University Hospital, Maroussi, Athens, Greece
Heart Fail Rev 14:265-75. 2009
- Levosimendan pre-treatment improves outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Br J Anaesth 102:198-204. 2009
..We thus decided to investigate whether pharmacological pre-treatment with levosimendan reduces intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay in patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization under cardiopulmonary bypass...
- Short-term effects of levosimendan and prostaglandin E1 on hemodynamic parameters and B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients with decompensated chronic heart failure
Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Eur J Heart Fail 7:1156-63. 2005
..Both levosimendan and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) have beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters and outcome compared to dobutamine in decompensated chronic heart failure (CHF)...
- Levosimendan vs. dobutamine: outcomes for acute heart failure patients on beta-blockers in SURVIVE
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Hopital Lariboisiere, APHP Université Paris 7 Paris Diderot U 942 INSERM, 2 rue Ambroise Pare, Paris Cedex 10 75475, France
Eur J Heart Fail 11:304-11. 2009
..We aimed to assess outcomes of SURVIVE patients who were on beta-blocker therapy before receiving a single intravenous infusion of levosimendan or dobutamine...
- Effects of levosimendan on markers of left ventricular diastolic function and neurohormonal activation in patients with advanced heart failure
John T Parissis
Second Department of Cardiology and Heart Failure Clinic, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece
Am J Cardiol 96:423-6. 2005
..Thus, levosimendan seems to be effective in improving left ventricular diastolic function and reducing neurohormonal activation in patients with severe heart failure...
- Effects of intravenous levosimendan on human coronary vasomotor regulation, left ventricular wall stress, and myocardial oxygen uptake
Andrew D Michaels
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco 94143 0124, USA
Circulation 111:1504-9. 2005
..The effects of intravenous levosimendan on the human coronary vasculature, together with myocardial wall stress and oxygen uptake, have not been adequately studied...
- Efficacy and safety of intermittent, long-term, concomitant dobutamine and levosimendan infusions in severe heart failure refractory to dobutamine alone
John N Nanas
University of Athens School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece
Am J Cardiol 95:768-71. 2005
..0002, log-rank test)...
- The contractile apparatus as a target for drugs against heart failure: interaction of levosimendan, a calcium sensitiser, with cardiac troponin c
Orion Pharma, Cardiovascular Research, Espoo, Finland
Mol Cell Biochem 266:87-107. 2004
..Finally, the binding of levosimendan to cTnC and its mechanism of action are described and the results discussed under the light of the action of this drug in vitro and in vivo...
- Development of a novel therapeutic suppressor of brain proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation that attenuates synaptic dysfunction and behavioral deficits
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, 303 E Chicago Avenue, Mail Code W896, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17:414-8. 2007
..The development and large-scale availability of this novel compound allow exploration of new, potentially disease-modifying, therapeutic approaches to CNS disorders...
- Vasodilating mechanisms of levosimendan
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 17:111-3. 2003
- Levosimendan vs dobutamine for patients with acute decompensated heart failure: the SURVIVE Randomized Trial
Department of Anesthesiology, Université Paris Diderot and Hospital Lariboisière AP HP, Paris, France
JAMA 297:1883-91. 2007
..Because acute decompensated heart failure causes substantial morbidity and mortality, there is a need for agents that at least improve hemodynamics and relieve symptoms without adversely affecting survival...
- Sustained hemodynamic effects of intravenous levosimendan
Orion Pharma, Clinical Research, Espoo, Finland
Circulation 107:81-6. 2003
..The active metabolite OR-1896 increased for at least 24 hours after cessation of drug infusion and may account for the prolonged hemodynamic effects of Levo...
- Pyridazines. Part 31: synthesis and antiplatelet activity of 4,5-disubstituted-6-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinones
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 50:1574-7. 2002
..Some of these compounds show a dose-dependent activity and were found to be more active than their 5-substituted analogues...
- Levosimendan increases L-type Ca(2+) current via phosphodiesterase-3 inhibition in human cardiac myocytes
The Heart Institute of Japan, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Tokyo 162-8666, Shinjuku, Japan
Eur J Pharmacol 435:27-33. 2002
..It seems likely that the positive inotropic effect of levosimendan on the human myocardium depends on an increase in I(Ca,L) that is modulated by adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent phosphorylation...
- Factors associated with virological response to etravirine in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-experienced HIV-1-infected patients
Anne Genevieve Marcelin
Department of Virology, Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, 83 Boulevard de l hopital, 75013 Paris, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:72-7. 2010
..In conclusion, ETR was associated with high response rates in NNRTI-experienced patients in combination with other active drugs regardless of the therapeutic class used...
- TMC278, a next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), active against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1
Tibotec Virco BVBA, Generaal De Wittelaan L11 B3, B 2800 Mechelen, Belgium
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:718-27. 2010
..E138R was identified as a new NNRTI RAM. These in vitro analyses demonstrate that TMC278 is a potent next-generation NNRTI, with a high genetic barrier to resistance development...
- Overview of emerging pharmacologic agents for acute heart failure syndromes
Leonardo De Luca
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, European Hospital, Rome, Italy
Eur J Heart Fail 10:201-13. 2008
..There is, therefore, an unmet need for new pharmacologic agents for the early management of AHFS that may improve both short- and long-term outcomes...
- Levosimendan improves diastolic and systolic function in failing human myocardium
P M Janssen
Abt Kardiologie und Pneumologie, Universitat Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
Eur J Pharmacol 404:191-9. 2000
..Levosimendan improves both systolic and diastolic function in failing human myocardium. Effects are even more pronounced at higher heart rates and under prevailing diastolic dysfunction...
- Hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of continuous infusion of levosimendan in patients with congestive heart failure
M S Nieminen
Helsinki University, Finland
J Am Coll Cardiol 36:1903-12. 2000
..We sought to define the therapeutic dose range of levosimendan in patients with New York Heart Association class II-IV heart failure of ischemic origin...
- Resistance-associated mutations to etravirine (TMC-125) in antiretroviral-naïve patients infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes
Almoustapha Issiaka Maiga
Laboratoire de Virologie, AP HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, UPMC University Paris 06, INSERM U943, Paris, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:728-33. 2010
..However, the transmission of drug-resistant viruses with Y181C in a non-B genetic background has a potential for impact on ETR susceptibility...
- Combination of V106I and V179D polymorphic mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase confers resistance to efavirenz and nevirapine but not etravirine
AIDS Clinical Center, International Medical Center of Japan, 1 21 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8655, Japan
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1596-602. 2010
..The combination of V106I and V179D is a newly identified NNRTI resistance pattern of mutations. The combination of polymorphic and minor resistance-associated mutations should be interpreted carefully...
- Microscopic kinetics and energetics distinguish GABA(A) receptor agonists from antagonists
M V Jones
Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Biophys J 81:2660-70. 2001
..Antagonist binding does not appear to produce such movements, and may in fact prevent them...
- Early and sustained haemodynamic improvement with levosimendan compared to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction
Department of Medicine III, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Germany
Acute Card Care 10:49-57. 2008
..To investigate the haemodynamic effects of levosimendan in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction in comparison to the effects of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP)...
- Ambrisentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension
University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
J Am Coll Cardiol 46:529-35. 2005
..The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of four doses of ambrisentan, an oral endothelin type A receptor-selective antagonist, in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)...
- Molecular mechanism of levosimendan action: an update
Paul R Rosevear
J Mol Cell Cardiol 35:1011-5. 2003
- The cardioprotective effects of levosimendan: preclinical and clinical evidence
Orion Pharma, Cardiology and Critical Care, Espoo, Finland
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 50:257-63. 2007
..A therapeutic approach to acute heart failure that includes a cardioprotective strategy could have a clinically meaningful benefit on disease progression beyond alleviation of symptoms...
- Effects of levosimendan and dobutamine in experimental acute endotoxemia: a preliminary controlled study
Catedra de Farmacologia, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 42 No 577, 1900, La Plata, Argentina
Intensive Care Med 33:485-94. 2007
..To test the hypothesis that levosimendan increases systemic and intestinal oxygen delivery (DO(2)) and prevents intramucosal acidosis in septic shock...
- Influence of the novel inotropic agent levosimendan on isometric tension and calcium cycling in failing human myocardium
Zentrum Innere Medizin, Abteilung für Kardiologie und Pneumologie, Universitat Gottingen, Germany
Circulation 98:2141-7. 1998
..Levosimendan was shown to increase calcium sensitivity by a novel mechanism and to inhibit phosphodiesterase III activity in animal myocardium...
- Efficacy and safety of perioperative infusion of levosimendan in patients with compromised cardiac function undergoing open-heart surgery: importance of early use
ICU, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Marathonamahon 18, 14572 Athens, Greece
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 32:629-33. 2007
..Levosimendan is a promising new inotrope. We investigate the proper time for its infusion during or after open-heart surgery to avoid complications related with low-output syndrome and high dosage of inotropes...
- Signals from chloroplasts converge to regulate nuclear gene expression
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Science 316:715-9. 2007
..We propose a model in which multiple indicators of aberrant plastid function in Arabidopsis are integrated upstream of GUN1 within plastids, which leads to ABI4-mediated repression of nuclear-encoded genes...
- Levosimendan improves the initial outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model of cardiac arrest
Department of Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research, Medical School, University of Athens, 15B Agiou Thoma Street, 11527 Athens, Greece
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 51:1123-9. 2007
..The aim of this study was to assess whether a calcium sensitizer agent, such as levosimendan, administered in combination with epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, would improve the initial resuscitation success...
- The novel calcium sensitizer levosimendan activates the ATP-sensitive K+ channel in rat ventricular cells
Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0576, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 283:375-83. 1997
- Pharmacokinetics of intravenous levosimendan and its metabolites in subjects with hepatic impairment
Orion Pharma, Clinical R and D, Kuopio, Finland
J Clin Pharmacol 48:445-54. 2008
..However, because the maximum duration of levosimendan infusion is 24 hours, dosing adjustments of levosimendan may not be required in subjects with impaired hepatic function...
- [Medical and ventilatory treatment of acute heart failure]
Nasjonalforeningen for folkehelsen, Det norske hjerte karrådet og Hjerteavdelingen, Aker universitetssykehus, 0514 Oslo
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 126:749-52. 2006
..In 2005 the European Society of Cardiology published new guidelines on diagnosis and treatment. Also, new therapies have been introduced recently, giving rise to changes in therapeutic concepts...
- Levosimendan improves right ventriculovascular coupling in a porcine model of right ventricular dysfunction
Center for Experimental Anesthesiology, Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Acute Medical Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Crit Care Med 35:707-15. 2007
..To test this hypothesis, we developed an experimental model of right ventricular failure and analyzed the effects of levosimendan on ventriculovascular coupling between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery (PA)...
- Optimizing outcomes in the patient with acute decompensated heart failure
Mandeep R Mehra
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA
Am Heart J 151:571-9. 2006
- Comparative effects of levosimendan, OR-1896, OR-1855, dobutamine, and milrinone on vascular resistance, indexes of cardiac function, and O2 consumption in dogs
Patricia N Banfor
Department of Integrative Pharmacology R46R, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Rd, Abbott Park, IL 60064 6119, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H238-48. 2008
- Levosimendan in cardiac surgery: a unique drug for the treatment of perioperative left ventricular dysfunction or just another inodilator searching for a clinical application?
Paul S Pagel
Anesth Analg 104:759-61. 2007
- Levosimendan, a new inotropic and vasodilator agent
Wolfgang G Toller
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University Graz, Austria
Anesthesiology 104:556-69. 2006
..To date, levosimendan is approved in 31 countries worldwide, and more patients with heart failure have participated in randomized controlled trials with levosimendan than with any other intravenous inotropic agent...
- Inotropic agents improve the peripheral microcirculation of patients with end-stage chronic heart failure
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Department, Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing and Rehabilitation Laboratory, Evgenidio Hospital, Athens, Greeece
J Card Fail 14:400-6. 2008
..We evaluated the microcirculation by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) occlusion technique before and after inotropic infusion...
- The use of levosimendan in comparison and in combination with dobutamine in the treatment of decompensated heart failure
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480, Eskisehir, Turkey
Expert Opin Pharmacother 8:665-77. 2007
..Increasing evidence suggests the use of levosimendan in combination with dobutamine in patients with decompensated heart failure that is refractory to dobutamine alone...
- Levosimendan but not norepinephrine improves microvascular oxygenation during experimental septic shock
Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Crit Care Med 36:1886-91. 2008
..To determine the effects of norepinephrine and levosimendan on microvascular perfusion and oxygenation in a rat model of septic shock...
- Levosimendan restores both systolic and diastolic cardiac performance in lipopolysaccharide-treated rabbits: comparison with dobutamine and milrinone
Equipe d Accueil 322, Universite, Paris, France
Crit Care Med 35:1376-82. 2007
..Our study aimed to fully characterize both systolic and diastolic abnormalities of sepsis-associated heart failure and to identify treatment that would support full-cycle cardiac improvement...
- Dear levosimendan, the right ventricle will thank you!
Crit Care Med 35:952-3. 2007
- A review of levosimendan in the treatment of heart failure
Hulya Akhan Kasikcioglu
Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center, Istanbul, Turkey
Vasc Health Risk Manag 2:389-400. 2006
..This study aims to review other important studies about levosimendan by revealing the underlying mechanisms of its activity, efficiency, and safety...
- Effect of levosimendan on ventricular arrhythmias and prognostic autonomic indexes in patients with decompensated advanced heart failure secondary to ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy
Second Department of Cardiology, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece
Am J Cardiol 98:1641-5. 2006
..At the same time, it is associated with improvements in cardiac function and neurohormonal response. These findings may have important clinical and prognostic implications...
- Effects of levosimendan on right ventricular function in patients with advanced heart failure
John T Parissis
Second Cardiology Department, Heart Failure Unit, University of Athens Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece
Am J Cardiol 98:1489-92. 2006
..05). In conclusion, levosimendan could offer further therapeutic advantages in patients with advanced heart failure by improving systolic and diastolic RV function...
- Effects of serial levosimendan infusions on left ventricular performance and plasma biomarkers of myocardial injury and neurohormonal and immune activation in patients with advanced heart failure
J T Parissis
Second Department of Cardiology and Heart Failure Clinic, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece
Heart 92:1768-72. 2006
..The role, however, of repeated levosimendan infusions in the management of these patients has not yet been properly assessed...
- Haemodynamic effects of levosimendan for low cardiac output after cardiac surgery: a case series
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heraklion University Hospital, P O Box 1352, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Hellenic J Cardiol 48:80-8. 2007
..In this case series we present the short-term haemodynamic effects of levosimendan added to dobutamine for the management of low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery...
- Effects of levosimendan versus dobutamine on pressure load-induced right ventricular failure
Laboratory of Physiology, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
Crit Care Med 34:2814-9. 2006
..A transient increase in pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure can persistently depress right ventricular (RV) contractility. We investigated the effects of dobutamine and levosimendan on RV-PA coupling in this model of RV failure...
- Levosimendan and prostaglandin E1 for uptitration of beta-blockade in patients with refractory, advanced chronic heart failure
Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090, Vienna, Austria
Eur J Heart Fail 9:202-8. 2007
..In advanced chronic heart failure (CHF) 20% of patients do not tolerate beta-blockers and 50% do not reach target doses...
- Levosimendan allows detection of contractile reserve in patients with chronic ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction and non-diagnostic dobutamine echocardiography
Department of Cardiology, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome, Italy
Eur J Heart Fail 9:897-900. 2007
..We tested the hypothesis that echocardiography with levosimendan could identify contractile reserve in patients with a non-diagnostic dobutamine test...
- [Therapy of acute decompensated heart failure with levosimendan]
Klinik fur Kardiologie, Pneumologie und Angiologie, Universitatsklinikum Dusseldorf
Med Klin (Munich) 101:119-22. 2006
..To determine the short-term hemodynamic and clinical effects of levosimendan, a calcium-sensitizing agent, in patients with decompensated heart failure...
- Effects of levosimendan versus dobutamine on inflammatory and apoptotic pathways in acutely decompensated chronic heart failure
Second Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece
Am J Cardiol 98:102-6. 2006
..05). In conclusion, the superiority of levosimendan over dobutamine in improving central hemodynamics and left ventricular performance in decompensated HF seems to be related to its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects...
- Levosimendan: beyond its simple inotropic effect in heart failure
Athens University Medical School, 1st Cardiology Department, Hippokration Hospital, Vasilissis Sofias 114, 115 28, Athens, Greece
Pharmacol Ther 114:184-97. 2007
- Levosimendan: a new era for inodilator therapy for heart failure?
John G F Cleland
Department of Cardiology, Castle Hill Hospital, University of Hull, Cottingham, Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom
Curr Opin Cardiol 17:257-65. 2002
..Further research is required to confirm whether levosimendan reduces mortality and morbidity compared with a placebo and when administered repetitively. If it does, it may become routine therapy for the treatment of severe heart failure...
- Comparision of the inotropic effects of levosimendan, rolipram, and dobutamine on human atrial trabeculae
Department of Pharmacology, Akdeniz University, Medical Faculty, Antalya, Turkey
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 44:622-5. 2004
..It was suggested that because of its potential to enhance cardiac performance without predisposition to calcium-induced arrhythmias, levosimendan might be more useful as a positive inotropic agent in clinical practice...
- Pharmacological therapy of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in the emergency department
Colin A Graham
Southern General Hospital, Glasgow G51 4TF, Scotland, UK
Emerg Med Australas 16:47-54. 2004
..The evidence base for 'routine therapy' in the ED is considered. The review also briefly considers emerging pharmacological therapies that may have an impact on future management of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema...
- Levosimendan: first in a new class of inodilator for acute and chronic severe heart failure
John G F Cleland
Department of Cardiology, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, Kington upon Hull, UK
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2:9-19. 2004
..If these studies confirm the benefits of levosimendan, then it may become routine therapy for the management of severe heart failure...
- The clinical experience with levosimendan in anesthesiology and in the intensive care unit
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, , 2 rue Ambroise Pare, 75475 Paris, France
Ital Heart J 4:61S-64S. 2003
..Although the use of levosimendan has been fully validated for the most common causes of acute heart failure, additional clinical trials are needed to safety broaden its therapeutic indications...
- Preliminary clinical experience with the repetitive administration of levosimendan in patients with end-stage heart failure
Konstantinos S Spargias
Cardiology Department, A Onassis Heart Center, 356 Syngrou Ave, 176 74 Athens, Greece
Ital Heart J 4:45S-49S. 2003
..Repetitive levosimendan infusions were administered to 9 patients (minimum 2, maximum 8 pulses). The effects of this therapy on the symptomatic status, vital signs, hemodynamic performance and clinical outcomes are discussed...
- Levosimendan in patients with low-output heart failure: lessons from the LIDO trial
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Ramistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Ital Heart J 4:34S-38S. 2003
..029, respectively). Levosimendan produced less myocardial ischemia and cardiac arrhythmias than dobutamine. Calcium sensitizers offer a new therapeutic possibility in patients with decompensated low-output heart failure...
- Is calcium sensitization the best strategy to improve myocardial contractility in acute heart failure?
Leif R Erhardt
Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Research Unit, Malmo University Hospital, 205 02 Malmo, Sweden
Ital Heart J 4:27S-33S. 2003
..Taken together, levosimendan's primary calcium-sensitizing action, along with its complementary vasodilator properties, make this new drug a highly promising agent for the treatment of patients with acute heart failure...
- The role of Ca++-sensitizers for the treatment of heart failure
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen, Germany
Curr Opin Crit Care 9:337-44. 2003
..The most important studies of the long-term treatment of stable cardiac failure with pimobendan and on the short-term treatment of unstable cardiac failure with levosimendan are presented...
- [Levosimendan: a new option in the pharmacologic management of cardiac insufficiency]
Oscar E Del-Razo
, , Distrito Federal,
Gac Med Mex 139:87-9. 2003
..Levosimendan is a new and relevant calcium sensitizer developed for the short-term intravenous treatment of congestive heart failure...
- Levosimendan in regional myocardial ischemia
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 16:379-81. 2002
- The development of new medical treatments for acute decompensated heart failure
John R Teerlink
University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Heart Fail Monit 2:129-37. 2002
..These three agents represent a new generation of therapeutics for this important medical problem and may provide the means not only to treat symptoms, but also to improve longer-term clinical outcomes...
- Intravenous levosimendan treatment is cost-effective compared with dobutamine in severe low-output heart failure: an analysis based on the international LIDO trial
J G F Cleland
Department of Cardiology, Castle Hill Hospital, Castle Road, Cottingham, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull HU16 5JQ, UK
Eur J Heart Fail 5:101-8. 2003
..Levosimendan, a novel calcium sensitiser, improves cardiac performance and symptoms without increasing oxygen consumption, and decreases the mortality of patients with low-output heart failure...
- Pharmacotherapeutic approaches for decompensated heart failure: a role for the calcium sensitiser, levosimendan?
Department of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
Eur J Heart Fail 5:13-21. 2003
..Calcium sensitisation is therefore emerging as a promising treatment approach in this challenging therapeutic area...
- Levosimendan: a unique approach to the treatment of heart failure
James J Nawarskas
University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 5691, USA
Heart Dis 4:265-71. 2002
..No clinically significant drug-drug interactions have been reported with levosimendan to date. The clinical future of levosimendan will depend on the results of larger, ongoing clinical trials...
- Hemodynamic effects of levosimendan added to dobutamine in patients with decompensated advanced heart failure refractory to dobutamine alone
John N Nanas
University of Athens School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece
Am J Cardiol 94:1329-32. 2004
..002) mean decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure compared with measurements obtained after 24 hours of dobutamine infusion alone. Symptoms were alleviated in all patients, and all but 3 were discharged from the hospital...
- Levosimendan and gut mucosal blood flow--not all inotropes are created equal
Craig M Coopersmith
Crit Care Med 33:246-7. 2005