glycogen synthase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi New insights into the role and mechanism of glycogen synthase activation by insulin
    J C Lawrence
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville 22908, USA
    Diabetes 46:541-7. 1997
  2. ncbi The glamour and gloom of glycogen synthase kinase-3
    Richard S Jope
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, Sparks Center 1057, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0017, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 29:95-102. 2004
  3. pmc Glycogen synthase kinase 3: more than a namesake
    Geetha Vani Rayasam
    Department of Pharmacology, Research and Development R and D III, Ranbaxy Research Labs, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
    Br J Pharmacol 156:885-98. 2009
  4. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise
    H Pilegaard
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, The August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E806-14. 2000
  5. ncbi Selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors potentiate insulin activation of glucose transport and utilization in vitro and in vivo
    David B Ring
    Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California, USA
    Diabetes 52:588-95. 2003
  6. ncbi Mechanism suppressing glycogen synthesis in neurons and its demise in progressive myoclonus epilepsy
    David Vilchez
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine and University of Barcelona, Barcelona Science Park, Josep Samitier 1 5, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Nat Neurosci 10:1407-13. 2007
  7. ncbi Altered carbohydrate metabolism in glycogen synthase mutants of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002: Cell factories for soluble sugars
    Yu Xu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Metab Eng 16:56-67. 2013
  8. pmc Characterization of recombinant UDP- and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases and glycogen synthase to elucidate glucose-1-phosphate partitioning into oligo- and polysaccharides in Streptomyces coelicolor
    Matías D Asención Diez
    Laboratorio de Enzimología Molecular, Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral UNL CONICET, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Santa Fe, Argentina
    J Bacteriol 194:1485-93. 2012
  9. pmc Hypoxia promotes glycogen accumulation through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of glycogen synthase 1
    Nuria Pescador
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 5:e9644. 2010
  10. ncbi Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase controls glycogen synthesis in muscle
    Michale Bouskila
    University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Cell Metab 12:456-66. 2010

Detail Information

Publications276 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi New insights into the role and mechanism of glycogen synthase activation by insulin
    J C Lawrence
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville 22908, USA
    Diabetes 46:541-7. 1997
    ..Insulin activates both glucose transport and glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle...
  2. ncbi The glamour and gloom of glycogen synthase kinase-3
    Richard S Jope
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, Sparks Center 1057, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0017, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 29:95-102. 2004
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is now recognized as a key component of a surprisingly large number of cellular processes and diseases...
  3. pmc Glycogen synthase kinase 3: more than a namesake
    Geetha Vani Rayasam
    Department of Pharmacology, Research and Development R and D III, Ranbaxy Research Labs, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
    Br J Pharmacol 156:885-98. 2009
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a constitutively acting multi-functional serine threonine kinase is involved in diverse physiological pathways ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, development and oncogenesis to ..
  4. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise
    H Pilegaard
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, The August Krogh Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E806-14. 2000
    ....
  5. ncbi Selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors potentiate insulin activation of glucose transport and utilization in vitro and in vivo
    David B Ring
    Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California, USA
    Diabetes 52:588-95. 2003
    ..b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) can negatively regulate several aspects of insulin signaling, and elevated levels of GSK-3 ..
  6. ncbi Mechanism suppressing glycogen synthesis in neurons and its demise in progressive myoclonus epilepsy
    David Vilchez
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine and University of Barcelona, Barcelona Science Park, Josep Samitier 1 5, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Nat Neurosci 10:1407-13. 2007
    ..have the enzymatic machinery for synthesizing glycogen, but that it is suppressed by retention of muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) in the phosphorylated, inactive state...
  7. ncbi Altered carbohydrate metabolism in glycogen synthase mutants of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002: Cell factories for soluble sugars
    Yu Xu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Metab Eng 16:56-67. 2013
    ..b>Glycogen synthase null mutants (glgA-I glgA-II) were constructed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002...
  8. pmc Characterization of recombinant UDP- and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases and glycogen synthase to elucidate glucose-1-phosphate partitioning into oligo- and polysaccharides in Streptomyces coelicolor
    Matías D Asención Diez
    Laboratorio de Enzimología Molecular, Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral UNL CONICET, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Santa Fe, Argentina
    J Bacteriol 194:1485-93. 2012
    ..report the molecular cloning of the genes coding for UDP- and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases as well as for glycogen synthase from genomic DNA of S. coelicolor A3(2)...
  9. pmc Hypoxia promotes glycogen accumulation through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of glycogen synthase 1
    Nuria Pescador
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 5:e9644. 2010
    ..Here we show that oxygen regulates the expression of the muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1). Hypoxic GYS1 induction requires HIF activity and a Hypoxia Response Element within its promoter...
  10. ncbi Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase controls glycogen synthesis in muscle
    Michale Bouskila
    University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Cell Metab 12:456-66. 2010
    b>Glycogen synthase (GS), a key enzyme in glycogen synthesis, is activated by the allosteric stimulator glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and by dephosphorylation through inactivation of GS kinase-3 with insulin...
  11. ncbi Insulin mimetic action of synthetic phosphorylated peptide inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3
    Batya Plotkin
    Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305:974-80. 2003
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was shown to be a key factor in attenuation of the cellular action of insulin...
  12. pmc Laforin is a glycogen phosphatase, deficiency of which leads to elevated phosphorylation of glycogen in vivo
    Vincent S Tagliabracci
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19262-6. 2007
    ..This study provides a molecular link between an observed biochemical property of laforin and the phenotype of a mouse model of Lafora disease. The results also have important implications for glycogen metabolism generally...
  13. ncbi Selective small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 modulate glycogen metabolism and gene transcription
    M P Coghlan
    Department of Vascular Biology, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Essex, UK
    Chem Biol 7:793-803. 2000
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, the activity of which is inhibited by a variety of extracellular stimuli including insulin, growth factors, cell specification factors and cell adhesion...
  14. pmc Molecular mechanism by which AMP-activated protein kinase activation promotes glycogen accumulation in muscle
    Roger W Hunter
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Diabetes 60:766-74. 2011
    ..ATP production, while it is thought to inhibit anabolic glycogen synthesis by suppressing the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) to maintain the energy balance in muscle...
  15. pmc The glycogen-binding domain on the AMPK beta subunit allows the kinase to act as a glycogen sensor
    Andrew McBride
    Division of Molecular Physiology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
    Cell Metab 9:23-34. 2009
    ..Our results suggest the hypothesis that AMPK, as well as monitoring immediate energy availability by sensing AMP/ATP, may also be able to sense the status of cellular energy reserves in the form of glycogen...
  16. ncbi Hyperglycemia reduces nitric oxide synthase and glycogen synthase activity in endothelial cells
    I Noyman
    Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, 76100, Rehovot, Israel
    Nitric Oxide 7:187-93. 2002
    ..The effect of chronic hyperglycemia on endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) activity and expression, glycogen synthase (GS) activity, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1,2), p38, Akt expression, and Cu/Zn superoxide-..
  17. ncbi Regulation of glycogen synthase activity and phosphorylation by exercise
    Jakob N Nielsen
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Proc Nutr Soc 63:233-7. 2004
    b>Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyses the rate-limiting step of UDP-glucose incorporation into glycogen...
  18. pmc Impaired glucose tolerance and predisposition to the fasted state in liver glycogen synthase knock-out mice
    Jose M Irimia
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Diabetes Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:12851-61. 2010
    ..A rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen is glycogen synthase encoded by two genes, GYS1, expressed in muscle and other tissues, and GYS2, primarily expressed in liver (..
  19. pmc PTG gene deletion causes impaired glycogen synthesis and developmental insulin resistance
    Sean M Crosson
    Department of Medicine, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0650, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:1423-32. 2003
    ..reduced glycogen stores in adipose tissue, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, corresponding with decreased glycogen synthase activity and glycogen synthesis rate...
  20. ncbi Glycogen branches out: new perspectives on the role of glycogen metabolism in the integration of metabolic pathways
    Cynthia C Greenberg
    Department of Medicine, Committee on Molecular Metabolism and Nutrition, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E1-8. 2006
    ..However, recent findings demonstrate that the roles of glycogen metabolism in energy sensing, integration of metabolic pathways, and coordination of cellular responses to hormonal stimuli are far more complex...
  21. pmc Glycogen synthase localization and activity in rat skeletal muscle is strongly dependent on glycogen content
    J N Nielsen
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Department of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Physiol 531:757-69. 2001
    1. The influence of muscle glycogen content on glycogen synthase (GS) localization and GS activity was investigated in skeletal muscle from male Wistar rats. 2...
  22. pmc Impairment in long-term memory formation and learning-dependent synaptic plasticity in mice lacking glycogen synthase in the brain
    Jordi Duran
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB Barcelona Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33:550-6. 2013
    ..To address this long-standing question, we generated a brain-specific Glycogen Synthase knockout (GYS1(Nestin-KO)) mouse and studied the functional consequences of the lack of glycogen in the ..
  23. ncbi Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha in insulin action in cultured human skeletal muscle cells
    Theodore P Ciaraldi
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    Endocrinology 148:4393-9. 2007
    An association between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance has been demonstrated in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, inhibition of GSK3 improves insulin action...
  24. pmc Exercise with calorie restriction improves insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthase activity in obese postmenopausal women with impaired glucose tolerance
    Alice S Ryan
    Division of Gerontology, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 10 N Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 302:E145-52. 2012
    Our objective was to compare the effects of in vivo insulin on skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GS) activity in normal (NGT) vs...
  25. ncbi Two glycogen synthase isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are coded by distinct genes that are differentially controlled
    I Farkas
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 5122
    J Biol Chem 266:15602-7. 1991
    In previous work, we identified a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycogen synthase gene, GSY1, which codes for an 85-kDa polypeptide present in purified yeast glycogen synthase (Farkas, I., Hardy, T.A., DePaoli-Roach, A.A., and Roach, P.J...
  26. ncbi Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3
    Andrei V Ougolkov
    Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 468:67-75. 2008
    There are two homologous forms of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3, GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta, which play overlapping roles in the regulation of Wnt, Hedgehog, and insulin pathways, as well as the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-..
  27. pmc Phosphate incorporation during glycogen synthesis and Lafora disease
    Vincent S Tagliabracci
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Cell Metab 13:274-82. 2011
    ..We demonstrate here that the biosynthetic enzyme glycogen synthase, which normally adds glucose residues to glycogen, is capable of incorporating the β-phosphate of its ..
  28. pmc GLUT4 and glycogen synthase are key players in bed rest-induced insulin resistance
    Rasmus S Biensø
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 61:1090-9. 2012
    ..The ability of insulin to phosphorylate Akt and activate glycogen synthase (GS) was reduced with normal GS site 3 but abnormal GS site 2+2a phosphorylation after bed rest...
  29. ncbi Control of glycogen deposition
    Juan C Ferrer
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    FEBS Lett 546:127-32. 2003
    Traditionally, glycogen synthase (GS) has been considered to catalyze the key step of glycogen synthesis and to exercise most of the control over this metabolic pathway...
  30. ncbi An assay for adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase that measures the synthesis of radioactive ADP-glucose with glycogen synthase
    Alejandra Yep
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Anal Biochem 324:52-9. 2004
    ..as a substrate, the ADP-[14C]glucose formed as a product is converted to [14C]glycogen by the addition of glycogen synthase and nonradioactive glycogen as primer...
  31. ncbi Determinants of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of muscle glycogen synthase
    Emili Cid
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    FEBS J 272:3197-213. 2005
    Muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) presents a nuclear speckled pattern in primary cultured human muscle and in 3T3-L1 cells deprived of glucose and with depleted glycogen reserves...
  32. ncbi Use of lithium and SB-415286 to explore the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in the regulation of glucose transport and glycogen synthase
    Katrina MacAulay
    Division of Molecular Physiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, UK
    Eur J Biochem 270:3829-38. 2003
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is inactivated by insulin and lithium and, like insulin, Li also activates glycogen synthase (GS) via inhibition of GSK3...
  33. ncbi Increased phosphorylation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase at NH2-terminal sites during physiological hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes
    Kurt Højlund
    Diabetes Research Centre, University of Southern Denmark and Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Kloevervaenget 6, DK 5000 Odense C, Denmark
    Diabetes 52:1393-402. 2003
    In type 2 diabetes, insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) is impaired. This defect plays a major role for the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia...
  34. pmc Intracellular distribution of glycogen synthase and glycogen in primary cultured rat hepatocytes
    M Garcia-Rocha
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 7a Planta, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Biochem J 357:17-24. 2001
    Changes in the intracellular distribution of liver glycogen synthase (GS) might constitute a new regulatory mechanism for the activity of this enzyme at cellular level...
  35. ncbi Effect of diabetes on glycogen metabolism in rat retina
    Gustavo Sánchez-Chávez
    Departamento de Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70 253, 04510 Mexico, DF, Mexico
    Neurochem Res 33:1301-8. 2008
    ..In order to better understand the effect of hyperglycemia in retina, we studied glycogen content as well as glycogen synthase and phosphorylase activities in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina and compared them ..
  36. ncbi AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates and inactivates liver glycogen synthase
    Laurent Bultot
    de Duve Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 75, bte B1 74 02, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Biochem J 443:193-203. 2012
    Recombinant muscle GYS1 (glycogen synthase 1) and recombinant liver GYS2 were phosphorylated by recombinant AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) in a time-dependent manner and to a similar stoichiometry...
  37. pmc Dual regulation of muscle glycogen synthase during exercise by activation and compartmentalization
    Clara Prats
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Center, Center for Healthy Ageing, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 284:15692-700. 2009
    b>Glycogen synthase (GS) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenesis but still today there is a lack of understanding on its regulation...
  38. ncbi The regulation of muscle glycogen: the granule and its proteins
    T E Graham
    Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 199:489-98. 2010
    ..These various processes appear to be the mechanisms that give the glycogen granule precise, yet dynamic regulation...
  39. ncbi The diabetic phenotype is conserved in myotubes established from diabetic subjects: evidence for primary defects in glucose transport and glycogen synthase activity
    Michael Gaster
    Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
    Diabetes 51:921-7. 2002
    ..We determined the glycogen synthase (GS) activity; the content of glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, and glycogen; and the glucose transport in ..
  40. ncbi Effect of AICAR treatment on glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle
    William G Aschenbach
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Diabetes 51:567-73. 2002
    ..AICAR increased muscle alpha2 AMPK activity, glycogen, and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations. Glycogen synthase activity was increased in the red gastrocnemius but was decreased in the white gastrocnemius...
  41. ncbi Disruption of the allosteric phosphorylase a regulation of the hepatic glycogen-targeted protein phosphatase 1 improves glucose tolerance in vivo
    Ian R Kelsall
    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Cell Signal 21:1123-34. 2009
    ..PP1-G(L)) with glycogen phosphorylase a is believed to inhibit the dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase (GS) by the PP1-G(L) complex, suppressing glycogen synthesis...
  42. ncbi Regulation of glycogen synthase. Identification of residues involved in regulation by the allosteric ligand glucose-6-P and by phosphorylation
    B A Pederson
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, and the Indiana University Center for Diabetes Research, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 5122, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:27753-61. 2000
    The major yeast glycogen synthase, Gsy2p, is inactivated by phosphorylation and activated by the allosteric ligand glucose-6-P...
  43. ncbi Restoration of muscle functionality by genetic suppression of glycogen synthesis in a murine model of Pompe disease
    Gaelle Douillard-Guilloux
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    Hum Mol Genet 19:684-96. 2010
    ..GAA and glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) KO mice were inter-crossed to generate a new double-KO model...
  44. ncbi Control of glycogen synthase through ADIPOR1-AMPK pathway in renal distal tubules of normal and diabetic rats
    Philippe G Cammisotto
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 294:F881-9. 2008
    ..The present study aims to determine whether adiponectin and AMPK are involved in the regulation of glycogen synthase (GS) in these structures...
  45. ncbi Improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activation in rat skeletal muscles after adrenaline infusion: role of glycogen content and PKB phosphorylation
    J Jensen
    Department of Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway
    Acta Physiol Scand 184:121-30. 2005
    Effects of in vivo adrenaline infusion on subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activation was investigated in slow-twitch (soleus) and fast-twitch (epitrochlearis) muscles...
  46. ncbi Impaired muscle glycogen synthase in type 2 diabetes is associated with diminished phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation
    S E Nikoulina
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4307-14. 2001
    Insulin signaling pathways potentially involved in regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase were compared in differentiated human muscle cell cultures from nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic patients...
  47. ncbi Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and 3 beta do not colocalize with neurofibrillary tangles
    S D Harr
    Neurology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 17:343-8. 1996
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 alpha and 3 beta are two proline-directed serine/ threonine kinases that have been shown in vitro to hyperphosphorylate tau, and therefore, may contribute to neurofibillary tangle (NFT) formation in ..
  48. pmc Insulin control of glycogen metabolism in knockout mice lacking the muscle-specific protein phosphatase PP1G/RGL
    Y Suzuki
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202
    Mol Cell Biol 21:2683-94. 2001
    ..In skeletal muscle, the glycogen synthase (GS) activity ratio in the absence and presence of glucose-6-phosphate is reduced from 0...
  49. ncbi Regulation of muscle glycogen synthase phosphorylation and kinetic properties by insulin, exercise, adrenaline and role in insulin resistance
    Jørgen Jensen
    Department of Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Thiruvallur, Oslo, Norway
    Arch Physiol Biochem 115:13-21. 2009
    In mammals, excess carbohydrate is stored as glycogen and glycogen synthase is the enzyme that incorporates glucose units into the glycogen particle...
  50. ncbi Selective suppression of AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle: update on 'lazy mice'
    J Mu
    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Clinical Research Building, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6148, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 31:236-41. 2003
    ..We also performed microarray analysis and showed dramatic changes of transcription profile in muscles of the lazy mice. These could have a significant impact on muscle function and may contribute to the observed phenotype...
  51. ncbi AMP-activated protein kinase--a sensor of glycogen as well as AMP and ATP?
    A McBride
    Division of Molecular Physiology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, UK
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 196:99-113. 2009
    ..particle is in an active state when glycogen particles are fully synthesized, causing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at site 2 and providing a feedback inhibition of further extension of the outer chains of glycogen...
  52. ncbi Exercise training increases glycogen synthase activity and GLUT4 expression but not insulin signaling in overweight nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects
    Christine Y Christ-Roberts
    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Metabolism 53:1233-42. 2004
    ..The present study was undertaken to determine how improved insulin signaling, GLUT4 expression, and glycogen synthase activity contribute to this improvement...
  53. ncbi Effect of acute activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase on glycogen regulation in isolated rat skeletal muscle
    Licht Miyamoto
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Appl Physiol 102:1007-13. 2007
    ..In contrast, whereas contraction stimulated glycogen synthase (GS), AICAR treatment decreased GS activity...
  54. ncbi Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta as a target for the therapy of shock and inflammation
    Laura Dugo
    Centre for Experimental Medicine, Nephrology and Critical Care Medicine, William Harvey Research Institute, St Bartholomew s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Charterhouse Square, London, UK
    Shock 27:113-23. 2007
    After the discovery that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3beta plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the activity of nuclear factor kappaB, a number of studies have investigated the effects of this protein kinase in the regulation ..
  55. pmc PTG depletion removes Lafora bodies and rescues the fatal epilepsy of Lafora disease
    Julie Turnbull
    Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002037. 2011
    ..Polyglucosan formation is catalyzed by glycogen synthase, which is activated through dephosphorylation by glycogen-associated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1)...
  56. ncbi Levodopa with carbidopa diminishes glycogen concentration, glycogen synthase activity, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle
    Jill L Smith
    Dept of Biology, St Louis University, 3507 Laclede Ave, St Louis, MO 63103, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:2339-46. 2004
    ..We examined the effects of levodopa-carbidopa on glycogen concentration, glycogen synthase activity, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle, the predominant insulin-responsive ..
  57. ncbi A novel domain in AMP-activated protein kinase causes glycogen storage bodies similar to those seen in hereditary cardiac arrhythmias
    Emma R Hudson
    Division of Molecular Physiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 13:861-6. 2003
    ..accumulation of AMPK in large cytoplasmic inclusions that could be counterstained with anti-glycogen or anti-glycogen synthase antibodies...
  58. pmc Structural basis for glucose-6-phosphate activation of glycogen synthase
    Sulochanadevi Baskaran
    Department of Biochemistry and Molelcular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 5122, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17563-8. 2010
    ..b>Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein ..
  59. ncbi Phosphorylation of Ser640 in muscle glycogen synthase by DYRK family protein kinases
    Alexander V Skurat
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:2490-8. 2004
    b>Glycogen synthase, a key enzyme in the regulation of glycogen synthesis by insulin, is controlled by multisite phosphorylation...
  60. pmc Glucose 6-phosphate causes translocation of phosphorylase in hepatocytes and inactivates the enzyme synergistically with glucose
    Susan Aiston
    Department of Diabetes, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, The Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    Biochem J 377:195-204. 2004
    The role of glucose 6-P (glucose 6-phosphate) in regulating the activation state of glycogen synthase and its translocation is well documented...
  61. ncbi The basal kinetic parameters of glycogen synthase in human myotube cultures are not affected by chronic high insulin exposure
    M Gaster
    Department of Endocrinology, Odense University, Odense, Denmark
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1537:211-21. 2001
    ..studies on the impact of chronic high insulin and/or high glucose exposure on acute insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase (GS) kinetic parameters in human skeletal muscle...
  62. ncbi Hepatic glycogen synthesis is highly sensitive to phosphorylase activity: evidence from metabolic control analysis
    S Aiston
    Department of Diabetes, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 276:23858-66. 2001
    ..CP-91149 inactivated phosphorylase with sequential activation of glycogen synthase. It increased glycogen synthesis by 7-fold at 5 mm glucose and by 2-fold at 20 mm glucose with a decrease in ..
  63. ncbi Phosphorylation-dependent translocation of glycogen synthase to a novel structure during glycogen resynthesis
    Clara Prats
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 280:23165-72. 2005
    ..It is well accepted that the rate-limiting enzymes in glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GPh), respectively...
  64. ncbi Crystal structure of an archaeal glycogen synthase: insights into oligomerization and substrate binding of eukaryotic glycogen synthases
    Cristina Horcajada
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 281:2923-31. 2006
    ..The crystal structure of the glycogen synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi, the smallest known member of this family of enzymes, revealed that its subunits ..
  65. ncbi Cloning, localization and induction of mouse brain glycogen synthase
    G Pellegri
    Laboratoire de Recherche Neurologique, Institut de Physiologie et Service de Neurologie du CHUV, Faculté de Médecine Université de Lausanne, Switzerland
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 38:191-9. 1996
    The cDNA for mouse brain glycogen synthase has been isolated by screening a mouse cerebral cortical astrocyte lambda ZAP II cDNA library. The mouse brain glycogen synthase cDNA is 3...
  66. ncbi Constitutive activation of GSK3 down-regulates glycogen synthase abundance and glycogen deposition in rat skeletal muscle cells
    Katrina MacAulay
    Division of Molecular Physiology, Medical Sciences Institute Wellcome Trust Building Complex, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 280:9509-18. 2005
    The effects of inhibition or constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) on glycogen synthase (GS) activity, abundance, and glycogen deposition in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells were investigated...
  67. ncbi Impaired insulin-stimulated expression of the glycogen synthase gene in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is acquired rather than inherited
    X Huang
    Department of Endocrinology, University of Lund, Malmo, Sweden
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:1584-90. 2000
    To examine whether defective muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) expression is associated with impaired glycogen synthesis in type 2 diabetes and whether the defect is inherited or acquired, we measured GYS1 gene expression and enzyme ..
  68. ncbi Genomic organization of the Neurospora crassa gsn gene: possible involvement of the STRE and HSE elements in the modulation of transcription during heat shock
    F Zanolli Freitas
    Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, 14800 900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
    Mol Genet Genomics 272:550-61. 2004
    b>Glycogen synthase, an enzyme involved in glycogen biosynthesis, is regulated by phosphorylation and by the allosteric ligand glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). In addition, enzyme levels can be regulated by changes in gene expression...
  69. ncbi Effect of glycogen synthase overexpression on insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake and storage
    Donovan L Fogt
    Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 286:E363-9. 2004
    ..GSL3-transgenic mice overexpress a constitutively active form of glycogen synthase, which results in an abundant storage of muscle glycogen...
  70. ncbi Transgenic models--a scientific tool to understand exercise-induced metabolism: the regulatory role of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) in glucose transport and glycogen synthase activity in skeletal muscle
    J F P Wojtaszewski
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 13 Universitetsparken, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Biochem Soc Trans 31:1290-4. 2003
    ..In this mini-review focus is on AMPK and its regulatory role for glucose transport and GS (glycogen synthase) activity in skeletal muscle, indicating that AMPK is a GS kinase in vivo which might influence GS activity ..
  71. ncbi Glycogen synthase: key effect of exercise on insulin action
    Christine Y Christ-Roberts
    Department of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 3900 USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 32:90-4. 2004
    ..Increased activity or expression of other proteins seems to be more important. An increase in activity and expression of glycogen synthase and GLUT4 may be key to the effects of exercise.
  72. ncbi Regulation of glycogen synthase by glucose and glycogen: a possible role for AMP-activated protein kinase
    Reza Halse
    School of Biochemistry and Genetics, Medical School, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, U K
    Diabetes 52:9-15. 2003
    ..in culture to study the relationships between cellular glycogen concentrations and the activities of glycogen synthase (GS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
  73. ncbi Muscle glycogen inharmoniously regulates glycogen synthase activity, glucose uptake, and proximal insulin signaling
    Jørgen Jensen
    Department of Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290:E154-E162. 2006
    ..In LG, basal and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activation were higher and glycogen synthase phosphorylation (Ser(645), Ser(649), Ser(653), Ser(657)) lower ..
  74. ncbi Seasonal, tissue-specific regulation of Akt/protein kinase B and glycogen synthase in hibernators
    Kyle L Hoehn
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 1870, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286:R498-504. 2004
    ..Moreover, glycogen synthase, which lies downstream of Akt/PKB on a linear pathway linking the enzyme to the stimulation of glycogen ..
  75. ncbi AMPK beta subunit targets metabolic stress sensing to glycogen
    Galina Polekhina
    St Vincent s Institute of Medical Research, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Australia
    Curr Biol 13:867-71. 2003
    ..Glycogen binding provides an architectural link between AMPK and a major cellular energy store and juxtaposes AMPK to glycogen bound phosphatases...
  76. pmc Alternative splicing of the porcine glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) gene with differential expression patterns and regulatory functions
    Linjie Wang
    Institute of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya an, Sichuan, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e40250. 2012
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3α and GSK3β) are serine/threonine kinases involved in numerous cellular processes and diverse diseases including mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancer...
  77. ncbi Isolation of the GSY1 gene encoding yeast glycogen synthase and evidence for the existence of a second gene
    I Farkas
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46223
    J Biol Chem 265:20879-86. 1990
    b>Glycogen synthase preparations from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contained two polypeptides of molecular weights 85,000 and 77,000. Oligonucleotides based on protein sequence were utilized to clone a S...
  78. pmc Multiple glycogen-binding sites in eukaryotic glycogen synthase are required for high catalytic efficiency toward glycogen
    Sulochanadevi Baskaran
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:33999-4006. 2011
    b>Glycogen synthase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycogen and has an essential role in glucose homeostasis...
  79. pmc Proteomic analysis of ribosomes: translational control of mRNA populations by glycogen synthase GYS1
    Gabriele Fuchs
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Mol Biol 410:118-30. 2011
    ..Notably, the phosphorylated isoform of glycogen synthase, glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1), was preferentially associated with elongating ribosomes...
  80. pmc The subcellular localization of yeast glycogen synthase is dependent upon glycogen content
    Wayne A Wilson
    Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Des Moines University, 3200 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50312, USA
    Can J Microbiol 56:408-20. 2010
    ..b>Glycogen synthase, the major form of which is encoded by the GSY2 gene, catalyzes the key regulated step in glycogen storage...
  81. ncbi Role of AMP on the activation of glycogen synthase and phosphorylase by adenosine, fructose, and glutamine in rat hepatocytes
    A Carabaza
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
    J Biol Chem 265:2724-32. 1990
    ..with erythro-9-(2-hydroxyl-3nonyl)adenine further increases the accumulation of AMP and the activation of glycogen synthase and phosphorylase by fructose...
  82. pmc Enhanced symbiotic performance by Rhizobium tropici glycogen synthase mutants
    S Marroqui
    John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 183:854-64. 2001
    ..coli: glycogen phosphorylase (glgP), glycogen branching enzyme (glgB), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC), glycogen synthase (glgA), phosphoglucomutase (pgm), and glycogen debranching enzyme (glgX)...
  83. ncbi Control of yeast glycogen synthase-2 by COOH-terminal phosphorylation
    T A Hardy
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 5122
    J Biol Chem 268:23799-805. 1993
    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses two isoforms of glycogen synthase, of which glycogen synthase-2 (GS-2) appears to be the most important determinant of glycogen accumulation (Farkas, I., Hardy, T. A., Goebl, M. G...
  84. ncbi Glucose has to be phosphorylated to activate glycogen synthase, but not to inactivate glycogen phosphorylase in hepatocytes
    A Carabaza
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain
    FEBS Lett 296:211-4. 1992
    ..as glucose, cause the inactivation of the rat hepatocyte glycogen phosphorylase and the activation of glycogen synthase. However, 6-deoxyglucose and 1,5-anhydroglucitol inactivate phosphorylase without increasing the activation ..
  85. pmc Control of glycogen content in retina: allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase
    Ixchel Osorio-Paz
    Division Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico
    PLoS ONE 7:e30822. 2012
    ..under different experimental conditions and correlated them with glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) content and glycogen synthase (GS) activity...
  86. ncbi Muscle glycogen synthase isoform is responsible for testicular glycogen synthesis: glycogen overproduction induces apoptosis in male germ cells
    Franz Villarroel-Espíndola
    Instituto de Bioquímica y Microbiología, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
    J Cell Biochem 114:1653-64. 2013
    ..The rate-limiting enzyme in glycogen synthesis is glycogen synthase (GS)...
  87. pmc Portal vein glucose entry triggers a coordinated cellular response that potentiates hepatic glucose uptake and storage in normal but not high-fat/high-fructose-fed dogs
    Katie C Coate
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Diabetes 62:392-400. 2013
    ..of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia triggered an increase in the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase (GS), which occurred in association with further augmentation in HGU and glycogen synthesis (GSYN) in vivo...
  88. pmc Neurodegeneration and functional impairments associated with glycogen synthase accumulation in a mouse model of Lafora disease
    Jordi Valles-Ortega
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB Barcelona Barcelona, Spain
    EMBO Mol Med 3:667-81. 2011
    ..These structures are abundant in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Here, we report a large increase in glycogen synthase (GS) in these mice, in which the enzyme accumulates in LBs...
  89. ncbi Hyperglycaemia normalises insulin action on glucose metabolism but not the impaired activation of AKT and glycogen synthase in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes
    B F Vind
    Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, DK 5000 Odense, Denmark
    Diabetologia 55:1435-45. 2012
    ..glucose disposal, primarily glycogen synthesis, is associated with defective insulin activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in skeletal muscle...
  90. pmc Temporal orchestration of glycogen synthase (GlgA) gene expression and glycogen accumulation in the oceanic picoplanktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain WH8103
    Michael Wyman
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4744-7. 2012
    ..strain WH8103 following a midday maximum in glgA (encoding glycogen synthase) mRNA abundance...
  91. ncbi Effects of temperature shifts on the activities of Neurospora crassa glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase
    M A Noventa-Jordão
    Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brasil
    FEBS Lett 378:32-6. 1996
    ..we show that concomitant with these shifts of temperature, occurred reversible changes in the activities of glycogen synthase and phosphorylase. Glycogen synthase was inactivated at 45 degrees C while phosphorylase was activated...
  92. ncbi Dysregulation of glycogen synthase COOH- and NH2-terminal phosphorylation by insulin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Kurt Højlund
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University ofCopenhagen, Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:4547-56. 2009
    ..Impaired activation of glycogen synthase (GS) by insulin is a well-established defect in both obesity and T2DM, but the underlying mechanisms remain ..
  93. ncbi Molecular and biochemical characterization of the Neurospora crassa glycogen synthase encoded by the gsn cDNA
    R de Paula
    Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, R Professor Francisco Degni, S N, 14800 900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
    Mol Genet Genomics 267:241-53. 2002
    ..Through a PCR methodology, the gsn cDNA coding for the N. crassa glycogen synthase was isolated, and the amino acid sequence of the protein was deduced...
  94. ncbi Glycogen depletion and resynthesis during 14 days of chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit muscle
    C Prats
    Unitat de Bioquimica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona UB, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Spain
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1573:68-74. 2002
    ..The effect of 14 days of chronic electro-stimulation on glycogen turnover and on the regulation of glycogen synthase in fast-twitch muscle was studied...
  95. pmc Identification of glycogen synthase as a new substrate for stress-activated protein kinase 2b/p38beta
    Yvonne Kuma
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    Biochem J 379:133-9. 2004
    The endogenous glycogen synthase in extracts from mouse skeletal muscle, liver and brain bound specifically to SAPK2b (stress-activated protein kinase 2b)/p38b, but not to other members of the group of SAPK/p38 kinases...
  96. pmc GSK-3beta and control of glucose metabolism and insulin action in human skeletal muscle
    T P Ciaraldi
    Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Medicine, University of California, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 315:153-8. 2010
    The involvement of the beta-isoform of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3) in glucose metabolism and insulin action was investigated in cultured human skeletal muscle cells...
  97. ncbi Glycogen synthase sensitivity to insulin and glucose-6-phosphate is mediated by both NH2- and COOH-terminal phosphorylation sites
    A V Skurat
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202 USA
    Diabetes 49:1096-100. 2000
    In skeletal muscle, insulin activates glycogen synthase by reducing phosphorylation at both NH2- and COOH-terminal sites of the enzyme and by elevating the levels of glucose-6-phosphate, an allosteric activator of glycogen synthase...
  98. ncbi Inverse relationship of skeletal muscle glycogen from wild-type and genetically modified mice to their phosphorylase a activity
    Louis H Schliselfeld
    Department of Pathology, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:874-7. 2002
    ..from 5 wild-type mice, two knocked out acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) gene mice, and seven glycogen synthase plus glucose muscle transporter transgenic mice...
  99. ncbi cAMP signaling pathway controls glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa by regulating the glycogen synthase gene expression and phosphorylation
    Fernanda Zanolli Freitas
    Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, 14800 900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
    Fungal Genet Biol 47:43-52. 2010
    ..We analyzed the expression of the gene encoding glycogen synthase (gsn), the regulatory enzyme in glycogen synthesis as a potential target of the regulation...
  100. ncbi Glycogen synthase binds to sarcoplasmic reticulum and is phosphorylated by CaMKII in fast-twitch skeletal muscle
    Roberta Sacchetto
    Department of Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy
    Arch Biochem Biophys 459:115-21. 2007
    We investigated the subcellular localization of glycogen synthase (GS) in the adductor muscle of anesthetized rabbits injected intravenously with propranolol...
  101. ncbi Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on the kinetics of glycogen synthase a in hepatocytes from normal and diabetic rats
    M I Lopez-Delgado
    Department of Metabolism, Nutrition and Hormones, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain
    Endocrinology 139:2811-7. 1998
    ..GLP-1 also activates glycogen synthase a in hepatocytes from both normal and diabetic rats...

Research Grants68

  1. Genetic and physiological causes of inherited Vascular and Metabolic Diseases
    Arya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The rate limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase (GS), is phosphorylated and inactivated by glycogen synthase kinase 3ss (GSK3ss)...
  2. Molecular Regulation of Progesterone Synthesis
    John S Davis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the overall hypothesis that activation of protein kinase A inhibits the intracellular signaling intermediate glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which contributes to the steroidogenic response to LH by increasing the availability of a 2-..
  3. Regulation of myocardial growth and death by GSK-3
    Junichi Sadoshima; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a serine/threonine kinase, plays an important role in regulating growth and death of cardiomyocytes...
  4. New insights in mechanisms of renal injury
    Balakuntalam S Kasinath; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Our objective is to investigate the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK 3beta) in diabetic nephropathy. The rationale is based on our preliminary data: 1...
  5. ER stress: role in myocyte apoptosis and myocardial remodeling
    Krishna Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently, we provided evidence that activation of glycogen synthase kinase-32 (GSK-32) plays a pro-apoptotic role in 2-AR- stimulated apoptosis via the involvement of ..
  6. The genetics and pathophysiology of impaired Wnt signaling in metabolic syndrome
    Arya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..GSK3 inhibits glycogen synthase activity by phosphorylation of its serine/tyrosine residues...
  7. Extracellular ubiquitin: role in myocyte apoptosis and myocardial remodeling
    Krishna Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have shown that ?-AR-stimulated apoptosis is mediated via the activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and JNK-dependent mitochondrial death pathway in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs)...
  8. Cell stress, development, and stimulant-induced behavior: Regulation by GSK3
    Marjelo A Mines; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) has widespread regulatory effects on cell signaling pathways and behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric diseases...
  9. Neuroprotection by IFN-beta in AIDS
    Marcus Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..induces neuroprotective ?-chemokines and NGF, increases activity of Akt, reduces activity of p38 MAPK and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 32 and hyperphosphorylation of tau, and thus protects neurons and their dendrites and synapses ..
  10. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Endothelial Cell Senescence
    Catherine D Mao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to treat bipolar disorder as well as to activate the oncogenic 2-catenin signaling pathway via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-32...
  11. Mechanisms of Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy
    Marc B Hershenson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on neonatal lung mesenchymal stromal cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3[unreadable] and [unreadable]-catenin in myofibroblastic differentiation in vitro...
  12. Interactions Between Depression, Neuroinflammation and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
    Eleonore Beurel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) recently was found to be a powerful regulator of cytokine production in the periphery...
  13. Cannabinoid regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3
    Cecilia J Hillard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is emerging as an important regulatory kinase in the limbic brain;over-activity of GSK-3 ..
  14. GSK3beta, a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity
    Xianglin Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The loss of CNS neurons may underlie many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Glycogen synthase kinase 3[unreadable] (GSK3[unreadable]), a serine/threonine kinase, is an important mediator of neuron ..
  15. SECRETION AND BIOSYNTHESIS OF INSULIN
    Michael L McDaniel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent studies have determined that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) &tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) are required for mTOR activation...
  16. ELEVATED CALCIUM AND MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIC INJURY
    Charles Steenbergen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glycogen Synthase Kinase-32 (GSK-32) is also implicated as a critical element in many cardioprotective pathways...
  17. GSK3: immunoregulator in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)
    Patrizia De Sarno; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Other cell types involved in the disease are dendritic cells, macrophages, and microglia. The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a critical regulator of a variety of cellular functions, and we and others now report ..
  18. Interactions Between Depression, Neuroinflammation and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
    Eleonore Beurel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) recently was found to be a powerful regulator of cytokine production in the periphery...
  19. Mechanisms of Fatty-Acid Inhibition of the Insulin Gene
    Vincent Poitout; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our working hypothesis is that PASK phosphorylates, and thereby inactivates, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3[unreadable] which alleviates proteasomal degradation of Pdx-1 and MafA...
  20. Targeting stress-mediated pathways in the treatment of muscle insulin resistance
    Paige C Geiger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Specific Aim 2, we will determine the extent to which glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and JNK signaling pathways modulate HSP expression in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle...
  21. The Role of HIF-1 in Neurogenic and Behavior Responses to Antidepressants.
    W TIMOTHY O'BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is a noteworthy coincidence that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a common molecular consequence of treatment with diverse classes of antidepressants as ..
  22. Fundamental mechanisms of protein kinase activation loop autophosphorlyation
    Vaughn Cleghon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DYRKs and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) enzymes are dual-specificity kinases that autophosphorylate their activation loop on an ..
  23. Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Diabetic Gastropathy
    TAMAS ORDOG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our second specific aim is to determine the role and molecular mechanisms-of-action of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (Gsk3) as an extrinsic factor in regulating ICC-SC through stem cell factor expression in smooth ..
  24. Microtubule dynamics during cell polarity and migration
    Torsten Wittmann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This association of CLASPs along lamella microtubules is decreased through phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), an emerging integrator of cell polarity pathways...
  25. Discovery of Novel Antitumor Agents Effective Against Pancreatic Cancer
    Amy E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our initial targets will be: the serine/threonine glycogen synthase kinase-32 (GSK-32) which has been shown to activate nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) transcription in pancreatic ..
  26. Functional Characterization of CCDC130 Gene
    Deepak Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..protein (b) induced by Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)/insulin signaling (c) a putative target for Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK-3), Casein kinase 1 (CK1) and Casein kinase 2 (CK2) (d) down regulated in colon cancer and (e) ..
  27. REGULATION OF PROTEIN TURNOVER IN SEPSIS
    Scot R Kimball; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The second is the phosphorylation of elF2Be through activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3p (GSKSfi)...
  28. Signaling pathways regulated by GSK3 in hematopoietic stem cell
    Jian Huang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The signaling pathways that regulate HSC self-renewal and differentiation are not well understood. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling and a downstream target of hematopoietic ..
  29. Postnatal Serotonin Deficits in Behavioral Pathogenesis: A Novel Genetic Approach
    MEREDITH SORENSON WHITNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the effect of postnatal 5-HT deficiency on two post-synaptic mechanisms involved in 5-HT-related behaviors, glycogen synthase kinase-[unreadable] (GSK3 [unreadable]) signaling and glucocorticoid receptor expression...
  30. Suicide Endophenotypes and Molecular Mechanisms of Lithium Action
    Todd D Gould; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..indicate that lithium may exert some of its mood stabilizing effects through inhibition of the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3! (GSK-3!)...
  31. Mechanism of Gli3 processing in Hedgehog signaling
    Baolin Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gli3 processing requires C-terminal phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), and casein kinase 1 (CK1), and subsequent ubiquitination by SCFTrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  32. Molecular mechanisms of Myotonic Dystrophy 1
    Lubov T Timchenko; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Searching for the mechanisms of the reduction of cyclin D3 in DM1, we found that the active glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) is increased in DM1 muscle biopsies and in muscle of the DM1 mouse model (HSALR mice)...
  33. A Kinase-Substrate Crosslinker For Mapping Signaling Pathways in Reverse
    Kevan M Shokat; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to identify the kinases which phosphorylate Glycogen Synthase Kinase- 32 (GSK-32) at it's inhibitory Ser-9 residue, a subject of much study and debate in multiple ..
  34. Regulation of Renal Response to Vasopressin by Glycogen Synthase
    Reena Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that consists of two isoforms, GSK3a and GSK3[unreadable]...
  35. Targeting Hexokinase II in Chemotherapy
    John G Pastorino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The localization of HXK II to mitochondria is controlled in part by the activity of the PBR and glycogen synthase kinase 3P (GSKP)...
  36. REGULATION OF HEPATIC AND PERIPHERAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM
    Ralph A DeFronzo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..directly by quantitating muscle GFAT activity, UDP-GlcNAc levels, total O-GlcNA protein, and O-linked glycogen synthase activity before and after treatment with hexosamidase to remove the UDP-GlcNAc...
  37. STEROID CONTROL OF EPITHELIAL CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS
    Gary L Firestone; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..test the hypothesis that the functional coordination of ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation of GSK3 (Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3), a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, and of CAS (Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility gene), a ..
  38. Role of Sterols and Insulin in Cardiac Autonomic Response
    JONAS BERNARD GALPER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), which was found to be a key regulatory component of the insulin-signaling pathway, ..
  39. BBB Protection in HIV Infection: Barrier-shielding effects of PARP inhibition
    Yuri Persidsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of (1) molecular mechanisms of BBB injury and (2) anti-inflammatory and barrier protective properties of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3? inhibition in neuroinflammation driven by HIV infection...
  40. Regulating Hematopoietic Stem Cell Homeostasis through GSK-3
    Wei Tong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) negatively regulates multiple signaling pathways in hematopoiesis, including Wnt signaling ..
  41. GSK3 regulation of suprachiasmatic neuronal excitability and light entrainment
    JODI RENEE PAUL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a serine-threonine kinase that is an emerging regulator of mammalian circadian rhythms ..
  42. Circadian dysfunction and GSK3 in neurodegenerative disease
    Karen L Gamble; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will test the hypothesis that glycogen synthase kinase 3 provides a time-of-day-specific gating mechanism for intrinsic excitability, and that disruptions i ..
  43. Discovery of Novel Antitumor Agents Effective Against Pancreatic Cancer
    Amy Wright; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our initial targets will be: the serine/threonine glycogen synthase kinase-3[unreadable] (GSK-3[unreadable]) which has been shown to activate nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) ..
  44. Isoform-specific function of y-AMPK in the heart.
    Rong Tian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..storage without changing the mutant gene expression by specifically targeting the activity of muscle glycogen synthase. Our preliminary data showed that this strategy successfully normalized cardiac glycogen content but not the ..
  45. A Molecular Mechanism for Lithium Action
    Peter S Klein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Previous work in this laboratory has shown that lithium inhibits the signaling molecule Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) and activates the Wnt/li-catenin signaling pathway, providing an explanation for the ..
  46. Effects of lithium on cellular signaling
    Richard S Jope; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Lithium, the classical mood stabilizer used to treat bipolar disorder, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) by a dual mechanism, directly inhibiting enzyme activity and increasing the inhibitory ..
  47. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Consortia (RDCRC) for the RDCR Network
    Mark L Batshaw; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. PAR-1 Signaling and HAND
    KATHLEEN ANNE MAGUIRE-ZEISS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent studies have shown that select GPCRs can associate with ?-arrestins to activate the kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3??(GSK-3?) through a novel, non-canonical signaling pathway...
  49. Pre-clinical Testing of GSK3 Inhibitors in ADPKD
    Irina Barash; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The hypothesis to be tested is that abnormal expression glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSKSbeta), a downstream effector of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, is central to ADPKD cyst ..
  50. Effects of lithium on cellular signaling
    Richard S Jope; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..including studies of human postmortem brain, peripheral cells, and genetics, and behavioral studies in glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) transgenic mice and with GSK3 inhibitors...
  51. INSULIN SIGNALING DEFECTS IN PCOS
    Ricardo Azziz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PCOS adipocytes exhibit defective glucose transport, which may result from the altered phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) we identified in PCOS...
  52. Signaling pathways regulated by GSK3 in hematopoietic stem cell
    Jian Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The signaling pathways that regulate HSC self-renewal and differentiation are not well understood. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling and a downstream target of hematopoietic ..
  53. Therapeutic targeting of GSK3beta: A novel approach for podocyte protection
    Rujun Gong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3, a multi-tasking kinase, plays an important role in mediating acute and chronic injuries in ..
  54. Stability of prolactin receptor and prolactin signaling
    Serge Y Fuchs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..via PRLr ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation that depends on PRLr phosphorylation on Ser349, (ii) glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is implicated in PRLr phosphorylation on Ser349, and (iii) this Ser349 phosphorylation as ..
  55. Erythropoietin PLUS IGF-IN NEUROPROTECTION FROM AIDS
    Stuart Lipton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PI) 3 kinase/Akt (protein kinase B)-mediated transduction pathway acting, at least in part, through glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) to prevent the hyperphosphorylation of tan...
  56. HEXOSAMINES, GLUCOSE TOXICITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Donald A McClain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2. Define the effects of O-GlcNAc at specific sites on glycogen synthase activity and targeting. 3. Determine the degree of specificity of OGT targeting in low vs. high HBP.
  57. Posttranslational processing of tau: function & dysfunc.
    Gail Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The central hypothesis of this application is that a cascade of tau phosphorylation events in which glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) plays a key role, initially results in impaired microtubule binding and subsequently, in ..
  58. GSK3-beta Signaling in Medullary Thyroid Cancer
    Herbert Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have shown that activation of raf-1 through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK3B) markedly suppresses cellular growth and reduces hormone secretion in human MTC cells ..
  59. Targeting Wnt and mTOR to expand hematopoietic stem cells
    Peter S Klein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our recent work has demonstrated that the signaling molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) plays a pivotal role in HSC homeostasis in vivo...
  60. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 as a drug target for Trypanosoma brucei
    Wesley C Van Voorhis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 as a drug target for Trypanosoma brucei African sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease afflicting up to 500,000 persons in Africa, often with fatal outcomes...
  61. Mechanism of regulation for the oncogenic Pax3-FOXO1 in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma
    ANDREW DURRELL HOLLENBACH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..phosphopeptide analysis, and a phospho-specific antibody, we demonstrate that casein kinase II (CKII) and glycogen synthase kinase 32 (GSK32) phosphorylate Pax3 and Pax3-FOXO1 in vitro contributing to Pax3 DNA binding ability, Pax3 ..
  62. Canonical Wnt Signaling by the Proteolytc Processing of LRP6
    BRANDON RICHARD BEAGLE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The Wnt canonical pathway plays a major role in regulating the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)...
  63. DiosMemTM, a natural gamma-secretase inhibitor, opposes AD pathogenesis
    Jun Tan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Among the many promising potential candidates are the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitors...
  64. Improving Gastrointestinal Recovery after Radiation
    George Georges; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Lithium specifically inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3[unreadable]) which activates intestinal stem cell proliferation via the wnt / [..
  65. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta: a setpoint for dopamine dysfunction in neuroAIDS
    Seth Perry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  66. REGULATION OF GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR BY PHOSPHORYLATION
    Michael Garabedian; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..232 (S232) and serine (S224), while c-Jun N- terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylates serine 246 (S246) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) phosphorylates threonine 171 (T171)...
  67. MOLECULAR TARGETS OF LITHIUM AND VALPROATE
    MIRIAM GREENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..and/or valproate affect the phosphoinositide second messenger signal transduction system, protein kinase C, glycogen synthase kinase, transcription activation by AP-1, and B-cell Iymphoma protein 2 (bc1-2)...
  68. GLYCOGEN METABOLISM AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN YEAST
    Peter Roach; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..A means of controlling glycogen synthase may be through regulation of glycogen synthase kinase (Gsy2p) activity...