carbohydrate epimerases

Summary

Summary: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase gene is mutated in recessive hereditary inclusion body myopathy
    I Eisenberg
    Unit for Molecular Biology, Hadassah, Hospital, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Nat Genet 29:83-7. 2001
  2. pmc Enzyme interactions in heparan sulfate biosynthesis: uronosyl 5-epimerase and 2-O-sulfotransferase interact in vivo
    M A Pinhal
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12984-9. 2001
  3. ncbi EJ-ras oncogene transfection of endothelial cells upregulates the expression of syndecan-4 and downregulates heparan sulfate sulfotransferases and epimerase
    C C Lopes
    Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Tres de Maio 100, CEP 04044 020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Biochimie 88:1493-504. 2006
  4. doi Mouse development is not obviously affected by the absence of dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 in spite of a modified brain dermatan sulfate composition
    Barbara Bartolini
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Glycobiology 22:1007-16. 2012
  5. doi Characterization of D-tagatose-3-epimerase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides that converts D-fructose into D-psicose
    Longtao Zhang
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
    Biotechnol Lett 31:857-62. 2009
  6. pmc Characterization of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens D-psicose 3-epimerase that converts D-fructose to D-psicose
    Hye Jung Kim
    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 143 747, South Korea
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:981-5. 2006
  7. pmc Identification of triazinoindol-benzimidazolones as nanomolar inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme TDP-6-deoxy-d-xylo-4-hexopyranosid-4-ulose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC)
    Sharmila Sivendran
    Penn Center for Molecular Discovery, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute for Medicine and Engineering, 1024 Vagelos Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 18:896-908. 2010
  8. pmc Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate: biosynthesis and biological function
    Anders Malmstrom
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Biomedical Center D12, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    J Histochem Cytochem 60:916-25. 2012
  9. pmc Structural and mutational characterization of the catalytic A-module of the mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 from Azotobacter vinelandii
    Henriette J Rozeboom
    Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry, GBB, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 283:23819-28. 2008
  10. pmc Biochemical analysis of the processive mechanism for epimerization of alginate by mannuronan C-5 epimerase AlgE4
    Cristiana Campa
    Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Italy
    Biochem J 381:155-64. 2004

Research Grants

  1. BIOLOGY OF BAMACAN IN TUMORIGENESIS
    Giancarlo Ghiselli; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. Structure-Function Analysis of Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2005
  5. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF ENZYMES
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2000
  7. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF NUCLEOTIDE DEPENDENT ENZYMES
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2001
  8. Molecular interactions: oral bacteria & matrix proteins
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. Environmental Adaptation and Membrane Physiology of an Oral Pathogen
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2009
  10. INVASION AND ADHESION OF PERIOPATHOGENS
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications186 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase gene is mutated in recessive hereditary inclusion body myopathy
    I Eisenberg
    Unit for Molecular Biology, Hadassah, Hospital, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Nat Genet 29:83-7. 2001
    ..Our findings indicate that GNE is the gene responsible for recessive HIBM...
  2. pmc Enzyme interactions in heparan sulfate biosynthesis: uronosyl 5-epimerase and 2-O-sulfotransferase interact in vivo
    M A Pinhal
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12984-9. 2001
    ..These findings provide in vivo evidence for the formation of complexes among enzymes involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. The functional significance of these complexes may relate to the rapidity of heparan sulfate formation...
  3. ncbi EJ-ras oncogene transfection of endothelial cells upregulates the expression of syndecan-4 and downregulates heparan sulfate sulfotransferases and epimerase
    C C Lopes
    Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Tres de Maio 100, CEP 04044 020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Biochimie 88:1493-504. 2006
    ....
  4. doi Mouse development is not obviously affected by the absence of dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 in spite of a modified brain dermatan sulfate composition
    Barbara Bartolini
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Glycobiology 22:1007-16. 2012
    ..We conclude that DS-epi1 compensates in vivo for the loss of DS-epi2. These results extend previous findings of the functional redundancy of brain extracellular matrix components...
  5. doi Characterization of D-tagatose-3-epimerase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides that converts D-fructose into D-psicose
    Longtao Zhang
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
    Biotechnol Lett 31:857-62. 2009
    ..Its activity was maximal at pH 9 and 40 degrees C while being enhanced by Mn(2+). At pH 9 and 40 degrees C, 118 g D-psicose l(-1) was produced from 700 g D-fructose l(-1) after 3 h...
  6. pmc Characterization of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens D-psicose 3-epimerase that converts D-fructose to D-psicose
    Hye Jung Kim
    Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 143 747, South Korea
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:981-5. 2006
    ..The equilibrium ratio between D-psicose and D-fructose was 32:68 at 30 degrees C. D-Psicose was produced at 230 g/liter from 700-g/liter D-fructose at 50 degrees C after 100 min, corresponding to a conversion yield of 32.9%...
  7. pmc Identification of triazinoindol-benzimidazolones as nanomolar inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme TDP-6-deoxy-d-xylo-4-hexopyranosid-4-ulose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC)
    Sharmila Sivendran
    Penn Center for Molecular Discovery, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute for Medicine and Engineering, 1024 Vagelos Research Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 18:896-908. 2010
    ..Computer modeling showed that the binding of the tethered two-ringed system into the active site occurred at the thymidine binding region for one ring system and the sugar region for the other ring system...
  8. pmc Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate: biosynthesis and biological function
    Anders Malmstrom
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Biomedical Center D12, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    J Histochem Cytochem 60:916-25. 2012
    ..This short review presents the biosynthesis and functions of iduronic acid-containing structures, also as revealed by the analysis of the DS-epi1- and 2-deficient mouse models...
  9. pmc Structural and mutational characterization of the catalytic A-module of the mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE4 from Azotobacter vinelandii
    Henriette J Rozeboom
    Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry, GBB, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 283:23819-28. 2008
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis further implicates Tyr(149), His(154), and Asp(178) as being essential for activity. Tyr(149) probably acts as the proton acceptor, whereas His(154) is the proton donor in the epimerization reaction...
  10. pmc Biochemical analysis of the processive mechanism for epimerization of alginate by mannuronan C-5 epimerase AlgE4
    Cristiana Campa
    Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Italy
    Biochem J 381:155-64. 2004
    ..A hexameric oligomer is the minimum size to accommodate activity. For hexa-, hepta- and octameric substrates the third M residue from the non-reducing end is epimerised first...
  11. ncbi Dependence of lactose metabolism upon mutarotase encoded in the gal operon in Escherichia coli
    G G Bouffard
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037
    J Mol Biol 244:269-78. 1994
    ..These results give credence to the idea that the activity of intracellular water is not high enough to permit a simple extrapolation of observed in vitro reactions to in vivo situations in every case...
  12. pmc Biosynthesis of UDP-xylose and UDP-arabinose in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021: first characterization of a bacterial UDP-xylose synthase, and UDP-xylose 4-epimerase
    Xiaogang Gu
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center CCRC, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Microbiology 157:260-9. 2011
    ..Our results provide new information about the ability of rhizobia to form UDP-xylose and UDP-arabinose, which are then used for the synthesis of xylose- and arabinose-containing glycans...
  13. ncbi A novel mutation in the GNE gene and a linkage disequilibrium in Japanese pedigrees
    Aki Arai
    Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
    Ann Neurol 52:516-9. 2002
    ....
  14. ncbi Regulation of the chondroitin/dermatan fine structure by transforming growth factor-beta1 through effects on polymer-modifying enzymes
    Kerstin Tiedemann
    Physiological Sciences, Lund University, BMC B11, S 221 84 Lund, Sweden
    Glycobiology 15:1277-85. 2005
    ..Thus, cellular activity and transcript level correlated well with the changes in the structure of the dermatan/chondroitin sulfate chains...
  15. ncbi GDP-mannose 3',5'-epimerase forms GDP-L-gulose, a putative intermediate for the de novo biosynthesis of vitamin C in plants
    Beata A Wolucka
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B 3001 Leuven Heverlee, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 278:47483-90. 2003
    ..Exogenous L-gulose and L-gulono-1,4-lactone serve as direct precursors of l-ascorbic acid in plant cells. We propose an L-gulose pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of vitamin C in plants...
  16. ncbi Core protein dependence of epimerization of glucuronosyl residues in galactosaminoglycans
    Daniela G Seidler
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Munster, Germany
    J Biol Chem 277:42409-16. 2002
    ....
  17. pmc Drug targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall synthesis: genetics of dTDP-rhamnose synthetic enzymes and development of a microtiter plate-based screen for inhibitors of conversion of dTDP-glucose to dTDP-rhamnose
    Y Ma
    Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1407-16. 2001
    ..The enzyme assay was used to screen 60 Peruvian plant extracts known to inhibit the growth of M. tuberculosis in culture; two extracts were active inhibitors in the enzyme assay at concentrations of less than 2 microg/ml...
  18. pmc The TCF4/β-catenin pathway and chromatin structure cooperate to regulate D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase expression in breast cancer
    Luydmila A Mostovich
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics SB RAMS, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Epigenetics 7:930-9. 2012
    ..Taken together, the results indicate that GLCE expression in breast cancer is regulated by a combination of chromatin structure and TCF4/β-catenin complex activity...
  19. doi Biochemical genetics of nucleotide sugar interconversion reactions
    Wolf Dieter Reiter
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 3125, USA
    Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:236-43. 2008
    ..In a major advance for the understanding of the synthesis of arabinosylated cell wall polysaccharides, reversibly glycosylated proteins turned out to act as mutases that interconvert the pyranose and furanose forms of UDP-L-arabinose...
  20. doi Recent advances on applications and biotechnological production of D-psicose
    Wanmeng Mu
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 94:1461-7. 2012
    ..In addition, the biochemical properties of D-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes and the D-psicose-producing enzyme are compared, and the biotechnological production of D-psicose from D-fructose is reviewed...
  21. pmc D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase suppresses small-cell lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumour growth in vivo
    E V Grigorieva
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics SD RAMS, Timakova str 2, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
    Br J Cancer 105:74-82. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of GLCE in lung carcinogenesis...
  22. doi Expression of chondroitin-glucuronate C5-epimerase and cellular immune responses in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Eishiro Mizukoshi
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
    Liver Int 32:1516-26. 2012
    ..In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of this molecule as an immunotherapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  23. doi Dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 is the predominant isozyme in the formation of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid structure in postnatal developing mouse brain
    Chizuru Akatsu
    Laboratory of Proteoglycan Signaling and Therapeutics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Life Science, Sapporo, Japan
    Glycobiology 21:565-74. 2011
    ..These results suggest that the IdoA-containing structures in the developing brain are mainly produced by the actions of DS-epi2 and play crucial roles in postnatal development...
  24. pmc Crystal structure of the N-acetylmannosamine kinase domain of GNE
    Yufeng Tong
    Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e7165. 2009
    ..Mutations of the GNE protein cause sialurea or autosomal recessive inclusion body myopathy/Nonaka myopathy. GNE is the only human protein that contains a kinase domain belonging to the ROK (repressor, ORF, kinase) family...
  25. ncbi Crystal structures of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Pseudomonas cichorii and its complexes with D-tagatose and D-fructose
    Hiromi Yoshida
    Life Science Research Center and Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750 1 Ikenobe, Miki cho, Kita gun, Kagawa 761 0793, Japan
    J Mol Biol 374:443-53. 2007
    ..Furthermore, a C3-O3 proton-exchange mechanism for P. cichoriid-TE is suggested by X-ray structural analysis, providing a clear explanation for the regulation of the ionization state of Glu152 and Glu246...
  26. doi Overexpression of D-psicose 3-epimerase from Ruminococcus sp. in Escherichia coli and its potential application in D-psicose production
    Yueming Zhu
    National Engineering Laboratory for Industrial Enzymes, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiqi Road 32, Tianjin Airport Economic Area, Tianjin 300308, People s Republic of China
    Biotechnol Lett 34:1901-6. 2012
    ..More importantly, the thermostability of the novel DPE from Ruminococcus is the strongest among all of the D-psicose and D-tagatose 3-epimerases and may be suitable for the industrial production of D-psicose from fructose...
  27. ncbi NMR assignment of the R-module from the Azotobacter vinelandii Mannuronan C5-epimerase AlgE4
    Finn L Aachmann
    J Biomol NMR 31:259. 2005
  28. ncbi The Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgE1 consists of two separate catalytic domains
    H Ertesvag
    UNIGEN Center for Molecular Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7005, Trondheim, Norway
    J Biol Chem 273:30927-32. 1998
    ..AlgE1-1 has a much lower specific activity than both AlgE1-2 and AlgE1. However, the two halves of AlgE1 seem to cooperate in such a way that they contribute approximately equally to the overall epimerization reaction...
  29. ncbi Time-resolved 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy for detailed analyses of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5 epimerase reaction
    Martin Hartmann
    Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian Biopolymer Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Norway
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1570:104-12. 2002
    ..The NMR results were found to be in good agreement with data obtained by a radioisotope assay based on 3H-5-labeled substrates...
  30. ncbi The gal locus from Haemophilus influenzae: cloning, sequencing and the use of gal mutants to study lipopolysaccharide
    D J Maskell
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Mol Microbiol 6:3051-63. 1992
    ..influenzae virulence...
  31. ncbi Mode of action of recombinant Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5 epimerases AlgE2 and AlgE4
    Martin Hartmann
    Norwegian Biopolymer Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, NO 7491 Trondheim, Norway
    Biopolymers 63:77-88. 2002
    ..The comparison between experimental data and simulation results suggests that epimerization by AlgE4 is best described by a processive mode of action, whereas the mode of action of AlgE2 appears to be more difficult to determine...
  32. ncbi Biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate: chondroitin-glucuronate C5-epimerase is identical to SART2
    Marco Maccarana
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC C13, SE 221 84 Lund, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 281:11560-8. 2006
    ..The functional relation between dermatan sulfate and cancer is unknown but may involve known iduronic acid-dependent interactions with growth factors, selectins, cytokines, or coagulation inhibitors...
  33. pmc The MUR1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes an isoform of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase, catalyzing the first step in the de novo synthesis of GDP-L-fucose
    C P Bonin
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:2085-90. 1997
    ..All seven mur1 alleles investigated showed single point mutations in the coding region for the 4,6-dehydratase, confirming that it represents the MUR1 gene...
  34. pmc A bifunctional 3,5-epimerase/4-keto reductase for nucleotide-rhamnose synthesis in Arabidopsis
    Gregory Watt
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center and Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 4712, USA
    Plant Physiol 134:1337-46. 2004
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first example of a bifunctional plant enzyme involved in sugar nucleotide synthesis where a single polypeptide exhibits the same activities as two separate prokaryotic enzymes...
  35. ncbi Decreased expression of human D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase in breast cancer
    Elvira Grigorieva
    Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics SD RAMS, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
    Int J Cancer 122:1172-6. 2008
    ..These findings represent the first data about involvement of human D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase in malignant transformation...
  36. ncbi Synthesis of GDP-L-fucose by the human FX protein
    M Tonetti
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Genova, and Advanced Biotechnology Center, Viale Benedetto XV, 1, 16132 Genova, Italy
    J Biol Chem 271:27274-9. 1996
    ..This is the substrate of several fucosyltranferases involved in the correct expression of many glyconjugates, including blood groups and developmental antigens...
  37. pmc The A modules of the Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan-C-5-epimerase AlgE1 are sufficient for both epimerization and binding of Ca2+
    H Ertesvag
    UNIGEN Center for Molecular Biology and Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Technology and Science, N 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    J Bacteriol 181:3033-8. 1999
    ..The R modules appeared to reduce the Ca2+ concentration needed for full activity and also stimulated the reaction rate when positioned both N and C terminally...
  38. ncbi Hexuronyl C5-epimerases in alginate and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis
    S Valla
    Department of Biotechnology, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
    Biochimie 83:819-30. 2001
    ..Seaweed alginates are widely used in industry, while heparin is well established in the clinic as an anticoagulant...
  39. pmc A Sinorhizobium meliloti lipopolysaccharide mutant altered in cell surface sulfation
    David H Keating
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:6681-9. 2002
    ..Finally, we determined that the lps-212 mutation resulted in a reduced ability to elicit the formation of plant nodules and by altered infection thread structures that aborted prematurely...
  40. ncbi UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase: a regulator of cell surface sialylation
    O T Keppler
    Applied Tumor Virology Program, Tumor Immunology Program, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 284:1372-6. 1999
    ..UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase was found to be a major determinant of cell surface sialylation in human hematopoietic cell lines and a critical regulator of the function of specific cell surface adhesion molecules...
  41. ncbi Selective loss of either the epimerase or kinase activity of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase due to site-directed mutagenesis based on sequence alignments
    K Effertz
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Arnimallee 22, D 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    J Biol Chem 274:28771-8. 1999
    ..The fact that either epimerase or kinase activity are lost selectively provides evidence for the existence of two active sites working quite independently...
  42. pmc Induction of the galactose enzymes in Escherichia coli is independent of the C-1-hydroxyl optical configuration of the inducer D-galactose
    Sang Jun Lee
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4264, USA
    J Bacteriol 190:7932-8. 2008
    ....
  43. ncbi Sulfation pattern in glycosaminoglycan: does it have a code?
    Hiroko Habuchi
    Institute for Molecular Science of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi 480 1195, Japan
    Glycoconj J 21:47-52. 2004
    ..In knock-down experiments of heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase, 6-O-sulfated units in HS have been shown to act as a stimulator or suppressor according to individual GF/morphogen signaling systems...
  44. ncbi Molecular structure of the NADH/UDP-glucose abortive complex of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli: implications for the catalytic mechanism
    J B Thoden
    Institute for Enzyme Research, Graduate School, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53705, USA
    Biochemistry 35:5137-44. 1996
    ..Furthermore, the abortive complex model described here suggests that Ser 124 and Tyr 149 are likely to play important roles in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme...
  45. ncbi Evidence for dynamic interplay of different oligomeric states of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase by biophysical methods
    Darius Ghaderi
    Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    J Mol Biol 369:746-58. 2007
    ..The presence of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine strongly favors the tetrameric state, which therefore likely represents the active state of the enzyme in cells...
  46. ncbi NMR structure of the R-module: a parallel beta-roll subunit from an Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5 epimerase
    Finn L Aachmann
    Department of Life Sciences, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, DK 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 281:7350-6. 2006
    ..Based on the structure and the electrostatic surface potential of both the A- and R-module from AlgE4, a model for the appearance of the whole protein is proposed...
  47. pmc Identification of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase involved in exosporium protein glycosylation in Bacillus anthracis
    Shengli Dong
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:7094-101. 2009
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of the BAS5304 gene occurred in a biphasic manner during both the early and late stages of sporulation...
  48. ncbi Dismutase activity of ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase: evidence for a direct oxidation/reduction mechanism
    James P Morrison
    Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1, Canada
    Biochemistry 44:5907-15. 2005
    ..Transient reduction of the enzyme-bound NADP(+) was monitored by UV spectroscopy and implicates the cofactor's involvement during catalysis...
  49. ncbi The collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP-1) and the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) bind to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE), the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis
    Wenke Weidemann
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    FEBS Lett 580:6649-54. 2006
    ..For two of them, the collapsin response mediator protein 1 and the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, we could verify protein-protein interaction with GNE...
  50. ncbi A two-base mechanism for Escherichia coli ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase
    James P Morrison
    Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1
    Biochemistry 46:3916-24. 2007
    ..This study identifies the two catalytic bases as tyrosine 140 and lysine 178. A one-step enzymatic conversion of mannose into ADP-beta-mannose is also described and used to make C-6' '-substituted derivatives of this sugar nucleotide...
  51. ncbi Molecular genetics of nucleotide sugar interconversion pathways in plants
    W D Reiter
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269 3125, USA
    Plant Mol Biol 47:95-113. 2001
    ....
  52. ncbi Production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid by recombinant whole cells expressing Anabaena sp. CH1 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase and Escherichia coli N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid lyase
    Yen Chung Lee
    Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
    J Biotechnol 129:453-60. 2007
    ..coli cells can be reused for more than eight cycles with a productivity of >8.0gNeuAcL(-1)h(-1). In this process, the expensive activator, ATP, necessary for maximal activity of GlcNAc 2-epimerase in free enzyme system can be omitted...
  53. ncbi Heparan sulfate structure in mice with genetically modified heparan sulfate production
    Johan Ledin
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Uppsala, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 279:42732-41. 2004
    ..4) NDST-2, although generally expressed, does not contribute significantly to tissue-specific HS structures. 5) No change in HS structure could be detected in syndecan-1-deficient mice...
  54. ncbi Characterization and role of fucose mutarotase in mammalian cells
    Dongkyu Park
    Department of Life Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1, Guseong Dong, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305 701, Korea
    Glycobiology 17:955-62. 2007
    ..The results suggest that the mammalian mutarotase is functional in facilitated incorporation of fucose through the salvage pathway...
  55. ncbi Evidence that NADP+ is the physiological cofactor of ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose 6-epimerase
    Y Ni
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:27329-34. 2001
    ..A structural comparison of ADP-hep 6-epimerase with UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, which utilizes an NAD(+) cofactor, has identified the regions of ADP-hep 6-epimerase, which defines its specificity for NADP(+)...
  56. ncbi Modelling the reaction course of N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine--new strategies for the optimisation of neuraminic acid synthesis
    Vera Zimmermann
    Abteilung für Analytische, Technische und Umweltchemie, Universitat Rostock, Albert Einstein Str 3A, 18059, Rostock, Germany
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76:597-605. 2007
    ..Exemplarily, it is presented how the optimal ratio of the two enzymes in the reaction can be determined and how the composition of the reaction solution in a fed-batch reactor can be designed to meet downstream processing needs...
  57. ncbi GNE protein expression and subcellular distribution are unaltered in HIBM
    S Krause
    Friedrich Baur Institute and Department of Neurology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 69:655-9. 2007
    ..For diagnostic purposes, direct genetic analysis of the GNE gene in patients with IBM will remain the mainstay and is not aided by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting using antibodies against the GNE protein...
  58. ncbi Expression of different proteoglycans in human breast tumors
    T Yu Eshchenko
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
    Biochemistry (Mosc) 72:1016-20. 2007
    ..The results suggest that changes in decorin, lumican, and syndecan-1 expression in tumor tissue could induce a distortion of proteoglycan composition and mitotic activity of cells in human breast tumor...
  59. ncbi Cloning, Golgi localization, and enzyme activity of the full-length heparin/heparan sulfate-glucuronic acid C5-epimerase
    B E Crawford
    Department of Cellular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:21538-43. 2001
    ..The amino-terminally truncated epimerase does not localize to any cellular compartment, whereas the full-length enzyme is in the Golgi, where heparan sulfate synthesis is thought to occur...
  60. ncbi Effects of nucleotides on N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 2-epimerases (renin-binding proteins): comparative biochemical studies
    S Takahashi
    Department of Bioengineering, Akita Research Institute of Food and Brewing ARIF, 4 26 Sanuki, Arayamachi Akita 010 1623, Japan
    J Biochem 130:815-21. 2001
    ..These results indicate that mammalian RnBPs have GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity and that nucleotides are essential for formation of the catalytic domain of the enzyme...
  61. ncbi Roles for UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc 6-kinase outside of sialic acid biosynthesis: modulation of sialyltransferase and BiP expression, GM3 and GD3 biosynthesis, proliferation, and apoptosis, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation
    Zhiyun Wang
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:27016-28. 2006
    ..These results provide examples of specific biochemical pathways, other than sialic acid metabolism, that are influenced by GNE...
  62. pmc Domain-specific characteristics of the bifunctional key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase
    Astrid Blume
    Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    Biochem J 384:599-607. 2004
    ..In conclusion, our results reveal that the activities, as well as the oligomeric structure, of this bifunctional enzyme seem to be organized and regulated in a complex manner...
  63. pmc The human D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase gene is transcriptionally activated through the beta-catenin-TCF4 pathway
    Giancarlo Ghiselli
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, JAH 371, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Biochem J 390:493-9. 2005
    ..The data obtained are consistent with the idea that the beta-catenin-TCF4 transactivation pathway plays a major role in modulating GLCE expression, thus contributing to the regulation of HS biosynthesis and its structural organization...
  64. ncbi The mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by ADP-beta-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase
    Jay A Read
    Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Am Chem Soc 126:8878-9. 2004
    ..In addition, the deoxygenated analogues, 7' '-deoxy-ADP-l,d-Hep and 4' '-deoxy-ADP-l,d-Hep, were both found to serve as substrates for the enzyme, indicating that oxidation at either C-7' ' or C-4' ' is not required for catalysis...
  65. ncbi Use of a cell-free system to determine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and N-acetylmannosamine kinase activities in human hereditary inclusion body myopathy
    Susan E Sparks
    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Glycobiology 15:1102-10. 2005
    ..This cell-free approach can be applied to other glycosylation pathway enzymes that are difficult to evaluate in whole cells because their substrate specificities overlap with those of ancillary enzymes...
  66. pmc Gene expression patterns and catalytic properties of UDP-D-glucose 4-epimerases from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
    Qisen Zhang
    Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, School of Agriculture and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
    Biochem J 394:115-24. 2006
    ..A three-dimensional model of the HvUGE revealed that its overall structural fold is highly conserved compared with the human UGE and provides a structural rationale for its ability to bind UDP-GlcNAc...
  67. ncbi Targeted disruption of a murine glucuronyl C5-epimerase gene results in heparan sulfate lacking L-iduronic acid and in neonatal lethality
    Jin ping Li
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Uppsala, The Biomedical Center, Box 582, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:28363-6. 2003
    ..By contrast, major early developmental events known to critically depend on heparan sulfate apparently proceed normally even in the absence of IdoA...
  68. pmc The biosynthesis of L-arabinose in plants: molecular cloning and characterization of a Golgi-localized UDP-D-xylose 4-epimerase encoded by the MUR4 gene of Arabidopsis
    Emilie G Burget
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
    Plant Cell 15:523-31. 2003
    ..The Arabidopsis genome encodes three putative proteins with >76% sequence identity to MUR4, which may explain why mur4 plants are not entirely deficient in the de novo synthesis of UDP-L-Ara...
  69. pmc Production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid using two sequential enzymes overexpressed as double-tagged fusion proteins
    Tzu Hsien Wang
    Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan
    BMC Biotechnol 9:63. 2009
    ..Both were tagged with glutathione S-transferase (GST) at the N-terminus, but at the C-terminus, one was tagged with five contiguous aspartate residues (5D), and the other with five contiguous arginine residues (5R)...
  70. ncbi Intermediate release by ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose 6-epimerase
    Alain Mayer
    Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1
    Biochemistry 46:6149-55. 2007
    ..The corresponding phenylhydrazones were identified by mass spectrometry, and the absence of any 2H isotope in the adduct obtained from the deuterated starting compound confirmed that the oxidation had occurred at C-6''...
  71. pmc Conditional control of selectin ligand expression and global fucosylation events in mice with a targeted mutation at the FX locus
    Peter L Smith
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Cell Biol 158:801-15. 2002
    ..Conditional control of fucosylation in FX(-/-) mice identifies cellular fucosylation events as essential concomitants to fertility, early growth and development, and leukocyte adhesion...
  72. ncbi Influence of UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase mutant proteins on hereditary inclusion body myopathy
    Juliane Penner
    Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    Biochemistry 45:2968-77. 2006
    ..Otherwise, the different mutations result in different enzymatic activities but not in different disease phenotypes and, therefore, do not suggest a direct role of the enzymatic function of GNE in the disease mechanism...
  73. pmc Sialylation is essential for early development in mice
    Martina Schwarzkopf
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Freie Universitat Berlin, Arnimallee 22, D 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:5267-70. 2002
    ..The need of UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase for a defined sialylation process is exemplified with the polysialylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule in embryonic stem cells...
  74. ncbi Characterization of the D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase involved in the biosynthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate
    J P Li
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, the University of Uppsala, The Biomedical Center, Box 582, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 276:20069-77. 2001
    ..H., Sandbäck, D., Rodén, L., Lindahl, U., and Li, J.-P. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 26953-26958) was found to be associated with an approximately 22-kDa peptide generated by a single proteolytic cleavage of the full-sized protein...
  75. ncbi Renin inhibits N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (renin-binding protein)
    S Takahashi
    Department of Bioengineering, Akita Research Institute of Food and Brewing, Sanuki, Arayamachi, Akita 010 1623, Japan
    J Biochem 128:951-6. 2000
    ..These results indicate that renin is an inhibitor of GlcNAc 2-epimerase, and the renin-RnBP heterodimer HMW renin is an inactive form of both renin and GlcNAc 2-epimerase activities...
  76. ncbi The rfaD gene codes for ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose-6-epimerase. An enzyme required for lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis
    W G Coleman
    J Biol Chem 258:1985-90. 1983
    ..These clones also result in an amplification of ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose-6-epimerase activity...
  77. ncbi Human renin-binding protein is the enzyme N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase
    S Takahashi
    Department of Bioengineering, Akita Research Institute of Food and Brewing, Sanuki, Arayamachi, Akita, 010 1623, Japan
    J Biochem 125:348-53. 1999
    ..3 mM for GlcNAc and 12.8 mM for ManNAc, and 0.13 mM for effector ATP. ATP is essential for the GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity of human RnBP. These results indicate that the human RnBP is a GlcNAc 2-epimerase...
  78. ncbi The role of galE in the biosynthesis and function of gonococcal lipopolysaccharide
    B D Robertson
    Max Planck Institut fur Biologie, Abteilung Infektionsbiologie, Tubingen, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 8:891-901. 1993
    ..Furthermore, infection experiments in vitro indicate that the galE mutants exhibit unaltered intergonococcal adhesion as well as adhesion to, and invasion of, epithelial cells...
  79. pmc Mutations in the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene define the disease sialuria and the allosteric site of the enzyme
    R Seppala
    1Section on Human Biochemical Genetics, Heritable Disorders Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1830, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 64:1563-9. 1999
    ..The heterozygous nature of the mutant allele in all three patients reveals a dominant mechanism of inheritance for sialuria...
  80. pmc Cloning, expression, and characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 rfaD gene
    J C Pegues
    Section on Pharmacology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Bacteriol 172:4652-60. 1990
    ..The primary structure of the rfaD protein contains the sequence fingerprint for the ADP-binding beta alpha beta fold at the N terminus...
  81. ncbi Biosynthesis of heparin/heparan sulfate. cDNA cloning and expression of D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase from bovine lung
    J Li
    Department of Medical and Physiological Chemistry, University of Uppsala, S 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 272:28158-63. 1997
    ..Mouse mastocytoma cells showed only the approximately 5-kb transcript. A comparison of the cloned epimerase with the enzymes catalyzing an analogous reaction in alginate biosynthesis revealed no apparent amino acid sequence similarity...
  82. ncbi The crystal structure of ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose 6-epimerase: catalysis with a twist
    A M Deacon
    Department ofChemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Structure 8:453-62. 2000
    ..Heptose is not found in mammalian cells, thus its biosynthetic pathway in bacteria presents a unique target for the design of novel antimicrobial agents...
  83. ncbi A bifunctional enzyme catalyzes the first two steps in N-acetylneuraminic acid biosynthesis of rat liver. Purification and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase
    S Hinderlich
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Arnimallee 22, D 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    J Biol Chem 272:24313-8. 1997
    ..UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase was feedback inhibited by CMP-Neu5Ac. Complete inhibition was achieved with 60 microM CMP-Neu5Ac, and highly positive cooperativity (Hill coefficient of 4.1) was found for inhibitor binding...
  84. ncbi Molecular cloning and identification of N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase from porcine kidney as a renin-binding protein
    I Maru
    Kyoto Research Laboratories, Marukin Shoyu Co, Ltd, Uji, Kyoto 611, Japan
    J Biol Chem 271:16294-9. 1996
    ..That GlcNAc 2-epimerase is a RnBP was confirmed by its ability to bind porcine kidney renin and mask its protease activity. These findings provide unequivocal evidence that the enzyme GlcNAc 2-epimerase is a RnBP...
  85. ncbi The homozygous M712T mutation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase results in reduced enzyme activities but not in altered overall cellular sialylation in hereditary inclusion body myopathy
    Stephan Hinderlich
    Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    FEBS Lett 566:105-9. 2004
    ..Nevertheless, no reduced cellular sialylation was found in those cells by colorimetric assays and lectin analysis, indicating that HIBM is not directly caused by an altered overall expression of sialic acids...
  86. ncbi Primary structure of human erythrocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP[H])-binding protein FX: identification with the mouse tum- transplantation antigen P35B
    L Camardella
    Institute of Protein Biochemistry and Enzymology, National Research Council, Naples, Italy
    Blood 85:264-7. 1995
    ..The remarkably high extent (92%) of homology indicates that erythrocyte FX protein is the human homolog of the P35B gene product...
  87. pmc Deciphering the function of an ORF: Salmonella enterica DeoM protein is a new mutarotase specific for deoxyribose
    Liliane Assairi
    Laboratoire de Chimie Structurale des Macromolecules, Unité de Recherche Associeé 2185 du Cantre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris 15, France
    Protein Sci 13:1295-303. 2004
    ..The possible role of the protein and of the entire gene cluster is discussed in connection with the energy metabolism of S. enterica under particular growth conditions...
  88. ncbi Cloning, expression, and biological function of a dTDP-deoxyglucose epimerase (gerF) gene from Streptomyces sp. GERI-155
    Jae Kyung Sohng
    Institute of Biomolecule Reconstruction, Sun Moon University, Asan, Chungnam 336 708, Korea
    Biotechnol Lett 26:185-91. 2004
    ..The purified enzyme produced maltol from dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose and it was confirmed that the expressed protein was dTDP-deoxyglucose epimerase catalyzing epimerization of C-3 and C-5 or C-3 of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose...
  89. pmc Role of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 O side chain in adherence and analysis of an rfb locus
    S S Bilge
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA
    Infect Immun 64:4795-801. 1996
    ..coli rfb genes occurred independently in E. coli O157:H7 and unrelated O157 strains, and that the O side chain of E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide interferes with the adherence of E. coli O157:H7 to epithelial cells...
  90. ncbi The trpF nucleotide sequence and its promoter analysis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    T Murata
    Department of Bacteriology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Nagano, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 40:107-14. 1996
    ..This inverted repeat could form a 23-nucleotide stem-loop structure in the transcript. Deletion of the inverted repeat slightly decreased the promoter activity of trpF. The presence of tryptophan had no effect on transcription of trpF...
  91. ncbi Primary structure and expression analysis of human UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, the bifunctional enzyme in neuraminic acid biosynthesis
    L Lucka
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Universitatsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin Dahlem, Germany
    FEBS Lett 454:341-4. 1999
    ..In this report we present the corresponding human cDNA sequence, compare it with the primary structure of the rodent enzyme, and report the analysis of its expression in different human tissues and cell lines...
  92. pmc Identification and characterization of the dTDP-rhamnose biosynthesis and transfer genes of the lipopolysaccharide-related rfb locus in Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni
    M Mitchison
    Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    J Bacteriol 179:1262-7. 1997
    ..Moreover, it could restore normal LPS phenotype to a defined rfbB::Tn5 mutant of S. flexneri which was deficient in all four genes, thereby confirming the functional identification of a part of the leptospiral rfb locus...
  93. ncbi The rfaD locus: a region of rearrangement in Vibrio cholerae O139
    S Vimont
    INSERM U 411, Faculte de Medecine Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
    Gene 185:43-7. 1997
    ..cholerae O1, resulting in the emergence of V. cholerae O139. The putative source of exogenous DNA might have been V. cholerae O22, O141 and O155...
  94. ncbi UDPgalactose 4-epimerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A bifunctional enzyme with aldose 1-epimerase activity
    Siddhartha Majumdar
    Division of Drug Design, Development and Molecular Modeling, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India
    Eur J Biochem 271:753-9. 2004
    ..cerevisiae UDPgalactose 4-epimerase is a bifunctional enzyme with aldose 1-epimerase activity. The active sites for these two enzymatic activities are located in different regions of the epimerase holoenzyme...
  95. ncbi Nucleotide sequences of the Escherichia coli nagE and nagB genes: the structural genes for the N-acetylglucosamine transport protein of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system and for glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase
    M J Rogers
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511
    Gene 62:197-207. 1988
    ..This supports the idea that these two transport and phosphorylation systems may have evolved from a common ancestral gene...
  96. pmc How to achieve constitutive expression of a gene within an inducible operon: the example of the nagC gene of Escherichia coli
    J Plumbridge
    Institut de Biologie Physico Chimique, Paris, France
    J Bacteriol 178:2629-36. 1996
    ..The nagC gene is subject to low-level translation so that the amount of NagC protein is kept low despite the relatively high transcription levels...
  97. ncbi Immunological characterization and chloroplast localization of the tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana
    J Zhao
    Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 1801
    J Biol Chem 270:6081-7. 1995
    ..These results provide the first direct evidence that the tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes from Arabidopsis are synthesized as higher molecular weight precursors and then imported into chloroplasts and processed into their mature forms...
  98. ncbi Cloning and molecular analysis of the galE gene of Neisseria meningitidis and its role in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
    M P Jennings
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Mol Microbiol 10:361-9. 1993
    ..These results are consistent with an essential role for galE in the incorporation of galactose into meningococcal lipopolysaccharide...
  99. ncbi Purification and characterization of GlcNAc-6-P 2-epimerase from Escherichia coli K92
    Miguel Angel Ferrero
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Leon, Campus de Vegazana, Leon, Spain
    Acta Biochim Pol 54:387-99. 2007
    ..When E. coli grows using ManNAc as a carbon source, this enzyme converts the intracellular ManNAc-6-P generated into GlcNAc-6-P, diverting the metabolic flux of ManNAc to GlcNAc...
  100. ncbi Contribution of genes from the capsule gene complex (cps) to lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis and serum resistance in Neisseria meningitidis
    S Hammerschmidt
    Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 11:885-96. 1994
    ..Sialylated LOS, but not the polysialic acid capsule, is necessary to confer complete serum resistance on the meningococcus by inhibition of the alternative complement pathway...
  101. pmc xylA cloning and sequencing and biochemical characterization of xylose isomerase from Thermotoga neapolitana
    C Vieille
    Department of Biochemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1867-75. 1995
    ....

Research Grants48

  1. BIOLOGY OF BAMACAN IN TUMORIGENESIS
    Giancarlo Ghiselli; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..3) The contribution of bamacan in vivo to colon tumorigenesis by generating transgenic mice over-expressing bamacan in the intestinal epithelium. ..
  2. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Taken together, these studies will provide new information with respect to both sugar metabolism and eukaryotic transcriptional regulation. ..
  3. Structure-Function Analysis of Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  4. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. X-ray Studies of Sugar-Modifying Enzymes
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Taken together, these studies will provide new information with respect to both sugar metabolism and eukaryotic transcriptional regulation. ..
  6. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF ENZYMES
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  7. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF NUCLEOTIDE DEPENDENT ENZYMES
    Hazel Holden; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Taken together, these studies will provide a detailed description of the role of nucleotides in the enzymatic functions of these proteins. ..
  8. Molecular interactions: oral bacteria & matrix proteins
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding how bacteria interact with host cells or tissue constituents will aid in the development of novel therapeutics to prevent initiation or progression of the disease. ..
  9. Environmental Adaptation and Membrane Physiology of an Oral Pathogen
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the fundamental properties of the physiology and structure of these pathogens will aid in the development of medicines which interrupt the life cycle of these microorganisms and prevent bacterial infections. ..
  10. INVASION AND ADHESION OF PERIOPATHOGENS
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..actinomycetemcomitans. The identification of these components will be important in understanding the processes that this pathogen uses to survive in the oral cavity and disperse into deeper tissues. ..
  11. Molecular interactions: oral bacteria & matrix proteins
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These adhesins may serve as targets for future drug development involving small molecules or vaccines that disrupt host-pathogen interactions. ..
  12. INVASION AND ADHESION OF PERIOPATHOGENS
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The identification of these components will be important in understanding the processes that this pathogen uses to survive in the oral cavity and disperse into deeper tissues. ..
  13. Molecular interactions: oral bacteria & matrix proteins
    Keith Mintz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This information can be used for the development of therapeutic agents of vaccines for periodontal disease. ..
  14. Regulation of Abscess Formation by Bacteroides fragilis
    LAURIE COMSTOCK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..fragilis capsular polysaccharides may play in health and disease. ..
  15. MECHANISM OF JUXTAGLOMERULAR CELL RENIN GENE EXPRESSION
    Daniel Catanzaro; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....