racemases and epimerases

Summary

Summary: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A novel diagnostic test for prostate cancer emerges from the determination of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme a racemase in prostatic secretions
    P J Zielie
    Departments of Surgery Division of Urology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605 2324, USA
    J Urol 172:1130-3. 2004
  2. pmc Serine racemase: a glial enzyme synthesizing D-serine to regulate glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission
    H Wolosker
    Departments of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13409-14. 1999
  3. ncbi Decreased serum levels of D-serine in patients with schizophrenia: evidence in support of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia
    Kenji Hashimoto
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:572-6. 2003
  4. pmc Targeted disruption of serine racemase affects glutamatergic neurotransmission and behavior
    A C Basu
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 14:719-27. 2009
  5. ncbi A CSF and postmortem brain study of D-serine metabolic parameters in schizophrenia
    Inna Bendikov
    Department of Biochemistry, B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Schizophr Res 90:41-51. 2007
  6. pmc High content screening identifies decaprenyl-phosphoribose 2' epimerase as a target for intracellular antimycobacterial inhibitors
    Thierry Christophe
    Screening Technologies and Pharmacology, Institut Pasteur Korea, Bundang gu, Seongnam si, Gyeonggi Do, Korea
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000645. 2009
  7. ncbi Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) as putative biomarker in prostate cancer
    Nelma Pértega-Gomes
    Life and Health Sciences Research Institute ICVS, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
    Prostate 73:763-9. 2013
  8. ncbi Subcellular localization and physiological role of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
    S Ferdinandusse
    Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Lipid Res 41:1890-6. 2000
  9. pmc Discovery of a dipeptide epimerase enzymatic function guided by homology modeling and virtual screening
    Chakrapani Kalyanaraman
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of California, 600 16 th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Structure 16:1668-77. 2008
  10. pmc Purification of serine racemase: biosynthesis of the neuromodulator D-serine
    H Wolosker
    The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Departments of Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, and Psychiatry, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:721-5. 1999

Detail Information

Publications221 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A novel diagnostic test for prostate cancer emerges from the determination of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme a racemase in prostatic secretions
    P J Zielie
    Departments of Surgery Division of Urology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605 2324, USA
    J Urol 172:1130-3. 2004
    ....
  2. pmc Serine racemase: a glial enzyme synthesizing D-serine to regulate glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission
    H Wolosker
    Departments of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13409-14. 1999
    ..Occurrence of serine racemase in the brain demonstrates the conservation of D-amino acid metabolism in mammals with implications for the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission through glia-neuronal interactions...
  3. ncbi Decreased serum levels of D-serine in patients with schizophrenia: evidence in support of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia
    Kenji Hashimoto
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:572-6. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to examine whether serum levels of D- and L-serine in patients with schizophrenia are different from those of healthy controls...
  4. pmc Targeted disruption of serine racemase affects glutamatergic neurotransmission and behavior
    A C Basu
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 14:719-27. 2009
    ....
  5. ncbi A CSF and postmortem brain study of D-serine metabolic parameters in schizophrenia
    Inna Bendikov
    Department of Biochemistry, B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Schizophr Res 90:41-51. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that reduced brain serine racemase and elevated D-amino acid oxidase protein levels may contribute to the lower CSF D-serine levels in schizophrenia...
  6. pmc High content screening identifies decaprenyl-phosphoribose 2' epimerase as a target for intracellular antimycobacterial inhibitors
    Thierry Christophe
    Screening Technologies and Pharmacology, Institut Pasteur Korea, Bundang gu, Seongnam si, Gyeonggi Do, Korea
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000645. 2009
    ..Beyond validating the high throughput/content screening approach, our results open new avenues for finding the next generation of antimicrobials...
  7. ncbi Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) as putative biomarker in prostate cancer
    Nelma Pértega-Gomes
    Life and Health Sciences Research Institute ICVS, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
    Prostate 73:763-9. 2013
    ..Also, we wanted to evaluate the value of using MCT2 in combination with AMACR and the negative markers 34βE12 or p63 to detect prostate cancer...
  8. ncbi Subcellular localization and physiological role of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
    S Ferdinandusse
    Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Lipid Res 41:1890-6. 2000
    ....
  9. pmc Discovery of a dipeptide epimerase enzymatic function guided by homology modeling and virtual screening
    Chakrapani Kalyanaraman
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of California, 600 16 th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Structure 16:1668-77. 2008
    ..Subsequently, crystal structures of the enzyme were determined in complex with three substrates, showing close agreement with the computational models and revealing the structural basis for the observed substrate selectivity...
  10. pmc Purification of serine racemase: biosynthesis of the neuromodulator D-serine
    H Wolosker
    The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Departments of Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, and Psychiatry, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:721-5. 1999
    ..Properties such as pH optimum, Km values, and the requirement for pyridoxal phosphate resemble those of bacterial racemases, suggesting that the biosynthetic pathway for D-amino acids is conserved from bacteria to mammalian brain...
  11. ncbi A duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay based on quantification of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase transcripts and prostate cancer antigen 3 in urine sediments improved diagnostic accuracy for prostate cancer
    Bin Ouyang
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    J Urol 181:2508-13; discussion 2513-4. 2009
    ..In this study we evaluated the diagnostic potential of a duplex assay for prostate cancer by quantifying transcript levels of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and prostate cancer antigen 3 in urine sediments following prostatic massage...
  12. ncbi NMDA- and beta-amyloid1-42-induced neurotoxicity is attenuated in serine racemase knock-out mice
    Ran Inoue
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Neurosci 28:14486-91. 2008
    ..The control of SR activity and D-serine level in the brain may lead to a novel strategy for neuroprotection against various neurodegenerative diseases...
  13. pmc Serine racemase: activation by glutamate neurotransmission via glutamate receptor interacting protein and mediation of neuronal migration
    Paul M Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Science, Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2105-10. 2005
    ..Thus, in neuronal migration, glutamate stimulates Bergmann glia to form and release D-serine, which, together with glutamate, activates NMDA receptors on granule neurons, chemokinetically enhancing migration...
  14. ncbi Is triple immunostaining with 34betaE12, p63, and racemase in prostate cancer advantageous? A tissue microarray study
    Victor WengLeong Ng
    Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
    Am J Clin Pathol 127:248-53. 2007
    ..6% for p63, 34betaE12, and AMACR, respectively. The triple cocktail offers a cost-effective way of evaluating abnormal prostatic glandular foci, in addition to maximizing the use of small tissue samples from prostatic needle biopsies...
  15. ncbi Changes in D-serine levels and localization during postnatal development of the rat vestibular nuclei
    Julien Puyal
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Comp Neurol 497:610-21. 2006
    ..The strong decrease of D-serine levels and the glial-to-neuronal switch suggests that D-serine may have distinct functional roles depending on the developmental stage of the vestibular network...
  16. pmc FolX and FolM are essential for tetrahydromonapterin synthesis in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Anne Pribat
    University of Florida, Horticultural Sciences Department, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:475-82. 2010
    ....
  17. ncbi Biosynthesis of pteridines in Escherichia coli. Structural and mechanistic similarity of dihydroneopterin-triphosphate epimerase and dihydroneopterin aldolase
    C Haussmann
    Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D 85747 Garching, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Biol Chem 273:17418-24. 1998
    ..The open reading frame ygiG of Hemophilus influenzae specifies a protein with the catalytic properties of an aldolase. However, the genome of H. influenzae does not specify a dihydroneopterin-triphosphate epimerase...
  18. pmc D-serine is a key determinant of glutamate toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Jumpei Sasabe
    Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    EMBO J 26:4149-59. 2007
    ..Collectively, Glu toxicity enhanced by D-Ser overproduced in glia is proposed as a novel mechanism underlying ALS motoneuronal death, and this mechanism may be regarded as a potential therapeutic target for ALS...
  19. ncbi Mechanistic diversity in a metalloenzyme superfamily
    R N Armstrong
    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
    Biochemistry 39:13625-32. 2000
    ..The remarkable access to mechanism space that is provided by the VOC superfamily appears to derive from a simple, pseudosymmetric structural fold that maximizes the catalytic versatility of the metal center...
  20. pmc D-serine and serine racemase are present in the vertebrate retina and contribute to the physiological activation of NMDA receptors
    Eric R Stevens
    Department of Neuroscience, 6 145 Jackson Hall, University of Minnesota, 321 Church Street Southeast, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6789-94. 2003
    ..These observations raise exciting new questions about the role of glial cells in regulating the excitability of neurons through release of d-serine...
  21. ncbi Is there a role for prostate tumour overexpressed-1 in the diagnosis of HGPIN and of prostatic adenocarcinoma? A comparison with alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase
    M Scarpelli
    Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 25:67-74. 2012
    ..However, PTOV1 may aid in the diagnosis of PCa, at least to supplement AMACR as another positive marker of carcinoma and to potentially increase diagnostic accuracy...
  22. ncbi Serine racemase binds to PICK1: potential relevance to schizophrenia
    K Fujii
    Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 11:150-7. 2006
    ..Our findings implicating PICK1 as a susceptibility gene for SZ are consistent with a role for D-serine in the disease...
  23. ncbi Humoral immune response to alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and prostate cancer
    Arun Sreekumar
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0602, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 96:834-43. 2004
    ..However, attempts to detect AMACR in circulation have not been successful. Hence, we determined whether an immune response to AMACR could be used as a serum biomarker for prostate cancer...
  24. ncbi Use of a combination of biomarkers in serum and urine to improve detection of prostate cancer
    Celia Prior
    Laboratory of Novel Therapeutic Targets, Division of Oncology, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
    World J Urol 28:681-6. 2010
    ..To measure a combination of novel molecular biomarkers in urine/blood samples of consecutive patients referring lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) not previously diagnosed, to improve prostate cancer diagnosis...
  25. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase--an 'obscure' metabolic enzyme takes centre stage
    Matthew D Lloyd
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Medicinal Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, UK
    FEBS J 275:1089-102. 2008
    ..These recent advances enable new preventative and treatment strategies for cancer...
  26. ncbi Mutations in the gene encoding peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase cause adult-onset sensory motor neuropathy
    S Ferdinandusse
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Genet 24:188-91. 2000
    ..Our findings have implications for the diagnosis of adult-onset neuropathies of unknown aetiology...
  27. ncbi Modulation of D-serine levels via ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of serine racemase
    Elena Dumin
    Department of Biochemistry, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    J Biol Chem 281:20291-302. 2006
    ..Modulation of serine racemase degradation, such as that promoted by Golga3, provides a new mechanism for regulating brain d-serine levels and NMDA receptor activity...
  28. pmc Benzothiazinones kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by blocking arabinan synthesis
    Vadim Makarov
    A N Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, 119071 Moscow, Russia
    Science 324:801-4. 2009
    ..The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB...
  29. ncbi Levels of D-serine in the brain and peripheral organs of serine racemase (Srr) knock-out mice
    Mao Horio
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan
    Neurochem Int 59:853-9. 2011
    ..These results suggest that SRR is the major enzyme responsible for D-serine production in the mouse forebrain, and that other pathways of d-serine production may exist in the brain and peripheral organs...
  30. pmc Decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-epimerase, the target of benzothiazinones and dinitrobenzamides, is an essential enzyme in Mycobacterium smegmatis
    Paul K Crellin
    Department of Microbiology, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e16869. 2011
    ..Indeed, direct experimental evidence of the essentiality of DprE1 has not been obtained in any species of mycobacterium...
  31. pmc Modulation of D-serine levels in brains of mice lacking PICK1
    Takatoshi Hikida
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:997-1000. 2008
    ..D-serine is an endogenous coagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype glutamate receptor. Genetic association studies have implicated genes coding for enzymes associated with D-serine metabolism in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
  32. ncbi Benzothiazinones: prodrugs that covalently modify the decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-epimerase DprE1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Claudia Trefzer
    New Medicines for Tuberculosis Consortium, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Am Chem Soc 132:13663-5. 2010
    ..Here we demonstrate that BTZs are activated in the bacterium by reduction of an essential nitro group to a nitroso derivative, which then specifically reacts with a cysteine residue in the active site of DprE1...
  33. ncbi A genetic variant of the serine racemase gene is associated with schizophrenia
    Yukitaka Morita
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Biol Psychiatry 61:1200-3. 2007
    ..Dysfunction of SRR may reduce the function of NMDA receptors and susceptibility to schizophrenia...
  34. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase protein expression is associated with the degree of differentiation in breast cancer using quantitative image analysis
    Agnieszka K Witkiewicz
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1418-23. 2005
    ..Quantitative image analysis is a novel way to accurately and reproducibly evaluate immunohistochemistry in breast tissue samples using high-density tissue microarrays...
  35. pmc A new strategy to decrease N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coactivation: inhibition of D-serine synthesis by converting serine racemase into an eliminase
    R Panizzutti
    Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, and Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Departamento de Anatomia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21491 590, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:5294-9. 2001
    ..Inhibition of serine racemase provides a new strategy to selectively decrease NMDA receptor coactivation and may be useful in conditions in which overstimulation of NMDA receptors plays a pathological role...
  36. ncbi Serine racemase modulates intracellular D-serine levels through an alpha,beta-elimination activity
    Veronika N Foltyn
    Department of Biochemistry, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, The B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa 31096, Israel
    J Biol Chem 280:1754-63. 2005
    ..Extracellular D-serine is more stable toward alpha,beta-elimination, likely due to physical separation from serine racemase and its elimination activity...
  37. ncbi Usefulness of cytokeratin 5/6 and AMACR applied as double sequential immunostains for diagnostic assessment of problematic prostate specimens
    Kiril Trpkov
    Anatomical Pathology, Rockyview General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Calgary Laboratory Services and University of Calgary, 7007 14 Street SW, Calgary, Alberta T2V 1P9, Canada
    Am J Clin Pathol 132:211-20; quiz 307. 2009
    ..Double immunohistochemical staining for CK5/6 and AMACR is a simple assay to perform and may be used as an alternative to antibody cocktails for routine evaluation of problematic prostate specimens...
  38. ncbi The prostate-specific G-protein coupled receptors PSGR and PSGR2 are prostate cancer biomarkers that are complementary to alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
    Jianghua Wang
    Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E DeBakey Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas
    Prostate 66:847-57. 2006
    ..To examine their potential usefulness as cancer biomarkers, we have evaluated their expression relative to AMACR in prostate cancer tissues...
  39. ncbi [Detection of P504S (alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase) in prostatic adenocarcinomas]
    Yu Xiao
    Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 84:1362-6. 2004
    ..To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the monoclonal antibody P504S (AMACR) in detection of prostatic adenocarcinomas...
  40. pmc The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective
    Michael J Schell
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:943-64. 2004
    ..The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics...
  41. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR/P504S) can distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic hepatocytes from benign nondysplastic hepatocytes
    Grace Guzman
    Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center UICMC, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 14:411-6. 2006
    ..Prospective studies are needed to determine whether staining for AMACR can distinguish HCC or dysplasia in cytologic and small histologic specimens...
  42. ncbi Human serine racemase: moleular cloning, genomic organization and functional analysis
    J De Miranda
    Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, RJ 21491 590, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Gene 256:183-8. 2000
    ..3. Identification of the intron-exon boundaries of the human serine racemase gene will be useful to search for mutations in neuropsychiatric disorders...
  43. pmc AMACR polymorphisms, dietary intake of red meat and dairy and prostate cancer risk
    Jonathan L Wright
    Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Prostate 71:498-506. 2011
    ..AMACR is also a tumor tissue biomarker over-expressed in PCa. In this study, we explored the potential relationship between AMACR polymorphisms, red meat/dairy intake, and PCa risk...
  44. ncbi Improved biomarkers for prostate cancer: a definite need
    H Ballentine Carter
    J Natl Cancer Inst 96:813-5. 2004
  45. ncbi Altered expression of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in prostatic adenocarcinoma following hormone therapy
    Kimiko Suzue
    Department of Pathology, University of Chicago Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 123:553-61. 2005
    ..Furthermore, AMACR might have a role in the recurrence of prostatic adenocarcinoma after medical therapy...
  46. ncbi [Assessment of P504S immunohistochemistry in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma]
    Guang Yong Chen
    Department of Pathology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China
    Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 33:419-23. 2004
    ..To assess the utility of P504S immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma...
  47. ncbi Comparison of monoclonal antibody (P504S) and polyclonal antibody to alpha methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) in the work-up of prostate cancer
    L P Kunju
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA
    Histopathology 47:587-96. 2005
    ..The goal is to compare the sensitivity of both antibodies in PCa and evaluate their utility in the work-up of atypical prostate needle biopsies (NBXs)...
  48. ncbi The diagnostic use of ERG in resolving an "atypical glands suspicious for cancer" diagnosis in prostate biopsies beyond that provided by basal cell and α-methylacyl-CoA-racemase markers
    Rajal B Shah
    Division of Urologic Pathology, Miraca Life Sciences, Irving, TX 75039, USA
    Hum Pathol 44:786-94. 2013
    ..We recommend judicious use of ERG, preferably as a component of multiplex IHC, in evaluation of difficult prostate biopsies...
  49. pmc Feedback inactivation of D-serine synthesis by NMDA receptor-elicited translocation of serine racemase to the membrane
    Livia Balan
    Department of Biochemistry, Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7589-94. 2009
    ..We propose that the inhibition of D-serine synthesis caused by translocation of SR to the membrane provides a fail-safe mechanism to prevent NMDAR overactivation in vicinal cells or synapses...
  50. ncbi Liver disease caused by failure to racemize trihydroxycholestanoic acid: gene mutation and effect of bile acid therapy
    Kenneth D R Setchell
    Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Gastroenterology 124:217-32. 2003
    ....
  51. ncbi Is atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the prostate a precursor lesion?
    Chen Zhang
    Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Prostate 71:1746-51. 2011
    ..Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma. The precursor nature of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) is uncertain...
  52. pmc Serine racemase deletion abolishes light-evoked NMDA receptor currents in retinal ganglion cells
    Steve J Sullivan
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Physiol 589:5997-6006. 2011
    ..These findings raise interesting questions about the role of D-serine in inner-retinal function and development...
  53. ncbi Alpha methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) in prostate adenocarcinomas from Japanese patients: is AMACR a "race"-dependent marker?
    Hiroshi Yamada
    Department of Urology, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Japan
    Prostate 73:54-9. 2013
    ..However, its usefulness has not been fully validated in Japanese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of AMACR in prostate needle biopsy examination in Japanese patients...
  54. ncbi AMACR is highly expressed in gastric adenomas and intestinal-type carcinomas
    Eun Yoon Cho
    Department of Pathology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    APMIS 115:713-8. 2007
    ....
  55. ncbi Tremor and deep white matter changes in alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
    C E Clarke
    Department of Neurology, City Hospital, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH, UK
    Neurology 63:188-9. 2004
  56. ncbi Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase in adenocarcinomas of the small and large intestines
    Zong Ming E Chen
    Lauren V Ackerman Laboratory of Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 29:890-6. 2005
    ....
  57. ncbi Serine racemase: an unconventional enzyme for an unconventional transmitter
    Herman Wolosker
    Department of Biochemistry, B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 31096, Haifa, Israel
    Amino Acids 43:1895-904. 2012
    ..Here, we review the mechanisms of D-serine synthesis by serine racemase and discuss the lessons we can learn from serine racemase knockout mice, focusing on the roles attributed to D-serine and its cellular origin...
  58. ncbi Purification and properties of an alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase from rat liver
    W Schmitz
    Theodor Boveri Institut für Biowissenschaften Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 222:313-23. 1994
    ..The enzyme was inactivated by micromolar concentrations of Hg2+ and to a lesser extent by Cu2+ but not by iodoacetamide and only slightly by N-ethylmaleimide and thimerosal...
  59. ncbi Analysis of strain-dependent prepulse inhibition points to a role for Shmt1 (SHMT1) in mice and in schizophrenia
    Motoko Maekawa
    Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, Japan
    J Neurochem 115:1374-85. 2010
    ..We detected a nominal association between SHMT1 and schizophrenia. These results suggest that Shmt1 (SHMT1), but not Srr, is likely to be one of the genetic components regulating PPI in mice and possibly relevant to schizophrenia...
  60. pmc Diagnostic utility of α-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S) & HMWCK in morphologically difficult prostate cancer
    K Kumaresan
    Department of Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    Diagn Pathol 5:83. 2010
    ..To evaluate the diagnostic utility of alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S) & HMWCK (34beta E12) in morphologically difficult prostate cancer...
  61. ncbi Serine racemase protein expression in cortex and hippocampus in schizophrenia
    Amy E Steffek
    Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Neuroreport 17:1181-5. 2006
    ....
  62. ncbi AMACR immunostaining is useful in detecting dysplastic epithelium in Barrett's esophagus, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease
    Russell Dorer
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 30:871-7. 2006
    ..AMACR is involved in the neoplastic progression in BE and IBD. The high degree of specificity of AMACR for dysplasia/carcinoma in BE and IBD suggests that it may be useful to detect neoplastic epithelium in these conditions...
  63. ncbi Plasma analysis of di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid diastereoisomers in peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
    S Ferdinandusse
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Lipid Res 42:137-41. 2001
    ..H. Overmars, S. Denis, H. R. Waterham, R. J. A. Wanders, and P. Vreken. Plasma analysis of di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid diastereoisomers in peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency. J. Lipid Res. 2001. 42: 137;-141...
  64. pmc A new defect of peroxisomal function involving pristanic acid: a case report
    B N McLean
    Department of Neurology, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Treliske, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3LJ, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72:396-9. 2002
    ..Screening of patients with retinitis pigmentosa should be extended to include pristanic acid and/or bile acid intermediate concentrations, as dietary measures offer a potential treatment for the disorder...
  65. ncbi Fibroblast studies documenting a case of peroxisomal 2-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency: possible link between racemase deficiency and malabsorption and vitamin K deficiency
    P P Van Veldhoven
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Afdeling Farmacologie, Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Clin Invest 31:714-22. 2001
    ..Hence, oxidation studies in fibroblasts, currently based on the use of racemic substrates such as [1-14C] pristanic acid, do not allow us to distinguish between a deficient racemase or an impaired oxidase...
  66. ncbi Diagnostic utility of a p63/alpha-methyl coenzyme A racemase (p504s) cocktail in ambiguous lesions of the prostate upon needle biopsy
    Vincent Molinie
    Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint Joseph, Paris, France
    BJU Int 97:1109-15. 2006
    ..To investigate the potential utility of a new combined immunostaining technique for diagnosing prostate cancer from histological analysis of needle biopsy specimens...
  67. ncbi Relapsing encephalopathy in a patient with alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
    S A Thompson
    Department of Neurology, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:448-50. 2008
    ..This case adds to the phenotypic variation seen in this peroxisomal disorder and highlights the importance of screening for plasma pristanic acid levels in patients with unexplained relapsing encephalopathies...
  68. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase expression in adenocarcinoma, dysplasia and non-neoplastic epithelium of the stomach
    Won Ae Lee
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
    Oncology 71:246-50. 2006
    ..It also suggests that AMACR expression is more likely to be associated with intestinal-type adenocarcinoma in gastric carcinogenesis...
  69. pmc Alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S): overview and potential uses in diagnostic pathology as applied to prostate needle biopsies
    A J Evans
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Toronto, University Health Network, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Pathol 56:892-7. 2003
    ....
  70. ncbi Combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis to identify dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease
    Andreas Marx
    Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Hum Pathol 40:166-73. 2009
    ..It is concluded that combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis may represent a helpful tool to confirm dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease...
  71. ncbi AMACR expression in colorectal cancer is associated with left-sided tumor localization
    Andreas Marx
    Institute for Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistr 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Virchows Arch 453:243-8. 2008
    ..We hypothesize that the association of AMACR expression with tumor localization may be related to differences in the metabolism/exposure to fatty acids occurring along the colon...
  72. ncbi a-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase is highly expressed in the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia lesions of the stomach
    Wenbin Huang
    Department of Pathology, Nanjing Medical College Affiliated Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Jiangsu, P R China
    Histol Histopathol 23:1315-20. 2008
    ..The high level expression of AMACR in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma suggests that it may be a useful biomarker in distinguishing high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma from low-grade dysplasia...
  73. ncbi alpha-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase as a tissue biomarker for prostate cancer
    Mark A Rubin
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0602, USA
    JAMA 287:1662-70. 2002
    ..Molecular profiling of prostate cancer has led to the identification of candidate biomarkers and regulatory genes. Discoveries from these genome-scale approaches may have applicability in the analysis of diagnostic prostate specimens...
  74. pmc Nitric oxide S-nitrosylates serine racemase, mediating feedback inhibition of D-serine formation
    Asif K Mustafa
    Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2950-5. 2007
    ..These findings support a model whereby postsynaptic stimulation of nitric-oxide (NO) formation feeds back to presynaptic cells to S-nitrosylate SR and decrease D-serine availability to postsynaptic NMDA receptors...
  75. pmc A first-generation multiplex biomarker analysis of urine for the early detection of prostate cancer
    Bharathi Laxman
    Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0602, USA
    Cancer Res 68:645-9. 2008
    ..8% and 60.8%, respectively. Taken together, these results provide the framework for the development of highly optimized, multiplex urine biomarker tests for more accurate detection of prostate cancer...
  76. ncbi Serine racemase and the serine shuttle between neurons and astrocytes
    Herman Wolosker
    Department of Biochemistry, B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1814:1558-66. 2011
    ..SR and the serine shuttle pathway are therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases in which NMDA receptor dysfunction plays pathological roles. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pyridoxal Phospate Enzymology...
  77. pmc GOLPH2 protein expression as a novel tissue biomarker for prostate cancer: implications for tissue-based diagnostics
    G Kristiansen
    Department of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Br J Cancer 99:939-48. 2008
    ..Further, GOLPH2 upregulation was detected in 26 of 31 (84%) AMACR-negative prostate cancer cases. These data clearly suggest GOLPH2 as an additional ancillary positive marker for tissue-based diagnosis of prostate cancer...
  78. pmc The structure of mammalian serine racemase: evidence for conformational changes upon inhibitor binding
    Myron A Smith
    Department of Structural Biology and Biology, Evotec, 114 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 285:12873-81. 2010
    ....
  79. ncbi Expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504s) in various malignant neoplasms and normal tissues: astudy of 761 cases
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Hum Pathol 34:792-6. 2003
    ..Our data provide important baseline information for using AMACR in clinical practice and also are valuable in furthering understanding of the pathogenic role of AMACR in malignant neoplasms...
  80. ncbi Serine racemase expression and D-serine content are developmentally regulated in neuronal ganglion cells of the retina
    Ying Dun
    Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912 2000, USA
    J Neurochem 104:970-8. 2008
    ..This represents the first report of neuronal expression of D-serine and serine racemase in the vertebrate retina and suggests an important contribution of neuronal D-serine during retinal development...
  81. ncbi Dual substrate and reaction specificity in mouse serine racemase: identification of high-affinity dicarboxylate substrate and inhibitors and analysis of the beta-eliminase activity
    Kvido Strisovsky
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam 2, Praha 6, 166 10, Czech Republic
    Biochemistry 44:13091-100. 2005
    ..The possible implications of our observations for inhibitor design, regulation of activity, and function of mSR are discussed...
  82. ncbi Induction of serine racemase expression and D-serine release from microglia by secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP)
    Shengzhou Wu
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 4:243-51. 2007
    ..D-serine may cooperate with glutamate to link neuroinflammation with excitotoxicity, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism applicable to neuronal death in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases...
  83. ncbi Using an AMACR (P504S)/34betaE12/p63 cocktail for the detection of small focal prostate carcinoma in needle biopsy specimens
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 123:231-6. 2005
    ....
  84. ncbi Identification of multiple serine racemase (SRR) mRNA isoforms and genetic analyses of SRR and DAO in schizophrenia and D-serine levels
    Kazuo Yamada
    Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    Biol Psychiatry 57:1493-503. 2005
    ....
  85. pmc d-Amino acid oxidase and serine racemase in human brain: normal distribution and altered expression in schizophrenia
    Louise Verrall
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Warneford Lane, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 26:1657-69. 2007
    ..However, they raise further questions as to the roles of D-amino acid oxidase and serine racemase in both physiological and pathophysiological processes in the brain...
  86. ncbi Differences between latent and clinical prostate carcinomas: lower cell proliferation activity in latent cases
    Seishiro Takahashi
    Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi, Nagoya, Japan
    Prostate 66:211-7. 2006
    ..The characterization of the latent cancer may be important to investigate differences between latent and clinical prostate cancers...
  87. ncbi Utility of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (p504s antibody) as a diagnostic immunohistochemical marker for cancer
    Aziza Nassar
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 13:252-5. 2005
    ..It may be a useful adjunct to an immunohistochemical panel employed in the differential diagnosis of colon versus ovarian and breast carcinoma; the latter two infrequently express AMACR...
  88. ncbi Polymorphism in the 5'-promoter region of serine racemase gene in schizophrenia
    A Y Goltsov
    Mol Psychiatry 11:325-6. 2006
  89. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase/P504S overexpression in colorectal carcinoma is correlated with tumor differentiation
    Xueying Shi
    Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 15:175-80. 2007
    ..No relation was found between AMACR expression and overall survival. Our findings support the view that the expression of AMACR in CRC is correlated with tumor differentiation...
  90. pmc Glutamatergic regulation of serine racemase via reversal of PIP2 inhibition
    Asif K Mustafa
    Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2921-6. 2009
    ..Thus mutants of SR that cannot bind PIP2 lose their membrane localizations and display a 4-fold enhancement of catalytic activity. Moreover, mGluR5 activation of SR activity is abolished by inhibiting phospholipase C...
  91. ncbi Serine racemase is predominantly localized in neurons in mouse brain
    Kazushi Miya
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 510:641-54. 2008
    ....
  92. ncbi Expression of the mRNA and protein of serine racemase in primary cultures of rat neurons
    Masanobu Yoshikawa
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259 1143, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 548:74-6. 2006
    ..These data are the first to demonstrate that a substantial amount of serine racemase exists in the cultured neurons...
  93. ncbi Polymorphic variants in alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and prostate cancer
    Sarah E Daugherty
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Prostate 67:1487-97. 2007
    ..Significant differences in AMACR allele frequencies have been reported for hereditary prostate cancer (HPC), but the relevance of AMACR in the context of its substrates have not been studied...
  94. ncbi Sequence variation in alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and risk of early-onset and familial prostate cancer
    Albert M Levin
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0618, USA
    Prostate 67:1507-13. 2007
    ..An initial study has also suggested that the risk of familial (but not sporadic) prostate cancer may be associated with germline variation in the AMACR gene...
  95. ncbi No association between the serine racemase gene (SRR) and schizophrenia in a German case-control sample
    Jana Strohmaier
    Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Psychiatr Genet 17:125. 2007
  96. ncbi Variants in the alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase gene and the association with advanced distal colorectal adenoma
    Sarah E Daugherty
    Divison of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, EPS Rm 8113, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1536-42. 2007
    ..AMACR gene variants have been associated with hereditary prostate cancer, but no studies have evaluated their etiologic role in colorectal carcinogenesis...
  97. ncbi Design, synthesis, and in vitro testing of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase inhibitors
    Andrew J Carnell
    Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD, United Kingdom
    J Med Chem 50:2700-7. 2007
    ....
  98. ncbi Regulation of serine racemase activity by D-serine and nitric oxide in human glioblastoma cells
    Kazuo Shoji
    Biochemistry Section, Department of Neuroscience and Vision, University of Verona, Italy
    Neurosci Lett 392:75-8. 2006
    ..These results suggest that serine racemase activity in astrocyte is regulated inversely by d-serine and NO. SR should be inhibited through nitrosylation by NO and activated through denitrosylation elicited by D-serine...
  99. ncbi A dietary enzyme: alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase/P504S is overexpressed in colon carcinoma
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Room H2 436, 55 Lake Avenue, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Cancer Detect Prev 27:422-6. 2003
    ..AMACR may also serve as a molecular marker for colon cancers and its precursor lesions...
  100. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a variably sensitive immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of small prostate cancer foci on needle biopsy
    Cristina Magi-Galluzzi
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 27:1128-33. 2003
    ..It is important to optimize the staining technique for each laboratory and recognize that some small cancers on needle biopsy may be AMACR negative...
  101. ncbi Branched fatty acids in dairy and beef products markedly enhance alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro
    James A Mobley
    Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:775-83. 2003
    ..Our findings therefore provide a link between the consumption of dietary fatty acids and the enhanced expression of AMACR, an enzyme that may play an important role in genesis and progression of CaP...

Research Grants18

  1. MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY OF STEM CELLS IN CANCER
    Angelo Demarzo; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies should produce new insights into altered stem cell maturation in BPH, PIN and carcinoma, and may provide new molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  2. INFLAMMATION AND ATROPHY IN PROSTATE CARCINOGENESIS
    Angelo Demarzo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, new emphasis would be focused on finding the cause of chronic inflammation in the prostate with an aim towards its eradication. ..
  3. Molecular Dissection of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Mark Rubin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b) Validation of tissue markers using MTOPS samples. Aim 4: Validation of candidate serum biomarkers of symptomatic BPH. a) Serum Microarray Validation using Michigan samples. b) Validation of serum markers using MTOPS samples. ..
  4. THE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE ON IGF-1 ACTIVITY AND SECRETION IN PRIMARY CULTURES OF PRO
    Larisa Nonn; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Once we have determined lycopene's effect on the IGF-1-induced actions in normal prostatic cells, this effect will be compared to those on cells derived from adenocarcinoma. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. ADHD, Stimulants, and D4 Knockout Mice
    PAUL GLASER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplement on Prostate Cancer Metastasis
    Yong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Development of cancer in the[unreadable] prostate and metastasis in the lung, inguinal lymph nodes and tibia/femur will be monitored. Tumor burden[unreadable] will be quantified. ..
  7. Mechanism and Inhibition of Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase
    Debra Dunaway Mariano; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This last aim will be carried out for the purpose of discovering a novel metabolic pathway operating with in this pathogen, as well as a novel target for drug design. ..
  8. Effects of self-administered MDMA on brain and behavior in rhesus monkeys
    William Fantegrossi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Thus, these studies are likely to be more relevant to the potential human condition of MDMA-induced lasting neurochemical alterations and behavioral changes [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. SIGNALING MECHANISM IN DCC-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
    Yong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  10. Cell Sorting and Molecular Analysis for Minimal Disease Detection
    Barbara Zehentner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Regulation of Innate Immunity by Virulence Factors
    Alejandro Aballay; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..elegans. 3) Elucidate the mechanism by which the genes identified in Aims 1 and 2 contribute to C. elegans innate immunity pathways conserved in mammals. ..
  12. P-Glycoprotein and Disposition of Psychostimulants
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  13. Ginkgo biloba for ECT-induced Memory Deficits
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..will utilize larger groups and additional cognitive tests will be incorporated to provide more definitive conclusions regarding efficacy, optimal dose and duration, persistence of effects, and safety and tolerability ..
  14. SYSTEMATIC ASSESS OF GENE EXPRESSION IN MOUSE PROSTATE
    Yong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The data should be a rich, valuable resource for devising future genetic targeting, animal modeling and other experiments related to developmental biology in general and prostate cancer in particular. ..
  15. Transport of Folates and Their Precursors in Plants
    Andrew Hanson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Studies of the cognate plant carriers could thus help develop new chemotherapies for leishmaniasis. I ..
  16. Screening Herbs for Drug Interactions
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Further, the proposed studies will complement existing and future NCCAM studies of agents such as St. John's wort and Gingko biloba. ..
  17. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The intent of this investigation is to establish the mechanistic and structural bases for the design of drugs to counter both plasmid borne and genomically encoded resistance to fosfomycin. ..