racemases and epimerases

Summary

Summary: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Serine racemase: a glial enzyme synthesizing D-serine to regulate glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission
    H Wolosker
    Departments of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13409-14. 1999
  2. pmc Discovery of a dipeptide epimerase enzymatic function guided by homology modeling and virtual screening
    Chakrapani Kalyanaraman
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of California, 600 16 th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Structure 16:1668-77. 2008
  3. doi Levels of D-serine in the brain and peripheral organs of serine racemase (Srr) knock-out mice
    Mao Horio
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan
    Neurochem Int 59:853-9. 2011
  4. doi NMDA- and beta-amyloid1-42-induced neurotoxicity is attenuated in serine racemase knock-out mice
    Ran Inoue
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Neurosci 28:14486-91. 2008
  5. pmc Targeted disruption of serine racemase affects glutamatergic neurotransmission and behavior
    A C Basu
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 14:719-27. 2009
  6. ncbi Liver disease caused by failure to racemize trihydroxycholestanoic acid: gene mutation and effect of bile acid therapy
    Kenneth D R Setchell
    Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Gastroenterology 124:217-32. 2003
  7. ncbi Serine racemase binds to PICK1: potential relevance to schizophrenia
    K Fujii
    Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 11:150-7. 2006
  8. pmc The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective
    Michael J Schell
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:943-64. 2004
  9. ncbi Is there a role for prostate tumour overexpressed-1 in the diagnosis of HGPIN and of prostatic adenocarcinoma? A comparison with alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase
    M Scarpelli
    Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 25:67-74. 2012
  10. ncbi Mutations in the gene encoding peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase cause adult-onset sensory motor neuropathy
    S Ferdinandusse
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Genet 24:188-91. 2000

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications204 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Serine racemase: a glial enzyme synthesizing D-serine to regulate glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission
    H Wolosker
    Departments of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13409-14. 1999
    ..Occurrence of serine racemase in the brain demonstrates the conservation of D-amino acid metabolism in mammals with implications for the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission through glia-neuronal interactions...
  2. pmc Discovery of a dipeptide epimerase enzymatic function guided by homology modeling and virtual screening
    Chakrapani Kalyanaraman
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of California, 600 16 th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Structure 16:1668-77. 2008
    ..Subsequently, crystal structures of the enzyme were determined in complex with three substrates, showing close agreement with the computational models and revealing the structural basis for the observed substrate selectivity...
  3. doi Levels of D-serine in the brain and peripheral organs of serine racemase (Srr) knock-out mice
    Mao Horio
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan
    Neurochem Int 59:853-9. 2011
    ..These results suggest that SRR is the major enzyme responsible for D-serine production in the mouse forebrain, and that other pathways of d-serine production may exist in the brain and peripheral organs...
  4. doi NMDA- and beta-amyloid1-42-induced neurotoxicity is attenuated in serine racemase knock-out mice
    Ran Inoue
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    J Neurosci 28:14486-91. 2008
    ..The control of SR activity and D-serine level in the brain may lead to a novel strategy for neuroprotection against various neurodegenerative diseases...
  5. pmc Targeted disruption of serine racemase affects glutamatergic neurotransmission and behavior
    A C Basu
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 14:719-27. 2009
    ....
  6. ncbi Liver disease caused by failure to racemize trihydroxycholestanoic acid: gene mutation and effect of bile acid therapy
    Kenneth D R Setchell
    Division of Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Gastroenterology 124:217-32. 2003
    ....
  7. ncbi Serine racemase binds to PICK1: potential relevance to schizophrenia
    K Fujii
    Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 11:150-7. 2006
    ..Our findings implicating PICK1 as a susceptibility gene for SZ are consistent with a role for D-serine in the disease...
  8. pmc The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective
    Michael J Schell
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:943-64. 2004
    ..The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics...
  9. ncbi Is there a role for prostate tumour overexpressed-1 in the diagnosis of HGPIN and of prostatic adenocarcinoma? A comparison with alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase
    M Scarpelli
    Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 25:67-74. 2012
    ..However, PTOV1 may aid in the diagnosis of PCa, at least to supplement AMACR as another positive marker of carcinoma and to potentially increase diagnostic accuracy...
  10. ncbi Mutations in the gene encoding peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase cause adult-onset sensory motor neuropathy
    S Ferdinandusse
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Genet 24:188-91. 2000
    ..Our findings have implications for the diagnosis of adult-onset neuropathies of unknown aetiology...
  11. pmc Purification of serine racemase: biosynthesis of the neuromodulator D-serine
    H Wolosker
    The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Departments of Neuroscience, Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, and Psychiatry, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:721-5. 1999
    ..Properties such as pH optimum, Km values, and the requirement for pyridoxal phosphate resemble those of bacterial racemases, suggesting that the biosynthetic pathway for D-amino acids is conserved from bacteria to mammalian brain...
  12. pmc Nitric oxide S-nitrosylates serine racemase, mediating feedback inhibition of D-serine formation
    Asif K Mustafa
    Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2950-5. 2007
    ..These findings support a model whereby postsynaptic stimulation of nitric-oxide (NO) formation feeds back to presynaptic cells to S-nitrosylate SR and decrease D-serine availability to postsynaptic NMDA receptors...
  13. pmc Benzothiazinones kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by blocking arabinan synthesis
    Vadim Makarov
    A N Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, 119071 Moscow, Russia
    Science 324:801-4. 2009
    ..The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB...
  14. pmc High content screening identifies decaprenyl-phosphoribose 2' epimerase as a target for intracellular antimycobacterial inhibitors
    Thierry Christophe
    Screening Technologies and Pharmacology, Institut Pasteur Korea, Bundang gu, Seongnam si, Gyeonggi Do, Korea
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000645. 2009
    ..Beyond validating the high throughput/content screening approach, our results open new avenues for finding the next generation of antimicrobials...
  15. ncbi A genetic variant of the serine racemase gene is associated with schizophrenia
    Yukitaka Morita
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Biol Psychiatry 61:1200-3. 2007
    ..Dysfunction of SRR may reduce the function of NMDA receptors and susceptibility to schizophrenia...
  16. pmc Serine racemase: activation by glutamate neurotransmission via glutamate receptor interacting protein and mediation of neuronal migration
    Paul M Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Science, Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2105-10. 2005
    ..Thus, in neuronal migration, glutamate stimulates Bergmann glia to form and release D-serine, which, together with glutamate, activates NMDA receptors on granule neurons, chemokinetically enhancing migration...
  17. doi Usefulness of cytokeratin 5/6 and AMACR applied as double sequential immunostains for diagnostic assessment of problematic prostate specimens
    Kiril Trpkov
    Anatomical Pathology, Rockyview General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Calgary Laboratory Services and University of Calgary, 7007 14 Street SW, Calgary, Alberta T2V 1P9, Canada
    Am J Clin Pathol 132:211-20; quiz 307. 2009
    ..Double immunohistochemical staining for CK5/6 and AMACR is a simple assay to perform and may be used as an alternative to antibody cocktails for routine evaluation of problematic prostate specimens...
  18. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase protein expression is associated with the degree of differentiation in breast cancer using quantitative image analysis
    Agnieszka K Witkiewicz
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1418-23. 2005
    ..Quantitative image analysis is a novel way to accurately and reproducibly evaluate immunohistochemistry in breast tissue samples using high-density tissue microarrays...
  19. ncbi Serine racemase modulates intracellular D-serine levels through an alpha,beta-elimination activity
    Veronika N Foltyn
    Department of Biochemistry, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, The B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa 31096, Israel
    J Biol Chem 280:1754-63. 2005
    ..Extracellular D-serine is more stable toward alpha,beta-elimination, likely due to physical separation from serine racemase and its elimination activity...
  20. ncbi Decreased serum levels of D-serine in patients with schizophrenia: evidence in support of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia
    Kenji Hashimoto
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:572-6. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to examine whether serum levels of D- and L-serine in patients with schizophrenia are different from those of healthy controls...
  21. pmc A new strategy to decrease N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coactivation: inhibition of D-serine synthesis by converting serine racemase into an eliminase
    R Panizzutti
    Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, and Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Departamento de Anatomia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21491 590, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:5294-9. 2001
    ..Inhibition of serine racemase provides a new strategy to selectively decrease NMDA receptor coactivation and may be useful in conditions in which overstimulation of NMDA receptors plays a pathological role...
  22. ncbi Tremor and deep white matter changes in alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
    C E Clarke
    Department of Neurology, City Hospital, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH, UK
    Neurology 63:188-9. 2004
  23. ncbi Relapsing encephalopathy in a patient with alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
    S A Thompson
    Department of Neurology, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:448-50. 2008
    ..This case adds to the phenotypic variation seen in this peroxisomal disorder and highlights the importance of screening for plasma pristanic acid levels in patients with unexplained relapsing encephalopathies...
  24. pmc FolX and FolM are essential for tetrahydromonapterin synthesis in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Anne Pribat
    University of Florida, Horticultural Sciences Department, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:475-82. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi AMACR immunostaining is useful in detecting dysplastic epithelium in Barrett's esophagus, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease
    Russell Dorer
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 30:871-7. 2006
    ..AMACR is involved in the neoplastic progression in BE and IBD. The high degree of specificity of AMACR for dysplasia/carcinoma in BE and IBD suggests that it may be useful to detect neoplastic epithelium in these conditions...
  26. doi Combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis to identify dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease
    Andreas Marx
    Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Hum Pathol 40:166-73. 2009
    ..It is concluded that combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis may represent a helpful tool to confirm dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease...
  27. ncbi Biosynthesis of pteridines in Escherichia coli. Structural and mechanistic similarity of dihydroneopterin-triphosphate epimerase and dihydroneopterin aldolase
    C Haussmann
    Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D 85747 Garching, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Biol Chem 273:17418-24. 1998
    ..The open reading frame ygiG of Hemophilus influenzae specifies a protein with the catalytic properties of an aldolase. However, the genome of H. influenzae does not specify a dihydroneopterin-triphosphate epimerase...
  28. doi Analysis of strain-dependent prepulse inhibition points to a role for Shmt1 (SHMT1) in mice and in schizophrenia
    Motoko Maekawa
    Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, Japan
    J Neurochem 115:1374-85. 2010
    ..We detected a nominal association between SHMT1 and schizophrenia. These results suggest that Shmt1 (SHMT1), but not Srr, is likely to be one of the genetic components regulating PPI in mice and possibly relevant to schizophrenia...
  29. pmc Diagnostic utility of α-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S) & HMWCK in morphologically difficult prostate cancer
    K Kumaresan
    Department of Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    Diagn Pathol 5:83. 2010
    ..To evaluate the diagnostic utility of alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S) & HMWCK (34beta E12) in morphologically difficult prostate cancer...
  30. doi Serine racemase: an unconventional enzyme for an unconventional transmitter
    Herman Wolosker
    Department of Biochemistry, B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 31096, Haifa, Israel
    Amino Acids 43:1895-904. 2012
    ..Here, we review the mechanisms of D-serine synthesis by serine racemase and discuss the lessons we can learn from serine racemase knockout mice, focusing on the roles attributed to D-serine and its cellular origin...
  31. ncbi Plasma analysis of di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid diastereoisomers in peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
    S Ferdinandusse
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Lipid Res 42:137-41. 2001
    ..H. Overmars, S. Denis, H. R. Waterham, R. J. A. Wanders, and P. Vreken. Plasma analysis of di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid diastereoisomers in peroxisomal alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency. J. Lipid Res. 2001. 42: 137;-141...
  32. ncbi Purification and properties of an alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase from rat liver
    W Schmitz
    Theodor Boveri Institut für Biowissenschaften Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 222:313-23. 1994
    ..The enzyme was inactivated by micromolar concentrations of Hg2+ and to a lesser extent by Cu2+ but not by iodoacetamide and only slightly by N-ethylmaleimide and thimerosal...
  33. ncbi Fibroblast studies documenting a case of peroxisomal 2-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency: possible link between racemase deficiency and malabsorption and vitamin K deficiency
    P P Van Veldhoven
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Afdeling Farmacologie, Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Clin Invest 31:714-22. 2001
    ..Hence, oxidation studies in fibroblasts, currently based on the use of racemic substrates such as [1-14C] pristanic acid, do not allow us to distinguish between a deficient racemase or an impaired oxidase...
  34. pmc A new defect of peroxisomal function involving pristanic acid: a case report
    B N McLean
    Department of Neurology, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Treliske, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3LJ, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72:396-9. 2002
    ..Screening of patients with retinitis pigmentosa should be extended to include pristanic acid and/or bile acid intermediate concentrations, as dietary measures offer a potential treatment for the disorder...
  35. doi AMACR expression in colorectal cancer is associated with left-sided tumor localization
    Andreas Marx
    Institute for Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistr 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Virchows Arch 453:243-8. 2008
    ..We hypothesize that the association of AMACR expression with tumor localization may be related to differences in the metabolism/exposure to fatty acids occurring along the colon...
  36. ncbi Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase in adenocarcinomas of the small and large intestines
    Zong Ming E Chen
    Lauren V Ackerman Laboratory of Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 29:890-6. 2005
    ....
  37. ncbi Diagnostic utility of a p63/alpha-methyl coenzyme A racemase (p504s) cocktail in ambiguous lesions of the prostate upon needle biopsy
    Vincent Molinie
    Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint Joseph, Paris, France
    BJU Int 97:1109-15. 2006
    ..To investigate the potential utility of a new combined immunostaining technique for diagnosing prostate cancer from histological analysis of needle biopsy specimens...
  38. ncbi AMACR is highly expressed in gastric adenomas and intestinal-type carcinomas
    Eun Yoon Cho
    Department of Pathology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    APMIS 115:713-8. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase expression in adenocarcinoma, dysplasia and non-neoplastic epithelium of the stomach
    Won Ae Lee
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
    Oncology 71:246-50. 2006
    ..It also suggests that AMACR expression is more likely to be associated with intestinal-type adenocarcinoma in gastric carcinogenesis...
  40. pmc Alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S): overview and potential uses in diagnostic pathology as applied to prostate needle biopsies
    A J Evans
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Toronto, University Health Network, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Pathol 56:892-7. 2003
    ....
  41. ncbi Serine racemase protein expression in cortex and hippocampus in schizophrenia
    Amy E Steffek
    Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Neuroreport 17:1181-5. 2006
    ....
  42. ncbi Is triple immunostaining with 34betaE12, p63, and racemase in prostate cancer advantageous? A tissue microarray study
    Victor WengLeong Ng
    Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
    Am J Clin Pathol 127:248-53. 2007
    ..6% for p63, 34betaE12, and AMACR, respectively. The triple cocktail offers a cost-effective way of evaluating abnormal prostatic glandular foci, in addition to maximizing the use of small tissue samples from prostatic needle biopsies...
  43. ncbi a-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase is highly expressed in the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia lesions of the stomach
    Wenbin Huang
    Department of Pathology, Nanjing Medical College Affiliated Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Jiangsu, P R China
    Histol Histopathol 23:1315-20. 2008
    ..The high level expression of AMACR in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma suggests that it may be a useful biomarker in distinguishing high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma from low-grade dysplasia...
  44. pmc D-serine is a key determinant of glutamate toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Jumpei Sasabe
    Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    EMBO J 26:4149-59. 2007
    ..Collectively, Glu toxicity enhanced by D-Ser overproduced in glia is proposed as a novel mechanism underlying ALS motoneuronal death, and this mechanism may be regarded as a potential therapeutic target for ALS...
  45. pmc The structure of mammalian serine racemase: evidence for conformational changes upon inhibitor binding
    Myron A Smith
    Department of Structural Biology and Biology, Evotec, 114 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 285:12873-81. 2010
    ....
  46. ncbi Expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504s) in various malignant neoplasms and normal tissues: astudy of 761 cases
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Hum Pathol 34:792-6. 2003
    ..Our data provide important baseline information for using AMACR in clinical practice and also are valuable in furthering understanding of the pathogenic role of AMACR in malignant neoplasms...
  47. ncbi Using an AMACR (P504S)/34betaE12/p63 cocktail for the detection of small focal prostate carcinoma in needle biopsy specimens
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 123:231-6. 2005
    ....
  48. ncbi Induction of serine racemase expression and D-serine release from microglia by secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP)
    Shengzhou Wu
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Curr Alzheimer Res 4:243-51. 2007
    ..D-serine may cooperate with glutamate to link neuroinflammation with excitotoxicity, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism applicable to neuronal death in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases...
  49. ncbi Dual substrate and reaction specificity in mouse serine racemase: identification of high-affinity dicarboxylate substrate and inhibitors and analysis of the beta-eliminase activity
    Kvido Strisovsky
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam 2, Praha 6, 166 10, Czech Republic
    Biochemistry 44:13091-100. 2005
    ..The possible implications of our observations for inhibitor design, regulation of activity, and function of mSR are discussed...
  50. ncbi Serine racemase expression and D-serine content are developmentally regulated in neuronal ganglion cells of the retina
    Ying Dun
    Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912 2000, USA
    J Neurochem 104:970-8. 2008
    ..This represents the first report of neuronal expression of D-serine and serine racemase in the vertebrate retina and suggests an important contribution of neuronal D-serine during retinal development...
  51. ncbi Mechanistic diversity in a metalloenzyme superfamily
    R N Armstrong
    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
    Biochemistry 39:13625-32. 2000
    ..The remarkable access to mechanism space that is provided by the VOC superfamily appears to derive from a simple, pseudosymmetric structural fold that maximizes the catalytic versatility of the metal center...
  52. pmc Decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-epimerase, the target of benzothiazinones and dinitrobenzamides, is an essential enzyme in Mycobacterium smegmatis
    Paul K Crellin
    Department of Microbiology, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e16869. 2011
    ..Indeed, direct experimental evidence of the essentiality of DprE1 has not been obtained in any species of mycobacterium...
  53. pmc alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: expression levels of this novel cancer biomarker depend on tumor differentiation
    Rainer Kuefer
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109 0602, USA
    Am J Pathol 161:841-8. 2002
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that AMACR expression is not hormone-dependent but may in fact be a marker of tumor differentiation...
  54. ncbi Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: a novel tumor marker over-expressed in several human cancers and their precursor lesions
    Ming Zhou
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:926-31. 2002
    ..In conclusion, our study suggests that AMACR is potentially an important tumor marker for several cancers and their precursor lesions, especially those linked to high-fat diets...
  55. ncbi Design, synthesis, and in vitro testing of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase inhibitors
    Andrew J Carnell
    Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD, United Kingdom
    J Med Chem 50:2700-7. 2007
    ....
  56. ncbi A nonclassic CCAAT enhancer element binding protein binding site contributes to alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression in prostate cancer
    Shan Zha
    Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Mol Cancer Res 3:110-8. 2005
    ..These results implicate a nonclassic CCAAT enhancer element in the AMACR gene promoter as playing a critical role in the regulation of AMACR gene expression...
  57. ncbi P504S/alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a useful marker for diagnosis of small foci of prostatic carcinoma on needle biopsy
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:1169-74. 2002
    ..Using a combination of P504S and 34betaE12 can help the diagnosis of limited prostatic adenocarcinoma on needle biopsy...
  58. ncbi Polymorphic variants in alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and prostate cancer
    Sarah E Daugherty
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Prostate 67:1487-97. 2007
    ..Significant differences in AMACR allele frequencies have been reported for hereditary prostate cancer (HPC), but the relevance of AMACR in the context of its substrates have not been studied...
  59. pmc Cofactors of serine racemase that physiologically stimulate the synthesis of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coagonist D-serine
    Joari De Miranda
    Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 21941 590, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14542-7. 2002
    ..Our data link the production of d-serine to the energy metabolism, with implications for the metabolic and transmitter crosstalk between glia and neurons...
  60. ncbi Prospective evaluation of AMACR (P504S) and basal cell markers in the assessment of routine prostate needle biopsy specimens
    Tara Jane Browne
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Hum Pathol 35:1462-8. 2004
    ..However, a limitation of this approach is the loss of tissue in these small lesions, suggesting that combining AMACR and the BCC on a single slide would be superior to using either marker separately...
  61. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) expression in normal prostatic glands and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN): association with diagnosis of prostate cancer
    Vijayalakshmi Ananthanarayanan
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Prostate 63:341-6. 2005
    ..We examined whether AMACR expression in HGPIN and normal tissue was associated with subsequent diagnosis of cancer or proximity to a cancer focus...
  62. ncbi P504S immunohistochemical detection in 405 prostatic specimens including 376 18-gauge needle biopsies
    R Beach
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University Hospital, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:1588-96. 2002
    ..Therefore, we think that P504S is best used only in conjunction with strict light microscopic correlation and preferably with high molecular weight cytokeratin immunostaining...
  63. pmc Dihydroneopterin triphosphate epimerase of Escherichia coli: purification, genetic cloning, and expression
    C Haussmann
    Institut fur Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Bacteriol 179:949-51. 1997
    ..The cognate gene was cloned, sequenced, expressed, and mapped to kb 2427 on the E. coli chromosome...
  64. ncbi No association between the serine racemase gene (SRR) and schizophrenia in a German case-control sample
    Jana Strohmaier
    Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Psychiatr Genet 17:125. 2007
  65. ncbi Expression of alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504S) in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the prostate
    Ximing J Yang
    Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:921-5. 2002
    ..Because most cases of AAH are negative for P504S, immunostaining of P504S is also of diagnostic value in distinguishing the majority of AAHs from prostatic adenocarcinoma...
  66. ncbi Subcellular localization and physiological role of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
    S Ferdinandusse
    Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Lipid Res 41:1890-6. 2000
    ....
  67. ncbi Polymorphism in the 5'-promoter region of serine racemase gene in schizophrenia
    A Y Goltsov
    Mol Psychiatry 11:325-6. 2006
  68. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase/P504S overexpression in colorectal carcinoma is correlated with tumor differentiation
    Xueying Shi
    Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 15:175-80. 2007
    ..No relation was found between AMACR expression and overall survival. Our findings support the view that the expression of AMACR in CRC is correlated with tumor differentiation...
  69. ncbi Expression of the mRNA and protein of serine racemase in primary cultures of rat neurons
    Masanobu Yoshikawa
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259 1143, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 548:74-6. 2006
    ..These data are the first to demonstrate that a substantial amount of serine racemase exists in the cultured neurons...
  70. ncbi Clinical consequences of defects in peroxisomal beta-oxidation
    P T Clayton
    Biochemistry, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, U K
    Biochem Soc Trans 29:298-305. 2001
    ....
  71. ncbi Regulation of serine racemase activity by D-serine and nitric oxide in human glioblastoma cells
    Kazuo Shoji
    Biochemistry Section, Department of Neuroscience and Vision, University of Verona, Italy
    Neurosci Lett 392:75-8. 2006
    ..These results suggest that serine racemase activity in astrocyte is regulated inversely by d-serine and NO. SR should be inhibited through nitrosylation by NO and activated through denitrosylation elicited by D-serine...
  72. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR/P504S) can distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic hepatocytes from benign nondysplastic hepatocytes
    Grace Guzman
    Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center UICMC, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 14:411-6. 2006
    ..Prospective studies are needed to determine whether staining for AMACR can distinguish HCC or dysplasia in cytologic and small histologic specimens...
  73. ncbi A CSF and postmortem brain study of D-serine metabolic parameters in schizophrenia
    Inna Bendikov
    Department of Biochemistry, B Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Schizophr Res 90:41-51. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that reduced brain serine racemase and elevated D-amino acid oxidase protein levels may contribute to the lower CSF D-serine levels in schizophrenia...
  74. ncbi P504S: a new molecular marker for the detection of prostate carcinoma
    Z Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 25:1397-404. 2001
    ..Our findings indicate that P504S is a highly sensitive and specific positive marker for prostate carcinoma...
  75. ncbi Utility of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (p504s antibody) as a diagnostic immunohistochemical marker for cancer
    Aziza Nassar
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 13:252-5. 2005
    ..It may be a useful adjunct to an immunohistochemical panel employed in the differential diagnosis of colon versus ovarian and breast carcinoma; the latter two infrequently express AMACR...
  76. ncbi alpha-Methylacyl coenzyme A racemase as a tissue biomarker for prostate cancer
    Mark A Rubin
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0602, USA
    JAMA 287:1662-70. 2002
    ..Molecular profiling of prostate cancer has led to the identification of candidate biomarkers and regulatory genes. Discoveries from these genome-scale approaches may have applicability in the analysis of diagnostic prostate specimens...
  77. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a new molecular marker for prostate cancer
    Jun Luo
    Department of Pathology, Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Cancer Res 62:2220-6. 2002
    ....
  78. ncbi Identification of multiple serine racemase (SRR) mRNA isoforms and genetic analyses of SRR and DAO in schizophrenia and D-serine levels
    Kazuo Yamada
    Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    Biol Psychiatry 57:1493-503. 2005
    ....
  79. ncbi Sequence variation in alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and risk of early-onset and familial prostate cancer
    Albert M Levin
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0618, USA
    Prostate 67:1507-13. 2007
    ..An initial study has also suggested that the risk of familial (but not sporadic) prostate cancer may be associated with germline variation in the AMACR gene...
  80. ncbi Spatiotemporal relationships among D-serine, serine racemase, and D-amino acid oxidase during mouse postnatal development
    Li Zhen Wang
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 24:965-74. 2003
    ..4.3.3; DAO) in mouse cortex, striatum, cerebellum, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and skeletal muscle during mouse postnatal development...
  81. ncbi Characterization and localization of a human serine racemase
    Menghang Xia
    Merck Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Merck and Co, Inc, 770 Sumneytown Pike, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 125:96-104. 2004
    ..Furthermore, its presence in human periphery such as in heart and kidney suggest a potential biological role for D-serine in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in these peripheral organs as well...
  82. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a variably sensitive immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of small prostate cancer foci on needle biopsy
    Cristina Magi-Galluzzi
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 27:1128-33. 2003
    ..It is important to optimize the staining technique for each laboratory and recognize that some small cancers on needle biopsy may be AMACR negative...
  83. ncbi Humoral immune response to alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and prostate cancer
    Arun Sreekumar
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0602, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 96:834-43. 2004
    ..However, attempts to detect AMACR in circulation have not been successful. Hence, we determined whether an immune response to AMACR could be used as a serum biomarker for prostate cancer...
  84. ncbi Expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504S) in nephrogenic adenoma: a significant immunohistochemical pitfall compounding the differential diagnosis with prostatic adenocarcinoma
    Brian F Skinnider
    Department of Pathology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Am J Surg Pathol 28:701-5. 2004
    ....
  85. ncbi Branched fatty acids in dairy and beef products markedly enhance alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro
    James A Mobley
    Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:775-83. 2003
    ..Our findings therefore provide a link between the consumption of dietary fatty acids and the enhanced expression of AMACR, an enzyme that may play an important role in genesis and progression of CaP...
  86. pmc Glutamatergic regulation of serine racemase via reversal of PIP2 inhibition
    Asif K Mustafa
    Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2921-6. 2009
    ..Thus mutants of SR that cannot bind PIP2 lose their membrane localizations and display a 4-fold enhancement of catalytic activity. Moreover, mGluR5 activation of SR activity is abolished by inhibiting phospholipase C...
  87. ncbi An analysis of the p63/alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemical cocktail stain in prostate needle biopsy specimens and tissue microarrays
    Schuyler O Sanderson
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 121:220-5. 2004
    ..The p63/P504S immunohistochemical stain is a sensitive, specific marker for prostatic adenocarcinoma and HPIN and useful in the evaluation of AASA in biopsy specimens...
  88. pmc Elevated alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase enzymatic activity in prostate cancer
    Chandan Kumar-Sinha
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0602, USA
    Am J Pathol 164:787-93. 2004
    ..Taken together, our studies suggest that AMACR activity is increased in prostate cancer relative to benign epithelia and suggests that monitoring AMACR activity levels in prostate needle biopsies may have clinical applications...
  89. ncbi P504S immunostaining boosts diagnostic resolution of "suspicious" foci in prostatic needle biopsy specimens
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 121:99-107. 2004
    ..Thus, the consensus diagnosis rate improved from poor to good after supplementing 34 beta E12 immunostaining with P504S...
  90. ncbi Sequence variants of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase are associated with prostate cancer risk
    Siqun L Zheng
    Center for Human Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Cancer Res 62:6485-8. 2002
    ..78; P = 0.00006), especially in the subset of families whose probands carry the "A-A" haplotype of M9V and D175G (log of odds = 4.34; P = 0.000008). These results suggest that sequence variants in AMACR may be associated with CaP risk...
  91. ncbi A dietary enzyme: alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase/P504S is overexpressed in colon carcinoma
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Room H2 436, 55 Lake Avenue, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Cancer Detect Prev 27:422-6. 2003
    ..AMACR may also serve as a molecular marker for colon cancers and its precursor lesions...
  92. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase as an androgen-independent growth modifier in prostate cancer
    Shan Zha
    Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Cancer Res 63:7365-76. 2003
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that AMACR is essential for optimal growth of PCa cells in vitro and that this enzyme has the potential to be a complementary target with androgen ablation in PCa treatment...
  93. ncbi Diagnostic usefulness of monoclonal antibody P504S in the workup of atypical prostatic glandular proliferations
    Lakshmi P Kunju
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 120:737-45. 2003
    ..Most HGPINs show diffuse moderate P504S staining. AAH may show focal P504S staining. We recommend using P504S along with morphologic examination and conventional basal cell markers...
  94. ncbi Diagnostic utility of a p63/alpha-methyl-CoA-racemase (p504s) cocktail in atypical foci in the prostate
    Vincent Molinie
    Service de Pathologie, Hopital Foch, Suresnes, France
    Mod Pathol 17:1180-90. 2004
    ....
  95. pmc Feedback inactivation of D-serine synthesis by NMDA receptor-elicited translocation of serine racemase to the membrane
    Livia Balan
    Department of Biochemistry, Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7589-94. 2009
    ..We propose that the inhibition of D-serine synthesis caused by translocation of SR to the membrane provides a fail-safe mechanism to prevent NMDAR overactivation in vicinal cells or synapses...
  96. doi Serine racemase is predominantly localized in neurons in mouse brain
    Kazushi Miya
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 510:641-54. 2008
    ....
  97. ncbi Mouse brain serine racemase catalyzes specific elimination of L-serine to pyruvate
    Kvido Strisovsky
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo n 2, Praha 6, 166 10, Czech Republic
    FEBS Lett 535:44-8. 2003
    ..D-Serine is eliminated much less efficiently. Both L-serine racemization and elimination activities of serine racemase are of comparable magnitude, display alkaline pH optimum and are negligible below pH 6.5...
  98. ncbi Stereochemistry of the peroxisomal branched-chain fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation systems in patients suffering from different peroxisomal disorders
    S Ferdinandusse
    University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Lipid Res 43:438-44. 2002
    ....
  99. ncbi Differences between latent and clinical prostate carcinomas: lower cell proliferation activity in latent cases
    Seishiro Takahashi
    Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi, Nagoya, Japan
    Prostate 66:211-7. 2006
    ..The characterization of the latent cancer may be important to investigate differences between latent and clinical prostate cancers...
  100. ncbi Distribution and MK-801-induced expression of serine racemase mRNA in rat brain by real-time quantitative PCR
    Masanobu Yoshikawa
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Isehara, Kanagawa 259 1143, Japan
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 128:90-4. 2004
    ..The present findings suggest that there is a link between the expression of serine racemase mRNA and the activity of the NMDA receptors...
  101. ncbi Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a multi-institutional study of a new prostate cancer marker
    Z Jiang
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA
    Histopathology 45:218-25. 2004
    ..To test whether alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is a sensitive and specific marker of prostate cancer...

Research Grants101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Molecular Dissection of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    Mark Rubin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b) Validation of tissue markers using MTOPS samples. Aim 4: Validation of candidate serum biomarkers of symptomatic BPH. a) Serum Microarray Validation using Michigan samples. b) Validation of serum markers using MTOPS samples. ..
  2. MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY OF STEM CELLS IN CANCER
    Angelo Demarzo; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies should produce new insights into altered stem cell maturation in BPH, PIN and carcinoma, and may provide new molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  3. INFLAMMATION AND ATROPHY IN PROSTATE CARCINOGENESIS
    Angelo Demarzo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, new emphasis would be focused on finding the cause of chronic inflammation in the prostate with an aim towards its eradication. ..
  4. Towards Understanding Prostate Cancer Heterogeneity
    Mark Rubin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, we will determine if FISH assays (or other in situ tests) can be employed as a prognostic biomarker. ..
  5. "Molecular Signatures of Lethal and Indolent Prostate Cancer"
    Mark Rubin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..At the conclusion of this proposal, we expect to have refined and fully validated molecular predictors of PCA death as well as indolent PCA that is appropriate for further clinical development. ..
  6. Siderophore Synthetases in Three Bacterial Pathogens
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..PS assemblies. Understanding of mechanism, e.g. of the heterocyclizing Cy domains may allow inhibitor design to block siderophore production by these multimodular enzymes. ..
  7. SIGNALING MECHANISM IN DCC-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
    Yong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  8. Enzymatic Assembly of Vancomycin Group Antibiotics
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These aromatic amino acids are key sites for the crosslinking that produces the rigid cup-shaped architecture of the crosslinked core that enables recognition of the peptidoglycan termini and antibiotic action. ..
  9. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE--DEFINING AND ALTERING CATALYSIS
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. Modular Enzymatic Assembly Lines for Antibiotics
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES-DEFINING STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
    Richard N Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The bacterium typically colonizes the human intestine shortly after birth where it remains the predominant facultative microorganism. Understanding the biochemistry of E. coli is fundamental to understanding its pathogenesis. ..
  12. Effects of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Akt Signaling in Prostate Cancer
    Yong Q Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If our hypothesis is correct, the successful completion of the proposed work will demonstrate, for the first time, the role of dietary fatty acids in regulating PIP formation and Akt function. ..
  13. Modular Enzymatic Assembly Lines for Antibiotics
    Christopher T Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These include ester backbone linkages in place of amides, the recruitment of transglutaminase homologs as condensation domains that act in trans, formation of C-terminal pyrrolidinedione rings, and reductive chain termination steps. ..
  14. Fish Oil Supplement Prevention of Prostate Cancer
    Yong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..For the first time, molecular changes (mRNA and lipid) associated with fish oil diet in the prostate will be comprehensively and systematically analyzed. ..
  15. Effects of self-administered MDMA on brain and behavior in rhesus monkeys
    William Fantegrossi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Thus, these studies are likely to be more relevant to the potential human condition of MDMA-induced lasting neurochemical alterations and behavioral changes ..
  16. The Vancomycin Biosynthetic Assembly line
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The knowledge base gained in these three aims will provide insight into molecular logic to enable subsequent combinatorial biosynthetic antibiotic variants. ..
  17. ADHD, Stimulants, and D4 Knockout Mice
    PAUL GLASER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Modular Enzymatic Assembly Lines for Antibiotics
    Christopher T Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These include ester backbone linkages in place of amides, the recruitment of transglutaminase homologs as condensation domains that act in trans, formation of C-terminal pyrrolidinedione rings, and reductive chain termination steps. ..
  19. ENZYMATIC REACTION MECHANISMS
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  20. MECHANISMS OF ENZYME CATALYSIS
    Debra Dunaway Mariano; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..9. Locate the CoA binding site by site-directed mutagenesis of conserved residues. 10. Complete the determination of the kinetic mechanism of ligase catalysis. ..
  21. Acinetobactin and C-Glucosylated Enterobactin Siderophores
    Christopher T Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Characterization of the salrnochelin and acinetobactin biosynthesizing enzymes will be the foundation for subsequent evaluation of enzyme inhibitors that might block siderophore production. ..
  22. Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Functional Genomic Data
    Debashis Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..5. Dissemination of these results in user-friendly statistical software. ..
  23. SYSTEMATIC ASSESS OF GENE EXPRESSION IN MOUSE PROSTATE
    Yong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The data should be a rich, valuable resource for devising future genetic targeting, animal modeling and other experiments related to developmental biology in general and prostate cancer in particular. ..
  24. THE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE ON IGF-1 ACTIVITY AND SECRETION IN PRIMARY CULTURES OF PRO
    Larisa Nonn; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Once we have determined lycopene's effect on the IGF-1-induced actions in normal prostatic cells, this effect will be compared to those on cells derived from adenocarcinoma. ..
  25. Ginkgo biloba for ECT-induced Memory Deficits
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..will utilize larger groups and additional cognitive tests will be incorporated to provide more definitive conclusions regarding efficacy, optimal dose and duration, persistence of effects, and safety and tolerability ..
  26. PEPTIDOGLYCAN BIOSYNTHESIS AND VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE
    Christopher Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Knowledge of the Van resistance proteins may permit design of drugs, such as phos- phinate dipeptidomimetics, to revert vancomycin resistant bacteria to sensitivity. ..
  27. Regulation of Innate Immunity by Virulence Factors
    Alejandro Aballay; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..elegans. 3) Elucidate the mechanism by which the genes identified in Aims 1 and 2 contribute to C. elegans innate immunity pathways conserved in mammals. ..
  28. P-Glycoprotein and Disposition of Psychostimulants
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  29. Cell Sorting and Molecular Analysis for Minimal Disease Detection
    Barbara Zehentner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  30. MECHANISMS OF ENZYME CATALYSIS
    Debra Dunaway Mariano; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..coli Phenylacetate Catabolic Pathway, the BH1 997 unknown protein of the Bacillus halodurans Upper Gentisate Pathway and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA551 9 homologue to the Human Long Chain Acyl-CoA Thioesterase ..
  31. Screening Herbs for Drug Interactions
    JOHN MARKOWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Further, the proposed studies will complement existing and future NCCAM studies of agents such as St. John's wort and Gingko biloba. ..
  32. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The project is a response to program announcement PA-97-026, Aspergillosis, Ehrlichioses and Drug Resistance. ..
  33. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The intent of this investigation is to establish the mechanistic and structural bases for the design of drugs to counter both plasmid borne and genomically encoded resistance to fosfomycin. ..
  34. GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES-DEFINING STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. Transport of Folates and Their Precursors in Plants
    Andrew Hanson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Studies of the cognate plant carriers could thus help develop new chemotherapies for leishmaniasis. I ..
  36. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The intent of this investigation is to establish the mechanistic and structural bases for the design of drugs to counter both plasmid borne and genomically encoded resistance to fosfomycin. ..