subtilisins

Summary

Summary: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Subcellular discharge of a serine protease mediates release of invasive malaria parasites from host erythrocytes
    Sharon Yeoh
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Cell 131:1072-83. 2007
  2. pmc Primary structure and expression of a pathogen-induced protease (PR-P69) in tomato plants: Similarity of functional domains to subtilisin-like endoproteases
    P Tornero
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Valencia, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:6332-7. 1996
  3. pmc Production of the subtilase AB5 cytotoxin by Shiga toxin-negative Escherichia coli
    Rosangela Tozzoli
    Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica Veterinaria e Sicurezza Alimentare, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 48:178-83. 2010
  4. ncbi A genomic cluster containing four differentially regulated subtilisin-like processing protease genes is in tomato plants
    L Jorda
    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas IBMCP, Universidad Politécnica Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Camino de Vera s n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
    J Biol Chem 274:2360-5. 1999
  5. ncbi A new pathogenicity island carrying an allelic variant of the Subtilase cytotoxin is common among Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli of human and ovine origin
    V Michelacci
    European Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica Veterinaria e Sicurezza Alimentare, Rome, Italy
    Clin Microbiol Infect 19:E149-56. 2013
  6. pmc Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin
    Emma Byres
    Protein Crystallography Unit and ARC Centre of Excellence for Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 456:648-52. 2008
  7. ncbi Activation of a recombinant membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) by furin and its interaction with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2
    H Sato
    Department of Molecular Virology and Oncology, Kanazawa University, Japan
    FEBS Lett 393:101-4. 1996
  8. ncbi Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160
    S Hallenberger
    Institut fur Virologie, Philips Universität Marburg, Germany
    Nature 360:358-61. 1992
  9. pmc Inferring hypotheses on functional relationships of genes: Analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana subtilase gene family
    Carsten Rautengarten
    Institut für Biochemie und Biologie, Genetik, Universitat Potsdam, Golm, Germany
    PLoS Comput Biol 1:e40. 2005
  10. pmc Yeast prohormone processing enzyme (KEX2 gene product) is a Ca2+-dependent serine protease
    R S Fuller
    Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:1434-8. 1989

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications227 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Subcellular discharge of a serine protease mediates release of invasive malaria parasites from host erythrocytes
    Sharon Yeoh
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Cell 131:1072-83. 2007
    ..Our findings reveal the presence in the malarial parasitophorous vacuole of a regulated, PfSUB1-mediated proteolytic processing event required for release of viable parasites from the host erythrocyte...
  2. pmc Primary structure and expression of a pathogen-induced protease (PR-P69) in tomato plants: Similarity of functional domains to subtilisin-like endoproteases
    P Tornero
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Valencia, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:6332-7. 1996
    ....
  3. pmc Production of the subtilase AB5 cytotoxin by Shiga toxin-negative Escherichia coli
    Rosangela Tozzoli
    Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica Veterinaria e Sicurezza Alimentare, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 48:178-83. 2010
    ..These results indicate that SubAB production is not restricted to STEC and suggest that a subAB-tia putative pathogenicity island is involved in the dissemination of subAB genes, as an alternative to plasmid pO113...
  4. ncbi A genomic cluster containing four differentially regulated subtilisin-like processing protease genes is in tomato plants
    L Jorda
    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas IBMCP, Universidad Politécnica Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Camino de Vera s n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
    J Biol Chem 274:2360-5. 1999
    ....
  5. ncbi A new pathogenicity island carrying an allelic variant of the Subtilase cytotoxin is common among Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli of human and ovine origin
    V Michelacci
    European Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica Veterinaria e Sicurezza Alimentare, Rome, Italy
    Clin Microbiol Infect 19:E149-56. 2013
    ..Further studies are needed to assess the role of tia and/or other genes carried by SE-PAI in the colonization of the host intestinal mucosa...
  6. pmc Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin
    Emma Byres
    Protein Crystallography Unit and ARC Centre of Excellence for Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 456:648-52. 2008
    ..Ironically, foods rich in Neu5Gc are the most common source of STEC contamination. Thus a bacterial toxin's receptor is generated by metabolic incorporation of an exogenous factor derived from food...
  7. ncbi Activation of a recombinant membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) by furin and its interaction with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2
    H Sato
    Department of Molecular Virology and Oncology, Kanazawa University, Japan
    FEBS Lett 393:101-4. 1996
    ..Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 inhibited activation of progelatinase A by forming a stable complex with activated MT1-MMP...
  8. ncbi Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160
    S Hallenberger
    Institut fur Virologie, Philips Universität Marburg, Germany
    Nature 360:358-61. 1992
    ..We show here that the glycoprotein of HIV-1, which has the same protease recognition motif as the FPV haemagglutinin, is also activated by furin...
  9. pmc Inferring hypotheses on functional relationships of genes: Analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana subtilase gene family
    Carsten Rautengarten
    Institut für Biochemie und Biologie, Genetik, Universitat Potsdam, Golm, Germany
    PLoS Comput Biol 1:e40. 2005
    ..Supplemental material is available in the Plant Subtilase Database (PSDB) (http://csbdb.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/psdb.html), as well as from the CSB.DB (http://csbdb.mpimp-golm.mpg.de)...
  10. pmc Yeast prohormone processing enzyme (KEX2 gene product) is a Ca2+-dependent serine protease
    R S Fuller
    Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:1434-8. 1989
    ..Mutant enzyme molecules lacking as many as 200 C-terminal residues still retained Ca2+-dependent protease activity and were labeled by 125I-labeled Tyr-Ala-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone...
  11. pmc Novel subtilase cytotoxin produced by Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli induces apoptosis in vero cells via mitochondrial membrane damage
    Gen Matsuura
    Department of Molecular Infectiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
    Infect Immun 77:2919-24. 2009
    ..These data suggested that SubAB induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in Vero cells through mitochondrial membrane damage...
  12. ncbi Apoplastic plant subtilases support arbuscular mycorrhiza development in Lotus japonicus
    Naoya Takeda
    Faculty of Biology, Genetics, University of Munich, Grosshaderner Strasse 2, Martinsried, Germany
    Plant J 58:766-77. 2009
    ..Our data indicate a role for these subtilases during the fungal infection process in particular arbuscule development...
  13. ncbi Characterization of the subtilase gene family in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
    J Meichtry
    Institute of Plant Sciences, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    Plant Mol Biol 39:749-60. 1999
    ..At least one of the subtilases was found to be expressed in each organ analysed. Structural features evident from deduced amino acid sequences are discussed with reference to the related mammalian proprotein convertases...
  14. pmc Escherichia coli subtilase cytotoxin induces apoptosis regulated by host Bcl-2 family proteins Bax/Bak
    Kerrie L May
    Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia
    Infect Immun 78:4691-6. 2010
    ....
  15. pmc Allele-specific suppression of a defective trans-Golgi network (TGN) localization signal in Kex2p identifies three genes involved in localization of TGN transmembrane proteins
    K Redding
    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 16:6208-17. 1996
    ..soi1 mutants also exhibited a recessive defect in vacuolar protein sorting. Suppressor alleles of S0I2 were dominant. These results suggest that the SOI1 and S0I2 genes encode regulators or components of the TLS recognition machinery...
  16. pmc Furin at the cutting edge: from protein traffic to embryogenesis and disease
    Gary Thomas
    Vollum Institute, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:753-66. 2002
    ..This review summarizes various features of furin--its structural and enzymatic properties, intracellular localization, trafficking, substrates, and roles in vivo...
  17. ncbi Detergent proteases
    Karl Heinz Maurer
    Henkel, Enzyme Technology, Henkelstrasse 67 40191, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 15:330-4. 2004
    Over the past 20 years, the development of subtilisins as typical detergent proteases has employed all the tools of enzyme technology, resulting in a constant flow of new and improved enzymes...
  18. pmc Plasmodium subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1): insights into the active-site structure, specificity and function of a pan-malaria drug target
    Chrislaine Withers-Martinez
    Division of Parasitology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research NIMR, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Int J Parasitol 42:597-612. 2012
    ..Our findings demonstrate that it should be possible to develop 'pan-reactive' drug-like compounds that inhibit SUB1 in all three major human malaria pathogens, enabling production of broad-spectrum antimalarial drugs targeting SUB1...
  19. ncbi Identification of proteases that regulate erythrocyte rupture by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum
    Shirin Arastu-Kapur
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 4:203-13. 2008
    ..These results suggest that two mechanistically distinct proteases function to regulate processing of downstream substrates required for efficient release of parasites from host red blood cells...
  20. pmc A multifunctional serine protease primes the malaria parasite for red blood cell invasion
    Konstantinos Koussis
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    EMBO J 28:725-35. 2009
    ..We propose that PfSUB1 is a multifunctional processing protease with an essential role in both egress of the malaria merozoite and remodelling of its surface in preparation for erythrocyte invasion...
  21. ncbi The crystal structure of an autoprocessed Ser221Cys-subtilisin E-propeptide complex at 2.0 A resolution
    S C Jain
    Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 8087, USA
    J Mol Biol 284:137-44. 1998
    ..The structure determination reported here provides additional information about the nature of the interaction between the subtilisin and propeptide domains in this complex...
  22. pmc Localization of components involved in protein transport and processing through the yeast Golgi apparatus
    A Franzusoff
    Cellular and Structural Biology Department, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262
    J Cell Biol 112:27-37. 1991
    ..Colocalization of the two antigens, one implicated in protein transport through the Golgi apparatus and the other in processing within a late Golgi compartment, supports the conclusion that we have visualized the yeast Golgi apparatus...
  23. ncbi Expression of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum subtilisin-like protease-1 in insect cells. Characterization, comparison with the parasite protease, and homology modeling
    Chrislaine Withers-Martinez
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 277:29698-709. 2002
    ..homology modeling of the PfSUB-1 catalytic domain based on an alignment with closely related bacterial subtilisins and an orthologue from the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii suggests that the protease has at least three ..
  24. ncbi Proprotein and prohormone convertases: a family of subtilases generating diverse bioactive polypeptides
    N G Seidah
    Laboratories of Biochemical and Molecular Neuroendocrinology and the Protein Engineering Network of Centres of Excellence, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Canada
    Brain Res 848:45-62. 1999
    ....
  25. pmc Furin: a mammalian subtilisin/Kex2p-like endoprotease involved in processing of a wide variety of precursor proteins
    K Nakayama
    Institute of Biological Sciences and Gene Experiment Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305, Japan
    Biochem J 327:625-35. 1997
    ..The identification of a novel family of endoproteases homologous with bacterial subtilisins and yeast Kex2p has accelerated progress in understanding the complex mechanisms underlying the production of ..
  26. ncbi The proprotein convertases
    D F Steiner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 1028, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 2:31-9. 1998
    ....
  27. ncbi Purification and characterization of the subtilisin-like protease of Streptococcus suis that contributes to its virulence
    Laetitia Bonifait
    Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Buccale GREB, Faculte de Medecine Dentaire, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    Vet Microbiol 148:333-40. 2011
    ..In conclusion, the SspA of S. suis shared similarities with subtilisin-like proteases produced by other pathogenic streptococci and may contribute to the pathogenic process of S. suis infections...
  28. pmc Subtilase cytotoxin activates PERK, IRE1 and ATF6 endoplasmic reticulum stress-signalling pathways
    Jennifer J Wolfson
    Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Cell Microbiol 10:1775-86. 2008
    ..The rapidity with which ER stress-signalling responses are triggered by exposure of cells to SubAB is consistent with the hypothesis that cleavage by the toxin causes BiP to dissociate from the signalling molecules...
  29. ncbi Failure of ventral closure and axial rotation in embryos lacking the proprotein convertase Furin
    A J Roebroek
    Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Experimental Genetics Group, Center for Human Genetics, University of Leuven and Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven
    Development 125:4863-76. 1998
    ..Overall, the present data identify Furin as an important activator of signals responsible for ventral closure and embryonic turning...
  30. ncbi Insights from bacterial subtilases into the mechanisms of intramolecular chaperone-mediated activation of furin
    Ujwal Shinde
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97229, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 768:59-106. 2011
    Prokaryotic subtilisins and eukaryotic proprotein convertases (PCs) are two homologous protease subfamilies that belong to the larger ubiquitous super-family called subtilases...
  31. ncbi The neuroendocrine precursor 7B2 is a sulfated protein proteolytically processed by a ubiquitous furin-like convertase
    L Paquet
    Laboratory of Structure and Metabolism of Neuropeptides, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Biol Chem 269:19279-85. 1994
    ..These results demonstrate that pro7B2 is first processed by a furin-like enzyme within the trans-Golgi network into a 23-kDa form that is then sequestered into secretory granules...
  32. pmc Subtilase cytotoxin induces apoptosis in HeLa cells by mitochondrial permeabilization via activation of Bax/Bak, independent of C/EBF-homologue protein (CHOP), Ire1alpha or JNK signaling
    Kinnosuke Yahiro
    Department of Molecular Infectiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chuo Ku, Chiba, Japan
    Microb Pathog 49:153-63. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc Subtilase cytotoxin enhances Escherichia coli survival in macrophages by suppression of nitric oxide production through the inhibition of NF-κB activation
    Hiroyasu Tsutsuki
    Departments of Molecular Infectiology, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
    Infect Immun 80:3939-51. 2012
    ..coli survival in macrophages. Thus, we hypothesize that SubAB might represent a novel bacterial strategy to circumvent host defense during STEC infection...
  34. ncbi The new allelic variant of the subtilase cytotoxin (subAB2) is common among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from large game animals and their meat and meat products
    Sergio Sanchez
    Unidad de Enterobacterias, Servicio de Bacteriologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Madrid, Spain
    Vet Microbiol 166:645-9. 2013
    ....
  35. pmc Inhibition of water absorption and selective damage to human colonic mucosa are induced by subtilase cytotoxin produced by Escherichia coli O113:H21
    Elizabeth Gerhardt
    Laboratorio de Fisiopatogenia, Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Infect Immun 81:2931-7. 2013
    ..coli O113:H21 expressing only SubAB was assayed. This is the first study showing that SubAB may directly participate in the mechanisms of diarrhea in children infected with non-O157 STEC strains. ..
  36. ncbi Processing of pro-islet amyloid polypeptide (proIAPP) by the prohormone convertase PC2
    M K Badman
    Department of Human Anatomy, University of Oxford, UK
    FEBS Lett 378:227-31. 1996
    ..These data are consistent with processing of proIAPP in beta-cell secretory granules. Abnormal cellular proteolysis associated with type 2 diabetes could contribute to IAPP amyloidosis...
  37. ncbi The occurrence of subtilase-cytotoxin-encoding genes in environmental Escherichia coli isolated from a Northern California estuary
    Maria Das Gracas C Pereira
    Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, 2012 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Can J Microbiol 59:437-41. 2013
    ..To further understand potential health risks posed by strains encoding SubAB, future epidemiological studies should consider screening isolates for subAB regardless of the presence of Shiga-toxin-encoding genes...
  38. ncbi Subtilase cytotoxin encoding genes are present in human, sheep and deer intimin-negative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O128:H2
    Sergio Sanchez
    Laboratorio de Enterobacterias, Servicio de Bacteriologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Madrid, Spain
    Vet Microbiol 159:531-5. 2012
    ..Our results indicate that sheep and deer represent a reservoir of SubAB-positive STEC O128:H2 strains and thus a potential source of human infection...
  39. pmc A dietary non-human sialic acid may facilitate hemolytic-uremic syndrome
    Jonas C Löfling
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, University of California, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 0687, USA
    Kidney Int 76:140-4. 2009
    ....
  40. ncbi Bi-cycling the furin pathway: from TGN localization to pathogen activation and embryogenesis
    S S Molloy
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Trends Cell Biol 9:28-35. 1999
    ....
  41. pmc Tissue factor–dependent procoagulant activity of subtilase cytotoxin, a potent AB5 toxin produced by shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli
    Hui Wang
    Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    J Infect Dis 202:1415-23. 2010
    ..Our results suggest that the procoagulant effect of SubAB may be dependent on both the up‐regulation of TF expression and the activation of TF by means of BiP cleavage...
  42. ncbi Processing of transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor by human furin convertase
    C M Dubois
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Biol Chem 270:10618-24. 1995
    ..Collectively, these results provide evidence that in our experimental systems the TGF beta 1 precursor is efficiently and correctly processed by human furin thus permitting release of the biologically active peptide...
  43. pmc Intracellular trafficking of furin is modulated by the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site in its cytoplasmic tail
    B G Jones
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201 3098, USA
    EMBO J 14:5869-83. 1995
    ..Thus, routing of furin is a two-tiered process combining a set of trafficking signals comprised of the primary amino acid sequence of the tail with its phosphorylation state...
  44. ncbi Circular dichroism studies of subtilisin Carlsberg immobilised on micron sized silica particles
    Ashok Ganesan
    Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 295 Cathedral Street, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XL, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1764:1119-25. 2006
    ..Additional evidence for loss of native conformation is provided by the significant decrease in the near UV CD spectrum. These results for the first time clearly demonstrate the origin of enzyme instability in the immobilised state...
  45. ncbi Localization of endogenous furin in cultured cell lines
    J Shapiro
    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Histochem Cytochem 45:3-12. 1997
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that endogenous furin is predominantly localized to the area of the Golgi complex, most likely within the trans-Golgi network...
  46. ncbi HLA-DQ8 is a predisposing molecule for detergent enzyme subtilisin BPN'-induced hypersensitivity
    Ailing Xue
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Clin Immunol 117:302-15. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi Improved autoprocessing efficiency of mutant subtilisins E with altered specificity by engineering of the pro-region
    M Takahashi
    Department of Bioscience, Fukui Prefectural University, Fukui 910 1195, Japan
    J Biochem 130:99-106. 2001
    ..Therefore, to enhance processing, we engineered the pro-region of mutant subtilisins E of Bacillus subtilis with altered substrate specificity...
  48. ncbi Testicular expression of PC4 in the rat: molecular diversity of a novel germ cell-specific Kex2/subtilisin-like proprotein convertase
    N G Seidah
    J A DeSève Laboratories of Biochemical, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Endocrinol 6:1559-70. 1992
    ..The stage-specific expression of PC4 in testis indicates its potential role in the developmental maturation of germ cells and that this convertase may play a specific physiological function in reproduction...
  49. pmc Furin initiates gelsolin familial amyloidosis in the Golgi through a defect in Ca(2+) stabilization
    C D Chen
    Departments of Molecular and Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    EMBO J 20:6277-87. 2001
    ..We propose that coincidence of membrane trafficking pathways contributes to the development of proteolysis-initiated amyloid disease...
  50. ncbi Cloning and primary sequence of a mouse candidate prohormone convertase PC1 homologous to PC2, Furin, and Kex2: distinct chromosomal localization and messenger RNA distribution in brain and pituitary compared to PC2
    N G Seidah
    J A DeSève Laboratories of Biochemical, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Endocrinol 5:111-22. 1991
    ..The genes coding for mPC1 and mPC2 map to the murine chromosomes 13 (band 13c) and 2 (2F3-2H2 region), respectively...
  51. ncbi Complex between the subtilisin from a mesophilic bacterium and the leech inhibitor eglin-C
    Z Dauter
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory EMBL, Hamburg, Germany
    Acta Crystallogr B 47:707-30. 1991
    ..1% including two Ca2+ ions and 312 water molecules. The structure is discussed in terms of its physicochemical properties in solution and its relation to other Bacillus subtilisins.
  52. ncbi Refined crystal structure of the complex of subtilisin BPN' and Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor at 1.8 A resolution
    Y Takeuchi
    Pharmaceutical Research Center, Meiji Seika Kaisha, Ltd, Yokohama, Japan
    J Mol Biol 221:309-25. 1991
    ....
  53. ncbi Refined crystal structures of subtilisin novo in complex with wild-type and two mutant eglins. Comparison with other serine proteinase inhibitor complexes
    D W Heinz
    Pharmaceutical Division, Ciba Geigy Ltd, Basel, Switzerland
    J Mol Biol 217:353-71. 1991
    ..Comparison of the complexes showed a rigid body rotation for the eglin c core of 11.5 degrees with respect to the enzyme, probably caused by different intermolecular contacts in both crystal forms...
  54. pmc Recombining low homology, functionally rich regions of bacterial subtilisins by combinatorial fragment exchange
    D Dafydd Jones
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e24319. 2011
    ..fragment exchange was utilised to recombine key structural and functional low homology regions of bacilli subtilisins to generate new active hybrid proteases with altered substrate profiles...
  55. pmc SPC4, SPC6, and the novel protease SPC7 are coexpressed with bone morphogenetic proteins at distinct sites during embryogenesis
    D B Constam
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biological Laboratories, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    J Cell Biol 134:181-91. 1996
    ..A comparison of these expression patterns with those of several bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) indicates that processing of these growth factors may be limited by the local availability of SPCs...
  56. ncbi cDNA sequence of two distinct pituitary proteins homologous to Kex2 and furin gene products: tissue-specific mRNAs encoding candidates for pro-hormone processing proteinases
    N G Seidah
    J A DeSève Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    DNA Cell Biol 9:415-24. 1990
    ..8 kb) demonstrated tissue and cellular specificity of expression, only within endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. These data suggest that mPC1 and mPC2 represent prime candidates for tissue-specific pro-hormone converting proteinases...
  57. ncbi Structural comparison of two serine proteinase-protein inhibitor complexes: eglin-c-subtilisin Carlsberg and CI-2-subtilisin Novo
    C A McPhalen
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Biochemistry 27:6582-98. 1988
    ..The 24 main-chain plus C beta atoms of P4 to P1' overlap with an rms deviation of 0.19 A. Features contributing to the inhibitory nature of eglin-c and CI-2 are discussed...
  58. ncbi Subtilisins of Bacillus spp. hydrolyze keratin and allow growth on feathers
    K L Evans
    Department of Microbiology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695, USA
    Can J Microbiol 46:1004-11. 2000
    ..PWD-1 and the kerA protease efficiently degrade keratin, keratin hydrolysis and growth on feathers is a property that can be conferred by appropriate expression of the major subtilisins, including the industrially produced enzymes.
  59. pmc Evolution of a subtilisin-like protease gene family in the grass endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae
    Michelle K Bryant
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    BMC Evol Biol 9:168. 2009
    ..In fungi, SLPs can play either a general nutritive role, or may play specific roles in cell metabolism, or as pathogenicity or virulence factors...
  60. ncbi The NH2-terminal proregion of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase facilitates the secretion of soluble proteins
    R E Mains
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 9:3-13. 1995
    ..In both AtT-20 cells and hEK-293 cells, the PAM/PC2 fusion molecule was able to exit the endoplasmic reticulum more rapidly than PC2...
  61. pmc cDNA structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of rat PC7, a novel mammalian proprotein convertase closest to yeast kexin-like proteinases
    N G Seidah
    Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3388-93. 1996
    ..The gene for PC7 (Pcsk7) was mapped to mouse chromosome 9 by linkage analysis of an interspecific backcross DNA panel...
  62. pmc Water dynamics and salt-activation of enzymes in organic media: mechanistic implications revealed by NMR spectroscopy
    Ross K Eppler
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5706-10. 2006
    ..This increased mobility may contribute to the dramatic increases in biocatalyst activity...
  63. ncbi Identification of a second human subtilisin-like protease gene in the fes/fps region of chromosome 15
    M C Kiefer
    Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA 94608
    DNA Cell Biol 10:757-69. 1991
    ..The close proximity of the fur and PACE4 genes on chromosome 15 suggests that these genes probably evolved from a common ancestor by gene duplication...
  64. ncbi Purification and characterization of the prohormone convertase PC1(PC3)
    Y Zhou
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans 70112
    J Biol Chem 268:5615-23. 1993
    ....
  65. ncbi Identification and functional expression of a new member of the mammalian Kex2-like processing endoprotease family: its striking structural similarity to PACE4
    T Nakagawa
    Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki
    J Biochem 113:132-5. 1993
    ..Transfection experiments revealed that PC6 was capable of cleaving precursors at dibasic sites. These observations suggest that PC6 is a candidate for a processing endoprotease responsible for the maturation of gastrointestinal peptides...
  66. ncbi The engineering of binding affinity at metal ion binding sites for the stabilization of proteins: subtilisin as a test case
    M W Pantoliano
    Genex Corporation, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877
    Biochemistry 27:8311-7. 1988
    ..8 and 13.2 A, respectively, from the bound Ca2+. These distances and the degree of enhanced binding are consistent with simple electrostatic theory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  67. pmc alpha1-Antitrypsin Portland, a bioengineered serpin highly selective for furin: application as an antipathogenic agent
    F Jean
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7293-8. 1998
    ..Finally, we propose a structural model of the alpha1-PDX-reactive site loop that explains the high degree of enzyme selectivity of this serpin and which can be used to generate small molecule furin inhibitors...
  68. ncbi Localization of prohormone convertases 1/3 and 2 in the human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas: analysis by immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy, and laser scanning microscopy
    I Takumi
    Department of Neurosurgery, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Tokyo, Japan
    Mod Pathol 11:232-8. 1998
    ..The high incidence of PC1/3 and PC2 in nonfunctioning adenomas might be related to the processing of chromogranin A...
  69. pmc Ara12 subtilisin-like protease from Arabidopsis thaliana: purification, substrate specificity and tissue localization
    John M U Hamilton
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Biochem J 370:57-67. 2003
    ..Possible functions of Ara12 are discussed in the light of the involvement of a number of plant subtilisin-like proteases in morphogenesis...
  70. ncbi Eukaryotic protein processing: endoproteolysis of precursor proteins
    N G Seidah
    Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, QC, Canada
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 8:602-7. 1997
    ....
  71. ncbi Structural and biochemical characterization of a fluorogenic rhodamine-labeled malarial protease substrate
    Michael J Blackman
    National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, U K
    Biochemistry 41:12244-52. 2002
    ..These data also indicate that the rhodamine dimers fluoresce and that the associated lifetimes are subnanosecond...
  72. pmc Mammalian subtilisin/kexin isozyme SKI-1: A widely expressed proprotein convertase with a unique cleavage specificity and cellular localization
    N G Seidah
    Laboratory of Biochemical, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC, Canada H2W 1R7
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1321-6. 1999
    ..In vitro studies suggest that SKI-1 is a Ca2+-dependent serine proteinase exhibiting a wide pH optimum for cleavage of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor...
  73. ncbi A subtilisin-like protein in secretory organelles of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites
    M J Blackman
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 273:23398-409. 1998
    ..The subcellular location and timing of secretion of p47 suggest that it is likely to play a role in erythrocyte invasion. PfSUB-1 is a new potential target for antimalarial drug development...
  74. ncbi Functional characterization of the propeptide of Plasmodium falciparum subtilisin-like protease-1
    Letitia Jean
    Parasitology and Physical Biochemistry, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:28572-9. 2003
    ..significant secondary structure on its own, comparable with that of folded propeptides of some bacterial subtilisins. Kinetic studies demonstrated that rp31 is a fast binding, high affinity inhibitor of PfSUB-1...
  75. ncbi Human furin is a calcium-dependent serine endoprotease that recognizes the sequence Arg-X-X-Arg and efficiently cleaves anthrax toxin protective antigen
    S S Molloy
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201
    J Biol Chem 267:16396-402. 1992
    ....
  76. pmc Golgi and vacuolar membrane proteins reach the vacuole in vps1 mutant yeast cells via the plasma membrane
    S F Nothwehr
    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403
    J Cell Biol 129:35-46. 1995
    ..We propose a model in which Vps1p is required for formation of vesicles from the late Golgi apparatus that carry vacuolar and Golgi membrane proteins bound for the prevacuolar compartment...
  77. pmc Two independent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic domain determine trans-Golgi network localization and endosomal trafficking of the proprotein convertase furin
    W Schafer
    Institut fur Virologie, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Germany
    EMBO J 14:2424-35. 1995
    ..The data support the concept that the acidic signal, which is the dominant one, retains furin in the TGN, whereas the YKGL motif acts as a retrieval signal for furin that has escaped to the cell surface...
  78. ncbi Structural basis of inhibition revealed by a 1:2 complex of the two-headed tomato inhibitor-II and subtilisin Carlsberg
    Isabelle H Barrette-Ng
    Canadian Institutes for Health Research Group in Protein Structure and Function, Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada
    J Biol Chem 278:24062-71. 2003
    ..subtilisin)2 complex provides a molecular framework for understanding how multiple inhibitory domains in a single Potato II type proteinase inhibitor molecule from the Potato II family act to inhibit proteolytic enzymes...
  79. ncbi The kex2 gene from the dimorphic and human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
    Emerson J Venancio
    Departamento de Ciências Patológicas, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86051 970 Londrina, PR, Brasil
    Yeast 19:1221-31. 2002
    ..A putative Golgi retrieval signal (YEFEMI) has also been found in the cytoplasmic tail. The complete nucleotide sequence of Pbkex2 and its flanking regions have been submitted to GenBank database under Accession No. AF486805...
  80. pmc Retrieval of resident late-Golgi membrane proteins from the prevacuolar compartment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on the function of Grd19p
    W Voos
    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 1229, USA
    J Cell Biol 140:577-90. 1998
    ..We conclude that Grd19p is a component of the retrieval machinery that functions by direct interaction with the cytosolic tails of certain TGN membrane proteins during the sorting/budding process at the prevacuolar compartment...
  81. ncbi 7B2 is a specific intracellular binding protein of the prohormone convertase PC2
    S Benjannet
    J A DeSève Laboratories of Molecular, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Neurochem 64:2303-11. 1995
    ..Coexpression of 7B2 and PC2, although resulting in an elevation of the level of pro-PC2, did not eliminate the processing of pro-PC2 to PC2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  82. pmc Purification and characterization of Ak.1 protease, a thermostable subtilisin with a disulphide bond in the substrate-binding cleft
    H S Toogood
    Thermophile Research Unit, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 2001, New Zealand
    Biochem J 350:321-8. 2000
    ..The protease was originally investigated to determine its usefulness in the clean-up of DNA at high temperatures. However, it was found that this protease has a limited substrate specificity, so this application was not explored further...
  83. ncbi Incomplete processing of proinsulin to insulin accompanied by elevation of Des-31,32 proinsulin intermediates in islets of mice lacking active PC2
    M Furuta
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:3431-7. 1998
    ....
  84. ncbi Precursor processing by kex2/furin proteases
    Nathan C Rockwell
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical Center, Room 5413 Med Sci I, 1301 East Catherine, Ann Arbor Michigan 48109, USA
    Chem Rev 102:4525-48. 2002
  85. pmc Comparative biosynthesis, covalent post-translational modifications and efficiency of prosegment cleavage of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2: glycosylation, sulphation and identification of the intracellular site of prosegment cleavage of PC1 and P
    S Benjannet
    J A DeSève Laboratory of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Biochem J 294:735-43. 1993
    ..In order to test the possibility that zymogen processing is performed by furin, we co-expressed this convertase with either pro-PC1 or pro-PC2. The data demonstrated the inability of furin to cleave either proenzyme...
  86. pmc Bioactivation of Müllerian inhibiting substance during gonadal development by a kex2/subtilisin-like endoprotease
    M W Nachtigal
    Department of Physiology, Program in Developmental Biology, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0444, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7711-6. 1996
    ..Our results suggest that MIS is a natural substrate for PC5, thereby supporting a role for prohormone convertases in the activation of transforming growth factor beta-related hormones during development...
  87. pmc cDNA structure of the mouse and rat subtilisin/kexin-like PC5: a candidate proprotein convertase expressed in endocrine and nonendocrine cells
    J Lusson
    J A DeSève Laboratorie of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, PQ, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:6691-5. 1993
    ..In situ hybridization of rat brain sections demonstrated a unique distribution of PC5 compared to PC1, PC2, and furin...
  88. pmc Intracellular trafficking and activation of the furin proprotein convertase: localization to the TGN and recycling from the cell surface
    S S Molloy
    Vollum Institute, Portland, OR
    EMBO J 13:18-33. 1994
    ..Finally, we show that proregion removal is necessary but not sufficient for enzyme activation...
  89. ncbi A subtilisin-like serine protease is required for epidermal surface formation in Arabidopsis embryos and juvenile plants
    H Tanaka
    Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8602, Japan
    Development 128:4681-9. 2001
    ....
  90. ncbi Subtilisin-like proteases of the malaria parasite
    Chrislaine Withers-Martinez
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Mol Microbiol 53:55-63. 2004
    ..They may have potential as novel drug targets. Here, we review progress in our understanding of the maturation, specificity, structure and function of these Plasmodium subtilases...
  91. ncbi The prosegment-subtilisin BPN' complex: crystal structure of a specific 'foldase'
    T Gallagher
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville, USA
    Structure 3:907-14. 1995
    ..Mature subtilisin represents a class of proteins that lacks an efficient folding pathway. Refolding of mature SBT is extremely slow unless catalyzed by the independently expressed prosegment, leading to a bimolecular complex...
  92. ncbi Reconstructing the diversification of subtilisins in the pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
    Savita Bagga
    Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, 4112 Plant Science Building, College Park, MD 20742 4454, USA
    Gene 324:159-69. 2004
    ..Here we sought a global characterization of the diversity of subtilisins in the insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae...
  93. ncbi Functional analysis of the propeptides of subtilisin E and aqualysin I as intramolecular chaperones
    H Takagi
    Department of Bioscience, Fukui Prefectural University, Japan
    FEBS Lett 508:210-4. 2001
    ..Further, some enzymatic properties of some chimeras in which the subtilisin mature domain is partly swapped with that of aqualysin I were shown to be more similar to those of aqualysin I...
  94. ncbi Structural basis of thermostability. Analysis of stabilizing mutations in subtilisin BPN'
    Orna Almog
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
    J Biol Chem 277:27553-8. 2002
    ..The effects are attributed to the new disulfide cross-link and to improved hydrophobic packing, new hydrogen bonds, and other rearrangements in the N-terminal region...
  95. pmc A protein-based therapeutic for human cytomegalovirus infection
    F Jean
    Vollum Institute, and Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:2864-9. 2000
    ....
  96. ncbi Gene targeting demonstrates that the Plasmodium berghei subtilisin PbSUB2 is essential for red cell invasion and reveals spontaneous genetic recombination events
    Pierrick Uzureau
    Unité de Biologie des Interactions Hôte Parasite, Institut Pasteur CNRS URA 2581, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Cell Microbiol 6:65-78. 2004
    ..berghei...
  97. pmc Maturation of the trans-Golgi network protease furin: compartmentalization of propeptide removal, substrate cleavage, and COOH-terminal truncation
    M Vey
    Institut f Virologie, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Germany
    J Cell Biol 127:1829-42. 1994
    ..This observation supports the concept that secretion of truncated furin is a physiological event that may have important implications for the processing of extracellular substrates...
  98. ncbi Engineering subtilisin into a fluoride-triggered processing protease useful for one-step protein purification
    Biao Ruan
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 9600 Gudelsky Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Biochemistry 43:14539-46. 2004
    ..Cleavage can be triggered by the addition of fluoride to release the pure target protein. The column is then regenerated by stripping off the tightly bound prodomain at pH 2.1. Ten proteins have been purified to date by this method...
  99. ncbi A new subfamily of fungal subtilases: structural and functional analysis of a Pleurotus ostreatus member
    Vincenza Faraco
    Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Biochimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli, Italy
    Microbiology 151:457-66. 2005
    ..A new subgroup of subtilisin-like proteases, belonging to the pyrolysin family, has been defined, which includes proteases from ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi...
  100. pmc Novel genes involved in endosomal traffic in yeast revealed by suppression of a targeting-defective plasma membrane ATPase mutant
    W J Luo
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Cell Biol 138:731-46. 1997
    ..Thus, cell surface delivery of mutant Pma1 can occur as a consequence of disturbances at several different sites in the endosomal system...
  101. ncbi Phylogenetic and exon-intron structure analysis of fungal subtilisins: support for a mixed model of intron evolution
    Chengshu Wang
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
    J Mol Evol 60:238-46. 2005
    Phylogenetic and exon-intron structure analyses of intra- and interspecific fungal subtilisins in this study provided support for a mixed model of intron evolution: a synthetic theory of introns-early and introns-late speculations...

Research Grants27

  1. Blockade of Anthrax Cytotoxicity Using Furin Inhibitors
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..this cleavage is performed by a cellular surface enzyme known as furin, a member of the family of eukaryotic subtilisins. This application is directed toward the idea that the cytotoxic action of anthrax toxin can be attenuated ..
  2. PROTEIN FOLDING AND STABILITY OF SUBTILISIN
    Philip Bryan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Understanding the relationships between facile folding and stability should advance the fields of protein engineering, protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. ..
  3. NEUTRON STUDIES OF PROTEIN DYNAMICS AND SOLVATION
    Anthony Kossiakoff; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A number of mutant subtilisins have been crystallized...
  4. Proprotein Processing, Trafficking and Secretion Gordon Conference
    Nabil Seidah; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The integration of protease systems that are required both for normal physiology and human disease will be relevant to our understanding of the molecular bases of diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's and drug addiction. ..
  5. ProTRH sorting to the regulated secretory pathway
    EDUARDO NILLNI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The sorting of the proTRH N- and C-terminal fragments is routed to two different pathways. Aim 4. The tertiary structure of proTRH contributes to its processing by PC1 and PC2 and further sorting to the RSP. ..
  6. PROTRH GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND BIOSYNTHESES BY LEPTIN
    EDUARDO NILLNI; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..B) Since the melanocortin system represents the indirect pathway of action on TRH neurons, we will also determine whether alpha- MSH affects the biosynthesis, maturation and activity of PCI, PC2, proSAAS, 7B2 and CPE. ..
  7. Impact of Sleep on Feeding and the Metabolic Syndrome
    Joseph Bass; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Insight gained from these studies will provide new strategies to prevent metabolic complications associated with sleep deprivation and uncover novel metabolic targets for treatment of obesity and its co-morbidities. ..
  8. VP peptides and receptors in diagnosis of breast cancer.
    WILLIAM NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Another successful end-point would be the finding that these same methods can successfully monitor current treatments, and potentially lead to new and more effective ones. ..
  9. THE CRES GENE IN REPRODUCTION
    Gail Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Also, the newly purchased mass spec will enable on site protein analysis for the studies described above. In short, the environment at TTUHSC is exceptional and will fully support my proposed studies. ..
  10. MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY IN HUMAN KIDNEY CELLS
    Lawrence Lash; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Achievement of these aims should build on our previous work in human kidney cells and extend it to provide a much more complete understanding of the various and complex ways in which DCVC affects the human kidney [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE BY PROT
    Russell Bowler; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will not only define new aspects of the pathogenesis and regulation of vascular tone and inflammation, but can open new approaches to pharmacologically control these events. ..
  12. NEUROPEPTIDES AND SMALL CELL CARCINOMA
    WILLIAM NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The information obtained is expected to result in effective chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic interventions for all patients with limited and extensive SCCL. ..
  13. GRSA Proteins in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
    WILLIAM NORTH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These methods could be applicable to all patients with breast cancer or suspected breast cancer. ..
  14. MOLECULAR COMPONENENTS OF INSULIN RECEPTOR BIOGENESIS
    Joseph Bass; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Steiner, in addition to Drs. Graeme Bell, Susan Lindquist and other excellent scientists at the University of Chicago will promote his continued development as an independent researcher. ..
  15. GLUTATHIONE AND MITOCHONDRIA IN TOXIC RENAL INJURY
    Lawrence Lash; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This information may have therapeutic applications for prevention of renal cellular injury or for understanding mitochondrial diseases or age-related decreases that occur in mitochondrial function. ..
  16. MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF INSULIN RECEPTOR BIOGENESIS
    Joseph Bass; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Keratinocyte Costimulation and Th2-Cell Immune Deviation
    Anthony Gaspari; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Similar mechanistic studies of the molecular basis of other skin diseases such as psoriasis have led to the development of biological response modifiers that are now in clinical use. ..
  18. GENETIC RESCUE OF PRO-LHRH PROCESSING IN CPE FAT MICE
    William Wetsel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  19. Role of HCMV Glycoprotein in Viral Biogenesis
    Gary Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Together, these studies will increase our knowledge of the cell biology of HCMV gB and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of viral assembly that will enable development of novel therapeutics to treat viral disease. ..
  20. THE CRES GENE IN REPRODUCTION
    Gail Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF T. DENTICOLA-HOST INTERACTIONS
    J Fenno; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  22. Micellar VIP Nanoparticles for Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Israel Rubinstein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. CCK in Generating Enzyme - Structure, Location and Role
    Margery Beinfeld; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The effect of this inhibition on the processing of pro CCK will be determined. ..
  24. DDR1 controls tumor homing in breast to bone metastasis
    Celso Gomez Sanchez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A survey of the CRISP database showed that the NIH currently funds no other research on DDR1. ..
  25. Role of PACS proteins in polycystin-2 trafficking and ADPKD
    Gary Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  26. Role of PACS-1 in HIV-1 Immunoevasion
    Gary Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Elucidating how this Nef-induced signaling pathway is used by HIV-1 will provide better understanding of the biochemical basis underlying HIV-1 pathogenesis and will identify new targets to combat this deadly virus. ..
  27. IRRITANTS EFFECTS ON EPIDERMAL ANTIGEN PRESENTATION
    Anthony Gaspari; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....