papain

Summary

Summary: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Carboxy terminal extended phytocystatins are bifunctional inhibitors of papain and legumain cysteine proteinases
    Manuel Martinez
    Laboratorio de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biotecnologia, Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETS Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid, Spain
    FEBS Lett 581:2914-8. 2007
  2. pmc A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
  3. pmc Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells
    Puck B van Kasteren
    Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E838-47. 2013
  4. pmc Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease: structure of a viral deubiquitinating enzyme
    Kiira Ratia
    Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5717-22. 2006
  5. ncbi Crystal structure of the wild-type human procathepsin B at 2.5 A resolution reveals the native active site of a papain-like cysteine protease zymogen
    M Podobnik
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, 1111, Slovenia
    J Mol Biol 271:774-88. 1997
  6. ncbi Beet yellows closterovirus: complete genome structure and identification of a leader papain-like thiol protease
    A A Agranovsky
    A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Russia
    Virology 198:311-24. 1994
  7. pmc Non-canonical maturation of two papain-family proteases in Toxoplasma gondii
    Zhicheng Dou
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:3523-34. 2013
  8. ncbi Processing and subcellular localization of the leader papain-like proteinase of Beet yellows closterovirus
    Roman A Zinovkin
    Department of Virology and Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow, Russia
    J Gen Virol 84:2265-70. 2003
  9. pmc The crystal structure of Pseudomonas avirulence protein AvrPphB: a papain-like fold with a distinct substrate-binding site
    Minfeng Zhu
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School and Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:302-7. 2004
  10. pmc Papain-like protease 1 from transmissible gastroenteritis virus: crystal structure and enzymatic activity toward viral and cellular substrates
    Justyna A Wojdyla
    EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D 22603 Hamburg, Germany
    J Virol 84:10063-73. 2010

Detail Information

Publications266 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Carboxy terminal extended phytocystatins are bifunctional inhibitors of papain and legumain cysteine proteinases
    Manuel Martinez
    Laboratorio de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Biotecnologia, Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETS Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid, Spain
    FEBS Lett 581:2914-8. 2007
    ..Phytocystatins (PhyCys) have been described as plant inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteinases...
  2. pmc A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
    ..Finally, we show that basophils were directly activated by protease allergens and produced TH2-inducing cytokines, including interleukin 4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which are involved in TH2 differentiation in vivo...
  3. pmc Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells
    Puck B van Kasteren
    Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E838-47. 2013
    ..are economically important positive-stranded RNA viruses that encode an ovarian tumor (OTU) domain DUB known as papain-like protease 2 (PLP2)...
  4. pmc Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease: structure of a viral deubiquitinating enzyme
    Kiira Ratia
    Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5717-22. 2006
    ..of the replicase polyprotein by two viral cysteine proteases, a chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and a papain-like protease (PLpro)...
  5. ncbi Crystal structure of the wild-type human procathepsin B at 2.5 A resolution reveals the native active site of a papain-like cysteine protease zymogen
    M Podobnik
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, 1111, Slovenia
    J Mol Biol 271:774-88. 1997
    ..The structure strongly suggests that processing of procathepsin B during its autoactivation is not unimolecular...
  6. ncbi Beet yellows closterovirus: complete genome structure and identification of a leader papain-like thiol protease
    A A Agranovsky
    A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Russia
    Virology 198:311-24. 1994
    ..The N-terminal domain showed sequence similarity to the helper component papain-like protease of potyviruses...
  7. pmc Non-canonical maturation of two papain-family proteases in Toxoplasma gondii
    Zhicheng Dou
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:3523-34. 2013
    ..cathepsin B protease (TgCPB) does not undergo self-maturation but instead requires the expression of a second papain-family cathepsin protease, TgCPL...
  8. ncbi Processing and subcellular localization of the leader papain-like proteinase of Beet yellows closterovirus
    Roman A Zinovkin
    Department of Virology and Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow, Russia
    J Gen Virol 84:2265-70. 2003
    ORF 1a of Beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) encodes the domains of the papain-like proteinase (PCP), methyltransferase (MT) and RNA helicase...
  9. pmc The crystal structure of Pseudomonas avirulence protein AvrPphB: a papain-like fold with a distinct substrate-binding site
    Minfeng Zhu
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School and Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:302-7. 2004
    ..The core of this structure resembles the papain-like cysteine proteases...
  10. pmc Papain-like protease 1 from transmissible gastroenteritis virus: crystal structure and enzymatic activity toward viral and cellular substrates
    Justyna A Wojdyla
    EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D 22603 Hamburg, Germany
    J Virol 84:10063-73. 2010
    ..encode two classes of cysteine proteases, which have narrow substrate specificities and either a chymotrypsin- or papain-like fold...
  11. ncbi Proteolytic processing, deubiquitinase and interferon antagonist activities of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease
    Xingxing Yang
    Division of Infection and Immunity, Department of Electromagnetic and Laser Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, PR China
    J Gen Virol 95:614-26. 2014
    ..Genomic studies revealed that two viral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), process the polyproteins encoded by the MERS-CoV genomic RNA...
  12. ncbi The arterivirus Nsp2 protease. An unusual cysteine protease with primary structure similarities to both papain-like and chymotrypsin-like proteases
    E J Snijder
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 270:16671-6. 1995
    ..A papain-like Cys protease in Nsp1 and a chymotrypsin-like Ser protease in Nsp4 are involved in this process...
  13. ncbi Papain-induced in vitro disc degeneration model for the study of injectable nucleus pulposus therapy
    Samantha C W Chan
    Tissue and Organ Mechanobiology, Institute of Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Spine J 13:273-83. 2013
    ..Proteolytic enzyme digestion of the intervertebral disc (IVD) offers a method to simulate a condition of disc degeneration for the study of cell-scaffold constructs in the degenerated disc...
  14. ncbi Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in papain-induced emphysematous lungs and inhibits apoptosis of lung cells
    Guohua Zhen
    Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Cytotherapy 12:605-14. 2010
    ..We have found that bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation ameliorates papain-induced pulmonary emphysema. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood...
  15. ncbi Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex
    Kotaro Konno
    National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1 2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8634, Japan
    Plant J 37:370-8. 2004
    ..The roles of those latex proteins and enzymes are as yet poorly understood. We found that papain, a cysteine protease in latex of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), is a crucial factor in the defense ..
  16. pmc Weeds, worms, and more. Papain's long-lost cousin, phytochelatin synthase
    Philip A Rea
    Plant Science Institute, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Plant Physiol 136:2463-74. 2004
  17. pmc The papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has deubiquitinating activity
    Naina Barretto
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, 2160 South First Avenue, Bldg 105, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    J Virol 79:15189-98. 2005
    ..syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is mediated by replicase polyproteins that are processed by two viral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro)...
  18. pmc A bacterial type III effector family uses the papain-like hydrolytic activity to arrest the host cell cycle
    Qing Yao
    National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3716-21. 2009
    ..Structure of one of the family members, Cif homolog in Burkholderia pseudomallei (CHBP), reveals a papain-like fold and a conserved Cys-His-Gln catalytic triad despite the lack of primary sequence identity...
  19. ncbi Grass group I allergens (beta-expansins) are novel, papain-related proteinases
    K Grobe
    University of California, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Eur J Biochem 263:33-40. 1999
    ..of Phl p 1 with three functionally important sequence motifs surrounding the active-site amino acids of the C1 (papain-like) family of cysteine proteinases...
  20. ncbi Glycosylation in the Fc domain of IgG increases resistance to proteolytic cleavage by papain
    T Shantha Raju
    Discovery Research, Centocor R and D Inc, 145 King of Prussia Road, Radnor, PA 19087, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 341:797-803. 2006
    ..fragments of IgGs include Fc, Fab, and F(ab')2 fragments, all of which can be made using the sulfhydryl protease papain, although prolonged digestion times and/or excessive amounts of papain typically result in further cleavage of the ..
  21. pmc Interaction of recombinant human cystatin C with the cysteine proteinases papain and actinidin
    P Lindahl
    Department of Veterinary Medical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Biomedical Center
    Biochem J 281:49-55. 1992
    The interaction between recombinant human cystatin C and the cysteine proteinases papain and actinidin was studied by spectroscopic, kinetic and equilibrium methods. The absorption, near-u.v.c.d...
  22. ncbi Papain digestion of different mouse IgG subclasses as studied by electrospray mass spectrometry
    M Adamczyk
    Department of Chemistry 9NM, Abbott Diagnostics Division, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, IL 60064 6016, USA
    J Immunol Methods 237:95-104. 2000
    ..On-line liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) has been utilized to monitor the papain digestion of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of different subclasses (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3)...
  23. pmc Naive T cells sense the cysteine protease allergen papain through protease-activated receptor 2 and propel TH2 immunity
    Genqing Liang
    Molecular Signal Transduction Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:1377-1386.e13. 2012
    Sensitization to protease allergens, such as papain, or helminth infection is associated with basophil recruitment to draining lymph nodes (LNs)...
  24. ncbi Two routes for production and purification of Fab fragments in biopharmaceutical discovery research: Papain digestion of mAb and transient expression in mammalian cells
    Yonghong Zhao
    Centocor R and D Inc, 145 King of Prussia Road, Radnor, PA 19087, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 67:182-9. 2009
    ..One route utilizes papain digestion of an intact monoclonal antibody for Fab fragment production...
  25. ncbi PLP2, a potent deubiquitinase from murine hepatitis virus, strongly inhibits cellular type I interferon production
    Dahai Zheng
    Center for Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Da Tun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
    Cell Res 18:1105-13. 2008
    ..Here, we provide evidence that Papain-like protease domain 2 (PLP2), a catalytic domain of the nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) of MHV-A59, can bind to ..
  26. ncbi Differential effect toward inhibition of papain and cathepsin C by recombinant human salivary cystatin SN and its variants produced by a baculovirus system
    C C Tseng
    Divisions of Basic Sciences and of Restorative and Prosthodontic Sciences, Room 1027 S, College of Dentistry, New York University, 345 East 24th Street, New York, New York 10010 4086, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 380:133-40. 2000
    ..The purified proteins were examined for papain- and cathepsin C-inhibition...
  27. ncbi Structural insights into the substrate specificity and activity of ervatamins, the papain-like cysteine proteases from a tropical plant, Ervatamia coronaria
    Raka Ghosh
    Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India
    FEBS J 275:421-34. 2008
    ..Ervatamin-A, ervatamin-B and ervatamin-C are three such papain-like cysteine proteases found in the latex of the tropical plant Ervatamia coronaria, and are known not only for ..
  28. pmc Proteolytic processing and deubiquitinating activity of papain-like proteases of human coronavirus NL63
    Zhongbin Chen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 South First Avenue, Bldg 105, Rm 3929, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    J Virol 81:6007-18. 2007
    ..Here, we identify HCoV-NL63 replicase gene products and characterize two viral papain-like proteases (PLPs), PLP1 and PLP2, which process the viral replicase polyprotein...
  29. ncbi Papain gel: a new chemo-mechanical caries removal agent
    Sandra Kalil Bussadori
    FUNDECTO USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo USP, Brazil
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 30:115-9. 2005
    ..Among different kinds of chemo-mechanical caries removal systems, Papacarie--a papain gel--was found to be easy to manipulate, simple and cheap, as well as effective in removing infected tissues.
  30. ncbi Protein engineering of nitrile hydratase activity of papain: molecular dynamics study of a mutant and wild-type enzyme
    Swarnalatha Y Reddy
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 124:12979-90. 2002
    ..of hydrolysis of the nitrile (N-acetyl-phenylalanyl-2-amino-propionitrile, I) catalyzed by Gln19Glu mutant of papain has been studied by nanosecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
  31. ncbi Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus ) peptides prepared by papain digestion
    Lijun You
    College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
    J Agric Food Chem 59:7948-53. 2011
    Loach protein hydrolysates (LPH) prepared by papain digestion were fractionated into four fractions, LPH-I (MW > 10 kDa), LPH-II (MW = 5-10 kDa), LPH-III (MW = 3-5 kDa), LPH-IV (MW < 3 kDa), and the in vitro antioxidant and ..
  32. ncbi Beta-lactone probes identify a papain-like peptide ligase in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Zheming Wang
    Plant Chemetics Lab, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linne Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Nat Chem Biol 4:557-63. 2008
    ..and reverse genetics led to the discovery that this unusual modification is mediated by a single plant-specific, papain-like protease called RD21...
  33. pmc The tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) V2 protein interacts with the host papain-like cysteine protease CYP1
    Amalia Bar-Ziv
    Institute of Plant Sciences A R O, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
    Plant Signal Behav 7:983-9. 2012
    ..Specifically, we show that V2 recognizes and directly binds the tomato CYP1 protein, a member of the family of papain-like cysteine proteases which are involved in plant defense against diverse pathogens...
  34. ncbi Inhibition mechanism of cathepsin L-specific inhibitors based on the crystal structure of papain-CLIK148 complex
    H Tsuge
    Institute for Health Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro cho, Tokushima, 770 8514, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 266:411-6. 1999
    b>Papain was used as an experimental model structure to understand the inhibition mechanism of newly developed specific inhibitors of cathepsin L, the papain superfamily...
  35. ncbi Antioxidant activity of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment
    Ai Saiga
    Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, 739 8528, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 51:3661-7. 2003
    Hydrolysates obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment (papain or actinase E) exhibited high antioxidant activity in a linolenic acid peroxidation system induced by Fe(2+)...
  36. pmc Structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protease: a papain-like fold adapted for self-processing and eIF4G recognition
    A Guarné
    Centre d Investigació i Desenvolupament CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado 18 26, E 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    EMBO J 17:7469-79. 1998
    ..protease presented here comprises a globular catalytic domain reminiscent of that of cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily, and a flexible C-terminal extension found intruding into the substrate-binding site of an adjacent ..
  37. ncbi Papain-like cysteine proteases: key players at molecular battlefields employed by both plants and their invaders
    Takayuki Shindo
    Plant Chemetics Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linne Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Mol Plant Pathol 9:119-25. 2008
    b>Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) play crucial roles in plant-pathogen/pest interactions...
  38. ncbi Thyroglobulin type-1 domains in equistatin inhibit both papain-like cysteine proteinases and cathepsin D
    B Lenarcic
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, J Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    J Biol Chem 274:563-6. 1999
    Equistatin from sea anemone is a protein composed of three thyroglobulin-type 1 domains known to inhibit papain-like cysteine proteinases, papain, and cathepsins B and L...
  39. ncbi Chemo-mechanical removal of caries in an adolescent patient using a papain gel: case report
    S K Bussadori
    Nove de Julho University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 32:177-80. 2008
    ..Papacarie is a papain gel composed basically of papain, chloramines, and toluidine blue...
  40. ncbi Crystal structure of the parasite inhibitor chagasin in complex with papain allows identification of structural requirements for broad reactivity and specificity determinants for target proteases
    Izabela Redzynia
    Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Poland
    FEBS J 276:793-806. 2009
    A complex of chagasin, a protein inhibitor from Trypanosoma cruzi, and papain, a classic family C1 cysteine protease, has been crystallized. Kinetic studies revealed that inactivation of papain by chagasin is very fast (k(on) = 1...
  41. ncbi Stabilization of molten globule state of papain by urea
    F Edwin
    Molecular Biology Unit, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:1441-6. 2002
    b>Papain exists in molten globule (MG) state at pH 2.0 and in this state protein tends to aggregate in the presence of lower concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHC1)...
  42. pmc Critical role of amino acid 23 in mediating activity and specificity of vinckepain-2, a papain-family cysteine protease of rodent malaria parasites
    Ajay Singh
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Biochem J 368:273-81. 2002
    ..vinckei (vinckepain-2) and P. berghei (berghepain-2) were characterized. These genes encoded fairly typical papain-family proteases, but they contained an unusual substitution of Gly23 with Ala (papain numbering system)...
  43. ncbi The novel serpin endopin 2 demonstrates cross-class inhibition of papain and elastase: localization of endopin 2 to regulated secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine chromaffin cells
    Shin Rong Hwang
    Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, California 94945, USA
    Biochemistry 41:10397-405. 2002
    ..serpin that displays cross-class inhibition of cysteine and serine proteases, indicated by effective inhibition of papain and elastase, respectively...
  44. ncbi Aesthetic restoration of deciduous anterior teeth after removal of carious tissue with Papacárie
    Lara J Motta
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences Post Graduation Program, Nove de Julho University, SP, Brazil
    Indian J Dent Res 20:117-20. 2009
    ..Chemomechanical caries removal is a conservative and atraumatic alternative. Papacárie is a papain-based material developed to act only on the carious dentin, allowing its easy removal with a blunt curette...
  45. ncbi Vaccine-induced protection against murine schistosomiasis mansoni with larval excretory-secretory antigens and papain or type-2 cytokines
    Rashika El Ridi
    Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt
    J Parasitol 99:194-202. 2013
    ..outbred mice were immunized with 10 μg recombinant SG3PDH and 15 μg TPX-derived peptide together with 10 μg papain, or 200 ng thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, or IL-33 as an adjuvant...
  46. ncbi Use of papain gel in disabled patients
    C M Carrillo
    Dentistry section of the Disabled Children Assistance Association of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Dent Child (Chic) 75:222-8. 2008
    This study's purpose was to evaluate complete caries removal time (CCR) and patient acceptance of the chemomechanical caries removal agent and papain gel Papacárie in disabled patients.
  47. ncbi Structural and biochemical features distinguish the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase from other papain-like enzymes
    A Guarné
    Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Mol Biol 302:1227-40. 2000
    ..Assay of Lpro activity on a fluorescent hexapeptide substrate showed that Lpro, in contrast to papain, was highly sensitive to increases in the cation concentration and was active only across a narrow pH range...
  48. ncbi Papain-based gel for biochemical caries removal: influence on microtensile bond strength to dentin
    Evandro Piva
    Biomaterials Development and Control Center, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    Braz Oral Res 22:364-70. 2008
    This study investigated the influence of a papain-based gel (Papacárie) for chemo-mechanical caries removal on bond strength to dentin...
  49. pmc Expression, characterization, and cellular localization of knowpains, papain-like cysteine proteases of the Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasite
    Rajesh Prasad
    CSIR Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
    PLoS ONE 7:e51619. 2012
    b>Papain-like cysteine proteases of malaria parasites degrade haemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to provide amino acids for intraerythrocytic parasites...
  50. ncbi Identification of interactions involved in the generation of nucleophilic reactivity and of catalytic competence in the catalytic site Cys/His ion pair of papain
    Syeed Hussain
    Laboratory of Structural and Mechanistic Enzymology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
    Biochemistry 50:10732-42. 2011
    ..Studies on members of the papain family of cysteine proteinases, particularly papain (EC 3.4.22.2) itself, continue to contribute to this goal...
  51. ncbi Two polymorphs of a covalent complex between papain and a diazomethylketone inhibitor
    R Janowski
    Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 780 Poznan, Poland
    J Pept Res 64:141-50. 2004
    The three-dimensional structure of two polymorphs of a ZLFG-CH2-papain covalent complex has been determined by X-ray crystallography...
  52. pmc The 2.0 A X-ray crystal structure of chicken egg white cystatin and its possible mode of interaction with cysteine proteinases
    W Bode
    Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Martinsried, FRG
    EMBO J 7:2593-9. 1988
    ..Gly9I - Ala10I form a wedge-shaped 'edge' which is quite complementary to the 'active site cleft' of papain. Docking experiments suggest a unique model for the interaction of cystatin and papain: according to it both ..
  53. ncbi A novel transglutaminase substrate from Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibiting papain-like cysteine proteases
    Alla Sarafeddinov
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences of Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstrasse 12, Darmstadt, Germany
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:617-26. 2011
    ..This report now describes a novel substrate that inhibits papain, bromelain, and trypsin...
  54. ncbi Papain-like proteases of Staphylococcus aureus
    Tomasz Kantyka
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
    Adv Exp Med Biol 712:1-14. 2011
    ..aureus secretes several proteases of three catalytic classes-metallo, serine and papain-like cysteine proteases...
  55. ncbi Purification of Fab fragments from a monoclonal antibody papain digest by Gradiflow electrophoresis
    Lynette Coleman
    Bioengineering Centre, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Protein Expr Purif 32:246-51. 2003
    Fab fragments isolated from papain digests of monoclonal antibodies have a wide variety of uses in analytical and in both in vivo and in vitro diagnostic applications...
  56. ncbi The mechanism of papain inhibition by peptidyl aldehydes
    Michael Shokhen
    The Julius Spokojny Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel
    Proteins 79:975-85. 2011
    Various mechanisms for the reversible formation of a covalent tetrahedral complex (TC) between papain and peptidyl aldehyde inhibitors were simulated by DFT calculations, applying the quantum mechanical/self consistent reaction field (..
  57. pmc Papain entrapment in alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery: physicochemical characterization and factorial optimization using neural network modeling
    Mayur G Sankalia
    Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, Pharmacy Department, The M S University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India 390 002
    AAPS PharmSciTech 6:E209-22. 2005
    ..process parameters (like sodium alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, and hardening time) on papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery to ..
  58. ncbi [Comparison study on knee osteoarthritis in rabbits induced by different concentrations of papain]
    Guan Ying Han
    Post doctoral Scientific Research Workstation, Institute of Biopharmaceuticals of Shandong, Jinan 250101, Shandong, China
    Zhongguo Gu Shang 25:424-9. 2012
    To compare the knee osteoarthritis (OA) models in rabbits by different concentrations of papain and provide data for exploring pathogenesis and treatments of this disease.
  59. ncbi Crystal structure of a papain-fold protein without the catalytic residue: a novel member in the cysteine proteinase family
    Min Zhang
    National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P R China
    J Mol Biol 358:97-105. 2006
    ..Analysis of the cDNA sequence and the 3D structure indicated the protein to belong to the papain family. Detailed analysis of the structure revealed an unusual replacement of the conserved catalytic Cys with Gly...
  60. pmc Proteolytic processing at the amino terminus of human coronavirus 229E gene 1-encoded polyproteins: identification of a papain-like proteinase and its substrate
    J Herold
    Institute of Virology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    J Virol 72:910-8. 1998
    ..In this study, we used transfection and immunoprecipitation assays to show that the human coronavirus 229E-encoded papain-like cysteine proteinase, PCP1, is responsible for the release of an amino-terminal protein, p9, from the gene 1-..
  61. ncbi Biochemical and PMF MALDI-TOF analyses of two novel papain-like plant proteinases
    W D Obregón
    Laboratorio de Investigacion de Proteinas Vegetales LIPROVE, Depto Cs Biologicas, Fac Cs Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
    Protein Pept Lett 16:1323-33. 2009
    ..N-terminal sequences showed a high percentage of identity with cysteine proteinases belonging to the papain family. The peptide mass fingerprint analysis demonstrated a close homology among both proteinases.
  62. pmc Structure of the streptococcal endopeptidase IdeS, a cysteine proteinase with strict specificity for IgG
    Katja Wenig
    Department of Structural Research, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17371-6. 2004
    ..Despite negligible sequence homology to known proteinases, the core of the structure resembles the canonical papain fold although with major insertions and a distinct substrate-binding site...
  63. ncbi The papain-like protease of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus negatively regulates type I interferon pathway by acting as a viral deubiquitinase
    Yaling Xing
    Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 427 Maduan Street, Harbin 150001, China
    J Gen Virol 94:1554-67. 2013
    ..We identified PEDV replicase encoded papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) as an IFN antagonist that depends on catalytic activity for its function...
  64. pmc Solution structure of a phytocystatin from Ananas comosus and its molecular interaction with papain
    Deli Irene
    Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e47865. 2012
    ..The three structural motifs (G(45), Q(89)XVXG, and W(120)) putatively responsible for the interaction with papain-like proteases are located in one side of AcCYS...
  65. ncbi Chemoenzymatic synthesis of poly(L-alanine) in aqueous environment
    Peter James Baker
    Enzyme Research Team, RIKEN Biomass Engineering Program, RIKEN, Wako Shi, Saitama, Japan
    Biomacromolecules 13:947-51. 2012
    L-alanine ethyl ester was polymerized into poly(L-alanine) (polyAla), one of the insoluble polypeptides, by papain in aqueous buffer at varying pH. At neutral pH, a maximum chain length of 11 repeats was observed...
  66. ncbi Mechanism for stabilization of the molten globule state of papain by sodium n-alkyl sulfates: spectroscopic and calorimetric approaches
    J Chamani
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran
    J Colloid Interface Sci 322:119-27. 2008
    b>Papain exists in a molten globule (MG) state at pH 2 and in this state protein tends to aggregate in the presence of lower concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl)...
  67. ncbi Molecular cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a cystatin from pineapple stem
    Douglas J H Shyu
    Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68:1681-9. 2004
    ..The fusion and non-fusion cystatins were separately purified to homogeneity via a His-tag or papain-coupling affinity column...
  68. ncbi Identification of internal autoproteolytic cleavage sites within the prosegments of recombinant procathepsin B and procathepsin S. Contribution of a plausible unimolecular autoproteolytic event for the processing of zymogens belonging to the papain family
    O Quraishi
    Protein Engineering Network of Centres of Excellence and Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada
    J Biol Chem 276:8118-24. 2001
    The steps involved in the maturation of proenzymes belonging to the papain family of cysteine proteases have been difficult to characterize...
  69. ncbi Human cathepsin X: a novel cysteine protease of the papain family with a very short proregion and unique insertions
    D K Nägler
    Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Que
    FEBS Lett 434:135-9. 1998
    A novel cDNA encoding a cysteine protease of the papain family named cathepsin X was obtained by PCR amplification from a human ovary cDNA library...
  70. ncbi Papain-catalyzed peptide bond formation: enzyme-specific activation with guanidinophenyl esters
    Roseri J A C de Beer
    Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Chembiochem 12:2201-7. 2011
    ..for the serine proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, has now been applied for the first time in combination with papain, a cheap and commercially available cysteine protease...
  71. ncbi Loosely packed papain prosegment displays inhibitory activity
    Luis H Gutiérrez-González
    Area de Biofisicoquímica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55 534, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico
    Arch Biochem Biophys 446:151-60. 2006
    ..By using circular dichroism, UV-difference and fluorescence spectroscopies, we studied the thermal unfolding of papain prosegment. The transition seems to be two-state and reversible, with an unfolded state prone to aggregation...
  72. pmc A Phytophthora infestans cystatin-like protein targets a novel tomato papain-like apoplastic protease
    Miaoying Tian
    Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA
    Plant Physiol 143:364-77. 2007
    ..Biochemical functional analyses revealed that EPIC2B interacts with and inhibits a novel papain-like extracellular cysteine protease, termed Phytophthora Inhibited Protease 1 (PIP1)...
  73. ncbi Affinity selection to papain yields potent peptide inhibitors of cathepsins L, B, H, and K
    Tomaz Bratkovic
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 7, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 332:897-903. 2005
    ..In the presented work, papain was chosen as a model cysteine protease and panning protocol was optimized for selection of papain-binding phage-..
  74. ncbi Nontraditional wound care: A review of the evidence for the use of sugar, papaya/papain, and fatty acids
    Barbara Pieper
    College of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 30:175-83. 2003
    ..The purpose of this article is to review the evidence about 3 commonly used wound products, namely, sugar, papaya/papain, and essential fatty acids...
  75. ncbi Crystal structure of group A streptococcus Mac-1: insight into dimer-mediated specificity for recognition of human IgG
    Johnson Agniswamy
    Structural Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12441 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Structure 14:225-35. 2006
    ..Despite the lack of sequence homology, Mac-1 adopts the canonical papain fold...
  76. ncbi Physiologic responses of sheep to two different methods of papain exposure
    Andrew Hoffman
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Rd, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 15:761-80. 2003
    ..Emphysema was produced by two different techniques of papain exposure: (1) aerosol (75 IU/kg) given weekly for 4 treatments (HM) or (2) aerosol (75 IU/kg) weekly for 3 ..
  77. ncbi Characterization of a partially folded intermediate of papain induced by fluorinated alcohols at low pH
    Aabgeena Naeem
    Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India
    Arch Biochem Biophys 432:79-87. 2004
    ..1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the structure of acid-unfolded papain (EC. 3.4.22...
  78. ncbi A new multi-domain member of the cystatin superfamily expressed by Fasciola hepatica
    Eric Khaznadji
    INRA, UR86 Bio Agresseurs, Santé et Environnement 37 380 Nouzilly, France
    Int J Parasitol 35:1115-25. 2005
    ..This protein was a potent inhibitor of the papain and of the major cysteine protease of F. hepatica, the cathepsin L1.
  79. ncbi Effects of a novel pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from Crotalaria pallida Roots with papain inhibitory activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita
    Lúcia Betânia da S Andrade
    Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Biologicas, Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau UVA, Sobral, Ceara CE, Brazil
    J Agric Food Chem 58:4145-52. 2010
    A novel pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein with papain inhibitory activity, named CpPRI, was purified from Crotalaria pallida roots by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by three reverse-phase high-performance liquid ..
  80. ncbi Immobilization of modified papain with anhydride groups on activated cotton fabric
    Yong Xue
    College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, China
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 160:109-21. 2010
    b>Papain (EC 3.4.22.2) has been chemically modified using two novel reagents including different anhydrides of 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic and pyromellitic acids...
  81. ncbi Two Kunitz-type inhibitors with activity against trypsin and papain from Pithecellobium dumosum seeds: purification, characterization, and activity towards pest insect digestive enzyme
    A S Oliveira
    Laboratório de Química eFunção de Proteínas, Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Biociências UFRN, Natal RN, Brazil
    Protein Pept Lett 16:1526-32. 2009
    ..20 x 10(-8) and 2.88 x 10(-8) M, and also moderately inhibited papain activity, a cysteine proteinase. PdKI-3.1 and PdKI-3...
  82. ncbi A distinct subfamily of papain-like cystein proteinases regulated by senescence and stresses in Glycine max
    Belén Esteban-García
    Grupo de Biotecnología de Productos Naturales BIO 279, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria, Spain
    J Plant Physiol 167:1101-8. 2010
    GMCP3 encodes a cystein proteinase of Glycine max belonging to the papain-like family (C1A in MEROPS database) that was previously found to be involved in the mobilization of protein reserves during seed germination...
  83. pmc Purification and in situ immobilization of papain with aqueous two-phase system
    Mingliang Li
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, New World Institute of Biotechnology, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e15168. 2010
    b>Papain was purified from spray-dried Carica papaya latex using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Then it was recovered from PEG phase by in situ immobilization or preparing cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs)...
  84. ncbi An amplified assay for thiols based on reactivation of papain
    R Singh
    ImmunoGen, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
    Anal Biochem 213:49-56. 1993
    ..assay has been developed for thiol (sulfhydryl) groups using an inactive disulfide derivative of papain (papain-S-SCH3)...
  85. ncbi Stain removal efficacy of a novel dentifrice containing papain and Bromelain extracts--an in vitro study
    P Kalyana
    Department of Community Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India
    Int J Dent Hyg 9:229-33. 2011
    ..To assess the in vitro stain removal efficacy of a novel commercially available dentifrice...
  86. pmc Crystal structure of tarocystatin-papain complex: implications for the inhibition property of group-2 phytocystatins
    Ming Hung Chu
    Department of Life Science and Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, No 1, Sec 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC
    Planta 234:243-54. 2011
    ..The structure of the tarocystatin-papain complex and the domain interaction between NtD and CtE in tarocystatin have not been determined...
  87. ncbi Optimal conditions for the papain digestion of polyclonal ovine IgG for the production of bio-therapeutic Fab fragments
    Chrissie Cresswell
    Process Development Group, Protherics U K Ltd, Blaenwaun, Ffostrasol, Llandysul, Wales SA44 5JT, U K
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem 42:163-8. 2005
    In the present paper, we describe a rapid method for the determination of optimum conditions for papain digestion of polyclonal ovine IgG (purified by Na(2)SO(4) precipitation) for the production of bio-therapeutic Fabs (antigen-binding ..
  88. ncbi Papain-specific activating esters in aqueous dipeptide synthesis
    Roseri J A C de Beer
    Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Chembiochem 13:1319-26. 2012
    ..Finally, selected ODmap- and OBn-activated amino acids were applied in the synthesis of two biologically active dipeptides on preparative scales...
  89. ncbi Effect of a papain-based gel for chemomechanical caries removal on dentin shear bond strength
    Michelle Cristina Lopes
    Araras Dental School, Herminio Ometto University Center UNIARARAS, Araras, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Dent Child (Chic) 74:93-7. 2007
    The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength of an adhesive restorative system on sound and demineralized dentin after the use of a papain-based agent.
  90. ncbi Enzyme catalytic promiscuity: The papain-catalyzed Knoevenagel reaction
    Wen Hu
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China
    Biochimie 94:656-61. 2012
    b>Papain as a sustainable and inexpensive biocatalyst was used for the first time to catalyze the Knoevenagel reactions in DMSO/water...
  91. ncbi Structural basis for the specificity and catalysis of human Atg4B responsible for mammalian autophagy
    Kenji Sugawara
    Department of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N 12, W 6, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:40058-65. 2005
    ..Despite no obvious sequence homology with known proteases, the structure of HsAtg4B shows a classical papain-like fold. In addition to the papain fold region, HsAtg4B has a small alpha/beta-fold domain...
  92. ncbi Purification and characterization of a trypsin-papain inhibitor from Pithecelobium dumosum seeds and its in vitro effects towards digestive enzymes from insect pests
    Adeliana S Oliveira
    Departamento Bioquimica, Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas, Centro de Biociencias, Campus UFRN, Av Salgado Filho s n, 59072 970 Natal, RN, Brazil
    Plant Physiol Biochem 45:858-65. 2007
    A novel trypsin-papain inhibitor, named PdKI-2, was purified from the seeds of Pithecelobium dumosum seeds by TCA precipitation, Trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. PdKI-2 had an M(r) of 18...
  93. ncbi Removal of mercury from its aqueous solution using charcoal-immobilized papain (CIP)
    Susmita Dutta
    Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Durgapur 713209, India
    J Hazard Mater 172:888-96. 2009
    In the present work mercury has been eradicated from its aqueous solution using papain, immobilized on activated charcoal by physical adsorption method...
  94. pmc Differences in the chemical and catalytic characteristics of two crystallographically 'identical' enzyme catalytic sites. Characterization of actinidin and papain by a combination of pH-dependent substrate catalysis kinetics and reactivity probe studies t
    E Salih
    Department of Biochemistry, St Bartholomew s Hospital Medical College, University of London, U K
    Biochem J 247:181-93. 1987
    The characteristics of actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14) and papain (EC 3.4.22...
  95. pmc Homology of amino acid sequences of rat liver cathepsins B and H with that of papain
    K Takio
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80:3666-70. 1983
    ..thiol endopeptidases, cathepsins B and H, are presented and compared with that of the plant thiol protease papain. The 252-residue sequence of cathepsin B and the 220-residue sequence of cathepsin H were determined largely by ..
  96. ncbi Microtensile bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to demineralized dentin after the use of a papain-based chemomechanical method
    Renato José Gianini
    Faculty of Dentistry and Dental Research Center São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Am J Dent 23:23-8. 2010
    To evaluate the in vitro microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to demineralized dentin after the use of a papain-based chemomechanical method.
  97. ncbi Physicochemical characterization of papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked kappa-carrageenan gel beads for stability improvement using Doehlert shell design
    Mayur G Sankalia
    Pharmacy Department, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Novel Drug Delivery Systems, G H Patel building, Donor s Plaza, The M S University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India
    J Pharm Sci 95:1994-2013. 2006
    This work examines the influence of various process parameters on papain entrapped in cross-linked kappa-carrageenan beads for improvement of its stability...
  98. ncbi Impacts of papain and neuraminidase enzyme treatment on electrohydrodynamics and IgG-mediated agglutination of type A red blood cells
    Atsushi Hyono
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278 8510, Japan
    Langmuir 25:10873-85. 2009
    ..These properties significantly depend on the concentration of proteolytic papain enzyme and protease-free neuraminidase enzyme that the cells are exposed to...
  99. ncbi Morphogenesis of rat experimental pulmonary emphysema induced by intratracheally administered papain: changes in elastic fibres
    L M Pastor
    Department of Cell Biology, Medical School, Aging Institute, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Histol Histopathol 21:1309-19. 2006
    ..this paper, the morphogenesis of emphysema and alterations of the elastic fibres produced by the instillation of papain are described by light and electron microscopy...
  100. ncbi Human and parasitic papain-like cysteine proteases: their role in physiology and pathology and recent developments in inhibitor design
    Fabien Lecaille
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Human Genetics, Fifth Avenue at 100th Street, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Chem Rev 102:4459-88. 2002
  101. ncbi AtCYS1, a cystatin from Arabidopsis thaliana, suppresses hypersensitive cell death
    Beatrice Belenghi
    Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Verona, Italy
    Eur J Biochem 270:2593-604. 2003
    ..AtCYS1 inhibits the catalytic activity of papain (Kd = 4.0 x 10-2 micro m, at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C), generally taken as a molecular model of cysteine proteases...

Research Grants60

  1. Abnormality in Gene Expression of Key Mediators of Vitamin A Action in COPD
    Salil K Das; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RA is known to be effective in promoting alveolization in papain-induced emphysema in dogs and elastase-induced emphysema in adult rats...
  2. Mechanisms of viral proteases in coronavirus replication and pathogenesis
    Andrew D Mesecar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Previously, we identified the papain-like protease (PLpro) of SARS-CoV as a critical determinant of viral replication and pathogenesis...
  3. Role of Elastolytic Cathepsins in Emphysema
    Harold A Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Accumulating evidence indicates papain-family cysteine proteases are involved in the pathobiology of emphysema...
  4. Mechanism of Hepatitis E Virus Replication and Pathogenesis
    Xiang Jin Meng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The findings that the papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) domain in HEV ORF1 has deubiquitinating activity and carries out deISGylation of ..
  5. Biochemical Characterization of Yersinia Effector YopJ
    Kim Orth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..properties of four other Yersinia effectors: YopH, a tyrosine phosphatase;YopE, a GAP;YpkA, a serine kinase;YopT, papain-like protease...
  6. Development of High Throughput Assays for the Hepatitis C Virus NS2 Protease
    Timothy L Tellinghuisen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NS2 is a papain-like cysteine protease that catalyzes the auto-catalytic cleavage of the NS2/NS3 junction in the viral polyprotein,..
  7. Role of basophils in initiating Th2 immune responses
    Ruslan Medzhitov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using a protease allergen papain as a model system, we have recently demonstrated that basophils play an essential role in allergen-induced Th2 ..
  8. The Role of Cathepsins in Cell Death Mediated by NLR Inducers
    JURGEN BROJATSCH; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..suggest that adjuvanttreated macrophages release pro-inflammatory danger signals such as uric acid, endogenous papain-family proteases and ATP...
  9. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS
    DANIEL RICH; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..for new peptidyl semicarbazones, aldehydes, and nitriles for inhibition of the following cysteine proteinases: papain; cathepsin B, H, and L; the cysteine proteinase for entamoeba histolytica; and calpains I and II...
  10. Role of Red Cell Membrane in Malaria Parasite Release
    Manjit Hanspal; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..series of peptides derived from Pi in which critical residues are varied based on substrate specificities of other papain family enzymes...
  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS ANTIGEN
    Grant Anhalt; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..An immunoreactive soluble 50 KD papain fragment of this PF Ag (pf-PF) could be released into solution and specifically immunoprecipitated by PF sera...
  12. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING MACROMOLECULES IN AGING BRAIN
    ERIC BRUNNGRABER; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The defatted residue is treated with papain to solubilize glycopeptides and glycosaminoglycans...
  13. REACTION MECHANISMS FOR ENZYMES
    JULES SHAFER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    b>Papain, a thiol protease from papaya latex, will be studied to determine the role of Asp-158 in catalysis and to determine the effect of Asp-158 on the interactive ionization of His-159 and Cys-25 at the active site of papain...
  14. CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF NO RELEASING AGENTS
    Peng Wang; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of the N-nitrosoaniline moiety into a peptide backbone and synthesis of specific S-nitrosating agents to inhibit papain, interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP)...
  15. BORONIC ACID ANALOGS OF PEPTIDES
    Robert Lindquist; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Inhibitors are proposed for the following enzymes: (1) elastase, thought to be involved in emphysema; (2) papain, a sulfhydryl enzyme; and (3) thermolysin, a proteolytic enzyme involved in a number of important physiological ..
  16. Functions of Ub-like Proteins and Proteases
    KEITH WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will determine the enzymatic specificity of the DUB activity exhibited by the SARS virus papain-like protease using the panel of UBL-X reagents...
  17. N-HYDROXYBENZOLACTAMS AS PROTEASE INHIBITORS
    PATRICK HANNA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The newly synthesized compounds will be evaluated for their abilities to inhibit the cysteine protease papain and the two serine proteases chymotrypsin and elastase...
  18. Novel Protease Inhibitors as SARS Therapeutics
    Michael Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The replicase polyprotein is proteolytically processed by two viral proteases, papain-like protease 2 (PLpro) and 3CLpro...
  19. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL, BIFUNCTIONAL ANTIMALARIAL
    Jens Eckstein; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..classes of hemoglobin-degrading proteases, the aspartic acid proteases plasmepsin I and II on one hand, and the papain family cysteine protease falcipain on the other will result in a synergistic effect possibly allowing for lower ..
  20. Force Propagation of Emphysema in Vivo
    Edward Ingenito; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of these experiments will provide new insight into the role of mechanical forces in promoting injury in the intact emphysema lung, and the effect of mechanical forces on tissue remodeling. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Responses to Surgical and Bronchoscopic Volume Reduction
    Edward Ingenito; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We believe that by accomplishing these objectives, we can help advance this technology into the clinical arena. ..
  22. Pneumografting - a novel cell-based therapy for emphysema
    Edward P Ingenito; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We intend to advance this approach, known as pneumografting, into human trials under a physician-sponsored Investigation New Drug Application. ..
  23. Clinical & Molecular Studies of Drug Resistant Malaria
    Philip Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. Resistance of Malaria Parasites to Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies
    Philip Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Targeting Cysteine Proteases: Antiparasitic Chemotherapy
    James McKerrow; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..No Abstract Provided. ..
  26. THE CRES GENE IN REPRODUCTION
    Gail Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Also, the newly purchased mass spec will enable on site protein analysis for the studies described above. In short, the environment at TTUHSC is exceptional and will fully support my proposed studies. ..
  27. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF NONPEPTIDE PROTEASE INHIBITORS
    Arun K Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research integrates organic synthesis, protein-ligand x-ray crystallography, molecular modeling and in-depth virus and cell-biological studies to design the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. ..
  28. Host Protein Degradation by Schistosome Parasites
    James McKerrow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSES AND CATHEPSIN K
    Dieter Bromme; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Altogether, these studies should elucidate the impact of GAGs in MPS on bone resorption catalyzed by cathepsin K. ..
  30. Complex Formation and Protease Specificity
    Dieter Bromme; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Altogether, these studies will characterize a novel mechanism for the bulk collagen degradation in mammalian tissues and may offer a new strategy to block excessive collagen degradation in diseases such as osteoporosis and arthritis. ..
  31. High Throughput Assay for Screening Compounds(RMI)
    James McKerrow; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Computational and informatics capability is in place to acquire, store and cross-reference this data, and provide access to the scientific community through an open-source website. ..
  32. Falcipain Cysteine Proteases of Malaria Parasites
    Philip Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..project, important advances have been made in our understanding of this class of enzymes, and in particular in the papain-family proteases known as falcipains...
  33. TISSUE SPECIFIC CYSTEINE PROTEASES AND ECM DEGRADATION
    Dieter Bromme; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Altogether, these studies should determine the role of cathepsins K and S in ECM-protein degradation, and investigate novel strategies for the treatment of RA and other disorders with excessive ECM-degradation. ..
  34. THE CRES GENE IN REPRODUCTION
    Gail Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..in vitro enzyme assays show that, in contrast to cystatin C, CRES protein does not inhibit the cysteine proteases papain, cathepsin B, legumain, or caspase...
  35. EVALUATION OF FALCIPAIN AS AN ANTIMALARIAL DRUG TARGET
    Philip Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This evaluation is also likely to identify specific falcipain inhibitors with potent antimalarial activity that will be ready for initial testing against human malaria. ..
  36. DEVELOPMENT OF LIGAND ASSISTED ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESES
    Arun Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Besides the broad range of scope and generality, this line of research will provide excellent opportunities to teach and train graduate and undergraduate students in the laboratory. ..
  37. Myosin-mediated organelle trafficking in plants
    Valerian V Dolja; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. SYNTHETIC SUBSTANCES CONTROLLING REPRODUCTION
    Jean Rivier; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Such molecules are not presently available to academic researchers. As in the past twenty years, collaborations with academic colleagues will be initiated, to maximize the impact of this research. ..
  39. ACQUISITION OF CRYOPROBE FOR 600 MHZ NMR SPECTROMETER
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Olson, with interests in serpin inhibition mechanism, Dr. Patston, with interests in the structure of the serpin angiotensinogen, and Dr. Silver, who is characterizing a unique silver binding protein, silE. ..
  40. Affinity-based Mass Spectrometry Protein Assays
    Dobrin Nedelkov; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. ULTRASENSITIVE CALORIMETRY SYSTEM FOR BIOMOLECULES
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. 3rd Intl Symp on Serpin Biology, Structure and Function
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..v) To provide an opportunity for promising junior scientists and minorities to play a major role in the meeting. ..
  43. REGULATION OF MUCIN GENE EXPRESSION BY ELASTASE
    Judith Voynow; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The ultimate goal is to use information from this project to identify new biologic targets for therapeutic interventions to prevent mucus obstruction in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. ..
  44. Metabolism of Carcinogens and Drugs by Human P450s
    F Guengerich; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Successful completion of these collective studies should provide better understanding of the ways in which human P450s catalyze oxidation of carcinogens and drugs and the significance of variations in these enzymes. ..
  45. Age-Dependent Response of Hippocampal Neurons to Stress
    Gregory Brewer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. b-TrCP E3 Ligase in CLL
    Benjamin Nicholson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  47. FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN ANTITHROMBINS
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..For antithrombins that have been activated by mutation,[unreadable] x-ray crystallography, through collaboration with Dr. Robin Carrell,[unreadable] will be used.[unreadable]..
  48. Protein interactions by analytical ultracentrifugation
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The knowledge gained will be invaluable for design of therapeutics against such infections or in amelioration of diseases associated with aberrant functioning of processes such as blood coagulation. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. MUC4 Mucin and Airway Epithelial Regeneration in COPD
    Judith Voynow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our ultimate goal is to use information from this project to identify new biologic targets for rational therapies to induce normal airway epithelial proliferation and differentiation following injury. ..
  50. Development of SPR/MS protein array platform
    Dobrin Nedelkov; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Somatostatin Receptor-Selective Agonists and Antagonists
    Jean Rivier; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Hsp70 as Dispatcher of Virus Assembly and Trafficking
    VALERIAN DOLJA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Functional significance of the observed interactions will be assessed using genetic strategies targeting both Hsp70h and host proteins. ..
  53. 900MHz NMR for Structural Biology in Chicago
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..As part of the facility, a resource will be established for development of procedures for intein-based segmental isotopic labeling of proteins, as well as for production of segmentally labeled DNA and RNA species. ..
  54. Isopeptide inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy
    Benjamin Nicholson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Compounds that are shown by the assay to inhibit DEN 1 will be evaluated further, and the best of these will be proposed for further development as antitumor agents. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Mucin Gene Regulation by Elastase and Oxidants
    Judith Voynow; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..b. To determine whether NE and/or NQO1-generated ROS affect HuR binding to MUC5AC. c. To determine whether HuR binding is sufficient for MUC5AC mRNA stabilization. ..
  56. Development of SPR/MS protein array platform
    Dobrin Nedelkov; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  57. Structural examination of serpin-protein interactions
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Dudley Strickland. ..