cytosine deaminase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Defining APOBEC3 expression patterns in human tissues and hematopoietic cell subsets
    Fransje A Koning
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:9474-85. 2009
  2. pmc Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:4274-84. 2010
  3. pmc Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1
    Judd F Hultquist
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 85:11220-34. 2011
  4. pmc Cellular inhibitors of long interspersed element 1 and Alu retrotransposition
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8780-5. 2006
  5. ncbi Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions
    Jean Pierre Vartanian
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue de Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Science 320:230-3. 2008
  6. pmc Antiviral potency of APOBEC proteins does not correlate with cytidine deamination
    Kate N Bishop
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, UK
    J Virol 80:8450-8. 2006
  7. pmc HIV-1 Vif versus the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an intracellular duel between pathogen and host restriction factors
    Silke Wissing
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 31:383-97. 2010
  8. pmc Endogenous origins of HIV-1 G-to-A hypermutation and restriction in the nonpermissive T cell line CEM2n
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002800. 2012
  9. pmc Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 12:e4. 2010
  10. ncbi APOBEC3F properties and hypermutation preferences indicate activity against HIV-1 in vivo
    Mark T Liddament
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, 321 Church St S E, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 14:1385-91. 2004

Detail Information

Publications254 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Defining APOBEC3 expression patterns in human tissues and hematopoietic cell subsets
    Fransje A Koning
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:9474-85. 2009
    ..Given that A3A does not affect HIV-1 infection, these observations imply that this protein may participate in early antiviral innate immune responses...
  2. pmc Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:4274-84. 2010
    ....
  3. pmc Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1
    Judd F Hultquist
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 85:11220-34. 2011
    ..These data strongly implicate a combination of four APOBEC3 proteins--APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H--in HIV-1 restriction...
  4. pmc Cellular inhibitors of long interspersed element 1 and Alu retrotransposition
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8780-5. 2006
    ..These data suggest that the APOBEC3 protein family may have evolved, at least in part, to defend the integrity of the human genome against endogenous retrotransposons...
  5. ncbi Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions
    Jean Pierre Vartanian
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue de Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Science 320:230-3. 2008
    ..Thus, stochastic or transient overexpression of APOBEC3 genes may expose the genome to a broad spectrum of mutations that could influence the development of tumors...
  6. pmc Antiviral potency of APOBEC proteins does not correlate with cytidine deamination
    Kate N Bishop
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, UK
    J Virol 80:8450-8. 2006
    ..In other words, the antiviral phenotype of APOBEC proteins correlates with their ability to prevent the accumulation of reverse transcripts and not with the induction of hypermutation...
  7. pmc HIV-1 Vif versus the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an intracellular duel between pathogen and host restriction factors
    Silke Wissing
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 31:383-97. 2010
    ..This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the dynamic interplay of Vif with the antiviral APOBEC3 enzymes...
  8. pmc Endogenous origins of HIV-1 G-to-A hypermutation and restriction in the nonpermissive T cell line CEM2n
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002800. 2012
    ..Primary T lymphocytes express a similar set of APOBEC3 genes suggesting that the same repertoire may be important in vivo...
  9. pmc Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 12:e4. 2010
    ..We also summarise, for the first time, current clinical data on the in vivo effects of APOBEC3 proteins, and survey strategies and progress towards developing therapeutics aimed at the APOBEC3-Vif axis...
  10. ncbi APOBEC3F properties and hypermutation preferences indicate activity against HIV-1 in vivo
    Mark T Liddament
    University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, 321 Church St S E, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Curr Biol 14:1385-91. 2004
    ..Thus, APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are likely to function alongside one another in the provision of an innate immune defense, with APOBEC3F functioning as the major contributor to HIV-1 hypermutation in vivo...
  11. pmc Somatic hypermutation of human mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases, a pathway for DNA catabolism
    Rodolphe Suspène
    Institut Pasteur, Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique URA3015, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4858-63. 2011
    ..Nonetheless, hyper- and lightly mutated sequences went hand in hand, raising the hypothesis that recurrent low-level mutation by APOBEC3A could catalyze the transition from a healthy to a cancer genome...
  12. pmc Differential inhibition of long interspersed element 1 by APOBEC3 does not correlate with high-molecular-mass-complex formation or P-body association
    Anna Maria Niewiadomska
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:9577-83. 2007
    ..The catalytic domain of APOBEC3 proteins may be important for proper folding and target factors such as RNA or protein interaction in addition to cytidine deamination...
  13. pmc Twin gradients in APOBEC3 edited HIV-1 DNA reflect the dynamics of lentiviral replication
    Rodolphe Suspène
    Unite de Retrovirologie Moleculaire, CNRS URA1930, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:4677-84. 2006
    ..The degree of hypermutation varied smoothly among genomes indicating that the number of APOBEC3 molecules packaged varied considerably...
  14. pmc An ancient history of gene duplications, fusions and losses in the evolution of APOBEC3 mutators in mammals
    Carsten Munk
    Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    BMC Evol Biol 12:71. 2012
    ..Further, the expression of A3 activity/ies shapes the way both viral and host genomes evolve...
  15. pmc Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance
    Lubbertus C F Mulder
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5501-6. 2008
    ....
  16. pmc Identification of APOBEC3DE as another antiretroviral factor from the human APOBEC family
    Ying Dang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 4320, USA
    J Virol 80:10522-33. 2006
    ..From these studies, we concluded that APOBEC3DE is a new contributor to the intracellular defense network, resulting in suppression of retroviral invasion...
  17. ncbi APOBEC4, a new member of the AID/APOBEC family of polynucleotide (deoxy)cytidine deaminases predicted by computational analysis
    Igor B Rogozin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, NLM, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA
    Cell Cycle 4:1281-5. 2005
    ..In mammals, APOBEC4 is expressed primarily in testis which suggests the possibility that it is an editing enzyme for mRNAs involved in spermatogenesis...
  18. pmc APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G inhibit HIV-1 DNA integration by different mechanisms
    Jean L Mbisa
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, P O Box B, Building 535, Room 334, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 84:5250-9. 2010
    ....
  19. ncbi Partially active HIV-1 Vif alleles facilitate viral escape from specific antiretrovirals
    Slim Fourati
    UMR 943, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris France
    AIDS 24:2313-21. 2010
    ..Natural variation in Vif may result in reduced efficacy against APOBEC3 proteins and in increased HIV-1 diversity. We speculated that this mechanism could facilitate viral escape from certain antiretroviral drugs...
  20. ncbi Antitumor therapeutic effects of cytosine deaminase and interferon-β against endometrial cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells in vitro
    Bo Rim Yi
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Anticancer Res 31:2853-61. 2011
    ..One of these, a cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) system, is known to induce apoptosis by converting 5-FC, a prodrug, to its ..
  21. pmc APOBEC3 has not left an evolutionary footprint on the HIV-1 genome
    Diako Ebrahimi
    Centre for Vascular Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
    J Virol 85:9139-46. 2011
    ..We therefore find no evidence of an evolutionary footprint of hA3G/F. We postulate several mechanisms to explain why the HIV-1 genome does not contain the hA3G/F footprint...
  22. pmc Moderate influence of human APOBEC3F on HIV-1 replication in primary lymphocytes
    Lubbertus C F Mulder
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 84:9613-7. 2010
    ..Lastly, the endogenous A3F mRNA and protein expression levels in PBMCs were considerably lower than those of A3G. Our results suggest that A3F neutralization is dispensable for HIV-1 replication in primary human T-lymphocytes...
  23. pmc Lentiviral Vif degrades the APOBEC3Z3/APOBEC3H protein of its mammalian host and is capable of cross-species activity
    Rebecca S LaRue
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, and Comparative and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:8193-201. 2010
    ..Our results thereby suggest that the Vif-A3Z3 interaction is relevant to lentivirus biology...
  24. ncbi Evolution and diversification of lamprey antigen receptors: evidence for involvement of an AID-APOBEC family cytosine deaminase
    Igor B Rogozin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:647-56. 2007
    ..Vertebrate acquired immunity could have therefore originated from lymphocyte receptor diversification by an ancestral AID-like DNA cytosine deaminase.
  25. pmc Polymorphisms and splice variants influence the antiretroviral activity of human APOBEC3H
    Ariana Harari
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York City, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 83:295-303. 2009
    ..Since prevalence of hapII-RDD is high in populations of African descent, these findings raise the possibility that some individuals may harbor effective as well as HIV-1 Vif-resistant intracellular antiviral defense mechanisms...
  26. pmc Role of APOBEC3G/F-mediated hypermutation in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite suppressors
    Shiv K Gandhi
    Broadway Research Bldg, Rm 880, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:3125-30. 2008
    ..Thus, enhanced APOBEC3 activity alone cannot explain the ability of elite suppressors to control viremia...
  27. pmc Adaptive evolution and antiviral activity of the conserved mammalian cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H
    Molly OhAinle
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle 98109, USA
    J Virol 80:3853-62. 2006
    ..The consequences of the lack of antiviral activity of human APOBEC3H are likely to be relevant to the current-day abilities of humans to combat retroviral challenges...
  28. pmc Polymorphism in human APOBEC3H affects a phenotype dominant for subcellular localization and antiviral activity
    Melody M H Li
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Virol 85:8197-207. 2011
    ....
  29. pmc Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes
    Carsten Munk
    Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, 63225 Langen, Germany
    Genome Biol 9:R48. 2008
    ..While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene...
  30. pmc APOBEC3H haplotypes and HIV-1 pro-viral vif DNA sequence diversity in early untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
    P A Gourraud
    Department of Neurology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Hum Immunol 72:207-12. 2011
    ..015 mixed effects model). This effect may be due to enhanced susceptibility of A3H forms to HIV-1 Vif mediated viral suppression of sequence editing activity, slowing viral diversification and escape from immune responses...
  31. ncbi Current progress in suicide gene therapy for cancer
    Kazuyuki Yazawa
    Michael E DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 6550 Fannin, Suite 1661, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    World J Surg 26:783-9. 2002
    ..of suicide gene systems have been identified, including the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, the cytosine deaminase gene, the varicella-zoster virus thymidine kinase gene, the nitroreductase gene, the Escherichia coli gpt ..
  32. pmc Further investigation of simian immunodeficiency virus Vif function in human cells
    Nathan C Gaddis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    J Virol 78:12041-6. 2004
    ....
  33. pmc A patch of positively charged amino acids surrounding the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif SLVx4Yx9Y motif influences its interaction with APOBEC3G
    Gongying Chen
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:8674-82. 2009
    ..These structural motifs in HIV-1 Vif represent attractive targets for the development of lead inhibitors to combat HIV infection...
  34. ncbi Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and thymidine kinase inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells in cellular and xenograft mouse models
    N H Kang
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea
    Cancer Gene Ther 19:412-9. 2012
    ..hAFSCs were engineered to produce AF2.CD-TK cells in order to express two suicide genes encoding bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) that convert non-toxic prodrugs, 5-fluorocytosine (5-..
  35. pmc APOBEC3G expression and hypermutation are inversely associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) burden in vivo
    Yordanka Kourteva
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Virology 430:1-9. 2012
    ..These results indicate that A3G deaminase-dependent activity above a threshold level, and its deaminase-independent functions, contribute to decreasing Vif-positive virus replication in vivo...
  36. pmc Expression of APOBEC3G/3F and G-to-A hypermutation levels in HIV-1-infected children with different profiles of disease progression
    Nivea D Amoedo
    Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 6:e24118. 2011
    ..However, very few studies have been conducted in HIV-infected children. Here, we analyzed the levels of A3G and A3F expression and induced G-to-A hypermutation in a group of children with distinct profiles of disease progression...
  37. ncbi Genetically engineered stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-β migrate to human lung cancer cells and have potentially therapeutic anti-tumor effects
    Bo Rim Yi
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Int J Oncol 39:833-9. 2011
    ..GESTECs [i.e., HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.interferon-β (IFN-β)] engineered to express a suicide gene, cytosine deaminase (CD), selectively migrated toward lung cancer cells...
  38. ncbi Influence of the prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine and CPT-11 on ovarian cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells: tumor-tropic potential and inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth
    Ki Yon Kim
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Cancer Sci 101:955-62. 2010
    ..The expression of cytosine deaminase (CD) or carboxyl esterase (CE) mRNA of GESTECs was confirmed by RT-PCR...
  39. ncbi E138K and M184I mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase coemerge as a result of APOBEC3 editing in the absence of drug exposure
    Slim Fourati
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris, France
    AIDS 26:1619-24. 2012
    ..We show here that APOBEC3 proteins play a role in the emergence of these drug resistance mutations...
  40. ncbi Delta24-hyCD adenovirus suppresses glioma growth in vivo by combining oncolysis and chemosensitization
    Charles Conrad
    Department of Neuro Oncology, The Brain Tumor Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 4009, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 12:284-94. 2005
    ..Delta24 (Delta24-hyCD) engineered to express a humanized form of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosine deaminase gene (hyCD)...
  41. pmc A single amino acid in human APOBEC3F alters susceptibility to HIV-1 Vif
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:40785-92. 2010
    ..This structural clustering suggests that Vif may bind a conserved surface present in multiple APOBEC3 proteins...
  42. ncbi APOBEC3 proteins inhibit human LINE-1 retrotransposition
    Heide Muckenfuss
    Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 51 59, D 63225 Langen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 281:22161-72. 2006
    ..This study presents evidence for a role of host-encoded APOBEC3 proteins in the regulation of L1 retrotransposition...
  43. pmc Inhibition of alpharetrovirus replication by a range of human APOBEC3 proteins
    Heather L Wiegand
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 81:13694-9. 2007
    ..e., the base state of a naïve retrovirus is susceptibility to inhibition...
  44. ncbi APOBEC3F can inhibit the accumulation of HIV-1 reverse transcription products in the absence of hypermutation. Comparisons with APOBEC3G
    Rebecca K Holmes
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, London, SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 282:2587-95. 2007
    ....
  45. ncbi Targeting rat brainstem glioma using human neural stem cells and human mesenchymal stem cells
    Do Hun Lee
    Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children s Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Clin Cancer Res 15:4925-34. 2009
    ..to brain tumors, we compared the tumor-tropic migratory capacities of these stem cells and evaluated the therapeutic potential of genetically engineered human NSCs encoding cytosine deaminase (CD) and IFNbeta against brainstem gliomas.
  46. pmc Interactions of murine APOBEC3 and human APOBEC3G with murine leukemia viruses
    Samuel J Rulli
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick, Frederick, MD 12702 1201, USA
    J Virol 82:6566-75. 2008
    ..The nature of its resistance and the mechanism of inactivation of MLV by mA3 are completely unknown...
  47. pmc A single amino acid difference in human APOBEC3H variants determines HIV-1 Vif sensitivity
    Anjie Zhen
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 84:1902-11. 2010
    ..We also found that residue 121 was critical for determining A3H sensitivity and binding to HIV-1 Vif...
  48. ncbi Negative selection using yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase in Plasmodium falciparum for targeted gene deletion by double crossover recombination
    Alexander G Maier
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 150:118-21. 2006
  49. pmc Human APOBEC3 proteins can inhibit xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infectivity
    Hal P Bogerd
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 410:234-9. 2011
    ..Few human tissues fail to express hA3G, and we therefore hypothesize that XMRV replicates in one or more hA3G-negative reservoir tissues and/or that human XMRV infections are likely to be rare and potentially of zoonotic origin...
  50. ncbi Hypermutation of hepatitis B virus genomes by APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H
    Josef Kock
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Gen Virol 89:1184-91. 2008
    ..These results indicate that APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H have the ability to edit HBV DNA and that each protein is likely to contribute to various degrees to the generation of modified genomes in human liver cells...
  51. ncbi In vivo cancer gene therapy by adenovirus-mediated transfer of a bifunctional yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion gene
    P Erbs
    Transgene S A Strasbourg, France
    Cancer Res 60:3813-22. 2000
    ..In this study, we describe a novel and highly potent suicide gene derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosine deaminase (FCY1) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes (FUR1)...
  52. pmc Sole copy of Z2-type human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H has inhibitory activity against retrotransposons and HIV-1
    Lindi Tan
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    FASEB J 23:279-87. 2009
    ....
  53. pmc Differences in APOBEC3G expression in CD4+ T helper lymphocyte subtypes modulate HIV-1 infectivity
    Michael L Vetter
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000292. 2009
    ....
  54. pmc Biochemical differentiation of APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G proteins associated with HIV-1 life cycle
    Xiaojun Wang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 4320, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:1585-94. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate that APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G complexes undergo dynamic conversion during HIV-1 infection and also reveal biochemical differences that likely determine their different anti-HIV-1 activity...
  55. pmc Identification of a novel WxSLVK motif in the N terminus of human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus Vif that is critical for APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F neutralization
    Ying Dang
    Department of Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 4320, USA
    J Virol 83:8544-52. 2009
    ..Thus, (21)WxSLVK(26) is a novel functional domain that regulates Vif activity toward both A3F and A3G and is a potential drug target to inhibit Vif activity and block HIV-1 replication...
  56. pmc Human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H restricts HIV-1 replication
    Ying Dang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 4320, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:11606-14. 2008
    ..Thus, A3H inhibits HIV-1 replication potently by a cytidine deamination-independent mechanism, and optimizing A3H expression in vivo should represent a novel therapeutic strategy for HIV-1 treatment...
  57. pmc Interleukin-27 inhibition of HIV-1 involves an intermediate induction of type I interferon
    Teresa Greenwell-Wild
    Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4352, USA
    Blood 114:1864-74. 2009
    ..In addition to macrophages, the IL-27-IFN-alpha connection is operative in CD4(+) T cells, consistent with an IFN-alpha-dependent pathway underlying host cell defense to HIV...
  58. pmc Cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interact with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and inhibit proviral DNA formation
    Kun Luo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:7238-48. 2007
    ..Thus, multiple steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, most noticeably the formation of proviral DNA, are inhibited by both cytidine deamination-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
  59. pmc Restriction by APOBEC3 proteins of endogenous retroviruses with an extracellular life cycle: ex vivo effects and in vivo "traces" on the murine IAPE and human HERV-K elements
    Cécile Esnault
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, CNRS UMR 8122, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, F 94805 Villejuif, and Université Paris Sud, Orsay, F 91405, France
    Retrovirology 5:75. 2008
    ..In addition, APOBEC3 proteins can severely restrict the intracellular transposition of a series of retroelements with a strictly intracellular life cycle, including the murine IAP and MusD LTR-retrotransposons...
  60. pmc Differential requirement for conserved tryptophans in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif for the selective suppression of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F
    Chunjuan Tian
    Second Affiliated Hospital, Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
    J Virol 80:3112-5. 2006
    ..The fact that several highly conserved residues in Vif are required for the suppression of A3F but not that of A3G suggests a critical role for A3F in the restriction of HIV-1 in vivo...
  61. ncbi Retroviral restriction by APOBEC proteins
    Reuben S Harris
    University of Minnesota, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Department, 321 Church Street South East, 6 155 Jackson Hall, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:868-77. 2004
    ..This APOBEC abundance might help to tip the balance in favour of cellular defences...
  62. ncbi Phase I study of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated double-suicide gene therapy in combination with conventional-dose three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed, intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer
    Svend O Freytag
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, One Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA
    Cancer Res 63:7497-506. 2003
    ..the safety of intraprostatic administration of a replication-competent, oncolytic adenovirus containing a cytosine deaminase (CD)/herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) fusion gene concomitant with increasing durations of 5-..
  63. ncbi The antitumor effect of mesenchymal stem cells transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing cytosine deaminase in a rat glioma model
    Song Fei
    Department of Neurosurgery, Second Hospital Affiliated to Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116027, China
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 138:347-57. 2012
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effect of cytosine deaminase (CD)-expressing MSCs in a rat C6 glioma model.
  64. pmc Design and selection of Toca 511 for clinical use: modified retroviral replicating vector with improved stability and gene expression
    Omar D Perez
    Tocagen Inc, San Diego, California 92109, USA
    Mol Ther 20:1689-98. 2012
    ..publications have described a prototype based on an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV), encoding yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) that converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the potent anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ..
  65. pmc Distinct determinants in HIV-1 Vif and human APOBEC3 proteins are required for the suppression of diverse host anti-viral proteins
    Wenyan Zhang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3963. 2008
    ..The domains in Vif and various APOBEC3 proteins required for APOBEC3 recognition and degradation have not been fully characterized...
  66. pmc Antiretroviral activity and Vif sensitivity of rhesus macaque APOBEC3 proteins
    Cesar A Virgen
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, 455 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Virol 81:13932-7. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that multiple APOBEC3 proteins can contribute to primate lentivirus species tropism...
  67. pmc Evolutionarily conserved and non-conserved retrovirus restriction activities of artiodactyl APOBEC3F proteins
    Stefán R Jónsson
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:5683-94. 2006
    ..However, unlike human APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G, the artiodactyl APOBEC3F proteins have an active N-terminal DNA cytosine deaminase domain, which elicits a broader dinucleotide deamination preference, and they are resistant to HIV-1 Vif...
  68. pmc Identification of a Cullin5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 complex in degradation of feline immunodeficiency virus Vif-mediated feline APOBEC3 proteins
    Jiawen Wang
    National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130012, People s Republic of China
    J Virol 85:12482-91. 2011
    ..Therefore, FIV Vif may interact with Cul5 via a novel mechanism. These finding imply that SOCS proteins may possess distinct mechanisms to bind Cul5 during formation of the Elongin-Cullin-SOCS box complex...
  69. ncbi Extensive editing of a small fraction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 genomes by four APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases
    Renaud Mahieux
    Unité d Epidémiologie et Physiopathologie des Virus Oncogènes, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Gen Virol 86:2489-94. 2005
    ..Thus, although HTLV-1 DNA can indeed be edited by at least four APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in vitro, they are conspicuously absent in vivo...
  70. pmc Definition of the interacting interfaces of Apobec3G and HIV-1 Vif using MAPPIT mutagenesis analysis
    Delphine Lavens
    Department of Medical Protein Research, VIB, Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University, A Baertsoenkaai 3, 9000 Ghent
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:1902-12. 2010
    ..We propose that Vif either binds at the Apobec3G head-to-head interface or associates with an RNA-stabilized Apobec3G oligomer...
  71. pmc PKA-mediated phosphorylation regulates the function of activation-induced deaminase (AID) in B cells
    Laura Pasqualucci
    Institute for Cancer Genetics and the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, 1150 Saint Nicholas Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:395-400. 2006
    ..These findings implicate PKA in the regulation of AID function and suggest that the control of T cell-dependent immune responses may be modulated, via AID, by signals that activate PKA...
  72. pmc Development and application of a positive-negative selectable marker system for use in reverse genetics in Plasmodium
    Joanna A M Braks
    Department of Parasitology, Centre of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:e39. 2006
    ..negative selection system based upon transgenic expression of a bifunctional protein (yFCU) combining yeast cytosine deaminase and uridyl phosphoribosyl transferase (UPRT) activity in P...
  73. pmc Long-term restriction by APOBEC3F selects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with restored Vif function
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:10209-19. 2010
    ..These data combine to indicate that A3F and A3G exert at least partly distinct selective pressures and that Vif function may be essential for the virus to replicate in the presence of A3F...
  74. ncbi Activation of the CMV-IE promoter by hyperthermia in vitro and in vivo: biphasic heat induction of cytosine deaminase suicide gene expression
    Dennis Kobelt
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rossle Str 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany
    Mol Biotechnol 46:197-205. 2010
    ..transfected SW480 human colon carcinoma cells (SW480/CMVCD), expressing CMV-IE promoter-driven bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) gene. These cells were heated at 42 degrees C...
  75. pmc Productive replication of Vif-chimeric HIV-1 in feline cells
    Melissa A Stern
    Guggenheim 1811A, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Virol 84:7378-95. 2010
    ..The results raise the possibility that the domestic cat could yield an animal model of HIV-1 infection...
  76. pmc Stem cells with fused gene expression of cytosine deaminase and interferon-β migrate to human gastric cancer cells and result in synergistic growth inhibition for potential therapeutic use
    Kyoung Yoon Kim
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea
    Int J Oncol 40:1097-104. 2012
    ..Suicide enzymes can convert non-toxic pro-drugs to toxic metabolites that can reduce tumor growth. Cytosine deaminase (CD) is a suicide enzyme that metabolizes a non-toxic pro-drug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), into the cytotoxic ..
  77. pmc Vif of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats protects against APOBEC3 restriction factors from many felids
    Jörg Zielonka
    Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Heinrich Heine University, Building 23 12 U1 87, Moorenstr 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Virol 84:7312-24. 2010
    ..We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor...
  78. ncbi Intratumoral 5-fluorouracil produced by cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy is effective for experimental human glioblastomas
    C Ryan Miller
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 62:773-80. 2002
    ..Adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) gene therapy has the potential to overcome pharmacokinetic issues associated ..
  79. ncbi In vivo gene therapy for colon cancer using adenovirus-mediated, transfer of the fusion gene cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase
    G A Chung-Faye
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Gene Ther 8:1547-54. 2001
    Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) utilising cytosine deaminase (CD) converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has entered into a clinical trial for metastatic colon cancer...
  80. pmc Restriction of equine infectious anemia virus by equine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases
    Jörg Zielonka
    Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    J Virol 83:7547-59. 2009
    ..We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene...
  81. pmc Stably expressed APOBEC3F has negligible antiviral activity
    Eri Miyagi
    Viral Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 4, Room 310, 4 Center Drive MSC 0460, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 84:11067-75. 2010
    ..Surprisingly, however, neither wild-type nor deaminase-defective A3F inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. These results imply that the antiviral activity of endogenous A3F is negligible compared to that of A3G...
  82. pmc Identification of a critical T(Q/D/E)x5ADx2(I/L) motif from primate lentivirus Vif proteins that regulate APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F neutralizing activity
    Ying Dang
    Departments of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 4320, USA
    J Virol 84:8561-70. 2010
    ..Thus, T(Q/D/E)x(5)ADx(2)(I/L) is a critical functional motif that directly supports the adaptor function of Vif and is an attractive target for inhibition of Vif function...
  83. pmc Restriction of porcine endogenous retrovirus by porcine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases
    Eva Dörrschuck
    Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    J Virol 85:3842-57. 2011
    ..These results strongly imply that human and porcine A3s could inhibit PERV replication in vivo, thereby reducing the risk of infection of human cells by PERV in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation...
  84. ncbi APOBEC1 and APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases as restriction factors for hepadnaviral genomes in non-humans in vivo
    Myrtille Renard
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA 3015, 28 rue de Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Mol Biol 400:323-34. 2010
    ..There seems to be more genetic editing in liver or cell-associated genomes than serum or culture supernatants, suggesting that too much editing of virion cDNA might impede completion of DNA synthesis...
  85. ncbi Antitumor efficiency of the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine suicide gene therapy system on malignant gliomas: an in vivo study
    Sheng qing Lv
    Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, P R China
    Med Sci Monit 15:BR13-20. 2009
    Suicide gene therapy, particularly that utilizing the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) system, represents a novel and attractive methodology of cancer research...
  86. pmc Identification of specific determinants of human APOBEC3F, APOBEC3C, and APOBEC3DE and African green monkey APOBEC3F that interact with HIV-1 Vif
    Jessica L Smith
    Viral Mutation Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 84:12599-608. 2010
    ....
  87. pmc Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian carcinomatosis using a replication-selective vaccinia virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase gene
    S Chalikonda
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 15:115-25. 2008
    ..In this study, we assessed the ability of a highly tumor-selective oncolytic vaccinia virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase gene to infect and lyse human and murine ovarian tumors both in vitro and in vivo...
  88. ncbi Mechanisms of thymidine kinase/ganciclovir and cytosine deaminase/ 5-fluorocytosine suicide gene therapy-induced cell death in glioma cells
    Ute Fischer
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Oncogene 24:1231-43. 2005
    Suicide gene transfer using thymidine kinase (TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) treatment or the cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) system represents the most widely used approach for gene therapy of cancer...
  89. ncbi APOBEC3B and APOBEC3F inhibit L1 retrotransposition by a DNA deamination-independent mechanism
    Mark D Stenglein
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, The Institute for Molecular Virology and The Beckman Center for Transposon Research, The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:16837-41. 2006
    ..A particularly high level of APOBEC3F protein in human testes and an inverse correlation between L1 activity and APOBEC3 gene number suggest the relevance of this mechanism to mammals...
  90. pmc Identification of two distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif determinants critical for interactions with human APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F
    Rebecca A Russell
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick, P O Box B, Bldg 535, Rm 334, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 81:8201-10. 2007
    ..Pharmacological interference with the Vif-A3G or Vif-A3F interactions could result in potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication by the APOBEC3 proteins...
  91. pmc A survey of genomic traces reveals a common sequencing error, RNA editing, and DNA editing
    Alexander Wait Zaranek
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000954. 2010
    ..We show that the NCBI Trace Archive provides a valuable resource for the investigation of the phenomena of DNA and RNA editing, as well as setting the stage for a comprehensive mapping of editing events in large-scale genomic datasets...
  92. pmc The activity spectrum of Vif from multiple HIV-1 subtypes against APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H
    Mawuena Binka
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    J Virol 86:49-59. 2012
    ....
  93. ncbi Targeted delivery of a suicide gene to human colorectal tumors by a conditionally replicating vaccinia virus
    J Foloppe
    Transgene SA, 11 rue de Molsheim, Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Gene Ther 15:1361-71. 2008
    ..vaccinia virus (VV) (Copenhagen strain) that expressed the fusion suicide gene FCU1 derived from the yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes...
  94. pmc Myeloid differentiation and susceptibility to HIV-1 are linked to APOBEC3 expression
    Gang Peng
    Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4352, USA
    Blood 110:393-400. 2007
    ..Differences in promiscuity of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs can be defined, at least partly, by disparities in APOBEC expression, with implications for enhancing cellular defenses against HIV-1...
  95. ncbi The potential of 5-fluorocytosine/cytosine deaminase enzyme prodrug gene therapy in an intrahepatic colon cancer model
    M K Nyati
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0010, USA
    Gene Ther 9:844-9. 2002
    ..study was to develop a noninvasive intrahepatic tumor model to study the efficacy of 5-flucytosine/yeast cytosine deaminase (5FC/yCD)-based gene therapy for liver tumors...
  96. pmc The range of human APOBEC3H sensitivity to lentiviral Vif proteins
    Melody M H Li
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    J Virol 84:88-95. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate that human APOBEC3H is not as strong of a selective force for current HIV-1 infections as human APOBEC3G...
  97. ncbi Comparison of the differential context-dependence of DNA deamination by APOBEC enzymes: correlation with mutation spectra in vivo
    Rupert C L Beale
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
    J Mol Biol 337:585-96. 2004
    ....
  98. ncbi Human neural stem cells target experimental intracranial medulloblastoma and deliver a therapeutic gene leading to tumor regression
    Seung Ki Kim
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 12:5550-6. 2006
    ....
  99. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif functionally interacts with diverse APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and moves with them between cytoplasmic sites of mRNA metabolism
    Mariana Marin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
    J Virol 82:987-98. 2008
    ..Cytosolic APOBEC3-Vif complexes are predominantly bound to mRNAs that dynamically move between translationally active and storage or processing pools...
  100. ncbi Carcinoembryonic antigen-specific suicide gene therapy of cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine enhanced by the cre/loxP system in the orthotopic gastric carcinoma model
    K Ueda
    Second Department of Surgery, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, Wakayama 641-8510, Japan
    Cancer Res 61:6158-62. 2001
    ..In this study, the Cre/loxP system was first applied to augmentation of selective expression of the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene as a suicide gene therapy in CEA-producing cells...
  101. ncbi Cytotoxic effect of replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying L-plastin promoter regulated E1A and cytosine deaminase genes in cancers of the breast, ovary and colon
    Hakan Akbulut
    Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
    Cancer Gene Ther 10:388-95. 2003
    ..the construction of a new conditionally replication-competent bicistronic adenoviral vector in which the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the E1a gene are driven by the L-plastin tumor-specific promoter (AdLpCDIRESE1a)...

Research Grants54

  1. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry L Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..collaborating laboratories are engineering and optimizing two nucleoside salvage/synthesis enzymes for PGT: cytosine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
  2. Targeting Nanoparticle DNA Delivery to Prostate Tumors
    Janet A Sawicki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of their ability to deliver two suicide genes, a gene encoding diphtheria toxin and a fusion gene encoding cytosine deaminase + herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase to primary and metastatic prostate tumors...
  3. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna S Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..New results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the synergistic bystander killing with HSV-TK/GCV and cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-flucytosine (5- FC), a suicide gene model that produces the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil...
  4. B Cell Expressed COX2 and AID Dependent Sjogrens Syndrome Autoimmunity
    PATRICIA K MONGINI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In these sites, a DNA-modifying enzyme, activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID), has an important role in generating pathogenic autoantibody (autoAb) and inducing oncogenic mutations...
  5. IN VIVO VISUALIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF EPIGENETIC ACTIVITIES USING MAGNETIC
    Won Bin Young; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..A yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) will be used as a reporter to convert 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
  6. Discovery of antibodies that bind G protein-coupled receptors
    Matthew P DeLisa; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The second strategy uses yeast cytosine deaminase PCA to report antibody fragment-mediated blocking of GPCR dimerization (specific aim 2)...
  7. Retroviral replicating vector for prodrug activator gene therapy
    Douglas J Jolly; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..studies, Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec, or RRV-CD in this proposal), expresses an optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the classic chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-..
  8. OSTEOCLASTS AND BONE CANCER
    Denis R Clohisy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..precursor) to survive the therapy and therefore provide extended expression of the therapeutic molecule cytosine deaminase. Our Preliminary Studies now show that lentiviral approach for gene delivery is operational in our hands and ..
  9. A Pilot Study of 5-FC and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells to Treat Gliomas
    JANA contact PORTNOW; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..F3) that has been retrovirally-transduced to stably express the enzyme, cytosine deaminase (CD), which converts the oral prodrug 5- fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (..
  10. Image-guided Prodrug and siRNA Targeting of Cancer
    Zaver M Bhujwalla; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recently developed a prototype agent that allows us to visualize the delivery of a prodrug enzyme, bacterial cytosine deaminase, noninvasively with MRI and optical imaging...
  11. Monitoring Prodrug Delivery in Suicide Gene Therapy Using CEST MRI
    Guanshu Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system to monitor tumor-targeted delivery of 5-FC, and consequently, to predict the therapeutic effect of cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-FC gene therapy...
  12. Immunoglobulin Somatic Mutation
    Ursula Storb; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..5) Which mRNAs are modified by the cytidine deaminase, AID, in mutating B lymphocytes? The cytosine deaminase, AID, is required for SHM. The potential target mRNAs will be identified...
  13. Improved Suicide Gene Therapy for Hepatic Cancers
    William Ensminger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..generation of regional treatments for intrahepatic cancers using improved methods of delivery and forms of cytosine deaminase/5-flucytosine (CD/FC) in enzyme/prodrug gene therapy...
  14. Prodrug enzyme therapy of pancreatic cancer mediated by oncolytic HSV vector
    Michael Lanuti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the hypothesis is tested that tumor-targeted delivery of two different prodrug converting enzymes, yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein (yCD-UPRT) and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE), by an ..
  15. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..New results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the synergistic bystander killing with HSV-TK/GCV and cytosine deaminase (CD)/5- flucytosine (5-FC), a suicide gene model that produces the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil...
  16. PET & MR QUANTITATIVE IMAGING OF TRANSGENE EXPRESSION
    Juri Gelovani; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Non-invasive imaging of cytosine deaminase (CD) gene expression in clinical cancer gene therapy trials with CD plus 5FC combination therapy would be of considerable value...
  17. IMPROVING SUICIDE GENES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY
    Margaret Black; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..coli or yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC)...
  18. Targeted Prodrug Therapy of Liver Cancers
    John Chan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the malarial circumsporozoite (CS) protein, a hepatocyte-specific targeting ligand, linked to the bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD), a suicidal gene product which catalyzes the production of 5-FU from its prodrug 5- fluorocytosine (5-..
  19. Targeted Prodrug Therapy of Liver Cancers
    MACUS KUO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of malarial circumsporozoite (CS) protein, a hepatocyte-specific targeting ligand, linked to bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD), a "suicide gene" product which catalyzes the synthesis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from its prodrug 5-..
  20. IN VIVO REPORTER SYSTEM FOR IMAGING GENE TRANSFER
    Kurt Zinn; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The developed gene therapy vector will include both the reporter hSSTr2 gene and a therapeutic gene (cytosine deaminase, CD), the reporter allowing in vivo imaging of targeted gene delivery...
  21. REPLICONS ENCODING SUICIDE GENES AS THERAPIES FOR GLIOMA
    DAVID ANSARDI; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of using replicon vectors that express herpesvirus thymidine kinase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, or cytosine deaminase for suicide gene therapy of gliomas in mouse model systems...
  22. Targeting diffuse liver metastases with Herpes virus
    Kenneth K Tanabe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g.cytosine deaminase);3) enhance survival of animals with diffuse liver tumors following intravascular delivery...
  23. Apoptosis Modulation in Prodrug Activation Gene Therapy
    Ting Su; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..coli cytosine deaminase in combination with 5-flurocytosine, both of which exert their tumor killing and/or bystander effect via ..
  24. NEW THERAPIES FOR HEPATIC METASTASIS FROM COLON CANCER
    Joseph Bertino; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Additional studies are planned using a similar approach but with cytosine deaminase cDNA instead of HSV thymidine kinase to generate 5-fluorouracil from the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine in hepatic ..
  25. BACTERIAL GENE DELIVERY VECTORS FOR CANCER THERAPY
    Ivan King; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..IL2, TRAIL, DT- diaphorase, cytochrome p450 2B1, or cytosine deaminase will be cloned and expressed in VNP2OOO9 and anti-tumor activity of these clones will be evaluated in murine ..
  26. TRIMODAL GENE THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER
    SVEND FREYTAG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  27. Neural Progenitor Cells as Cancer Therapy Vectors
    Karen Aboody; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The described approach might then be adapted to the treatment of other solid tumors by careful choice of appropriate therapeutic transgenes. ..
  28. Mechanisms of AID-dependent Adaptive and Innate Immunity
    Reuben S Harris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. POTENTIATING THE ANTI-TUMOR ACTIVITY OF SALMONELLA
    Ivan King; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The magnitude of the need for a tool for systemic delivery of peptides is huge so as to create an enormous market potential for cancer therapeutics. ..
  30. EVALUATION OF CH2 DELETED HUCC49 FOR INTRAPERITONEAL RIT
    Donald Buchsbaum; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies would establish the rationale for human clinical RIT trials in patients with intraperitoneal cancer using HuCC49deltaCH2 and the optimum method of administration of IFN. ..
  31. Gemcitabine-Radiation for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
    Theodore S Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We feel our preclinical and clinical team with a track record of 10 years of carrying out leading clinical trials in this area makes it likely that these studies will improve patient outcome. ..
  32. Enhancement of Dendritic Cells for Improved Immunotherapy
    David Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These three aims should ultimately lead to improved clinical applications of DCs for not only treating malignancy but numerous pathogens, as well. ..
  33. ANTIFUNGAL RESPONSE--MDR INDUCTION
    Thomas Edlind; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Candida homologues of these factors will be identified by PCR or expression in S. cerevisiae. Their role in MDR induction will be examined by gene disruption. ..
  34. Accessory roles of Tat in HIV-1 replication
    Michael Emerman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Thus, the overall goal of this proposal is to identify functions attributable to the second exon of Tat and to ascertain the role of these Tat functions in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis. ..
  35. REGULATED APOPTOSIS IN THE TREATMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER
    David Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition to their potential use as anti-neoplastic agents, these "death switches" should also have broad applications for developmental studies for increasing the safety of gene therapy vectors. ..
  36. INDUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER
    James Norris; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  37. NEW BCAS FOR RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY WITH RADIOMETALS
    Donald Buchsbaum; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The experiments described in this application will provide answers to these questions. These studies would establish the rationale for human clinical RIT trials in patients with Jp. cancer using HuCC49ACH2. ..
  38. STEROID MODULATION OF TUMOR CELL GROWTH
    James Norris; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It is Dr. Norris' belief that understanding these pathways will ultimately allow definition of novel interventional protocols for the control of cancer. ..
  39. Improving gene therapy-mediated radiosensitization
    Theodore Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of this proposal is to improve the cytotoxic and radiosensitizing efficacy of cancer gene therapy using the cytosine deaminase/5FC (CD/5FC) enzyme/prodrug strategy...
  40. HIV Infection of Non-Dividing Cells
    Michael Emerman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The identification of the precise viral determinants that allow it access to non-dividing cells may present new drug targets against HIV. ..
  41. Mutational Analysis of Fks1: Intrinsic Echinocandin Resistance
    Thomas D Edlind; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will accelerate the development of second generation ECs that provide a broader spectrum of protection from fungal pathogens. ..
  42. A mutable vaccine for biodefense
    Marilia Cascalho; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The vaccine will then be tested for ability to promote an immune response against antigenic variants of influenza. ..
  43. Liver Radioprotection by Systemic of Regional Amifostine
    Theodore Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our preliminary data, research team, and record for translating preclinical findings to the clinic suggest that this proposal is likely to improve the outcome of treatment of patients with diffuse intrahepatic cancer. ..
  44. Molecular Therapy Core Centers
    Arthur Miller; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. Image Localization for Pathologic Correlation of Delta-24-RGD
    Charles Conrad; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  46. Signaling Pathways in Yeast Azole Response
    Thomas Edlind; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, the signalling pathway responsible for azole-dependent upregulation of ERG expression will be elucidated with a focus on Rox1p and Haplp transcription factors. ..
  47. VSV RNA TRANSCRIPTION AND REPLICATION
    ASIT PATTNAIK; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies are of major importance for an understanding of the mechanisms of the viral gene expression and virus growth. ..
  48. Purine Analog Anti-Mycobacterial Drug Development
    William Parker; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..tb activity;and (4) design and synthesis of purine and purine nucleoside analogs with selective activity against M. tb. ..
  49. VIRAL VECTOR CORE FACILITY
    James Norris; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..A detailed organizational plan, substantial institutional support, and a long term plan for maintenance ensure the sustained viability of the proposed Viral Vector Core Facility. ..
  50. RADIATION DOSE ESCALATION FOR FOCAL LIVER CANCER
    Theodore Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  51. Role of IL18 in Spread of Prostate Cancer to Bone
    Pamela Russell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If IL18 inhibits PCa growth in bone, its delivery by adenovirus vectors into the prostate of patients prior to radical prostatectomy may prevent the development of bone metastasis. ..
  52. FGFR SIGNALING IN PROSTATE DEVELOPMENT AND CANCER
    David Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  53. Prognostic Models in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
    Izidore S Lossos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Further, establishment of a paraffin-based RNA prognostic model using the new methodology of RNA extraction could serve as a paradigm for other lymphomas and tumors. ..