cytosine deaminase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Defining APOBEC3 expression patterns in human tissues and hematopoietic cell subsets
    Fransje A Koning
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:9474-85. 2009
  2. pmc Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:4274-84. 2010
  3. pmc HIV-1 Vif versus the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an intracellular duel between pathogen and host restriction factors
    Silke Wissing
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 31:383-97. 2010
  4. doi Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions
    Jean Pierre Vartanian
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue de Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Science 320:230-3. 2008
  5. pmc Cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interact with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and inhibit proviral DNA formation
    Kun Luo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:7238-48. 2007
  6. pmc Endogenous origins of HIV-1 G-to-A hypermutation and restriction in the nonpermissive T cell line CEM2n
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002800. 2012
  7. pmc Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance
    Lubbertus C F Mulder
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5501-6. 2008
  8. pmc Lentiviral Vif degrades the APOBEC3Z3/APOBEC3H protein of its mammalian host and is capable of cross-species activity
    Rebecca S LaRue
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, and Comparative and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:8193-201. 2010
  9. pmc APOBEC3 has not left an evolutionary footprint on the HIV-1 genome
    Diako Ebrahimi
    Centre for Vascular Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
    J Virol 85:9139-46. 2011
  10. ncbi Antitumor therapeutic effects of cytosine deaminase and interferon-β against endometrial cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells in vitro
    Bo Rim Yi
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Anticancer Res 31:2853-61. 2011

Research Grants

  1. IMPROVING SUICIDE GENES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY
    Margaret Black; Fiscal Year: 2004
  2. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry L Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna S Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Immunoglobulin Somatic Mutation
    Ursula Storb; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. Improved Suicide Gene Therapy for Hepatic Cancers
    William Ensminger; Fiscal Year: 2005
  7. Immunoglobulin Somatic Mutation
    Ursula Storb; Fiscal Year: 2003
  8. Immunoglobulin Somatic Mutation
    Ursula Storb; Fiscal Year: 2006
  9. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. OSTEOCLASTS AND BONE CANCER
    Denis Clohisy; Fiscal Year: 2009

Detail Information

Publications235 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Defining APOBEC3 expression patterns in human tissues and hematopoietic cell subsets
    Fransje A Koning
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:9474-85. 2009
    ..Given that A3A does not affect HIV-1 infection, these observations imply that this protein may participate in early antiviral innate immune responses...
  2. pmc Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:4274-84. 2010
    ....
  3. pmc HIV-1 Vif versus the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an intracellular duel between pathogen and host restriction factors
    Silke Wissing
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 31:383-97. 2010
    ..This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the dynamic interplay of Vif with the antiviral APOBEC3 enzymes...
  4. doi Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions
    Jean Pierre Vartanian
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue de Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Science 320:230-3. 2008
    ..Thus, stochastic or transient overexpression of APOBEC3 genes may expose the genome to a broad spectrum of mutations that could influence the development of tumors...
  5. pmc Cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interact with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and inhibit proviral DNA formation
    Kun Luo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:7238-48. 2007
    ..Thus, multiple steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, most noticeably the formation of proviral DNA, are inhibited by both cytidine deamination-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
  6. pmc Endogenous origins of HIV-1 G-to-A hypermutation and restriction in the nonpermissive T cell line CEM2n
    Eric W Refsland
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002800. 2012
    ..Primary T lymphocytes express a similar set of APOBEC3 genes suggesting that the same repertoire may be important in vivo...
  7. pmc Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance
    Lubbertus C F Mulder
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5501-6. 2008
    ....
  8. pmc Lentiviral Vif degrades the APOBEC3Z3/APOBEC3H protein of its mammalian host and is capable of cross-species activity
    Rebecca S LaRue
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, and Comparative and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:8193-201. 2010
    ..Our results thereby suggest that the Vif-A3Z3 interaction is relevant to lentivirus biology...
  9. pmc APOBEC3 has not left an evolutionary footprint on the HIV-1 genome
    Diako Ebrahimi
    Centre for Vascular Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
    J Virol 85:9139-46. 2011
    ..We therefore find no evidence of an evolutionary footprint of hA3G/F. We postulate several mechanisms to explain why the HIV-1 genome does not contain the hA3G/F footprint...
  10. ncbi Antitumor therapeutic effects of cytosine deaminase and interferon-β against endometrial cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells in vitro
    Bo Rim Yi
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Anticancer Res 31:2853-61. 2011
    ..One of these, a cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) system, is known to induce apoptosis by converting 5-FC, a prodrug, to its ..
  11. pmc Moderate influence of human APOBEC3F on HIV-1 replication in primary lymphocytes
    Lubbertus C F Mulder
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 84:9613-7. 2010
    ..Lastly, the endogenous A3F mRNA and protein expression levels in PBMCs were considerably lower than those of A3G. Our results suggest that A3F neutralization is dispensable for HIV-1 replication in primary human T-lymphocytes...
  12. doi Partially active HIV-1 Vif alleles facilitate viral escape from specific antiretrovirals
    Slim Fourati
    UMR 943, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris France
    AIDS 24:2313-21. 2010
    ..Natural variation in Vif may result in reduced efficacy against APOBEC3 proteins and in increased HIV-1 diversity. We speculated that this mechanism could facilitate viral escape from certain antiretroviral drugs...
  13. pmc Polymorphisms and splice variants influence the antiretroviral activity of human APOBEC3H
    Ariana Harari
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1090, New York City, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 83:295-303. 2009
    ..Since prevalence of hapII-RDD is high in populations of African descent, these findings raise the possibility that some individuals may harbor effective as well as HIV-1 Vif-resistant intracellular antiviral defense mechanisms...
  14. pmc Role of APOBEC3G/F-mediated hypermutation in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite suppressors
    Shiv K Gandhi
    Broadway Research Bldg, Rm 880, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:3125-30. 2008
    ..Thus, enhanced APOBEC3 activity alone cannot explain the ability of elite suppressors to control viremia...
  15. ncbi Evolution and diversification of lamprey antigen receptors: evidence for involvement of an AID-APOBEC family cytosine deaminase
    Igor B Rogozin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:647-56. 2007
    ..Vertebrate acquired immunity could have therefore originated from lymphocyte receptor diversification by an ancestral AID-like DNA cytosine deaminase.
  16. pmc APOBEC3H haplotypes and HIV-1 pro-viral vif DNA sequence diversity in early untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
    P A Gourraud
    Department of Neurology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Hum Immunol 72:207-12. 2011
    ..015 mixed effects model). This effect may be due to enhanced susceptibility of A3H forms to HIV-1 Vif mediated viral suppression of sequence editing activity, slowing viral diversification and escape from immune responses...
  17. pmc APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G inhibit HIV-1 DNA integration by different mechanisms
    Jean L Mbisa
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, P O Box B, Building 535, Room 334, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 84:5250-9. 2010
    ....
  18. doi Influence of the prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine and CPT-11 on ovarian cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells: tumor-tropic potential and inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth
    Ki Yon Kim
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Cancer Sci 101:955-62. 2010
    ..The expression of cytosine deaminase (CD) or carboxyl esterase (CE) mRNA of GESTECs was confirmed by RT-PCR...
  19. doi Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and thymidine kinase inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells in cellular and xenograft mouse models
    N H Kang
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea
    Cancer Gene Ther 19:412-9. 2012
    ..hAFSCs were engineered to produce AF2.CD-TK cells in order to express two suicide genes encoding bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) that convert non-toxic prodrugs, 5-fluorocytosine (5-..
  20. pmc Sole copy of Z2-type human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H has inhibitory activity against retrotransposons and HIV-1
    Lindi Tan
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    FASEB J 23:279-87. 2009
    ....
  21. pmc APOBEC3G expression and hypermutation are inversely associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) burden in vivo
    Yordanka Kourteva
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Virology 430:1-9. 2012
    ..These results indicate that A3G deaminase-dependent activity above a threshold level, and its deaminase-independent functions, contribute to decreasing Vif-positive virus replication in vivo...
  22. doi Genetically engineered stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-β migrate to human lung cancer cells and have potentially therapeutic anti-tumor effects
    Bo Rim Yi
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Int J Oncol 39:833-9. 2011
    ..GESTECs [i.e., HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.interferon-β (IFN-β)] engineered to express a suicide gene, cytosine deaminase (CD), selectively migrated toward lung cancer cells...
  23. ncbi Delta24-hyCD adenovirus suppresses glioma growth in vivo by combining oncolysis and chemosensitization
    Charles Conrad
    Department of Neuro Oncology, The Brain Tumor Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 4009, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 12:284-94. 2005
    ..Delta24 (Delta24-hyCD) engineered to express a humanized form of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosine deaminase gene (hyCD)...
  24. doi E138K and M184I mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase coemerge as a result of APOBEC3 editing in the absence of drug exposure
    Slim Fourati
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris, France
    AIDS 26:1619-24. 2012
    ..We show here that APOBEC3 proteins play a role in the emergence of these drug resistance mutations...
  25. pmc Expression of APOBEC3G/3F and G-to-A hypermutation levels in HIV-1-infected children with different profiles of disease progression
    Nivea D Amoedo
    Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 6:e24118. 2011
    ..However, very few studies have been conducted in HIV-infected children. Here, we analyzed the levels of A3G and A3F expression and induced G-to-A hypermutation in a group of children with distinct profiles of disease progression...
  26. pmc A single amino acid in human APOBEC3F alters susceptibility to HIV-1 Vif
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:40785-92. 2010
    ..This structural clustering suggests that Vif may bind a conserved surface present in multiple APOBEC3 proteins...
  27. pmc A single amino acid difference in human APOBEC3H variants determines HIV-1 Vif sensitivity
    Anjie Zhen
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 84:1902-11. 2010
    ..We also found that residue 121 was critical for determining A3H sensitivity and binding to HIV-1 Vif...
  28. pmc Identification of a novel WxSLVK motif in the N terminus of human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus Vif that is critical for APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F neutralization
    Ying Dang
    Department of Microbiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 4320, USA
    J Virol 83:8544-52. 2009
    ..Thus, (21)WxSLVK(26) is a novel functional domain that regulates Vif activity toward both A3F and A3G and is a potential drug target to inhibit Vif activity and block HIV-1 replication...
  29. pmc Distinct determinants in HIV-1 Vif and human APOBEC3 proteins are required for the suppression of diverse host anti-viral proteins
    Wenyan Zhang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3963. 2008
    ..The domains in Vif and various APOBEC3 proteins required for APOBEC3 recognition and degradation have not been fully characterized...
  30. ncbi Negative selection using yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase in Plasmodium falciparum for targeted gene deletion by double crossover recombination
    Alexander G Maier
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 150:118-21. 2006
  31. pmc Interactions of murine APOBEC3 and human APOBEC3G with murine leukemia viruses
    Samuel J Rulli
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick, Frederick, MD 12702 1201, USA
    J Virol 82:6566-75. 2008
    ..The nature of its resistance and the mechanism of inactivation of MLV by mA3 are completely unknown...
  32. pmc Human APOBEC3 proteins can inhibit xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infectivity
    Hal P Bogerd
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 410:234-9. 2011
    ..Few human tissues fail to express hA3G, and we therefore hypothesize that XMRV replicates in one or more hA3G-negative reservoir tissues and/or that human XMRV infections are likely to be rare and potentially of zoonotic origin...
  33. doi Targeting rat brainstem glioma using human neural stem cells and human mesenchymal stem cells
    Do Hun Lee
    Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children s Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Clin Cancer Res 15:4925-34. 2009
    ..to brain tumors, we compared the tumor-tropic migratory capacities of these stem cells and evaluated the therapeutic potential of genetically engineered human NSCs encoding cytosine deaminase (CD) and IFNbeta against brainstem gliomas.
  34. doi Hypermutation of hepatitis B virus genomes by APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H
    Josef Kock
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Gen Virol 89:1184-91. 2008
    ..These results indicate that APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H have the ability to edit HBV DNA and that each protein is likely to contribute to various degrees to the generation of modified genomes in human liver cells...
  35. pmc Restriction by APOBEC3 proteins of endogenous retroviruses with an extracellular life cycle: ex vivo effects and in vivo "traces" on the murine IAPE and human HERV-K elements
    Cécile Esnault
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, CNRS UMR 8122, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, F 94805 Villejuif, and Université Paris Sud, Orsay, F 91405, France
    Retrovirology 5:75. 2008
    ..In addition, APOBEC3 proteins can severely restrict the intracellular transposition of a series of retroelements with a strictly intracellular life cycle, including the murine IAP and MusD LTR-retrotransposons...
  36. pmc Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 12:e4. 2010
    ..We also summarise, for the first time, current clinical data on the in vivo effects of APOBEC3 proteins, and survey strategies and progress towards developing therapeutics aimed at the APOBEC3-Vif axis...
  37. pmc Definition of the interacting interfaces of Apobec3G and HIV-1 Vif using MAPPIT mutagenesis analysis
    Delphine Lavens
    Department of Medical Protein Research, VIB, Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University, A Baertsoenkaai 3, 9000 Ghent
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:1902-12. 2010
    ..We propose that Vif either binds at the Apobec3G head-to-head interface or associates with an RNA-stabilized Apobec3G oligomer...
  38. pmc A survey of genomic traces reveals a common sequencing error, RNA editing, and DNA editing
    Alexander Wait Zaranek
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000954. 2010
    ..We show that the NCBI Trace Archive provides a valuable resource for the investigation of the phenomena of DNA and RNA editing, as well as setting the stage for a comprehensive mapping of editing events in large-scale genomic datasets...
  39. pmc Further investigation of simian immunodeficiency virus Vif function in human cells
    Nathan C Gaddis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    J Virol 78:12041-6. 2004
    ....
  40. pmc Restriction of equine infectious anemia virus by equine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases
    Jörg Zielonka
    Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    J Virol 83:7547-59. 2009
    ..We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene...
  41. ncbi Antitumor efficiency of the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine suicide gene therapy system on malignant gliomas: an in vivo study
    Sheng qing Lv
    Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, P R China
    Med Sci Monit 15:BR13-20. 2009
    Suicide gene therapy, particularly that utilizing the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) system, represents a novel and attractive methodology of cancer research...
  42. ncbi Intratumoral 5-fluorouracil produced by cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy is effective for experimental human glioblastomas
    C Ryan Miller
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 62:773-80. 2002
    ..Adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) gene therapy has the potential to overcome pharmacokinetic issues associated ..
  43. pmc A patch of positively charged amino acids surrounding the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif SLVx4Yx9Y motif influences its interaction with APOBEC3G
    Gongying Chen
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:8674-82. 2009
    ..These structural motifs in HIV-1 Vif represent attractive targets for the development of lead inhibitors to combat HIV infection...
  44. pmc Long-term restriction by APOBEC3F selects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with restored Vif function
    John S Albin
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Institute for Molecular Virology, Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Virol 84:10209-19. 2010
    ..These data combine to indicate that A3F and A3G exert at least partly distinct selective pressures and that Vif function may be essential for the virus to replicate in the presence of A3F...
  45. pmc Identification of a critical T(Q/D/E)x5ADx2(I/L) motif from primate lentivirus Vif proteins that regulate APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F neutralizing activity
    Ying Dang
    Departments of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 4320, USA
    J Virol 84:8561-70. 2010
    ..Thus, T(Q/D/E)x(5)ADx(2)(I/L) is a critical functional motif that directly supports the adaptor function of Vif and is an attractive target for inhibition of Vif function...
  46. doi APOBEC1 and APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases as restriction factors for hepadnaviral genomes in non-humans in vivo
    Myrtille Renard
    Molecular Retrovirology Unit, Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA 3015, 28 rue de Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Mol Biol 400:323-34. 2010
    ..There seems to be more genetic editing in liver or cell-associated genomes than serum or culture supernatants, suggesting that too much editing of virion cDNA might impede completion of DNA synthesis...
  47. pmc Stably expressed APOBEC3F has negligible antiviral activity
    Eri Miyagi
    Viral Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 4, Room 310, 4 Center Drive MSC 0460, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 84:11067-75. 2010
    ..Surprisingly, however, neither wild-type nor deaminase-defective A3F inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. These results imply that the antiviral activity of endogenous A3F is negligible compared to that of A3G...
  48. doi Activation of the CMV-IE promoter by hyperthermia in vitro and in vivo: biphasic heat induction of cytosine deaminase suicide gene expression
    Dennis Kobelt
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rossle Str 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany
    Mol Biotechnol 46:197-205. 2010
    ..transfected SW480 human colon carcinoma cells (SW480/CMVCD), expressing CMV-IE promoter-driven bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) gene. These cells were heated at 42 degrees C...
  49. pmc Productive replication of Vif-chimeric HIV-1 in feline cells
    Melissa A Stern
    Guggenheim 1811A, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Virol 84:7378-95. 2010
    ..The results raise the possibility that the domestic cat could yield an animal model of HIV-1 infection...
  50. pmc Vif of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats protects against APOBEC3 restriction factors from many felids
    Jörg Zielonka
    Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Heinrich Heine University, Building 23 12 U1 87, Moorenstr 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Virol 84:7312-24. 2010
    ..We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor...
  51. pmc Restriction of porcine endogenous retrovirus by porcine APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases
    Eva Dörrschuck
    Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    J Virol 85:3842-57. 2011
    ..These results strongly imply that human and porcine A3s could inhibit PERV replication in vivo, thereby reducing the risk of infection of human cells by PERV in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation...
  52. pmc The activity spectrum of Vif from multiple HIV-1 subtypes against APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H
    Mawuena Binka
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    J Virol 86:49-59. 2012
    ....
  53. pmc An ancient history of gene duplications, fusions and losses in the evolution of APOBEC3 mutators in mammals
    Carsten Munk
    Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    BMC Evol Biol 12:71. 2012
    ..Further, the expression of A3 activity/ies shapes the way both viral and host genomes evolve...
  54. ncbi In vivo gene therapy for colon cancer using adenovirus-mediated, transfer of the fusion gene cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase
    G A Chung-Faye
    CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Gene Ther 8:1547-54. 2001
    Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) utilising cytosine deaminase (CD) converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has entered into a clinical trial for metastatic colon cancer...
  55. pmc Stem cells with fused gene expression of cytosine deaminase and interferon-β migrate to human gastric cancer cells and result in synergistic growth inhibition for potential therapeutic use
    Kyoung Yoon Kim
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea
    Int J Oncol 40:1097-104. 2012
    ..Suicide enzymes can convert non-toxic pro-drugs to toxic metabolites that can reduce tumor growth. Cytosine deaminase (CD) is a suicide enzyme that metabolizes a non-toxic pro-drug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), into the cytotoxic ..
  56. pmc Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian carcinomatosis using a replication-selective vaccinia virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase gene
    S Chalikonda
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 15:115-25. 2008
    ..In this study, we assessed the ability of a highly tumor-selective oncolytic vaccinia virus armed with a yeast cytosine deaminase gene to infect and lyse human and murine ovarian tumors both in vitro and in vivo...
  57. pmc Identification of specific determinants of human APOBEC3F, APOBEC3C, and APOBEC3DE and African green monkey APOBEC3F that interact with HIV-1 Vif
    Jessica L Smith
    Viral Mutation Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 84:12599-608. 2010
    ....
  58. ncbi Mechanisms of thymidine kinase/ganciclovir and cytosine deaminase/ 5-fluorocytosine suicide gene therapy-induced cell death in glioma cells
    Ute Fischer
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Oncogene 24:1231-43. 2005
    Suicide gene transfer using thymidine kinase (TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) treatment or the cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) system represents the most widely used approach for gene therapy of cancer...
  59. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif functionally interacts with diverse APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and moves with them between cytoplasmic sites of mRNA metabolism
    Mariana Marin
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
    J Virol 82:987-98. 2008
    ..Cytosolic APOBEC3-Vif complexes are predominantly bound to mRNAs that dynamically move between translationally active and storage or processing pools...
  60. pmc Myeloid differentiation and susceptibility to HIV-1 are linked to APOBEC3 expression
    Gang Peng
    Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4352, USA
    Blood 110:393-400. 2007
    ..Differences in promiscuity of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs can be defined, at least partly, by disparities in APOBEC expression, with implications for enhancing cellular defenses against HIV-1...
  61. ncbi Comparison of the differential context-dependence of DNA deamination by APOBEC enzymes: correlation with mutation spectra in vivo
    Rupert C L Beale
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
    J Mol Biol 337:585-96. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi Human neural stem cells target experimental intracranial medulloblastoma and deliver a therapeutic gene leading to tumor regression
    Seung Ki Kim
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 12:5550-6. 2006
    ....
  63. doi Targeted delivery of a suicide gene to human colorectal tumors by a conditionally replicating vaccinia virus
    J Foloppe
    Transgene SA, 11 rue de Molsheim, Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Gene Ther 15:1361-71. 2008
    ..vaccinia virus (VV) (Copenhagen strain) that expressed the fusion suicide gene FCU1 derived from the yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes...
  64. pmc The range of human APOBEC3H sensitivity to lentiviral Vif proteins
    Melody M H Li
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    J Virol 84:88-95. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate that human APOBEC3H is not as strong of a selective force for current HIV-1 infections as human APOBEC3G...
  65. ncbi The potential of 5-fluorocytosine/cytosine deaminase enzyme prodrug gene therapy in an intrahepatic colon cancer model
    M K Nyati
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0010, USA
    Gene Ther 9:844-9. 2002
    ..study was to develop a noninvasive intrahepatic tumor model to study the efficacy of 5-flucytosine/yeast cytosine deaminase (5FC/yCD)-based gene therapy for liver tumors...
  66. pmc Antiviral potency of APOBEC proteins does not correlate with cytidine deamination
    Kate N Bishop
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, UK
    J Virol 80:8450-8. 2006
    ..In other words, the antiviral phenotype of APOBEC proteins correlates with their ability to prevent the accumulation of reverse transcripts and not with the induction of hypermutation...
  67. ncbi Carcinoembryonic antigen-specific suicide gene therapy of cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine enhanced by the cre/loxP system in the orthotopic gastric carcinoma model
    K Ueda
    Second Department of Surgery, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, Wakayama 641-8510, Japan
    Cancer Res 61:6158-62. 2001
    ..In this study, the Cre/loxP system was first applied to augmentation of selective expression of the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene as a suicide gene therapy in CEA-producing cells...
  68. ncbi Cytotoxic effect of replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying L-plastin promoter regulated E1A and cytosine deaminase genes in cancers of the breast, ovary and colon
    Hakan Akbulut
    Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
    Cancer Gene Ther 10:388-95. 2003
    ..the construction of a new conditionally replication-competent bicistronic adenoviral vector in which the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the E1a gene are driven by the L-plastin tumor-specific promoter (AdLpCDIRESE1a)...
  69. ncbi Combination of cytosine deaminase with uracil phosphoribosyl transferase leads to local and distant bystander effects against RM1 prostate cancer in mice
    Aparajita Khatri
    Oncology Research Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital Clinical School of Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Gene Med 8:1086-96. 2006
    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT) using cytosine deaminase in combination with uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (CDUPRT) against intraprostatic mouse androgen-refractory prostate (RM1) ..
  70. pmc Cytosine deaminase as a negative selection marker for gene disruption and replacement in the genus Streptomyces and other actinobacteria
    Marie Pierre Dubeau
    Centre d étude et de valorisation de la diversité microbienne, Departement de Biologie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1211-4. 2009
    We developed a novel negative selection system for actinobacteria based on cytosine deaminase (CodA)...
  71. ncbi Antitumor effects and radiosensitization of cytosine deaminase and thymidine kinase fusion suicide gene on colorectal carcinoma cells
    De Hua Wu
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong Province, China
    World J Gastroenterol 11:3051-5. 2005
    ..To investigate the killing effect and radiosensitization of double suicide gene mediated by adenovirus on colorectal carcinoma cells...
  72. doi Human neural stem cells transduced with IFN-beta and cytosine deaminase genes intensify bystander effect in experimental glioma
    S Ito
    Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
    Cancer Gene Ther 17:299-306. 2010
    ..Human NSCs that were retrovirally transduced with cytosine deaminase (CD) gene showed remarkable 'bystander killer effect' on the glioma cells after application of the prodrug, ..
  73. ncbi KDR promoter can transcriptionally target cytosine deaminase suicide gene to cancer cells of nonendothelial origin
    J Szary
    Department of Molecular Biology, Center of Oncology, , Gliwice, Poland
    Anticancer Res 21:3471-5. 2001
    ..KDR promoter-driven cytosine deaminase gene can be efficiently expressed in these cells leading to sensitization to 5-fluorocytosine, as ..
  74. pmc Differences in APOBEC3G expression in CD4+ T helper lymphocyte subtypes modulate HIV-1 infectivity
    Michael L Vetter
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000292. 2009
    ....
  75. ncbi Optimization of tumor-targeted gene delivery by engineered attenuated Salmonella typhimurium
    Shaoping Mei
    Laboratory of Experimental Radiobiology LEO, U Z Gasthuisberg K U Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven
    Anticancer Res 22:3261-6. 2002
    ..Previous findings induce the necessity to optimize tumor selectivity and bacterial dosing in relation to tumor volume and intratumoral therapeutic gene expression...
  76. pmc Adenovirus-mediated hypoxia-targeting cytosine deaminase gene therapy enhances radiotherapy in tumour xenografts
    J Liu
    Department of Radiation Oncology and Image Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Br J Cancer 96:1871-8. 2007
    ..The aim of this study is to establish such a targeting strategy by applying a bacterial cytosine deaminase (BCD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) gene therapy system and to examine whether the strategy enhances the efficacy ..
  77. pmc Non-invasive 19F MR spectroscopy of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil conversion by recombinant Salmonella in tumours
    T Dresselaers
    Biomedical NMR Unit, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Br J Cancer 89:1796-801. 2003
    ..to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after using an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain recombinant to provide cytosine deaminase (TAPET-CD). The (19)F MRS measurements were done on mice bearing the human colon tumour xenograft (HCT116)...
  78. ncbi Strong enhancement of recombinant cytosine deaminase activity in Bifidobacterium longum for tumor-targeting enzyme/prodrug therapy
    Yoshinori Hamaji
    Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:874-83. 2007
    ..In addition, B. longum transformed with the shuttle-plasmid encoding the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene expressed active CD, which deaminated the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the anticancer agent ..
  79. pmc Cellular inhibitors of long interspersed element 1 and Alu retrotransposition
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8780-5. 2006
    ..These data suggest that the APOBEC3 protein family may have evolved, at least in part, to defend the integrity of the human genome against endogenous retrotransposons...
  80. pmc Differential sensitivity of murine leukemia virus to APOBEC3-mediated inhibition is governed by virion exclusion
    Brian P Doehle
    Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 79:8201-7. 2005
    ..Moreover, these results suggest that APOBEC3 proteins may help prevent the zoonotic infection of humans by simple retroviruses and provide a mechanism for how simple retroviruses can avoid inhibition by APOBEC3 family members...
  81. ncbi A zinc-binding region in Vif binds Cul5 and determines cullin selection
    Andrew Mehle
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:17259-65. 2006
    ..We propose that the HCCH zinc-binding motif facilitates Vif-Cul5 binding by playing a structural role in positioning hydrophobic residues for direct contact with Cul5...
  82. pmc Adaptive evolution and antiviral activity of the conserved mammalian cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H
    Molly OhAinle
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle 98109, USA
    J Virol 80:3853-62. 2006
    ..The consequences of the lack of antiviral activity of human APOBEC3H are likely to be relevant to the current-day abilities of humans to combat retroviral challenges...
  83. pmc Dual inhibitory effects of APOBEC family proteins on retrotransposition of mammalian endogenous retroviruses
    Cécile Esnault
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, CNRS UMR 8122 Institut, Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:1522-31. 2006
    We demonstrated previously that the cytosine deaminase APOBEC3G inhibits retrotransposition of two active murine endogenous retroviruses, namely intracisternal A-particles (IAP) and MusD, in an ex vivo assay where retrotransposition was ..
  84. ncbi APOBEC-mediated interference with hepadnavirus production
    Christine Rösler
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Hepatology 42:301-9. 2005
    ..In contrast to HIV and other retroviruses, however, APOBEC3G/3F-mediated editing of nucleic acids does not seem to represent an effective innate defense mechanism for hepadnaviruses...
  85. ncbi APOBEC4, a new member of the AID/APOBEC family of polynucleotide (deoxy)cytidine deaminases predicted by computational analysis
    Igor B Rogozin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, NLM, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA
    Cell Cycle 4:1281-5. 2005
    ..In mammals, APOBEC4 is expressed primarily in testis which suggests the possibility that it is an editing enzyme for mRNAs involved in spermatogenesis...
  86. pmc APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G mRNA levels do not correlate with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia or CD4+ T-cell count
    Soo Jin Cho
    Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Box 8124, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:2069-72. 2006
    ..003). However, we found no correlation in the abundance of either hA3F or hA3G mRNA with either viral load or CD4 counts in HIV-infected subjects...
  87. pmc Regulation of Apobec3F and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif by Vif-Cul5-ElonB/C E3 ubiquitin ligase
    Bindong Liu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 79:9579-87. 2005
    ..Developing inhibitors to disrupt the interaction between Vif and Cul5-E3 ligase could be therapeutically useful, allowing multiple host antiviral factors to suppress HIV-1...
  88. ncbi Fusion of the HSV-1 tegument protein vp22 to cytosine deaminase confers enhanced bystander effect and increased therapeutic benefit
    K C Lee
    Department of Biological Chemistry, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA
    Gene Ther 13:127-37. 2006
    ..The suicide gene cytosine deaminase (CD) and its substrate, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), have been extensively explored due to the inherent '..
  89. pmc Targeted cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide gene therapy induces small cell lung cancer-specific cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay
    Camilla L Christensen
    Department of Radiation Biology, The Finsen Center, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Clin Cancer Res 16:2308-19. 2010
    ..the therapeutic effect of transcriptionally targeted suicide gene therapy for SCLC based on the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) gene alone or fused with the yeast uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (YUPRT) gene followed by ..
  90. pmc Comparison of cellular ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with the APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G antiviral proteins
    Sarah Gallois-Montbrun
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King s College London School of Medicine, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:5636-42. 2008
    ..Thus, we define a number of subtle differences between the RNPs associated with A3F and A3G and speculate that these contribute to functional differences that have been described for these proteins...
  91. pmc Distinct domains within APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F interact with separate regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif
    Rebecca A Russell
    Viral Mutation Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    J Virol 83:1992-2003. 2009
    ..Pharmacological inhibition of either or both of these Vif-A3 interactions should prevent the degradation of the APOBEC3 proteins and could be used as a therapy against HIV-1...
  92. ncbi Interaction with 7SL RNA but not with HIV-1 genomic RNA or P bodies is required for APOBEC3F virion packaging
    Tao Wang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Mol Biol 375:1098-112. 2008
    ..Thus, in addition to its well-known function in SRPs, 7SL RNA, which is encapsidated into diverse retroviruses, also participates in the innate antiviral function of host cytidine deaminases...
  93. pmc Antiretroviral activity and Vif sensitivity of rhesus macaque APOBEC3 proteins
    Cesar A Virgen
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, 455 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Virol 81:13932-7. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that multiple APOBEC3 proteins can contribute to primate lentivirus species tropism...
  94. pmc Inhibition of alpharetrovirus replication by a range of human APOBEC3 proteins
    Heather L Wiegand
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 81:13694-9. 2007
    ..e., the base state of a naïve retrovirus is susceptibility to inhibition...
  95. pmc Induction of antiviral cytidine deaminases does not explain the inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by interferons
    Stephanie Jost
    School of Life Sciences and Frontiers in Genetics National Center for Competence in Research, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Virol 81:10588-96. 2007
    ..We conclude that these cytidine deaminases are not essential effectors of IFN in its action against this pathogen...
  96. doi Cytosine deaminase expressing human mesenchymal stem cells mediated tumour regression in melanoma bearing mice
    Lucia Kucerova
    Laboratories of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Research Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
    J Gene Med 10:1071-82. 2008
    ..Yeast fusion cytosine deaminase : uracil phosphoribosyltransferase expressing AT-MSC (CD y-AT-MSC) combined with systemic 5-fluorocytosine (..
  97. ncbi Inhibition of initiation of reverse transcription in HIV-1 by human APOBEC3F
    Yiliang Yang
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research and McGill AIDS Center, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Virology 365:92-100. 2007
    ....
  98. pmc Identification of two distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif determinants critical for interactions with human APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F
    Rebecca A Russell
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick, P O Box B, Bldg 535, Rm 334, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 81:8201-10. 2007
    ..Pharmacological interference with the Vif-A3G or Vif-A3F interactions could result in potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication by the APOBEC3 proteins...
  99. ncbi Hypoxia-induced cytosine deaminase gene expression for cancer therapy
    Che Hsin Lee
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Taiwan
    Hum Gene Ther 18:27-38. 2007
    ..targeted gene therapy of cancer, we constructed retroviral vectors harboring luciferase or Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) genes under the control of the hypoxia-inducible promoter...
  100. pmc APOBEC3G/3F mediates intrinsic resistance of monocyte-derived dendritic cells to HIV-1 infection
    Marjorie Pion
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital and Medical School of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 203:2887-93. 2006
    ..An increase in the A3G/3F-mediated intrinsic resistance of iDCs could result in a block of HIV infection at its mucosal point of entry...
  101. pmc Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes
    Carsten Munk
    Division of Medical Biotechnology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, 63225 Langen, Germany
    Genome Biol 9:R48. 2008
    ..While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene...

Research Grants76

  1. IMPROVING SUICIDE GENES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY
    Margaret Black; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..coli cytosine deaminase with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC)...
  2. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry L Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..collaborating laboratories are engineering and optimizing two nucleoside salvage/synthesis enzymes for PGT: cytosine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
  3. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna S Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..New results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the synergistic bystander killing with HSV-TK/GCV and cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-flucytosine (5- FC), a suicide gene model that produces the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil...
  4. Immunoglobulin Somatic Mutation
    Ursula Storb; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..5) Which mRNAs are modified by the cytidine deaminase, AID, in mutating B lymphocytes? The cytosine deaminase, AID, is required for SHM. The potential target mRNAs will be identified...
  5. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In this proposal, a collaboration of two laboratories propose to optimize the nucleoside salvage enzymes cytosine deaminase and deoxycytidine kinase for prodrug suicide gene therapy, using a combination of structural biology and ..
  6. Improved Suicide Gene Therapy for Hepatic Cancers
    William Ensminger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..generation of regional treatments for intrahepatic cancers using improved methods of delivery and forms of cytosine deaminase/5-flucytosine (CD/FC) in enzyme/prodrug gene therapy...
  7. Immunoglobulin Somatic Mutation
    Ursula Storb; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..5) Which mRNAs are modified by the cytidine deaminase, AID, in mutating B lymphocytes? The cytosine deaminase, AID, is required for SHM. The potential target mRNAs will be identified...
  8. Immunoglobulin Somatic Mutation
    Ursula Storb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..5) Which mRNAs are modified by the cytidine deaminase, AID, in mutating B lymphocytes? The cytosine deaminase, AID, is required for SHM. The potential target mRNAs will be identified...
  9. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..collaborating laboratories are engineering and optimizing two nucleoside salvage/synthesis enzymes for PGT: cytosine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
  10. OSTEOCLASTS AND BONE CANCER
    Denis Clohisy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..precursor) to survive the therapy and therefore provide extended expression of the therapeutic molecule cytosine deaminase. Our Preliminary Studies now show that lentiviral approach for gene delivery is operational in our hands and ..
  11. Engineering enzymes for anti-tumor suicide gene therapy
    Barry Stoddard; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..collaborating laboratories are engineering and optimizing two nucleoside salvage/synthesis enzymes for PGT: cytosine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
  12. OSTEOCLASTS AND BONE CANCER
    Denis R Clohisy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..precursor) to survive the therapy and therefore provide extended expression of the therapeutic molecule cytosine deaminase. Our Preliminary Studies now show that lentiviral approach for gene delivery is operational in our hands and ..
  13. OSTEOCLASTS AND BONE CANCER
    Denis Clohisy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..precursor) to survive the therapy and therefore provide extended expression of the therapeutic molecule cytosine deaminase. Our Preliminary Studies now show that lentiviral approach for gene delivery is operational in our hands and ..
  14. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..New results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the synergistic bystander killing with HSV-TK/GCV and cytosine deaminase (CD)/5- flucytosine (5-FC), a suicide gene model that produces the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil...
  15. IMPROVING SUICIDE GENES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY
    Margaret Black; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..coli or yeast cytosine deaminase (CD) with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC)...
  16. PET & MR QUANTITATIVE IMAGING OF TRANSGENE EXPRESSION
    Juri Gelovani; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Non-invasive imaging of cytosine deaminase (CD) gene expression in clinical cancer gene therapy trials with CD plus 5FC combination therapy would be of considerable value...
  17. Image-guided Prodrug and siRNA Targeting of Cancer
    Zaver M Bhujwalla; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..recently developed a prototype agent that allows us to visualize the delivery of a prodrug enzyme, bacterial cytosine deaminase, noninvasively with MRI and optical imaging...
  18. Image-Guided Pro-Drug/Enzyme Therapy
    Zaver Bhujwalla; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..For both vascular-targeted and vessel permeability based agents, cytosine deaminase (CD), the enzyme that converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil, will be conjugated to the ..
  19. T GONDII--PYRIMIDINE SYNTHESIS AS A CHEMOTHERAPY TARGET
    DAVID BZIK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In the second specific aim, the investigator will expand the parasite's salvage repertoire by expression of cytosine deaminase and thymidine kinase in T. gondii...
  20. Pharmacology of Targeted Therapy to Brain Tumors
    FRANCIS SZOKA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The question we will address is: will an optimized non-viral GDEPT protocol expressing yeast cytosine deaminase provide better therapy then a targeted liposome chemotherapy protocol in brain tumors? The hypothesis ..
  21. OSTEOCLASTS AND BONE CANCER
    Denis Clohisy; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The prodrug system selected is the cytosine deaminase/5 flourocytosine system...
  22. A Novel Mouse Model of Podocyte Injury
    Robert Spurney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the experiments, we will use the podocyte specific podocin promoter to target expression of the yeast enzyme cytosine deaminase (CD) to glomerular epithelial cells...
  23. A Novel Mouse Model of Podocyte Injury
    Robert Spurney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the experiments, we will use the podocyte specific podocin promoter to target expression of the yeast enzyme cytosine deaminase (CD) to glomerular epithelial cells...
  24. Structural Studies of Human APOBEC3G and HIV Vif
    Hiroshi Matsuo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Therefore, the major objectives of this research are to obtain a structural understanding of the DNA cytosine deaminase activity of APOBEC3G and of the APOBEC3G -Vif interaction...
  25. Targeted Prodrug Therapy of Liver Cancers
    MACUS KUO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of malarial circumsporozoite (CS) protein, a hepatocyte-specific targeting ligand, linked to bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD), a "suicide gene" product which catalyzes the synthesis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) from its prodrug 5-..
  26. Targeted Prodrug Therapy of Liver Cancers
    John Chan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the malarial circumsporozoite (CS) protein, a hepatocyte-specific targeting ligand, linked to the bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD), a suicidal gene product which catalyzes the production of 5-FU from its prodrug 5- fluorocytosine (5-..
  27. IN VIVO REPORTER SYSTEM FOR IMAGING GENE TRANSFER
    Kurt Zinn; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The developed gene therapy vector will include both the reporter hSSTr2 gene and a therapeutic gene (cytosine deaminase, CD), the reporter allowing in vivo imaging of targeted gene delivery...