Genomes and Genes
Summary: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Publications214 found, 100 shown here
- Small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels from mammalian brainM Kohler
Vollum Institute, L 474, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Road, Portland, OR 97201, USA J Maylie, Department of Obstetrics and Gyne
Science 273:1709-14. 1996..The channels that formed from the various subunits displayed differential sensitivity to apamin and tubocurare...
- Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels: molecular determinants and function of the SK familyMartin Stocker
Wellcome Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Nat Rev Neurosci 5:758-70. 2004....
- Modulators of small- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their therapeutic indicationsHeike Wulff
Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Curr Med Chem 14:1437-57. 2007..1-KCa2.3 (a.k.a. SK1-SK3) and the intermediate-conductance channel KCa3.1 (a.k.a. IKCa1). The apamin-sensitive KCa2 channels contribute to the medium afterhyperpolarization and are crucial regulators of neuronal ..
- Effects of bee venom peptidergic components on rat pain-related behaviors and inflammationY N Chen
Institute for Functional Brain Disorders and Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 1 Xinsi Road, Baqiao, Xi an 710038, PR China
Neuroscience 138:631-40. 2006..Among them, four active peptidergic components were characterized as apamin, mast-cell degranulating peptide (MCDP), phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-related peptide and melittin, respectively...
- Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel and recurrent ventricular fibrillation in failing rabbit ventriclesSu Kiat Chua
Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Division of Cardiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA
Circ Res 108:971-9. 2011..Fibrillation/defibrillation episodes in failing ventricles may be followed by action potential duration (APD) shortening and recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (SVF)...
- The Ca2+ activated SK3 channel is expressed in microglia in the rat striatum and contributes to microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in vitroLyanne C Schlichter
Genes and Development Division, Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2S8, Canada
J Neuroinflammation 7:4. 2010..The purpose of this study was to examine expression of KCNN3/SK3 in CNS microglia in vivo and in vitro, and to use an established in vitro model to determine if this channel contributes to the neurotoxic capacity of activated microglia...
- Characterization of an apamin-sensitive small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel in porcine coronary artery endothelium: relevance to EDHFM P Burnham
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
Br J Pharmacol 135:1133-43. 20021. The apamin-sensitive small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (SK(Ca)) was characterized in porcine coronary arteries. 2...
- Molecular identification and functional roles of a Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in human and mouse heartsYanfang Xu
Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
J Biol Chem 278:49085-94. 2003..Because of the marked differential expression of SK2 channels in the heart, specific ligands for Ca2+-activated K+ currents may offer a unique therapeutic opportunity to modify atrial cells without interfering with ventricular myocytes...
- Apamin-sensitive calcium-activated potassium currents (SK) are activated by persistent calcium currents in rat motoneuronsX Li
University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2S2, Canada
J Neurophysiol 97:3314-30. 2007..Spikes/AHPs were evoked with current injection or ventral root stimulation. Application of the SK channel blocker apamin completely eliminated the mAHP, which was not significantly different in chronic and acute spinal rats...
- Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels formed by the expression of rat SK1 and SK2 genes in HEK 293 cellsDavid C H Benton
Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
J Physiol 553:13-9. 2003..Co-expression of rSK1 with rSK2 also changed the channel pharmacology. The sensitivity of SK current to block by apamin was reduced approximately 16-fold from an IC50 of 94 pM (for SK2 alone) to 1.4 nM (for SK2 and SK1 together)...
- Bradykinin-induced, endothelium-dependent responses in porcine coronary arteries: involvement of potassium channel activation and epoxyeicosatrienoic acidsArthur H Weston
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, G38 Stopford Building, Manchester M13 9PT
Br J Pharmacol 145:775-84. 2005..of IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels using 10 microM TRAM-39 (2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,2-diphenylacetonitrile) plus 100 nM apamin (leaving an iberiotoxin-sensitive component), whereas the response to substance P was abolished...
- Regional differences in distribution and functional expression of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat brainClaudia A Sailer
Institute for Biochemical Pharmacology, University Innsbruck, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
J Neurosci 22:9698-707. 2002..Whole-cell recording showed a sharp segregation of apamin-sensitive SK current within the hippocampal formation, in agreement with the SK2 distribution, suggesting that SK2 ..
- Apamin-sensitive potassium current modulates action potential duration restitution and arrhythmogenesis of failing rabbit ventriclesYu Cheng Hsieh
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 6:410-8. 2013b>Apamin-sensitive K currents (I(KAS)) are upregulated in heart failure. We hypothesize that apamin can flatten action potential duration restitution (APDR) curve and can reduce ventricular fibrillation duration in failing ventricles.
- Heterogeneous upregulation of apamin-sensitive potassium currents in failing human ventriclesPo Cheng Chang
Division of Cardiology, Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indianapolis, IN
J Am Heart Assoc 2:e004713. 2013..This study goal is to test the hypothesis that subtype 2 of the small-conductance Ca(2+) activated K(+) (SK2) channel and apamin-sensitive K(+) currents (IKAS) are upregulated in failing human ventricles.
- Differential distribution of three Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel subunits, SK1, SK2, and SK3, in the adult rat central nervous systemM Stocker
Molekulare Biologie Neuronaler Signale, Max Planck Institut fur experimentelle Medizin, Gottingen, Germany
Mol Cell Neurosci 15:476-93. 2000..Our results reveal the functional role of SK channels with defined subunit compositions in some neurons and open the way to the identification of the molecular determinants of AHP currents in many brain regions...
- Crucial role of a shared extracellular loop in apamin sensitivity and maintenance of pore shape of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channelsKate L Weatherall
School of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:18494-9. 2011..The archetypical blocker apamin displays some selectivity between SK channel subtypes, with SK2 being the most sensitive, followed by SK3 and then ..
- SK2 and SK3 expression differentially affect firing frequency and precision in dopamine neuronsJ Deignan
Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Neuroscience 217:67-76. 2012..of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta are strongly influenced by the activity of apamin-sensitive small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels...
- Does small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel contribute to cardiac repolarization?Norbert Nagy
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
J Mol Cell Cardiol 47:656-63. 2009..A previous study reported a significant lengthening effect of apamin, a selective SK channel inhibitor, on the action potential duration in atrial and ventricular mouse cardiomyocytes ..
- Active K+ secretion through multiple KCa-type channels and regulation by IKCa channels in rat proximal colonWilliam J Joiner
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar Street, P O Box 208019, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 285:G185-96. 2003..In contrast, only partial inhibition was observed with the BK and SK channel inhibitors, iberiotoxin and apamin, respectively...
- Apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, through their selective coupling to voltage-gated calcium channels, are critical determinants of the precision, pace, and pattern of action potential generation in rat subthalamic nuNicholas E Hallworth
University of Tennessee, Anatomy and Neurobiology, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
J Neurosci 23:7525-42. 2003..from postnatal day 16 (P16)-P30 rats and held at 37 degrees C] and then treated with the SK KCa channel antagonist apamin or the SK KCa channel agonist 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone or the Cav channel antagonists w-omega-conotoxin GVIA (..
- Evidence for involvement of both IKCa and SKCa channels in hyperpolarizing responses of the rat middle cerebral arteryAlister J McNeish
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Stroke 37:1277-82. 2006....
- Apamin interacts with all subtypes of cloned small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channelsM Grunnet
Department of Medical Physiology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Pflugers Arch 441:544-50. 2001The purpose of the present study was to examine how apamin interacts with the three cloned subtypes of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (hSK1, rSK2 and rSK3)...
- Accumulation of cytoplasmic calcium, but not apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization current, during high frequency firing in rat subthalamic nucleus cellsMark Teagarden
Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
J Physiol 586:817-33. 2008..One of these is an apamin-sensitive calcium-dependent potassium current (SK)...
- Apamin modulates electrophysiological characteristics of the pulmonary vein and the Sinoatrial NodeWei Ta Chen
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan
Eur J Clin Invest 43:957-63. 2013..Blocking SK channels prolongs action potential (AP) duration and attenuate electrical remodelling. The effects of SK blocking on the pulmonary vein (PV) and the sinoatrial node (SAN) remain unclear...
- TEA- and apamin-resistant K(Ca) channels in guinea-pig myenteric neurons: slow AHP channelsFivos Vogalis
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
J Physiol 538:421-33. 2002..The ensemble averaged current had a similar time course to the current underlying the slow AHP. TEA- and apamin-resistant Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels were present in inside-out patches excised from AH neurons...
- Apamin-sensitive K+ currents mediate arachidonic acid-induced relaxations of rabbit aortaKathryn M Gauthier
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
Hypertension 43:413-9. 2004..001) or incubation with apamin (100 nmol/L, 26+/-7%; P<0.05) but not incubation with charybdotoxin (100 nmol/L, 41+/-5%)...
- Apamin induces early afterdepolarizations and torsades de pointes ventricular arrhythmia from failing rabbit ventricles exhibiting secondary rises in intracellular calciumPo Cheng Chang
Krannert Institute of Cardiology and the Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana Second Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Heart Rhythm 10:1516-24. 2013A secondary rise of intracellular Ca(2+) (Cai) and an upregulation of apamin-sensitive K(+) current (I(KAS)) are characteristic findings of failing ventricular myocytes...
- Characterization of an apamin-sensitive potassium current in suprachiasmatic nucleus neuronsK Teshima
Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, L606, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
Neuroscience 120:65-73. 2003..However, antagonists of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, apamin and d-tubocurarine, reduced the amplitude of the membrane afterhyperpolarization and inhibited the spike frequency ..
- SKCa and IKCa Channels, myogenic tone, and vasodilator responses in middle cerebral arteries and parenchymal arterioles: effect of ischemia and reperfusionMarilyn J Cipolla
Department of Neurology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
Stroke 40:1451-7. 2009....
- An apamin- and scyllatoxin-insensitive isoform of the human SK3 channelOliver H Wittekindt
Department of Applied Physiology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
Mol Pharmacol 65:788-801. 2004..The most obvious distinguishing feature of this new isoform was that whereas hSK3 was blocked by apamin (Kd=0.8 nM), scyllatoxin (Kd=2.1 nM), and d-tubocurarine (Kd=33...
- SK2 encodes the apamin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in the human leukemic T cell line, JurkatH Jager
Department of Applied Physiology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D 89081, Ulm, Germany
FEBS Lett 469:196-202. 2000..The cloned and native channels are voltage-independent, Ca(2+)-activated, apamin-sensitive, show an equivalent voltage-dependent Ba(2+) block and possess a similar ion selectivity...
- Postnatal expression of an apamin-sensitive k(ca) current in vestibular calyx terminalsFrances L Meredith
Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado at Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
J Membr Biol 244:81-91. 2011..b>Apamin, a selective blocker of SK-type calcium-activated K(+) channels, was tested on calyx afferent terminals isolated ..
- The precursors of the bee venom constituents apamin and MCD peptide are encoded by two genes in tandem which share the same 3'-exonM Gmachl
Institute of Molecular Biology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Salzburg
J Biol Chem 270:12704-8. 1995From a cDNA library prepared from venom glands of worker bees, clones encoding the precursors of apamin and MCD peptide have been isolated. The cDNAs are similar at the 5'-ends and identical in their 3'-regions...
- Calcium-dependent regulation of secretion in biliary epithelial cells: the role of apamin-sensitive SK channelsAndrew P Feranchak
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
Gastroenterology 127:903-13. 2004..We have identified a Ca 2+ -activated K + channel (SK2) in biliary epithelium that is inhibited by apamin. The purpose of the present studies was to define the role of SK channels in Ca 2+ -dependent cholangiocyte ..
- Ion-channel modulators: more diversity than previously thoughtSebastien Dilly
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and CIRM, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de l Hopital, 4000 Liege, Belgium
Chembiochem 12:1808-12. 2011..For instance, in K(Ca)2 (formerly SK) channels, the prototypic "blocker" apamin prevents conduction by an allosteric mechanism, while TRPV1 channels are prevented from closing by a tarantula ..
- Partial apamin sensitivity of human small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cellsT J Dale
Ion Channel Biology Group, Systems Research, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, SG1 2NY, UK
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 366:470-7. 2002The bee venom toxin apamin is an important drug tool for characterising small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels)...
- Characterisation of [(125)I]-apamin binding sites in rat brain membranes with HE293 cells transfected with SK channel subtypesK Finlayson
Fujisawa Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK
Neuropharmacology 41:341-50. 2001The pharmacology of [(125)I]-apamin binding sites was examined in rat cortical and hippocampal tissue and compared with membranes prepared from human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells transfected with SK channel subtypes hSK1, rSK2 and rSK3...
- Tuning the excitability of midbrain dopamine neurons by modulating the Ca2+ sensitivity of SK channelsHuifang Ji
Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
Eur J Neurosci 29:1883-95. 2009..adaptation and slowed spontaneous firing, effects attributable to an increase in the amplitude and duration of an apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization...
- Initial SAR studies on apamin-displacing 2-aminothiazole blockers of calcium-activated small conductance potassium channelsRobert G Gentles
Research and Development, Bristol Myers Squibb Co, 5 Research Parkway, Wallingford, CT 06492, USA
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:5316-9. 2008An initial SAR study on a series of apamin-displacing 2-aminothiazole K(Ca)2 channel blockers is described...
- Apamin produces selective improvements of learning in ratsO Deschaux
Centre d Etudes du Bouchet, DGA, Vert le Petit, France
Neurosci Lett 386:5-8. 2005The effect of apamin on learning was examined using two behavioral tasks where the animals were subjected to two trials separated by a 24h interval...
- Apamin induces plastic changes in hippocampal neurons in senile Sprague-Dawley ratsAlejandra Romero-Curiel
Laboratorio de Neuropsiquiatría, Instituto de Fisiologia, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, CP 72570, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico
Synapse 65:1062-72. 2011b>Apamin is a neurotoxin extracted from honey bee venom and is a selective blocker of small-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (SK)...
- SK channels and NMDA receptors form a Ca2+-mediated feedback loop in dendritic spinesThu Jennifer Ngo-Anh
Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
Nat Neurosci 8:642-9. 2005..Thus, blocking SK channels facilitates the induction of long-term potentiation by enhancing NMDAR-dependent Ca(2+) signals within dendritic spines...
- Memory processing and apamin induce immediate early gene expression in mouse brainC Heurteaux
Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 411 du CNRS, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 18:17-22. 1993..Injections of apamin, a bee venom neurotoxin that selectively blocks a class of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels and improves learning and ..
- Apamin improves spatial navigation in medial septal-lesioned miceS Ikonen
Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, University of Kuopio, Finland
Eur J Pharmacol 347:13-21. 1998We investigated the effects of acute i.p. injections of the Ca2+-dependent K+ channel blocker, apamin, on water maze spatial navigation, Y-maze and passive avoidance behavior in intact and medial septal-lesioned mice. Apamin 0.02, 0...
- Binding and toxicity of apamin. Characterization of the active siteC Labbe-Jullie
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UA 1179, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, Marseille, France
Eur J Biochem 196:639-45. 1991The structural features of apamin, a natural octadecapeptide from bee venom, enabling binding to its receptor and the expression of toxicity in mice, have been delineated by studying the effects on binding and toxicity of chemical ..
- The SK channel blocker apamin inhibits slow afterhyperpolarization currents in rat gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronesMasakatsu Kato
Department of Physiology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8602, Japan
J Physiol 574:431-42. 2006..It is reported that the SK channel blocker apamin (10 pm-100 nm) blocks a medium afterhyperpolarization current but not an I(sAHP)...
- Control of electrical activity in central neurons by modulating the gating of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channelsP Pedarzani
, , Germany
J Biol Chem 276:9762-9. 2001....
- Differential expression of the small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel SK3 is critical for pacemaker control in dopaminergic midbrain neuronsJ Wolfart
Medical Research Council, Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3TH, United Kingdom
J Neurosci 21:3443-56. 2001..This provides a cellular framework to understand the functional consequences of altered SK3 expression, a candidate disease mechanism for schizophrenia...
- Enhancement of apamin-sensitive medium afterhyperpolarization current by anandamide and its role in excitability control in cultured hippocampal neuronsWei Wang
Department of Physiology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No 13, Hangkong Road, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030, PR China
Neuropharmacology 60:901-9. 2011..Activation of apamin-sensitive, small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels, probably SK2 and SK3 as the immunofluorescence ..
- Inhibition of apamin-sensitive calcium dependent potassium channels facilitate the induction of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus in vitroT Behnisch
Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Project Group Neuropharmacology, Magdeburg, Germany
Neurosci Lett 253:91-4. 1998Using field potential recording in the CA1-region of rat hippocampal slices we investigated the effect of apamin; a specific antagonist of small conductive calcium activated potassium channels on long-term potentiation (LTP)...
- SK3 is an important component of K(+) channels mediating the afterhyperpolarization in cultured rat SCG neuronesR Hosseini
Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
J Physiol 535:323-34. 20011. Our aim was to identify the small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel(s) (SK) underlying the apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurones. 2...
- Apamin improves reference memory but not procedural memory in rats by blocking small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in an olfactory discrimination taskC Fournier
Laboratoire de Neurobiologie des Comportements, UMR 6562, , IBHOP, Traverse Susini, 13388 Marseille, Cedex 13, France
Behav Brain Res 121:81-93. 2001b>Apamin blocks SK channels responsible for long-lasting hyperpolarization following the action potential. Using an olfactory associative task, the effect of an intracerebroventricular 0...
- Differential effects of two blockers of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, apamin and lei-Dab7, on learning and memory in ratsBedel Mpari
Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, Neurobiologie des Processus Mnésiques, UMR 6149, CNRS Université de Provence, Marseille, France
J Integr Neurosci 4:381-96. 2005..e., apamin which recognizes SK2 and SK3 channels, and lei-Dab7 which binds SK2 channels only...
- Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel knock-out mice reveal the identity of calcium-dependent afterhyperpolarization currentsChris T Bond
Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
J Neurosci 24:5301-6. 2004..b>Apamin, which selectively suppresses a component of the mAHP, increases neuronal excitability and facilitates the ..
- Domain analysis of the calcium-activated potassium channel SK1 from rat brain. Functional expression and toxin sensitivityDieter D'Hoedt
Wellcome Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, U K
J Biol Chem 279:12088-92. 2004..In heterologous expression systems, SK2 and SK3 currents are blocked by the bee venom toxin apamin, just as well as the corresponding neuronal AHP currents...
- Effects of apamin on memory processing of hippocampal-lesioned miceS Ikonen
Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, University of Kuopio, P O Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland
Eur J Pharmacol 382:151-6. 1999We investigated the effects of acute i.p. injections of the Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel blocker, apamin, on water maze spatial navigation and radial arm maze performance in mice with partial hippocampal-lesions...
- Nitric oxide acts as a volume transmitter to modulate electrical properties of spontaneously firing neurons via apamin-sensitive potassium channelsLiana Artinian
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30302 4010, USA
J Neurosci 30:1699-711. 2010..Both effects of NO were mediated by inhibition of Ca-activated iberiotoxin- and apamin-sensitive K channels, but only inhibition of apamin-sensitive K channels fully mimicked all effects of NO on ..
- Allosteric block of KCa2 channels by apaminCedric Lamy
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 285:27067-77. 2010..They are characterized by their high sensitivity to the bee venom toxin apamin, but the mechanism of block is not understood. For example, apamin binds to both K(Ca)2.2 and K(Ca)2...
- Behavioral effects of apamin, a selective inhibitor of the SK(Ca)-channel, in mice and ratsF J van der Staay
CNS Research, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 23:1087-110. 1999b>Apamin, a highly selective and potent peptide that blocks the SK(Ca)-channels has been suggested to be a cognition enhancer...
- The pharmacology of hSK1 Ca2+-activated K+ channels expressed in mammalian cell linesM Shah
Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
Br J Pharmacol 129:627-30. 2000..In these cell types, hSK1 forms an apamin-sensitive channel with an IC(50) for apamin of 8 nM in HEK293 cells and 12 nM in COS-7 cells...
- Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels as targets of CNS drug developmentThomas Blank
Department of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Goettingen, Germany
Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 3:161-7. 2004..Peptide toxins such as apamin and scyllatoxin, as well as organic compounds such as quaternary salts of bicuculline, dequalinium, UCL 1684 and ..
- Development of action potentials and apamin-sensitive after-potentials in mouse vestibular nucleus neuronesM B Dutia
Department of Physiology, Medical School, Edinburgh, UK
Exp Brain Res 118:148-54. 1998..Immature type B cells had somewhat narrower spontaneous spikes that were followed by a delayed, apamin-sensitive AHP...
- Characterization of the outer pore region of the apamin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channel rSK2Heike Jäger
Department of Applied Physiology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Toxicon 43:951-60. 2004..Beside apamin, ScTX is a high affinity blocker of the SK2 channel, whereas CTX is unable to block current through SK2...
- Evidence for an apamin-sensitive, but not purinergic, component in the nonadrenergic noncholinergic relaxation of the rat gastric fundusDiego Currò
Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, L go F Vito, 1, I 00168 Rome, Italy
Br J Pharmacol 143:785-93. 2004..Pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (100 microM), apamin (0...
- P2Y1 receptors mediate apamin-sensitive and -insensitive inhibitory junction potentials in murine colonic circular smooth muscleYong Zhang
Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Unit, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 333:602-11. 2010..In most tissues this neurotransmission is apamin-sensitive, but recent studies in human colonic circular smooth muscle (CSM) suggest the presence of apamin-..
- Maurotoxin: a potent inhibitor of intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channelsN A Castle
Icagen Inc, Durham, North Carolina 27703, USA
Mol Pharmacol 63:409-18. 2003..Maurotoxin did inhibit (86)Rb efflux (IC(50), 45 nM) through, and (125)I-apamin binding (K(i), 10 nM) to SK channels in low ionic strength buffers (i.e...
- The noradrenergic inhibition of an apamin-sensitive, small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel in hypothalamic gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons: pharmacology, estrogen sensitivity, and relevance to the control of the reproductive axisE J Wagner
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299:21-30. 2001..The corresponding I(AHP) was sensitive to antagonism by CdCl2 (200 microM), apamin (0.3-1 microM), and dequalinium (3 microM)...
- A transiently expressed SK current sustains and modulates action potential activity in immature mouse inner hair cellsWalter Marcotti
School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
J Physiol 560:691-708. 2004..3 Ca(2+) channels in its activation. On the basis of its high sensitivity to apamin (K(D) 360 pM) it was identified as a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current (SK), probably SK2...
- An amino acid outside the pore region influences apamin sensitivity in small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channelsAndreas Nolting
Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 282:3478-86. 2007..The bee venom toxin apamin inhibits exclusively the three cloned SK channel subtypes (SK1, SK2, and SK3) with different affinity, highest for ..
- Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant womenBeata Modzelewska
Department of Biophysics, Medical University of Bialystok, ul, Mickiewicza 2A, 15 089 Bialystok, Poland
Reprod Biol Endocrinol 1:8. 2003..In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO - induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of ..
- Effects of intracellular stores and extracellular Ca(2+) on Ca(2+)-activated K(+) currents in mature mouse inner hair cellsWalter Marcotti
School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
J Physiol 557:613-33. 2004..This current was still present during superfusion of either IbTx (60 nm) or apamin (300 nm) but was abolished in Cs(+)-based intracellular solution or during superfusion of 5 mm TEA, suggesting the ..
- Role of apamin-sensitive k(ca) channels for reticulospinal synaptic transmission to motoneuron and for the afterhyperpolarizationLorenzo Cangiano
Department of Neuroscience, Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institute, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
J Neurophysiol 88:289-99. 2002..injection of 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA; fast Ca(2+) chelator), and by apamin (selective toxin for K(Ca) channels of the SK subtype)...
- Apamin-sensitive, small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels mediate cholinergic inhibition of chick auditory hair cellsW A Yuhas
Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA
J Comp Physiol A 185:455-62. 1999..The peptides apamin and charybdotoxin were used to distinguish the calcium-activated potassium channels involved in the acetylcholine ..
- K+ channels and the microglial respiratory burstR Khanna
Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 280:C796-806. 2001..The respiratory burst was markedly inhibited by blockers of SK2 (apamin) and SK4 channels (clotrimazole and charybdotoxin), and to a lesser extent, by the potent Kv1.3 blocker agitoxin-2.
- Fast, but not slow, effects of olivocochlear activation are resistant to apaminN Yoshida
Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
J Neurophysiol 85:84-8. 2001..We measured in vivo effects of apamin, a blocker of small-conductance (SK) K(Ca) channels, and charybdotoxin, a blocker of large-conductance K(Ca) ..
- Bicuculline methiodide potentiates NMDA-dependent burst firing in rat dopamine neurons by blocking apamin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ currentsS W Johnson
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
Neurosci Lett 231:13-6. 1997b>Apamin, a bee venom toxin which blocks a Ca2+-dependent K+ current, potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced burst firing in dopamine neurons...
- An intermediate conductance K+ channel in the cell membrane of mouse intestinal smooth muscleF Vogalis
Brockton West Roxbury VA Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 1400 VFW Parkway, Boston, MA 02132, USA
Biochim Biophys Acta 1371:309-16. 1998..IK channels were blocked by 2-5 mM external TEA and were sensitive to both charybdotoxin (100 nM) and apamin (500 nM)...
- Protease-activated receptors mediate apamin-sensitive relaxation of mouse and guinea pig gastrointestinal smooth muscleT M Cocks
Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Gastroenterology 116:586-92. 1999..The aim of this study was to determine if PAR-1 and PAR-2 mediate gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation and to clarify the underlying mechanisms...
- Chemical synthesis and structure-activity relationships of Ts kappa, a novel scorpion toxin acting on apamin-sensitive SK channelC Lecomte
Biochemistry Laboratory, CNRS UMR 6560, Faculty of Medicine North, Marseille, France
J Pept Res 54:369-76. 1999..kappa, was indistinguishable from the natural toxin when tested in vitro in competition assay with radiolabelled apamin for binding to rat brain synaptosomes (IC50 = 3 nM)...
- Cholinergic synaptic inhibition of inner hair cells in the neonatal mammalian cochleaE Glowatzki
The Center for Hearing Sciences, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Science 288:2366-8. 2000..The synaptic currents, as well as the inner hair cell's response to acetylcholine, are mediated by a nicotinic (alpha9-containing) receptor and result in the activation of small-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels...
- Differential modulation of respiratory neuronal discharge patterns by GABA(A) receptor and apamin-sensitive K(+) channel antagonismV Tonkovic-Capin
Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service, Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53295, USA
J Neurophysiol 86:2363-73. 2001..can also be produced by alterations in the amplitude of spike afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) mediated by apamin-sensitive small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels...
- Tamapin, a venom peptide from the Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) that targets small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and afterhyperpolarization currents in central neuronsPaola Pedarzani
Department of Physiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 277:46101-9. 2002..This toxin distinguished between the SK channels underlying the apamin-sensitive I(AHP) and the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels mediating the slow I(AHP) (sI(AHP)) in hippocampal neurons...
- Discrimination between subtypes of apamin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels by gallamine and a novel bis-quaternary quinolinium cyclophane, UCL 1530P M Dunn
Department of Pharmacology, University College London
Br J Pharmacol 117:35-42. 1996..were tested for their ability to block actions mediated by the small conductance, apamin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K+ (SKCa) channels in rat cultured sympathetic neurones and guinea-pig isolated ..
- Solution structure of apamin determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and distance geometryJ H Pease
Department of Chemistry, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720
Biochemistry 27:8491-8. 1988The solution structure of the bee venom neurotoxin apamin has been determined with a distance geometry program using distance constraints derived from NMR. Twenty embedded structures were generated and refined by using the program DSPACE...
- Emergence of intrinsic bursting in trigeminal sensory neurons parallels the acquisition of mastication in weanling ratsFrédéric Brocard
Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Paul Desmarais, C P 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
J Neurophysiol 96:2410-24. 2006..Lowering extracellular [Ca(2+)] increased both I(NaP) and probability of bursting. We suggest that these mechanisms underlie burst generation in mastication and that similar processes may be found in other motor pattern generators...
- Reduced hyperpolarization in endothelial cells of rabbit aortic valve following chronic nitroglycerine administrationNobuyoshi Kusama
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Kawasumi 1, Nagoya, Aichi 467 8601, Japan
Br J Pharmacol 146:487-97. 2005..ACh (0.03-3 microM) induced a hyperpolarization through activations of both apamin- and charybdotoxin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channels (K(Ca)) in rabbit AVECs...
- Combination of Ca2+ -activated K+ channel blockers inhibits acetylcholine-evoked nitric oxide release in rat superior mesenteric arteryE Stankevicius
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark
Br J Pharmacol 149:560-72. 2006..The present study investigated whether calcium-activated K+ channels are involved in acetylcholine-evoked nitric oxide (NO) release and relaxation...
- SK channel regulation of dendritic excitability and dendrodendritic inhibition in the olfactory bulbBrady J Maher
Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, 97239, USA
J Neurophysiol 94:3743-50. 2005..brain slices from PND 14-21 mice, long step depolarizations (100 ms) in the mitral cell soma evoked a cadmium- and apamin-sensitive outward SK current lasting several hundred milliseconds...
- Small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channels are expressed in pancreatic islets and regulate glucose responsesNatalia A Tamarina
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Diabetes 52:2000-6. 2003..The SK/IK channel-blockers apamin, dequalinium, and charybdotoxin caused increases in average [Ca(2+)](i) levels and in frequency of [Ca(2+)](i) ..
- Ca2+-activated K+-current density is correlated with soma size in rat vestibular-afferent neurons in cultureAgenor Limon
Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla, Mexico
J Neurophysiol 94:3751-61. 2005....
- Estrogen and the Ca2+-mobilizing agonist ATP evoke acute NO synthesis via distinct pathways in an individual human vascular endothelium-derived cellJian zhong Sheng
Smooth Muscle Research Group, Libin Cardiovascular Institute and Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 294:C1531-41. 2008..inhibited by the respective small-conductance and intermediate-conductance calcium- activated K+ channel blockers apamin and charybdotoxin...
- Acetylcholine and ATP hyperpolarize endothelium via activation of different types of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channelsS M Marchenko
A A Bogomolets Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev
Bull Exp Biol Med 134:422-4. 2002..It was hypothesized that ATP- and acetylcholine-activated Ca(2+)-signals are spatially separated and generated in plasma membrane regions with predominant localization of SK- and IR-channels, respectively...
- Effects of increased intracellular Cl- concentration on membrane responses to acetylcholine in the isolated endothelium of guinea pig mesenteric arteriesYoshimichi Yamamoto
Laboratory of Physiology, Nagoya City University School of Nursing, Mizuho ku, Nagoya, 467 8601, Japan
J Physiol Sci 57:31-41. 2007..The K(+) current was blocked by a combination of charybdotoxin and apamin and appears to result from the opening of IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels...
- 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (EBIO) suppresses epileptiform activity in in vitro hippocampusJulieta Garduño
Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Av Dr Arce 37, 28002 Madrid, Spain
Neuropharmacology 49:376-88. 2005....
- EDHF-mediated rapid restoration of hypotensive response to acetylcholine after chronic, but not acute, nitric oxide synthase inhibition in ratsKaushik M Desai
Department of Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
Eur J Pharmacol 546:120-6. 2006..determined in anesthetized rats before and after acute intravenous infusion of either L-NAME or a combination of apamin plus charybdotoxin that would selectively inhibit EDHF...
- Pharmacological evidence for the activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels by meloxicam in the formalin testMario I Ortiz
Área Académica de Medicina del Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81:725-31. 2005..However, local peripheral pretreatment of the paw with charybdotoxin and apamin (large- and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitors, respectively), 4-aminopyridine and ..
- Cellular target of voltage and calcium-dependent K(+) channel blockers involved in EDHF-mediated responses in rat superior mesenteric arteryP Ghisdal
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, , UCL 5410, Avenue Hippocrate, 54 - B 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium
Br J Pharmacol 134:1021-8. 2001..01 - 3 microM) was abolished by a combination of charybdotoxin (ChTX, 0.1 microM) plus apamin (Apa, 0.1 microM) and was inhibited by 68+/-6% (n=6) by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM). 3. ACh(0...
- Ca2+-dependent K+ channels from rat olfactory cilia characterized in planar lipid bilayersKaren Castillo
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile, PO Box 653, Santiago, Chile
FEBS Lett 579:1675-82. 2005..All four ciliary KCas were observed: The 16 pS channel, K0.5,Ca=40 microM and apamin-sensitive; the 30 and 50 pS channel, K0...
- Nitric oxide mediates abnormal responsiveness of thyroid arteries in methimazole-treated patientsJoaquin Ortega
Department of Surgery, Hospital Clínico Research Unit, University of Valencia, Spain
Eur J Endocrinol 152:551-6. 2005..We studied the intervention of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in mediating responses to acetylcholine in thyroid arteries from euthyroid and methimazole-treated (MT) patients...
- Contribution of Ca2+-activated K+ channels to hyperpolarizing after-potentials and discharge pattern in rat supraoptic neuronesW Greffrath
Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
J Neuroendocrinol 16:577-88. 2004..The sHAP and spike-frequency adaptation were blocked by cadmium, as well as by the SK channel antagonist apamin. The fHAP was attenuated by the BK channel antagonist iberiotoxin (IbTX), by the BK/IK channel antagonist ..
- A novel scorpion toxin blocking small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channelChen Qi Xu
Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China
Toxicon 43:961-71. 2004..BmSKTx1 selectively inhibited apamin-sensitive SK currents in RACC with Kd of 0.72 microM and Hill coefficient of 2.2...
- Optimization of KCa2 Channel Activators as Neuroscience Tools and Potential DrugsHeike Wulff; Fiscal Year: 2012..1-2.3 (= SK1-3) genes and are best known for underlying the apamin-sensitive medium afterhyperpolarization current (mAHP) in neurons...
- Endothelial Lipoxygenase Metabolites and Vascular ToneWILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013..It relax arteries, in part, by activating apamin-sensitive, small conductance, calcium-activated potassium (SKCa) channels and hyperpolarizing smooth muscle cells (..
- SK channels: Roles and mechanisms for dendritic excitability and plasticityJames G Maylie; Fiscal Year: 2012DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Apamin-sensitive small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) are implicated in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory, and blocking SK channels in vivo ..
- EICOSANOIDS, VASCULAR TONE AND BLOOD PRESSUREWILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2010..relaxations and hyperpolarizations that are blocked by LO inhibitors, high extracellular K ([K]o) and apamin. Thus, the endothelium-dependent relaxations and hyperpolarizations to ACh and AA are mediated by a LO metabolite ..
- Memory modulation by SK channelsROBERT WILLIAM STACKMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our preliminary findings indicate that the SK channel blocker, apamin enhances memory, while the SK channel activator, 1-EBIO impairs memory...
- Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic SK2 Channel FunctionMELISSA HERNANDEZ KELLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium activated potassium channels (SK channels) are widely expressed in the brain...
- Endothelial SK3 Channel Modulation of EDHF is Estrogen RegulatedMike T Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013..In response to cholinergic stimulation (e.g. acetylcholine, ACh), a transient elevation of [Ca^*]j activates apamin-sensitive, voltage-independent Ca^*-activated K"^ channels, SKS channels, which hyperpolarize the endothelial ..
- Pregnancy/NO Induced Changes in UAE Ca2+SignalingIan M Bird; Fiscal Year: 2013..Consistent with this, UAEC show sensitivity to antagonists of KCa function (Apamin and Tram34) with a resulting reduction in Ca2+ signaling...
- SK CHANNELS IN HYPEREXCITABLE SKELETAL MUSCLEJohn Adelman; Fiscal Year: 2001..The cellular hallmark of these conditions is the appearance of receptors for the peptide toxin apamin, a potent blocker of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels...
- Afterhyperpolarization in dopamine neurons, H2O2 and KATP channelsMarat Avshalumov; Fiscal Year: 2009..to the regulation of the frequency and pattern of spontaneous and evoked discharges and is mediated in part by apamin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channels...
- INFLUENCE OF ALPHA-HELICES ON THE FOLDING OF APAMINJeffrey Nelson; Fiscal Year: 1992..b>Apamin, a small bee venom protein which forms an alpha-helix on the C-terminal end and contains two disulfide bonds, will ..
- PEPTIDE AND PROBE MODULATION OF AQUEOUS DYNAMICSTheodore Krupin; Fiscal Year: 1993..The molecular probes amiloride (sodium transport inhibitor) and apamin (potassium transport inhibitor) will be investigated for their effect on intraocular pressure.
- STRATEGIES FOR DIRECTING DISULFIDE PAIRING IN PROTEINSGrayson Snyder; Fiscal Year: 1993..Experiments will evaluate factors contributing to folding of apamin and endothelin, two proteins with homologous cysteine positions but different sets of disulfides...
- CLONING/CHARACTERIZATING A MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY LOCUSLAURA RANUM; Fiscal Year: 2004..changes found in DM2 are part of a common pathway also affected in DM1; 5) to determine whether molecular changes affecting RNA splicing, CUG binding proteins, and apamin receptors are similar to those found in DM1.
- CNS DA NEURONS--CELLULAR BASIS OF PATTERNED ACTIVITYPaul Shepard; Fiscal Year: 2002..In the second specific aim, current and voltage clamp techniques will be used to test the hypothesis that an apamin-insensitive Ca2+-dependent conductance: (1) contributes to the hyperpolarization that terminates the plateau phase ..
- Ion Channel Regulation of Excitability in Immature BrainAnne E Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2010..For these studies we will focus on SK2 and the current that it underlies, the apamin-sensitive AHP...
- ETHANOL-NEUROTRANSMITTER INTERACTIONS IN BRAIN NEURONSMark Brodie; Fiscal Year: 2007..SK can be reduced by drugs like apamin or by depletion of intracellular calcium...
- SK channel modulation of hippocampal functionRebecca Hammond; Fiscal Year: 2004..Blocking SK channels with apamin abolishes the ImAHP and enhances neuronal excitability...
- Altered Accumbens Signaling Following Ethanol ExposureFREDERIC WOODWARD HOPF; Fiscal Year: 2010..Altered spike firing and dopamine signaling in the NAcb could significantly influence the behavioral contribution of the NAcb, and in this way facilitate the onset of relapse. ..
- OPIOID EFFECTS ON HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONAL EXCITABILITYMartin Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Spike After-Potentials of Oxytocin Cells in LactationRyoichi Teruyama; Fiscal Year: 2005..The specific aims of the application are to determine 1) what specific component of spike after-potentials (AHPs and DAP) is altered during lactation; 2) whether the responsive component is responsive to changes in the gonadal steroids. ..
- NEOSTRIATAL CHOLINERGIC INTERNEURONS FIRING PATTERNSCharles Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- NEURONAL ORGANIZATION OF BASAL GANGLIACharles Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2003..This latter will allow us to determine whether there is an actual mismatch between physiological and anatomical estimates of connectivity (i.e. non-functional synaptic connections). ..
- PHARMACOLOGICAL REGULATION OF DOPAMINE NEURONAL ACTIVITYSteven Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blockers as New Therapeutics for Multiple SclerosisHeike Wulff; Fiscal Year: 2007..Lay: In multiple sclerosis the immune system attacks proteins in the brain of afflicted patients. The aim of this study is to identify and test new drugs that can suppress the white blood cells that are invading the brain. ..
- SK Channel Openers as Therapeutics for Cerebellar AtaxiaHeike Wulff; Fiscal Year: 2007..Taken together these important proof-of-concept studies will help to determine whether SK channel openers constitute a new therapeutic approach to improve motor performance in dominant cerebellar ataxias. ..
- CRCNS: Phase resetting predicts synchronization in hybrid hippocampal circuitsCARMEN CASTRO CANAVIER; Fiscal Year: 2010..Bullock, M. Woodman), graduate and postgraduate levels. With respect to diversity, at least one of the principal trainees will be an underrepresented minority and one principal investigator is female. ..
- NERVE SPROUTING AND ELECTRICAL REMODELINGPeng Sheng Chen; Fiscal Year: 2003..These studies may lead to novel insights into the mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmogenesis after MI and may help develop new methods for arrhythmia control. ..
- Fibrillation and DefibrillationPeng Sheng Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies will provide us new insights into the mechanisms of VF and defibrillation, and help test the hypothesis that inhibition of SOICR is a novel approach to arrhythmia control. ..
- REPERFUSION EFFECTS ON CEREBRAL ARTERY FUNCTIONMarilyn Cipolla; Fiscal Year: 2003..Therefore, Aim 3 will investigate the effects of two types of thrombolytic agents (tissue-type and urokinase) on cerebral artery function, including myogenic processes. ..
- Experimental approaches to understanding the ENS and its disordersJames Galligan; Fiscal Year: 2006..This will help the attendees develop a network of professional contacts who can help the young investigator in the career development process. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Regulation of Vascular Tone During CirrhosisETHAN CARTER; Fiscal Year: 2003..This project will not only define the cellular basis for hepatopulmonary syndrome, but will also contribute to our understanding of how pulmonary vascular tone is controlled at the most basic level. ..
- SECRETORY FUNCTION OF PANCREATIC DUCT CELLSToan Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2003..b) characterize the vectorial release of ATP release from PDEC (autocrine action) c) study the effect of mast cell degranulation, resulting in ATP release, on PDEC secretion (paracrine action). ..
- Local Circuit Properties Underlying Cortical PlasticityPETER HICKMOTT; Fiscal Year: 2004..These data will provide specific evidence for possible roles for changes in excitation and inhibition during cortical reorganization, and possible anatomical and mechanistic correlates for the changes. ..
- Regulation of Pulmonary Vascular Tone During CirrhosisCHRYSTELLE GARAT CARTER; Fiscal Year: 2004..This project will not only define the cellular basis for hepatopulmonary syndrome, but will also contribute to our understanding of how pulmonary vascular tone is controlled at the most basic level. ..
- Mechanisms of uterine vascular adaptation in pregnancyNatalia Gokina; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- AVIAN VASCULAR FUNCTIONHiroko Nishimura; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed projects will be supported by five distinguished consultants. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- FUNCTIONAL REGENERATION OF LOCOMOTOR COMMAND NEURONSANDREW MCCLELLAN; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Firing Pattern in Midbrain Dopamine NeuronsCARMEN CANAVIER; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- PRESYNAPTIC MECHANISMS IN THE INTESTINEJames Galligan; Fiscal Year: 2008..It is also anticipated that these studies will identify new targets for drugs that can be used to treat GI motility disorders. ..
- Cerebral Arteriole Function during Hyperglycemic StrokeMarilyn Cipolla; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Endothelial Function in the Cerebral CirculationFrank Faraci; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies should provide new insight into mechanisms of cerebral vascular protection during hypertension. ..
- TRPM4 Channels in the Control of Cerebral Artery ToneScott Earley; Fiscal Year: 2005..It is anticipated that these studies will generate significant new information regarding the role of mechanosensitive cation channels in the regulation of VSM membrane potential and the regulation of cerebral blood flow. ..
- Forebrain-Cerebellar Interaction During LearningJohn Disterhoft; Fiscal Year: 2008..The data gathered here will also be useful for understanding and treating deficits in learning and memory in young and aging persons. ..
- Regulation and actions of NO in the cardiac plexusJEAN HARDWICK; Fiscal Year: 2005..In particular, it will provide important information concerning the regulation and of NO in the control of cardiac function. ..