antivenins

Summary

Summary: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Snake bite
    David A Warrell
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Lancet 375:77-88. 2010
  2. pmc Confronting the neglected problem of snake bite envenoming: the need for a global partnership
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    PLoS Med 3:e150. 2006
  3. ncbi Pharmacological characterization and neutralization of the venoms used in the production of Bothropic antivenom in Brazil
    Kyoko U Camey
    Divisão de Imunobiológicos, Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, 30510 010, MG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Toxicon 40:501-9. 2002
  4. ncbi In vitro neuromuscular activity of snake venoms
    Wayne C Hodgson
    Department of Pharmacology, Monash Venom Group, PO Box 13E, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:807-14. 2002
  5. ncbi Antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenomings: the road ahead
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose
    Biologicals 39:129-42. 2011
  6. pmc A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e38739. 2012
  7. pmc Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    H Asita de Silva
    Clinical Trials Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
    PLoS Med 8:e1000435. 2011
  8. ncbi Proteomic tools against the neglected pathology of snake bite envenoming
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jaime Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Expert Rev Proteomics 8:739-58. 2011
  9. ncbi Snake venomics and antivenomics: Proteomic tools in the design and control of antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenoming
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    J Proteomics 72:165-82. 2009
  10. ncbi Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    J Proteome Res 9:528-44. 2010

Detail Information

Publications264 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Snake bite
    David A Warrell
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Lancet 375:77-88. 2010
    ..To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming...
  2. pmc Confronting the neglected problem of snake bite envenoming: the need for a global partnership
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    PLoS Med 3:e150. 2006
  3. ncbi Pharmacological characterization and neutralization of the venoms used in the production of Bothropic antivenom in Brazil
    Kyoko U Camey
    Divisão de Imunobiológicos, Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, 30510 010, MG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Toxicon 40:501-9. 2002
    ..Results indicate that the Brazilian antivenom prepared at FUNED against Bothrops snakes is effective in neutralizing the main toxic effects of Bothrops venoms...
  4. ncbi In vitro neuromuscular activity of snake venoms
    Wayne C Hodgson
    Department of Pharmacology, Monash Venom Group, PO Box 13E, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:807-14. 2002
    ..They will continue to play a role in further elucidating the mechanism of action of these highly potent toxins. Further study of these toxins may provide more highly specific research tools or lead compounds for pharmaceutical agents...
  5. ncbi Antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenomings: the road ahead
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose
    Biologicals 39:129-42. 2011
    ..These tasks demand cooperative efforts at all main stages of antivenom development and production, and need concerted international partnerships between key stakeholders...
  6. pmc A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e38739. 2012
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions...
  7. pmc Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    H Asita de Silva
    Clinical Trials Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
    PLoS Med 8:e1000435. 2011
    ..We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
  8. ncbi Proteomic tools against the neglected pathology of snake bite envenoming
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jaime Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Expert Rev Proteomics 8:739-58. 2011
    ..Antivenomics and venom phenotyping may also contribute to expand the clinical range of currently existing antidotes...
  9. ncbi Snake venomics and antivenomics: Proteomic tools in the design and control of antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenoming
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    J Proteomics 72:165-82. 2009
    ..Snake venomics might be also helpful in designing alternative in vitro tests for the assessment of antivenom efficacy that would eventually substitute current in vivo tests...
  10. ncbi Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    J Proteome Res 9:528-44. 2010
    ..simus envenomations. The identification of evolutionary trends among tropical Crotalus, as reported here, may have an impact in defining the mixture of venoms for immunization to produce an effective pan-American anti-Crotalus antivenom...
  11. ncbi Utility of scorpion antivenin vs prazosin in the management of severe Mesobuthus tamulus (Indian red scorpion) envenoming at rural setting
    H S Bawaskar
    Bawaskar Hospital and Research Center, Mahad, Dist Raigad Maharashtra, India 402 301
    J Assoc Physicians India 55:14-21. 2007
    ..We compared the effects of SAV Vs Prazosin (PRA) in the management of severe scorpion stung cases at rural setting in a non-randomised open label manner...
  12. ncbi Bites of venomous snakes
    Barry S Gold
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201 1539, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:347-56. 2002
  13. ncbi Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism
    Vitelbina Núñez
    Programa de Ofidismo Escorpionismo, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 1226, Colombia Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 1226, Colombia
    J Proteomics 73:57-78. 2009
    ..The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil...
  14. ncbi Snakebite envenoming from a global perspective: Towards an integrated approach
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 56:1223-35. 2010
    ....
  15. ncbi Epidemiology of scorpionism: a global appraisal
    J P Chippaux
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Unité de recherche Santé de la mère et de l enfant en milieu tropical, La Paz, Bolivia
    Acta Trop 107:71-9. 2008
    ..27%). Although adults are more often concerned, children experience more severe envenomations and among them, mortality is higher. Improvement of therapeutic management would reduce the lethality very significantly...
  16. ncbi [Understanding snake venoms: 50 years of research in Latin America]
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Rev Biol Trop 50:377-94. 2002
    ..Toxinology has become a fruitful and stimulating research field in Latin America which has contributed to a better understanding of snake venoms as well as to an improved management of snake bitten patients...
  17. ncbi Venoms, venomics, antivenomics
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, C S I C, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    FEBS Lett 583:1736-43. 2009
    ..Further, the high degree of target specificity makes toxins valuable scaffolds for drug development...
  18. ncbi Ending the drought: new strategies for improving the flow of affordable, effective antivenoms in Asia and Africa
    David J Williams
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, 3010, Australia
    J Proteomics 74:1735-67. 2011
    ....
  19. ncbi Trends in snakebite envenomation therapy: scientific, technological and public health considerations
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Curr Pharm Des 13:2935-50. 2007
    ..A global partnership, involving many participants and combining scientific, technological and public health actions, is required to achieve a leap forward in the treatment of snakebite envenomations world-wide...
  20. ncbi Inhibitors of snake venoms and development of new therapeutics
    Elda E Sanchez
    Natural Toxins Research Center, College of Arts and Sciences, Texas A and M University Kingsville, Kingsville, Texas, USA
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 30:647-78. 2008
    ..The biomedical value of these natural inhibitors can lead to the development of new therapeutics for an assortment of diseases as well as contributing to efficient antivenoms for the treatment of ophidic accidents...
  21. ncbi Second generation snake antivenomics: comparing immunoaffinity and immunodepletion protocols
    Davinia Pla
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain
    Toxicon 60:688-99. 2012
    ..These features contribute to the generalization, economy and reproducibility of the method...
  22. ncbi Preclinical assessment of the neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in six Latin American countries against medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms
    A Segura
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 56:980-9. 2010
    ....
  23. ncbi An open, randomized comparative trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of envenoming by Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia russelii russelii)
    C A Ariaratnam
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:74-80. 2001
    ..The safety of this larger dose is the subject of further studies...
  24. ncbi Clinical effects of red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenoming and correlation with venom concentrations: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-11)
    Andrew Churchman
    Emergency Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 193:696-700. 2010
    ..To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings in patients with definite red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) bites, including correlation with results of venom assays...
  25. pmc Antivenomic assessment of the immunological reactivity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP, an antivenom for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa
    Juan J Calvete
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, C S I C, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:1194-201. 2010
    ....
  26. ncbi A new Pan African polyspecific antivenom developed in response to the antivenom crisis in Africa
    G D Laing
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    Toxicon 42:35-41. 2003
    ..This new antivenom, and a similar product being manufactured in Costa Rica, are now candidates for clinical testing at an appropriate site in Africa...
  27. ncbi Antivenoms for snakebite envenomings
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 10:369-80. 2011
    ....
  28. ncbi Snake venoms and coagulopathy
    Julian White
    Toxinology Dept, Women s and Children s Hospital, North Adelaide SA 5006, Australia
    Toxicon 45:951-67. 2005
    ....
  29. ncbi Clinical trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of Bothrops and Lachesis bites in the north eastern Amazon region of Brazil
    Pedro Pereira de Oliveira Pardal
    Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Belém Pará, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:28-42. 2004
    ..EIA also revealed that one patient had been bitten by Lachesis muta, although the clinical features in this case were not distinctive...
  30. ncbi Contribution of mast cells to the oedema induced by Bothrops moojeni snake venom and a pharmacological assessment of the inflammatory mediators involved
    Neide Galvão Nascimento
    Laboratory of Pharmacology, Butantan Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Toxicon 55:343-52. 2010
    ..Partial neutralization of oedema was observed even when polyspecific bothropic antivenom was injected immediately after venom...
  31. ncbi Stability, distribution and use of antivenoms for snakebite envenomation in Latin America: report of a workshop
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 53:625-30. 2009
    ..It was concluded that, in addition to the fostering of antivenom production and quality control, renewed efforts should be implemented at improving the stability, distribution and correct use of antivenoms in the region...
  32. ncbi Efficacy of antivenom against the procoagulant effect of Australian brown snake (Pseudonaja sp.) venom: in vivo and in vitro studies
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Tropical Toxinology Unit, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NSW, Australia
    Toxicon 49:57-67. 2007
    ..One vial of antivenom appears to be sufficient to bind and neutralise all venom in patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  33. ncbi Failure of antivenom to improve recovery in Australian snakebite coagulopathy
    G K Isbister
    Tropical Toxinology Unit, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
    QJM 102:563-8. 2009
    ..Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is an important feature of snake envenoming...
  34. ncbi Antivenom dosing in 35 patients with severe brown snake (Pseudonaja) envenoming in Western Australia over 10 years
    Justin M Yeung
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA
    Med J Aust 181:703-5. 2004
    ..To investigate the doses of antivenom administered to adult patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  35. ncbi Antivenom use, premedication and early adverse reactions in the management of snake bites in rural Papua New Guinea
    David J Williams
    School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    Toxicon 49:780-92. 2007
    ..To examine antivenom use, premedication, early adverse reactions and patient outcomes after snake bite in rural Papua New Guinea...
  36. ncbi Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale and H. nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom
    C A Ariaratnam
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, No 25 Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1120-6. 2008
    ..In Sri Lanka and southwestern India where bites by these snakes are common, the only available antivenoms (raised against cobra, krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper venoms) are ineffective and carry a high risk of reactions...
  37. ncbi Endogenous thrombin potential as a novel method for the characterization of procoagulant snake venoms and the efficacy of antivenom
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicon 56:75-85. 2010
    ..ETP is a useful assay to investigate mechanisms of other procoagulant venoms and is a robust method of assessing antivenom efficacy...
  38. pmc Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bite in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka: a prospective clinical study, 1996-98
    S A M Kularatne
    General Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
    Postgrad Med J 78:276-80. 2002
    ..Sixteen (7.6%) patients died and a submucosal haemorrhage in the stomach was seen at necropsy in three cases. Mortality could be minimised with early and free access to mechanical ventilation...
  39. ncbi Snakes of medical importance in India: is the concept of the "Big 4" still relevant and useful?
    Ian D Simpson
    WHO Snakebite Treatment Group
    Wilderness Environ Med 18:2-9. 2007
    ..It should be replaced by the model introduced in the 1980s by the World Health Organization, which has not received adequate circulation and implementation...
  40. ncbi Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is efficacious for envenomations by Southern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus helleri)
    Sean P Bush
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Medical Center and Children s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 40:619-24. 2002
    ..We assessed the efficacy of FabAV for patients with confirmed C helleri envenomation...
  41. pmc Efficacy and safety of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin compared with prazosin alone for venomous scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) sting: randomised open label clinical trial
    Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar
    Bawaskar Hospital and Research Centre, Mahad, Dist Raigad, Maharashtra, India 402301
    BMJ 342:c7136. 2011
    ..We assessed the efficacy of prazosin combined with scorpion antivenom, compared with prazosin alone, in individuals with autonomic storm caused by scorpion sting...
  42. ncbi Neutralization of four Peruvian Bothrops sp. snake venoms by polyvalent antivenoms produced in Perú and Costa Rica: preclinical assessment
    Ermila Rojas
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Acta Trop 93:85-95. 2005
    ..venoms from Perú and Costa Rica, and that both antivenoms are effective in the neutralization of these four venoms in a rodent model of envenoming...
  43. ncbi Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum
    S Kulawickrama
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Queensland, Australia
    Toxicon 55:1510-8. 2010
    ..The use of biotinylation and the antivenom difference method in venom EIA produces a highly sensitive assay that will be useful for determining antivenom dose, forensic and clinical diagnosis...
  44. ncbi Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12)
    G K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Australia
    Toxicon 58:634-40. 2011
    ..envenoming. Based on in vitro studies reported here, patients may be treated with one vial of TSAV, although one vial of brown snake antivenom may also be sufficient...
  45. ncbi Snakebite in tropical Australia: a prospective study in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory
    Bart J Currie
    Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT
    Med J Aust 181:693-7. 2004
    ..To describe the epidemiology of snakebite in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory, and the envenoming syndromes of individual snake species...
  46. ncbi Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom
    Robert Cannon
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 51:407-11. 2008
    ..Brentwood, TN) was introduced in 2001, and early studies reported a hypersensitivity reaction rate up to 19%. We describe the incidence of acute hypersensitivity reactions to FabAV in patients bitten by rattlesnakes...
  47. ncbi Two cases of rattlesnake envenomation with delayed coagulopathy
    Michael A Miller
    Ann Emerg Med 39:348. 2002
  48. ncbi A randomized multicenter trial of crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom for the treatment for crotaline snakebite in the United States
    R C Dart
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, 1010 Yosemite Cir, Denver, CO 80230, USA
    Arch Intern Med 161:2030-6. 2001
    ..We compared the efficacy and safety of 2 dosing regimens with a new antivenom, Crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (Fab AV)...
  49. pmc Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming in Nigeria
    Isa S Abubakar
    Department of Community Medicine, Bayero University of Kano, Kano, Nigeria
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e767. 2010
    ..In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358)...
  50. ncbi Bites in Australian snake handlers--Australian snakebite project (ASP-15)
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah NSW 2298, Australia
    QJM 105:1089-95. 2012
    ..Snakebites in snake handlers are an important clinical problem that may differ to bites in the general population...
  51. ncbi The antisnake venom activities of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) stem bark extract
    I U Asuzu
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
    Toxicon 42:763-8. 2003
    ..5 mg/kg of E. ocellatus and N. nigricollis venoms, respectively. It, however, protected 40% of the mice from death caused by E. ocellatus venom after the extract and venom were pre-incubated for 30 min before injecting the mixture...
  52. ncbi Snakebite envenoming in Kerala, South India: clinical profile and factors involved in adverse outcomes
    N Suchithra
    Department of Medicine, Kottayam Medical College, Kerala, South India 686008
    Emerg Med J 25:200-4. 2008
    ..Snakebite envenoming is an important medical emergency in Kerala, but the factors leading to complications have not been well studied...
  53. ncbi Human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration
    Patrick Crocker
    Dell Children s Medical Center of Central Texas, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 28:871-9. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration...
  54. ncbi Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies
    S Meenatchisundaram
    Department of Microbiology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, India
    Int Immunopharmacol 8:1067-73. 2008
    ..The results indicate that antibodies raised in chicken could effectively neutralize the pharmacological effects induced by venoms and chickens therefore present an alternative and cheaper source of specific antibody generation...
  55. ncbi Analysis of camelid IgG for antivenom development: Immunoreactivity and preclinical neutralisation of venom-induced pathology by IgG subclasses, and the effect of heat treatment
    Darren A N Cook
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    Toxicon 56:596-603. 2010
    ..The immunoreactivity of the heavy and light chain, IgG1 subclass, was markedly more vulnerable to extreme heat treatment than the heavy chain-only IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses...
  56. ncbi Characterization of a new polyvalent antivenom (Antivipmyn Africa) against African vipers and elapids
    Blanca Ramos-Cerrillo
    Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av Universidad 2001, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico
    Toxicon 52:881-8. 2008
    ..The criteria for its design are discussed, particularly in terms of the implementation of realistic public health policies targeting mostly rural populations in the continent...
  57. ncbi Effects of Mucuna pruriens extract on activation of prothrombin by Echis carinatus venom
    R Guerranti
    Institute of Biochemistry and Enzymology, University of Siena, Via A Moro, 53100, Siena, Italy
    J Ethnopharmacol 75:175-80. 2001
    ..Here the effect of an extract of MP101UJ in prothrombin activation by EV in vitro by clotting and chromogenic assay is studied. An increase in procoagulant activity was found. This could explain the protective effect in vivo...
  58. pmc Crotaline snake bite in the Ecuadorian Amazon: randomised double blind comparative trial of three South American polyspecific antivenoms
    Roger Smalligan
    Hospital Vozandes del Oriente, Shell, Pastaza, Ecuador
    BMJ 329:1129. 2004
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of three polyspecific antivenoms for bites by pit vipers...
  59. ncbi Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: from the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 69:168-79. 2013
    ..International projects involving participants of manufacturing, quality control and academic research groups should be promoted in order to gain a deeper understanding on the preclinical neutralizing spectrum of antivenoms...
  60. ncbi Bringing antivenoms to Sub-Saharan Africa
    Roberto P Stock
    Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México IBt UNAM Av Universidad 2001, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico
    Nat Biotechnol 25:173-7. 2007
    ..To reduce unacceptably high death rates from snakebite envenomation, sub-Saharan Africa must adopt not only a new generation of multivalent biotech antivenoms, but also an infrastructure to deliver them...
  61. ncbi An in vivo but insensate model for the evaluation of antivenoms (ED(50)) using fertile hens' eggs
    P G Sells
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, L3 5QA, Liverpool, UK
    Toxicon 39:665-8. 2001
    ..Use of the egg ED(50) test would substantially reduce both the numbers of experimental animals required and also the considerable costs involved in delivering improved clinical treatment of snakebite...
  62. ncbi Rediscovery of severe saw-scaled viper (Echis sochureki) envenoming in the Thar desert region of Rajasthan, India
    D K Kochar
    S P Medical College Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
    Wilderness Environ Med 18:75-85. 2007
    ..Clinical information is reported on 12 victims bitten by definitively identified E sochureki, and 2 clinical cases are described in greater detail to illustrate the severity of envenoming by this snake...
  63. ncbi Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Neutralisation of venom-induced pathology
    Darren A N Cook
    Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, United Kingdom
    Toxicon 56:373-80. 2010
    ..ocellatus but not against that of B. arietans and N. nigricollis venoms. No direct correlation was evident between either camel IgG relative avidity or titre and the effectiveness of venom neutralisation in preclinical assays...
  64. ncbi Snakes of medical significance in India: the first reported case of envenoming by the Levantine viper (Macrovipera lebetina)
    Lekh R Sharma
    Indian Army Medical Corps
    Wilderness Environ Med 19:195-8. 2008
    ..Continuing attention to preserving dead snakes brought with the victim for reliable identification remains a high priority...
  65. ncbi Interspecific variation in venom composition and toxicity of Brazilian snakes from Bothrops genus
    Giselle Pidde Queiroz
    Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Av Prof Vital Brazil, 1500, CEP 05503 900, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Toxicon 52:842-51. 2008
    ..These suggest that for the preparation of a fully effective therapeutic anti-bothropic serum, other venoms should be included in the immunization mixture...
  66. ncbi Efficacy and safety of two whole IgG polyvalent antivenoms, refined by caprylic acid fractionation with or without beta-propiolactone, in the treatment of Bothrops asper bites in Colombia
    Rafael Otero
    Programa de Ofidismo Escorpionismo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:1173-82. 2006
    ..A further dose of antivenom at 6 h also did not guarantee resolution of coagulopathy within 12-24 h in all patients. The incidence of early adverse reactions (all mild) was similar for both antivenoms (15% and 24%; P>0.05)...
  67. ncbi Species-dependent variations in the in vitro myotoxicity of death adder (Acanthophis) venoms
    Janith C Wickramaratna
    Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Toxicol Sci 74:352-60. 2003
    ..praelongus, A. rugosus, and A. wellsi venoms (50 microg/ml; n=4-7). In conclusion, clinicians may need to be mindful of possible myotoxicity following envenomations by A. praelongus, A. rugosus, A. sp. Seram, and A. wellsi species...
  68. ncbi Human anti-snake venom IgG antibodies in a previously bitten snake-handler, but no protection against local envenoming
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicon 55:646-9. 2010
    ..However, despite the presence of antibodies to death adder venom and free venom not being detected, the patient still developed significant local myotoxicity...
  69. ncbi Classification of clinical consequences of scorpion stings: consensus development
    Asmae Khattabi
    Poison Control and Pharmacovigilance Centre of Morocco, rue Lamfadel Cherkaoui, Madinate al Irfane, Rabat Institut, Rabat, Morocco
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:364-9. 2011
    ..These consensus-based tools should facilitate development of international clinical studies...
  70. ncbi Envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus): a series of confirmed cases
    Melissa Gan
    Emergency Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
    Med J Aust 191:183-6. 2009
    ..To describe demographic, geographical and clinical features of envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (RSS) (Tropidechis carinatus)...
  71. ncbi Antivenom efficacy or effectiveness: the Australian experience
    Geoffrey K Isbister
    Department of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    Toxicology 268:148-54. 2010
    ....
  72. ncbi Serotherapy in scorpion envenomation: a randomised controlled trial
    F Abroug
    Intensive Care Unit, CHU F Bourgulba, Monastir, Tunisia
    Lancet 354:906-9. 1999
    ..We did a prospective, randomised, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of routine administration of scorpion antivenom to scorpion-stung patients, irrespective of clinical severity...
  73. ncbi Methodology of clinical studies dealing with the treatment of envenomation
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    IRD UMR 216, Mothers and children facing the tropical infections Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France
    Toxicon 55:1195-212. 2010
    ....
  74. ncbi Improving antivenom availability and accessibility: science, technology, and beyond
    Jose Maria Gutierrez
    Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
    Toxicon 60:676-87. 2012
    ..These tasks should be envisaged in terms of synergistic, interprogrammatic and intersectorial interventions, with the participation of many players...
  75. ncbi Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')2 extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues
    C Sevcik
    Laboratory of Cellular Neuropharmacology, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas IVIC, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela
    Toxicon 44:731-41. 2004
    ..Only approximately 5% of the venom is eliminated in 10h; approximately 80% of the venom is in the tissues after 2h and remains there for >10h...
  76. ncbi Immunochemical and biochemical comparisons of equine monovalent and polyvalent snake antivenoms
    Rutai Raweerith
    Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rajthevi, Bangkok, Thailand
    Toxicon 45:369-75. 2005
    ..It is concluded that pAVs could be prepared with potency and protein contents and thus the propensity to cause adverse reaction that were comparable to those of mAVs...
  77. ncbi Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia
    Kenneth D Winkel
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
    Toxicon 48:738-54. 2006
    ..This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century...
  78. ncbi [Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins]
    Jean Philippe Chippaux
    Unité de recherche Santé de la mère et de l enfant en milieu tropical, IRD UR010, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, Paris Cedex 06, France
    Biol Aujourdhui 204:87-91. 2010
    ..These guidelines, which will published soon, should promote access to antivenoms, and their use by health services, leading in the short term to a significant decrease of snakebite morbidity and mortality...
  79. ncbi Antivenom: the most cost-effective treatment in the world?
    N Brown
    The Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Toxicon 55:1405-7. 2010
    ..These advances may lead to antivenom becoming one of the most cost-effective treatments available to modern medicine, and provides strong justification for its inclusion in international health funding initiatives...
  80. ncbi A large single-center experience with treatment of patients with crotalid envenomations: outcomes with and evolution of antivenin therapy
    Michael G Corneille
    Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Am J Surg 192:848-52. 2006
    ..Allergic reactions are fewer with ovine Fab antivenin (FabAV). This study describes the management of crotalid envenomations in patients treated with FabAV or ACP, and without antivenin...
  81. ncbi Large snake size suggests increased snakebite severity in patients bitten by rattlesnakes in Southern california
    Donald N Janes
    Lynchburg General Hospital, Lynchburg, VA 24501, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 21:120-6. 2010
    ..To correlate rattlesnake size and other characteristics of envenomation with the severity of envenomation...
  82. ncbi Tetanus after white-lipped green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) bite
    Chusana Suankratay
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Wilderness Environ Med 13:256-61. 2002
  83. ncbi Use of antivenom for snakebites reported to United States poison centers
    Henry A Spiller
    Kentucky Regional Poison Center, PO Box 35070, Louisville, KY 40232 5070, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 28:780-5. 2010
    ..In 2001, a new antivenin was introduced to the United States and became widely available in the snakebite season of 2002. We investigated what impact this may have had on snakebite treatment and medical outcome...
  84. ncbi Antivenom therapy for snakebites in children: is there evidence?
    James M Schmidt
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia 23507, USA
    Curr Opin Pediatr 17:234-8. 2005
    ..This review examines the evidence supporting the use of CroFab, with particular attention on the pediatric population...
  85. ncbi Efficacy of anti-scorpion venom serum over prazosin in the management of severe scorpion envenomation
    V S Natu
    Vijayashree Hospital, Umroli, Chiplun, India corrected
    J Postgrad Med 56:275-80. 2010
    ..Scorpion venoms cause a massive release of neurotransmitters. Either anti-scorpion venom serum (AScVS) or prazosin has been used in the management of severe scorpion envenomation...
  86. ncbi Rattlesnake bites in children: antivenin treatment and surgical indications
    Brian A Shaw
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Valley Children s Hospital, Madera, California 93611, USA
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 84:1624-9. 2002
    ..Our hypothesis is that aggressive use of antivenin is just as effective and safe for children as it is for adults...
  87. ncbi Coagulopathy following bites by the Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni)
    D G Lalloo
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Papua New Guinea
    Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 6:65-72. 1995
    ..These abnormalities may be primarily attributable to the prothrombin activator present in taipan venom, but it is likely that other uncharacterized venom components contributed...
  88. ncbi Epidemiology and hospital course of rattlesnake envenomations cared for at a tertiary referral center in Central Arizona
    D Tanen
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 8:177-82. 2001
    ..No statistically significant difference was detected in frequency of hematologic disorders or local tissue complications when children were compared with adults...
  89. ncbi Short-term outcomes after Fab antivenom therapy for severe crotaline snakebite
    Eric J Lavonas
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, CO, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 57:128-137.e3. 2011
    ....
  90. ncbi Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine)
    Christopher P Holstege
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 0699, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 39:677-9. 2002
    ..Holstege CP, Wu J, Baer AB. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine). Ann Emerg Med. June 2002;39:677-679.]..
  91. ncbi Low incidence of early reactions to horse-derived F(ab')(2) antivenom for snakebites in Thailand
    Aegachai Thiansookon
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
    Acta Trop 105:203-5. 2008
    ..Antivenom can be given in all 10 without reactions. In conclusion, the incidence of early reactions to antivenoms was low in Thailand and skin test is not helpful at all in predicting this adverse reaction...
  92. ncbi Efficacy of species specific anti-scorpion venom serum (AScVS) against severe, serious scorpion stings (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock)--an experience from rural hospital in western Maharashtra
    V S Natu
    Vijayshree Hospital, Ghonsare, Chiplun, Ratnagiri
    J Assoc Physicians India 54:283-7. 2006
    ..Death caused by scorpion envenoming is a common event in the tropical and subtropical countries including many regions in India. Severe scorpion envenoming causes an autonomic storm producing multi-system organ-failure (MSOF) and death...
  93. ncbi Airway obstruction following canebrake rattlesnake envenomation
    W Kerns
    Emergency Medicine and Medical Toxicology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
    J Emerg Med 20:377-80. 2001
    ..He was managed with fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation and Crotalid antivenin with good outcome...
  94. ncbi Cardiac troponin I release after severe scorpion envenoming by Tityus serrulatus
    Palmira Cupo
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049 900 Ribeirao Preto SP, Brazil
    Toxicon 40:823-30. 2002
    ..The rapid reversibility of cardiac dysfunction, together with the normalization of the enzymatic, ECG and echocardiographic data, indicates the occurrence of an acute myocardial lesion without underlying or associated coronary disease...
  95. ncbi Snakebite mortality at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 1992-2001
    Forbes McGain
    Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic
    Med J Aust 181:687-91. 2004
    ..Fatal snakebites at Port Moresby General Hospital (PMGH), Papua New Guinea (PNG), were examined to identify interventions that may improve patient survival...
  96. ncbi Evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the development of a crotalidae polyvalent antivenin (CroFab) protocol at a university hospital
    Kyle A Weant
    Department of Pharmacy Services, University of Kentucky HealthCare, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 44:447-55. 2010
    ..The inappropriate use of this agent can result in adverse patient consequences and a significant financial burden for both the hospital and the patient...
  97. pmc Crotaline Fab antivenom appears to be effective in cases of severe North American pit viper envenomation: an integrative review
    Eric J Lavonas
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health Hospital Authority, 777 Bannock St, MC 0180, Denver, CO 80204, USA
    BMC Emerg Med 9:13. 2009
    ..No clinical trial data are available concerning the effectiveness of FabAV for treatment of severe snakebite, but several published articles describe its use in this setting...
  98. ncbi Recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage following rattlesnake envenomation
    Anne Michelle Ruha
    Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Wilderness Environ Med 20:156-60. 2009
    ....
  99. ncbi Can steel heal a compartment syndrome caused by rattlesnake venom?
    Richard C Dart
    Ann Emerg Med 44:105-7. 2004
  100. ncbi Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab for the treatment of pediatric crotaline envenomation
    Collin S Goto
    Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children s Medical Center of Dallas, Medical Toxicology, North Texas Poison Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 25:273-9; quiz 280-2. 2009
    ..This article will review the use of FabAV for the treatment of pediatric crotaline envenomation...
  101. ncbi Impact of snake bites and determinants of fatal outcomes in southeastern Nepal
    Sanjib K Sharma
    Department of Medicine, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:234-8. 2004
    ..Public health interventions should focus on improving victims' rapid access to anti-snake venom serum by promoting immediate and fast transport to adequate treatment centers, particularly for bites occurring at night...