antiviral agents


Summary: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection
    Fred Poordad
    Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    N Engl J Med 364:1195-206. 2011
  2. ncbi Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Ira M Jacobson
    Weill Cornell Medical College and Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, New York, NY 10021, USA
    N Engl J Med 364:2405-16. 2011
  3. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Michael W Fried
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:975-82. 2002
  4. ncbi IL28B is associated with response to chronic hepatitis C interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy
    Vijayaprakash Suppiah
    Storr Liver Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Nat Genet 41:1100-4. 2009
  5. ncbi Pneumonia and respiratory failure from swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico
    Rogelio Perez-Padilla
    National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Mexico City, Mexico
    N Engl J Med 361:680-9. 2009
  6. ncbi Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C
    Yasuhito Tanaka
    Department of Clinical Molecular Informative Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan
    Nat Genet 41:1105-9. 2009
  7. ncbi Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures
    D Lavanchy
    World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Viral Hepat 11:97-107. 2004
  8. pmc Boceprevir for previously treated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection
    Bruce R Bacon
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo 63110 0250, USA
    N Engl J Med 364:1207-17. 2011
  9. ncbi Telaprevir for retreatment of HCV infection
    Stefan Zeuzem
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    N Engl J Med 364:2417-28. 2011
  10. pmc Response-guided telaprevir combination treatment for hepatitis C virus infection
    Kenneth E Sherman
    Division of Digestive Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0595, USA
    N Engl J Med 365:1014-24. 2011

Detail Information

Publications370 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection
    Fred Poordad
    Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    N Engl J Med 364:1195-206. 2011
    ..The rate of sustained virologic response has been below 50% in cases of HCV genotype 1 infection. Boceprevir, a potent oral HCV-protease inhibitor, has been evaluated as an additional treatment in phase 1 and phase 2 studies...
  2. ncbi Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Ira M Jacobson
    Weill Cornell Medical College and Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, New York, NY 10021, USA
    N Engl J Med 364:2405-16. 2011
  3. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Michael W Fried
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:975-82. 2002
    ..We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a alone in the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C...
  4. ncbi IL28B is associated with response to chronic hepatitis C interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy
    Vijayaprakash Suppiah
    Storr Liver Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Nat Genet 41:1100-4. 2009
    ..These data suggest that host genetics may be useful for the prediction of drug response, and they also support the investigation of the role of IL28B in the treatment of HCV and in other diseases treated with IFN-alpha...
  5. ncbi Pneumonia and respiratory failure from swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico
    Rogelio Perez-Padilla
    National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Mexico City, Mexico
    N Engl J Med 361:680-9. 2009
  6. ncbi Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C
    Yasuhito Tanaka
    Department of Clinical Molecular Informative Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan
    Nat Genet 41:1105-9. 2009
    ..52 x 10(-28)-2.68 x 10(-32); OR = 22.3-27.1). Real-time quantitative PCR assays in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed lower IL28B expression levels in individuals carrying the minor alleles (P = 0.015)...
  7. ncbi Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures
    D Lavanchy
    World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Viral Hepat 11:97-107. 2004
    ..Promising emerging new treatments include adefovir, entecavir and peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa)...
  8. pmc Boceprevir for previously treated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection
    Bruce R Bacon
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo 63110 0250, USA
    N Engl J Med 364:1207-17. 2011
    ..Boceprevir, a protease inhibitor that binds to the HCV nonstructural 3 (NS3) active site, has been suggested as an additional treatment...
  9. ncbi Telaprevir for retreatment of HCV infection
    Stefan Zeuzem
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    N Engl J Med 364:2417-28. 2011
    ..Up to 60% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection do not have a sustained virologic response to therapy with peginterferon alfa plus ribavirin...
  10. pmc Response-guided telaprevir combination treatment for hepatitis C virus infection
    Kenneth E Sherman
    Division of Digestive Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0595, USA
    N Engl J Med 365:1014-24. 2011
    ..We designed a noninferiority trial (noninferiority margin, -10.5%) to compare rates of sustained virologic response among patients receiving two treatment durations...
  11. ncbi Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus
    Etienne Meylan
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, BIL Biomedical Research Center, Chemin des Boveresses 155, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Nature 437:1167-72. 2005
    ..Cardif thus functions as an adaptor, linking the cytoplasmic dsRNA receptor RIG-I to the initiation of antiviral programmes...
  12. ncbi Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China
    Bin Cao
    Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    N Engl J Med 361:2507-17. 2009
    ..Persons in whom infection was confirmed were hospitalized and quarantined, and some of them were closely observed for the purpose of investigating the nature and duration of the disease...
  13. ncbi Critically Ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) in Mexico
    Guillermo Dominguez-Cherit
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Dr Domínguez Cherit, Hospital Epidemiology Department, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico
    JAMA 302:1880-7. 2009
    ..In March 2009, novel 2009 influenza A(H1N1) was first reported in the southwestern United States and Mexico. The population and health care system in Mexico City experienced the first and greatest early burden of critical illness...
  14. ncbi Telaprevir and peginterferon with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV infection
    Christophe Hezode
    Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Henri Mondor Hospital, University of Paris 12 and INSERM Unité 955, Creteil, France
    N Engl J Med 360:1839-50. 2009
    ..Telaprevir is a specific inhibitor of the HCV serine protease and could be of value in HCV treatment...
  15. ncbi Chronic hepatitis B
    Anna S F Lok
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 3912 Taubman Center, Box 0362, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0362, USA
    Hepatology 45:507-39. 2007
  16. ncbi Hepatitis B virus infection--natural history and clinical consequences
    Don Ganem
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:1118-29. 2004
  17. ncbi Preliminary study of two antiviral agents for hepatitis C genotype 1
    Anna S Lok
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, 3912 Taubman Center, SPC 5362, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    N Engl J Med 366:216-24. 2012
    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who have not had a response to therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin may benefit from the addition of multiple direct-acting antiviral agents to their treatment regimen.
  18. pmc Permissive secondary mutations enable the evolution of influenza oseltamivir resistance
    Jesse D Bloom
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 328:1272-5. 2010
    ..An understanding of this process may provide a basis for predicting the evolution of oseltamivir resistance in other influenza strains...
  19. ncbi IFN-lambdas mediate antiviral protection through a distinct class II cytokine receptor complex
    Sergei V Kotenko
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:69-77. 2003
    ..This receptor-ligand system may contribute to antiviral or other defenses by a mechanism similar to, but independent of, type I IFNs...
  20. ncbi Dual therapy with the nonstructural protein 5A inhibitor, daclatasvir, and the nonstructural protein 3 protease inhibitor, asunaprevir, in hepatitis C virus genotype 1b-infected null responders
    Kazuaki Chayama
    Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
    Hepatology 55:742-8. 2012
    ..There was no viral breakthrough. Diarrhea and headache, generally mild, were the most common adverse events; transaminase elevations were reported in 3 patients, but did not result in discontinuation...
  21. ncbi Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 437:209-14. 2005
    ..Policy effectiveness depends critically on how quickly clinical cases are diagnosed and the speed with which antiviral drugs can be distributed...
  22. ncbi Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease
    Yun Fan Liaw
    Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Taipei, Taiwan
    N Engl J Med 351:1521-31. 2004
    ..The effectiveness of antiviral therapy in preventing disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis is unknown...
  23. ncbi Nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for hepatitis C
    Edward J Gane
    New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
    N Engl J Med 368:34-44. 2013
    ..We evaluated sofosbuvir, an oral nucleotide inhibitor of HCV polymerase, in interferon-sparing and interferon-free regimens for the treatment of HCV infection...
  24. ncbi Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
    Anthony E Fiore
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, N E, MS A 20, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 60:1-24. 2011
    ..previous recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of antiviral agents for the prevention and treatment of influenza (CDC...
  25. ncbi Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 442:448-52. 2006
    ..Estimates of policy effectiveness will change if the characteristics of a future pandemic strain differ substantially from those seen in past pandemics...
  26. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
    ..HCVcc replication was inhibited by interferon-alpha and by several HCV-specific antiviral compounds, suggesting that this in vitro system will aid in the search for improved antivirals...
  27. ncbi Antiviral strategies in hepatitis C virus infection
    Christoph Sarrazin
    Klinikum der JW Goethe Universität, Medizinische Klinik 1, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Hepatol 56:S88-100. 2012
    ..However, new drugs may be associated with troublesome side effects and drugdrug interactions, and the ideal IFN-free DAA combination remains to be found...
  28. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2b or alfa-2a with ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C infection
    John G McHutchison
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27715, USA
    N Engl J Med 361:580-93. 2009
    ..Treatment guidelines recommend the use of peginterferon alfa-2b or peginterferon alfa-2a in combination with ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, these regimens have not been adequately compared...
  29. pmc Treating viral hepatitis C: efficacy, side effects, and complications
    M P Manns
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endocrinology, Medical School of Hannover, Carl Neuberg Str 1, D 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Gut 55:1350-9. 2006
    ..This review describes the efficacy and optimisation of the current standard therapy of hepatitis C and its problems in special patient populations. New treatment directions beyond interferon alpha based therapies are on the horizon...
  30. pmc New protease inhibitors for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Shan Liu
    Center for Health Policy, Stanford University, CA, USA
    Ann Intern Med 156:279-90. 2012
    ..Protease inhibitors increase the effectiveness of standard therapy, but they are costly. A genetic assay may identify patients most likely to benefit from this treatment advance...
  31. pmc EGFR and EphA2 are host factors for hepatitis C virus entry and possible targets for antiviral therapy
    Joachim Lupberger
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U748, Strasbourg, France
    Nat Med 17:589-95. 2011
    ..Inhibition of RTK function may constitute a new approach for prevention and treatment of HCV infection...
  32. ncbi Resistance to direct antiviral agents in patients with hepatitis C virus infection
    Christoph Sarrazin
    J W Goethe University Hospital, Medizinische Klinik 1, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Gastroenterology 138:447-62. 2010
    ..We review the parameters that determine resistance, genotypic and phenotypic resistance profiles of DAA agents, and strategies to avoid the selection of resistant variants...
  33. ncbi Chemical genetics strategy identifies an HCV NS5A inhibitor with a potent clinical effect
    Min Gao
    Department of Virology, Bristol Myers Squibb Research and Development, 5 Research Parkway, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492, USA
    Nature 465:96-100. 2010
    ..The development of direct-acting antiviral agents to treat HCV has focused predominantly on inhibitors of the viral enzymes NS3 protease and the RNA-dependent ..
  34. ncbi Treatment failure and resistance with direct-acting antiviral drugs against hepatitis C virus
    Jean Michel Pawlotsky
    Department of Virology, Hopital Henri Mondor, Université Paris Est Créteil, France
    Hepatology 53:1742-51. 2011
  35. pmc Risk factors for hospitalisation and poor outcome with pandemic A/H1N1 influenza: United Kingdom first wave (May-September 2009)
    J S Nguyen-Van-Tam
    Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Clinical Sciences Building, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Thorax 65:645-51. 2010
    ..The clinical characteristics of UK patients hospitalised with pandemic H1N1 infection and risk factors for severe outcome are described...
  36. ncbi Telaprevir for previously treated chronic HCV infection
    John G McHutchison
    Duke Clinical Research Institute and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:1292-303. 2010
    ..Patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) who do not have a sustained response to therapy with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin have a low likelihood of success with retreatment...
  37. ncbi Species-specific exclusion of APOBEC3G from HIV-1 virions by Vif
    Roberto Mariani
    Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 114:21-31. 2003
    ..Together these findings suggest that therapeutic intervention that either induced APOBEC3G or blocked its interaction with Vif could be clinically beneficial...
  38. ncbi A new standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection
    Wolf Peter Hofmann
    Medizinische Klinik 1, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Theodor Stern Kai 7, Frankfurt am Main 60590, Germany
    Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 8:257-64. 2011
    The introduction of direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) will markedly change treatment options for individuals who have a chronic HCV infection...
  39. pmc Influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase membrane glycoproteins
    Steven J Gamblin
    Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 285:28403-9. 2010
    ..Resistance to one of the two main antiviral drugs is differentially acquired by the two distinct subsets of neuraminidase as a consequence of structural differences in the enzyme active site between the two phylogenetic groups...
  40. ncbi Hepatic ISG expression is associated with genetic variation in interleukin 28B and the outcome of IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis C
    Masao Honda
    Department of Gastroenterology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Japan
    Gastroenterology 139:499-509. 2010
    ..Multiple viral and host factors are related to the treatment response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy; however, the clinical relevance and relationship of these factors have not yet been fully evaluated...
  41. pmc Modeling shows that the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir has two modes of action and yields a shorter estimate of the hepatitis C virus half-life
    Jeremie Guedj
    Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:3991-6. 2013
    ..The multiscale modeling approach, validated with in vitro kinetic experiments, brings a unique conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of agents in development for the treatment of HCV...
  42. pmc Lambda interferon inhibits hepatitis B and C virus replication
    Michael D Robek
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Virol 79:3851-4. 2005
    ..These results suggest the possibility that IFN-lambda may be therapeutically useful in the treatment of chronic HBV or HCV infection...
  43. ncbi Telaprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin for treatment-naive patients chronically infected with HCV of genotype 1 in Japan
    Hiromitsu Kumada
    Department of Hepatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    J Hepatol 56:78-84. 2012
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of telaprevir in combination with peginterferon-α2b (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C...
  44. ncbi Telaprevir and pegylated interferon-alpha-2a inhibit wild-type and resistant genotype 1 hepatitis C virus replication in patients
    Tara L Kieffer
    Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Hepatology 46:631-9. 2007
  45. pmc In vitro and in vivo characterization of new swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses
    Yasushi Itoh
    Department of Pathology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Ohtsu, Shiga 520 2192, Japan
    Nature 460:1021-5. 2009
    ..Finally, we show that CA04 is sensitive to approved and experimental antiviral drugs, suggesting that these compounds could function as a first line of defence against the recently declared S-OIV pandemic...
  46. doi Hepatitis B virus infection
    Jules L Dienstag
    Gastrointestinal Unit Medical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Medicine and Office of the Dean for Medical Education, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1486-500. 2008
  47. ncbi Influenza
    Karl G Nicholson
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
    Lancet 362:1733-45. 2003
  48. pmc Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda), a type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo
    Nina Ank
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, The Bartholin Building, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    J Virol 80:4501-9. 2006
  49. ncbi Hepatitis C virus resistance to protease inhibitors
    Philippe Halfon
    Virological Departement Laboratoire Alphabio, Hopital Ambroise Pare, Marseille, France
    J Hepatol 55:192-206. 2011
  50. ncbi Characterization of resistance to the protease inhibitor boceprevir in hepatitis C virus-infected patients
    Simone Susser
    JW Goethe University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany
    Hepatology 50:1709-18. 2009
    ..Mathematical modeling revealed impaired replicative fitness for all single mutations, whereas for combined mutations a relative increase of replication efficiency was suggested...
  51. pmc Replicated association between an IL28B gene variant and a sustained response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin
    Jeanette J McCarthy
    Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Gastroenterology 138:2307-14. 2010
    ..We investigated the association between the polymorphism rs12979860 and treatment response in a diverse cohort of chronic HCV patients...
  52. ncbi Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza
    Anne Moscona
    Department of Pediatrics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:1363-73. 2005
  53. pmc Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of hepatitis B virus quasispecies from nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients and NRTI-naive patients
    Severine Margeridon-Thermet
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1275-85. 2009
    ..UDPS detected low-prevalence HBV variants with NRTI-resistance mutations, G-to-A hypermutation, and low-level dual genotype infection with a sensitivity not previously possible...
  54. ncbi A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B
    Ting Tsung Chang
    National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
    N Engl J Med 354:1001-10. 2006
    ..Entecavir is a potent and selective guanosine analogue with significant activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
  55. ncbi New direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and perspectives
    Christoph Welsch
    Department of Internal Medicine I, J W Goethe University Hospital, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Gut 61:i36-46. 2012
    ..HCV therapy has been revolutionised recently by the approval of two direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) against the NS3/4A serine protease for use in genotype 1 HCV, the ketoamide inhibitors boceprevir and ..
  56. pmc Correlates of severe disease in patients with 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1) virus infection
    Ryan Zarychanski
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba
    CMAJ 182:257-64. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to identify factors correlated with severity of disease in confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza...
  57. ncbi Mechanism of action of interferon and ribavirin in treatment of hepatitis C
    Jordan J Feld
    Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Building 31, Room 9A27, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 436:967-72. 2005
    ..To optimize current therapeutic strategies and to develop new therapies, a better understanding of the mechanism of action of IFN and ribavirin will be essential...
  58. ncbi Interferons alpha and lambda inhibit hepatitis C virus replication with distinct signal transduction and gene regulation kinetics
    Tobias Marcello
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Gastroenterology 131:1887-98. 2006
    ..We aimed to determine whether IFN-lambda exhibits antiviral activity toward HCV and to compare the signal transduction and effector gene pathways with those of IFN-alpha...
  59. ncbi Influenza: old and new threats
    Peter Palese
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Nat Med 10:S82-7. 2004
  60. pmc High-content assay to identify inhibitors of dengue virus infection
    David Shum
    HTS Core Facility, Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Assay Drug Dev Technol 8:553-70. 2010
    ..In summary, this assay offers the opportunity to screen libraries of chemical compounds, in an effort to identify and develop novel drug candidates against DENV infections...
  61. ncbi Insulin resistance impairs sustained response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients
    Manuel Romero-Gomez
    Hepatology Unit, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Sevilla, Spain
    Gastroenterology 128:636-41. 2005
    ..We evaluated the effect of insulin resistance and viral factors on sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin...
  62. ncbi Randomized study of peginterferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin vs peginterferon-alpha2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C
    Maria Grazia Rumi
    AM Migliavacca Center for Liver Disease, First Division of Gastroenterology, Fondazione IRCCS Maggiore Hospital, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
    Gastroenterology 138:108-15. 2010
    ..Due to the lack of head-to-head studies, the 2 PegIFNs have not been directly compared. The endpoints of our study were safety and antiviral efficacy of the 2 regimens...
  63. ncbi Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management
    Luciana Borio
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine and Public Health, 111 Market Pl, Suite 830, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 287:2391-405. 2002
    ..To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are used as biological weapons against a civilian population...
  64. ncbi Interferon-induced Mx proteins in antiviral host defense
    Otto Haller
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, D 79008 Freiburg, Germany
    Biochimie 89:812-8. 2007
    ..As a consequence, these viral components are trapped and sorted to locations where they become unavailable for the generation of new virus particles...
  65. pmc Systems-level metabolic flux profiling identifies fatty acid synthesis as a target for antiviral therapy
    Joshua Munger
    Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis Thomas Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 26:1179-86. 2008
    ..These results show that fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of two divergent enveloped viruses and that systems-level metabolic flux profiling can identify metabolic targets for antiviral therapy...
  66. ncbi Sustained virologic response and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis
    Bart J Veldt
    Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Ann Intern Med 147:677-84. 2007
    ..Clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C infection in patients with advanced fibrosis include liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death...
  67. ncbi Peginterferon Alfa-2a, lamivudine, and the combination for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B
    George K K Lau
    Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
    N Engl J Med 352:2682-95. 2005
  68. ncbi Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts
    Bastien Mangeat
    Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nature 424:99-103. 2003
    ..We also find that APOBEC3G can act on a broad range of retroviruses in addition to HIV, suggesting that hypermutation by editing is a general innate defence mechanism against this important group of pathogens...
  69. pmc Resistance of herpes simplex viruses to nucleoside analogues: mechanisms, prevalence, and management
    Jocelyne Piret
    Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:459-72. 2011
    ..There is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action...
  70. ncbi ITPA gene variants protect against anaemia in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C
    Jacques Fellay
    Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Nature 464:405-8. 2010
    ..Here we show that genetic variants leading to inosine triphosphatase deficiency, a condition not thought to be clinically important, protect against haemolytic anaemia in hepatitis-C-infected patients receiving RBV...
  71. ncbi Cyclosporin A suppresses replication of hepatitis C virus genome in cultured hepatocytes
    Koichi Watashi
    Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    Hepatology 38:1282-8. 2003
    ..This anti-HCV activity of CsA appeared to be independent of its immunosuppressive function. In conclusion, our results suggest that CsA may represent a new approach for the development of anti-HCV therapy...
  72. ncbi Long-term monitoring shows hepatitis B virus resistance to entecavir in nucleoside-naïve patients is rare through 5 years of therapy
    Daniel J Tenney
    Bristol Myers Squibb Company Research and Development, Wallingford, CT 06492, USA
    Hepatology 49:1503-14. 2009
    ..Importantly, only four patients who achieved < 300 copies/mL HBV DNA subsequently developed ETVr...
  73. ncbi Entecavir versus lamivudine for patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B
    Ching Lung Lai
    Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    N Engl J Med 354:1011-20. 2006
    ..Entecavir is a potent and selective antiviral agent that has demonstrated efficacy in phase 2 studies in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B...
  74. pmc Hydrolyzable tannins (chebulagic acid and punicalagin) target viral glycoprotein-glycosaminoglycan interactions to inhibit herpes simplex virus 1 entry and cell-to-cell spread
    Liang Tzung Lin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Virol 85:4386-98. 2011
  75. pmc Mechanism of action of T-705 against influenza virus
    Yousuke Furuta
    Research Laboratories, Toyama Chemical Co, Ltd, 2 4 1 Shimookui, Toyama 930 8508, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:981-6. 2005
    ..These results suggest that T-705RTP, which is generated in infected cells, may function as a specific inhibitor of influenza virus RNA polymerase and contributes to the selective anti-influenza virus activity of T-705...
  76. ncbi Telaprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic HCV genotype 1 infection
    John G McHutchison
    Duke Clinical Research Institute and Duke University, Durham, NC 27715, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1827-38. 2009
    ..Telaprevir, a protease inhibitor specific to the HCV nonstructural 3/4A serine protease, rapidly reduced HCV RNA levels in early studies...
  77. ncbi Efficacy of boceprevir, an NS3 protease inhibitor, in combination with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in treatment-naive patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C infection (SPRINT-1): an open-label, randomised, multicentre phase 2 trial
    Paul Y Kwo
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology Hepatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 5121, USA
    Lancet 376:705-16. 2010
    ..We tested the efficacy of boceprevir, an NS3 hepatitis C virus oral protease inhibitor, when added to peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin...
  78. ncbi Telaprevir alone or with peginterferon and ribavirin reduces HCV RNA in patients with chronic genotype 2 but not genotype 3 infections
    Graham R Foster
    Queen Marys University of London, Blizard Institute of Cellular and Molecular Science, London, UK
    Gastroenterology 141:881-889.e1. 2011
    ..We evaluated antiviral activity of 2 weeks therapy with telaprevir alone, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (PR), or all 3 drugs (TPR) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3 infections...
  79. pmc Phenotypic characterization of resistant Val36 variants of hepatitis C virus NS3-4A serine protease
    Yi Zhou
    Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, 130 Waverly Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:110-20. 2008
    ..Finally, the sensitivity of these replicon variants to alpha interferon or ribavirin remained unchanged compared to that of the wild-type...
  80. pmc Ribavirin can be mutagenic for arenaviruses
    Hector Moreno
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa CSIC UAM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 85:7246-55. 2011
    ..Our findings suggest that the antiviral activity of ribavirin on arenaviruses might be exerted, at least partially, by lethal mutagenesis. Implications for antiarenavirus therapy are discussed...
  81. ncbi Severity of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in pregnant women
    Andreea A Creanga
    Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, Office of Workforce and Career Development, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 115:717-26. 2010
    ..To examine 2009 H1N1 influenza illness severity and the effect of antiviral treatment on the severity of illness among pregnant women...
  82. ncbi Effect of telaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus
    Varun Garg
    Clinical Trials and Medical Information, Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Hepatology 54:20-7. 2011
    ..67) hours to 42.1 (11.3) hours and t(½) of tacrolimus from a mean (SD) of 40.7 (5.85) hours to 196 (159) hours...
  83. pmc Influenza in immunosuppressed populations: a review of infection frequency, morbidity, mortality, and vaccine responses
    Ken M Kunisaki
    Pulmonary Section, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:493-504. 2009
    ..Randomised clinical trial data were limited to one study of HIV-infected patients with high vaccine efficacy. Better trial data would inform vaccination recommendations on the basis of efficacy and cost in these at-risk populations...
  84. ncbi Hospitalized patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States, April-June 2009
    Seema Jain
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 361:1935-44. 2009
    ..We describe the clinical characteristics of patients who were hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States from April 2009 to mid-June 2009...
  85. ncbi Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose
    Stephanos J Hadziyannis
    Department of Medicine and Hepatology, Henry Dunant Hospital, Athens, Greece
    Ann Intern Med 140:346-55. 2004
    ..Treatment with pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin for 48 weeks is more effective than conventional interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C...
  86. pmc Viral hepatitis in HIV infection
    Margaret James Koziel
    Division of Infectious Disease, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:1445-54. 2007
  87. pmc Broad-spectrum inhibition of retroviral and filoviral particle release by tetherin
    Nolwenn Jouvenet
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA
    J Virol 83:1837-44. 2009
    ..Overall, tetherin is potentially active against many enveloped viruses and likely to be an important component of the antiviral innate immune defense...
  88. pmc Antiviral actions of interferons
    C E Samuel
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 9610, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:778-809, table of contents. 2001
    ..The use of these IFN system reagents, both in cell culture and in whole animals, continues to provide important contributions to our understanding of the virus-host interaction and cellular antiviral response...
  89. ncbi Management of hepatitis B: summary of a clinical research workshop
    Jay H Hoofnagle
    Liver Disease Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Hepatology 45:1056-75. 2007
    ..Clearly, many basic and clinical research challenges remain in defining optimal means of management of chronic hepatitis B...
  90. ncbi Viral loads and duration of viral shedding in adult patients hospitalized with influenza
    Nelson Lee
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
    J Infect Dis 200:492-500. 2009
    ..The goal of this study was to characterize viral loads and factors affecting viral clearance in persons with severe influenza...
  91. ncbi Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C
    Doris B Strader
    Fletcher Allen Health Care University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VA, USA
    Hepatology 39:1147-71. 2004
  92. pmc Naturally occurring dominant resistance mutations to hepatitis C virus protease and polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve patients
    Thomas Kuntzen
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Hepatology 48:1769-78. 2008
    ..Viral loads were high in the majority of these patients, suggesting that drug-resistant viral strains might achieve replication levels comparable to nonresistant viruses in vivo...
  93. pmc Evolution, safety, and highly pathogenic influenza viruses
    Marc Lipsitch
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 336:1529-31. 2012
    ..Thus, we propose that future experiments with virulent pathogens whose accidental or deliberate release could lead to extensive spread in human populations should be limited by explicit risk-benefit considerations...
  94. ncbi Association of amino acid substitution pattern in core protein of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b high viral load and non-virological response to interferon-ribavirin combination therapy
    Norio Akuta
    Department of Gastroenterology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    Intervirology 48:372-80. 2005
    ..Non-virological responders (NVRs, namely ultimate resistant cases) who do not achieve HCV-RNA negativity during treatment are also encountered. We investigated the pretreatment virological features of NVRs...
  95. ncbi Antivirals and resistance: influenza virus
    Michael G Ison
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, United States
    Curr Opin Virol 1:563-73. 2011
    ..In this paper, we will review the currently approved and investigational antiviral agents and the mechanisms of resistance that impact their activity.
  96. pmc AVPpred: collection and prediction of highly effective antiviral peptides
    Nishant Thakur
    Bioinformatics Centre, CSIR Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39 A, Chandigarh 160036, India
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:W199-204. 2012
    ..The web server is freely available at
  97. pmc Broadly directed virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses are primed during acute hepatitis C infection, but rapidly disappear from human blood with viral persistence
    Julian Schulze zur Wiesch
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Exp Med 209:61-75. 2012
    ..The data further suggest a short window of opportunity to prevent the loss of CD4(+) T cell responses through antiviral therapy...
  98. ncbi Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin is more effective than peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Antonio Ascione
    Department of Gastroenterology, Liver Unit, Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli, Italy
    Gastroenterology 138:116-22. 2010
    ..This study compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a and peginterferon alfa-2b, each in combination with ribavirin...
  99. ncbi UK consensus guidelines for the use of the protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infected patients
    P Ramachandran
    Department of Gastroenterology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 35:647-62. 2012
    ..However, the addition of these new agents will increase the complexity of therapeutic regimens, the rates of side-effects and costs...
  100. ncbi Description of antiviral treatment among adults hospitalized with influenza before and during the 2009 pandemic: United States, 2005-2009
    Saumil Doshi
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:1848-56. 2011
    ..We compared antiviral use among adults hospitalized with influenza before and during the pandemic...
  101. pmc Evidence of person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in a hematology unit
    Catherine Moore
    Public Health Wales Microbiology, Public Health Wales NHS Trust, Cardiff, UK
    J Infect Dis 203:18-24. 2011
    ..Zanamivir should be considered as first-line therapy for influenza in patients with lymphopenic hematological conditions and uptake of influenza vaccination encouraged to further reduce the number of susceptible individuals...

Research Grants76

  1. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This gap in knowledge has impeded the rational design of antiviral agents and vaccines that act at the earliest stages of infection...
  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Parvovirus Gene Expression and Replication
    Jianming Qiu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., EPCs ex vivo-expanded under hypoxic conditions for B19V in this application. ..
  4. Detection of Liver Fibrosis Using IVIM Diffusion and DCE MRI in HCV
    Bachir Taouli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These techniques combined could reach high diagnostic performance for detection of liver fibrosis;and could decrease the number of necessary liver biopsies, which have risks and sample only a small portion of the liver. ..
  5. Safety and PK Study in Hepatic Impairment Patients
    Weizhong Cai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Successful completion of the proposed studies will enable us to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BB3 in larger Phase IIB studies in liver fibrosis or acute liver injury. ..
  6. Enterovirus RNA Translation and Replication
    David J Barton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The success of the poliovirus eradication campaign may depend upon improved poliovirus vaccines and new antiviral drugs. ..
  7. Novel Therapeutics for Neurotropic Alphaviruses
    David J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..development is in progress for several alphaviruses, there is an urgent and pressing need for broadly active antiviral agents against these virulent pathogens...
  8. Viral And host mechanisms that tilt the HSV lytic/latent balance
    Donald M Coen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This research wil define basic mechanisms of herpes simplex virus latent infection and new targets for potential drugs to treat the latent infection of these viruses. ..
  9. Single RNA sensitive probes for studying viral replication and budding
    Philip J Santangelo; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. Novel Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic HBV
    ROBERT GERALD WHALEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Success in developing this innovative DNA-based therapeutic vaccine for chronic HBV infection would fill a considerable unmet need in the treatment of this disease, which represents a major public health burden. ..
  11. Recombinant life attenuated vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever
    Slobodan Paessler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose a novel system for vaccine production against hemorrhagic fever viruses in order to increase our ability to prevent some of the most severe infectious diseases should it be introduced into the USA. ..
  12. Biophysics of Drug Interactions with Viral Episomes
    James K Bashkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uptake of PAs, potentially explaining why some isomeric PAs range from highly active to inactive antiviral agents. As an additional test of conclusions from footprinting, the site-directed mutagenesis of HPV18 sites ..
  13. Antisense Mediated Treatment of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
    STEFAN FRANK WIELAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The work described in this proposal will exploit current and novel in vivo model systems to discover improved, safe and effective antiviral drugs to alleviate the human suffering and socioeconomic burden of this threat to public health. ..
  14. Mechanisms of viral proteases in coronavirus replication and pathogenesis
    Andrew D Mesecar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results from this research will allow us to identify critical sites that mediate specificity of papain-like proteases and provide new insight into viral mechanisms for pathogenesis and evasion of the innate immune response. ..
  15. Novel vaccine to CMV based on a disc virus
    Alistair McGregor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additionally, a vaccine would save considerably in the resources currently employed for the long term treatment/ care of congenitally infected newborns with severe hearing loss and mental retardation. ..
  16. Determinants of Coronavirus Fidelity in Replication and Pathogenesis
    Mark R Denison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results of the proposed experiments will identify fidelity determinants critical for replication, pathogenesis and virulence, define the range of tolerated fidelity, and identify novel approaches for CoV attenuation and inhibition. ..
  17. Antiviral potential of helicase inhibitors
    David N Frick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Although some helicase inhibitors that target DNA viruses are progressing in clinical trials, no antiviral agents targeting RNA viruses have entered the clinical arena...
    Raymond M Welsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. IRES-mediated translation initiation on viral mRNAs
    ..We are investigating how IRESs work, which may give insights that, will eventually be used in the development of antiviral drugs. ..
  20. Multilevel Targeted Therapeutics Using Surface Functionalized Nanoparticles encap
    JILL STEINBACH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..I expect this approach will improve current HSV-2 therapy and can be extended to multiple STD combinations, including elusive viruses such as HIV. ..
  21. Influenza therapy by Au-nanorod 5'PPP-NS1-siRNA/cDNA targeting of bronchial cells
    Paul R Knight; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..B viruses, as well as avian H5N1 influenza viruses with pandemic potential to one or both classes of approved antiviral agents underscores the importance of developing novel antiviral strategies...
  22. Role of HSV Induced RNA Degradation in Pathogenesis
    David A Leib; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific inhibitors of virus-induced RNA destabilization might therefore be of value as broad-spectrum antivirals. This work is therefore of broad interest and application. ..
  23. Efficacy of the antiviral state versus Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis
    William B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, these studies will provide information regarding the contribution of resistance to particular effectors to the virulence of alphaviruses in mice and humans that can be used in design of alphavirus vaccines. ..
  24. The effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 protein on host immunomodulation
    Jack T Stapleton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..therapy for HCV infection has dramatically improved in the past few years, and the use of combination direct antiviral agents has a great potential for virological cure...
  25. Inhibition of HIV-Induced Synaptodentritic Damage
    Val S Goodfellow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Compounds showing efficacy in animal models will be profiled in in vitro safety and genotoxicity screens and dose ranging toxicity studies for selection as development compounds for late stage preclinical testing. ..
  26. Suppression of the Interferon Response by the Hepatitis C Virus
    FRANCIS VINCENT CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. ASM Conference on Viral Genome Replication
    Sean P J Whelan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The development of effective vaccines and antiviral agents by rational design demands a detailed molecular and biochemical understanding of the replication cycle of the ..
  28. A novel assay for inhibitors of influenza A virus polymerase complex assembly
    Feng Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Successful completion of the proposed research will help identify and design additional anti-influenza inhibitors that will provide additional treatment options and improve disease outcome. ..
  29. 6th Orthomyxovirus Research Conference
    STACEY L SCHULTZ-CHERRY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The purpose of this proposal is to provide funds that will allow promising young investigators to interact with their peers and develop a commitment to this area of research. ..
  30. Bioavailable proteasome inhibitors as broad-spectrum antivirals
  31. Yeast Based Assays for Chemical Screens Against SARS-CoV Targets
    DANIEL A contact ENGEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We hypothesize that we can learn about the biology of SARS-CoV by identifying which chemical compounds can inhibit it, and then study how they work. ..
  32. CD8+ T Cell Immunity to Cytomegalovirus
    Stanley R Riddell; Fiscal Year: 2013
  33. Point of care microfluidic diagnosis system for rapid and sensitive detection of
    Michel G Bergeron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These POCTs will help public health authorities to define new operational strategies for both lab-based and field-based applications. ..
  34. Anti HCV Protease Activities of Metalloporphyrins
    Warren N Schmidt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..findings from our group and others indicate that precursors and products of heme metabolism are direct acting antiviral agents. Metalloporphyrins (MPs) such as heme and heme oxidation products such as biliverdin potently inhibit HCV NS3/..
    Marcia B Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..vaccine development;(2) virology, including pathogenesis, genetics, cell biology, virulence, host defense, antiviral agents, and retrovirology;(3) parasitology, including pathogenesis, chloroquine resistance of malaria, parasite-cell ..
  36. Alteration of ER:mitochondrial contacts by human cytomegalovirus infection
    ..This exploratory study should set the stage for more detailed analyses of the mode of action of HCMV UL37 proteins and the possibility that they may serve as targets for intervention. ..
  37. Combined Computational and Wet Lab Screening for Drugs Tested via OATs
    Sanjay K Nigam; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal is to identify highly specific substrates for the nasally expressed organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat6, thereby allowing for efficient intranasal delivery and transport of drugs to the CNS. ..
  38. Novel Screen to Identify Arenavirus Inhibitors
    Juan Lama; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies may lead to the development of much needed antivirals for the treatment of highly pathogenic arenavirus infections. PHS 398/2590 (Rev. 06/09) Page Continuation Format Page ..
  39. Underlying Mechanisms of ApoE in HCV Infection and Assembly
    GUANGXIANG GEORGE LUO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The studies described in this application will also provide novel targets for anti-HCV drug discovery. ..
  40. Control of cap-independent translation by a viral 3'UTR
    WYATT ALLEN MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Over-active eIF4E causes tumors and restriction of its function inhibits many types of cancers. The tightly binding PTE RNA may provide structural knowledge for design of eIF4E-inhibiting cancer therapeutics. ..
  41. Mechanisms of IVIG Protection in Viral Encephalitis
    EDOUARD M CANTIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Results from these studies will be important for making the case for IVIG as a treatment for neuroinflammatory diseases including encephalitis caused by HSV and other viruses like West Nile virus that are potential bioterrorism agents. ..
  42. Papillomavirus E2 Functions: Cellular Regulation and Effectors
    Peter M Howley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such compounds would be useful tools for further studies of HPV-host cell interactions and could serve as potential leads for modeling novel antivirals to treat papillomavirus infections. ..
  43. Cost-effective Uses of New Hepatitis C Treatments and their VA Budgetary Impact
    Douglas K Owens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will develop a spreadsheet-based tool for direct use by VA policymakers to help them to anticipate and plan for the optimal roll-out and management of HCV treatments. ..
  44. Markers of HIV Brain Disease under HAART: Validation in a Mouse Model
    David J Volsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..function in the brain despite antiviral treatment, efforts should be directed toward development of new antiviral agents to block viral transcription from cellular reservoirs...
  45. Molecular Mechanisms of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Pathogenesis
    William B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
  46. Chromatin and Herpes Simplex Virus Latency
    David M Knipe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Radhakrishnan P Iyer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Further continuing studies, in Phase II SBIR application, could lead to an Investigational New Drug Application with USFDA and follow-up clinical trials. ..
  48. CNS Delivery of Activated Antiviral Drugs with Reduced Neurotoxicity (Nano-NRTIs)
    Serguei V Vinogradov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We develop a pNRTI-based HAART design (Nano-HAART), which enables the delivery of brain-targeted and oral activated drug formulations with reduced neurotoxicity into the CNS. ..
  49. Genotyping and Phenotyping the Hepatitis C Drug Target NS5A
    ROBERT T STRIKER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This database will catalog VA strains of HCV that need to be targeted by antivirals like cyclophilin inhibitors as well as others that are currently being investigated mostly outside the VA. ..
  50. NeuroAIDS Therapy in the EcoHIV Mouse Model
    DAVID VOLSKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
  51. Genetic analysis of Herpes virus neurotropism and encephalitis
    JENNIFER HART LAVAIL; Fiscal Year: 2011
  52. Intervention of HBV DNA synthesis and transcription
    Aleem Siddiqui; Fiscal Year: 2013
  53. Mechanistic Studies of the Function of Desmosterol Homeostasis in HCV Replication
    ..Collectively, these experiments provide unique opportunities to study and validate desmosterol biosynthesis as a potential anti-HCV target and to explore a heretofore uncharacterized mechanism of regulation in cholesterol biosynthesis. ..
  54. Multiscale analysis of influenza host-pathogen interactions: Fluomics
    Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Towards this end, in this project, we will conduct a series of global and targeted analyses of influenza host-pathogen interactions, and follow these with focused validation studies. ..
  55. The DNA Damage Response as a therapeutic target in BK virus nephropathy
    THOMAS DAVID FRIEDRICH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If DNA damage response inhibitors that are currently in clinical trials are also found to be effective in limiting replication of BKV, it may be possible to reposition the for the prevention and treatment of PVAN. ..
  56. A new synergy for flavivirus therapy: RNAi enhancement and viral mutagens
    KATHRYN ALYCE HANLEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..If this hypothesis is correct, the finding of this study will represent a significant advance in the development of new therapies for flaviviral disease. ..
    Edward S Mocarski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This investigation will lead to a more complete understanding of the interplay of cellular and viral functions as determinants of cell fate. ..
  58. PDGFR and KDR Inhibitors for Liver Fibrosis
    Bert Oehlen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Small molecule dual inhibitors of the PDGFR and KDR receptors are potential therapeutics for fibrotic disease in the liver, as well as other major organs. ..
  59. Novel Fluorescent Nucleotide Analogues to Probe Nucleic Acid Metabolism
    BYRON WILLIS PURSE; Fiscal Year: 2010 and disease - cellular and viral DNA replication are primary targets for cancer chemotherapeutics and antiviral agents, and incorrect replication can lead to multiple disease states, including cancer...
    James M Hogle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The research proposed should not only provide information that could aid in drug discovery and understanding how viruses become resistant to current drugs, but aims directly to discover new anti-herpesvirus drugs. ..
  61. Pre-clinical Development of a Broad Spectrum Antiviral Compound to Treat Human Pa
    Christopher Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These novel compounds hold considerable potential as broadly-active HPV antiviral agents, thus providing a treatment option for infected patients for whom the HPV vaccines were not intended...
  62. Identification of novel HIV capsid assembly inhibitors (Hit-to-Lead development)
    OSVALDO ARIEL FLORES; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..strategy to manage chronic viral infections reinforcing the need for continued development of novel HIV antiviral agents with novel mechanisms of action that can become part of cross-class combination regimens...
  63. Development of Novel Small Molecule Flavivirus Inhibitors
    ERIC W BARKLIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our results will lead to the development of new antivirals, and an understanding of how they work. ..
    Gaetano Montelione; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These analogs will have great significance both in fundamental studies as well as in treating (or in developing drugs for) obesity, hypertension and failing heart. ..
  65. Determinants of RNA virus evolution
    ISABEL NOVELLA; Fiscal Year: 2009
  66. Vidarabine Prodrugs as Anti-Pox Virus Agents
    John Hilfinger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..provided a modest increase in the number of drug candidates for treatment of these diseases, many potential antiviral agents are precluded from clinical use due to their extremely low oral bioavailability...
  67. An HBV polymerase RNA binding assay suitable for inhibitor screening
    Feng Cao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Here, we will extend these results to the medically-relevant HBV enzyme, with the goal of identifying the format of an assay best suited for subsequent high through-put screening for novel anti-HBV drugs. ..
    WESLEY BENTRUDE; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The focus is on antivirals active against a broad spectrum of viruses including HIV...
    RAYMOND SCHINAZI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..didehydro-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides (d4N) and their 2'-fluoro analogs are effective antiviral agents. The discovery of a novel cytosine nucleoside, p-D-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-5-..
  70. Antiviral Drugs Against Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  71. Pre-Clinical HPV16 Antiviral Compound Development
    Christopher Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..They hold considerable potential as antiviral agents that will add an important tool to complement the HPV vaccines, allowing both HPV+ and HPV- patients to be ..
    Richard Rothenberg; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION (Applicant's Abstract): The new and still evolving antiviral agents for HIV have demonstrated early success in reducing viral load and reversing an inexorable clinical course in some patients...
  73. High Throughput Assays for Ion Channel Activities of Influenza A & B Viruses
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These assays will make it possible to perform efficient searches for antiviral drugs against the M2 ion channels. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  74. Antiviral Compounds for Human Papillomavirus 16
    Christopher Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2005
    This project seeks imidazole-pyrrole polyamides to be used as topical antiviral agents for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)...
  75. Aminoglycoside Antivirals to Combat Arenaviruses
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Emergence of resistant variants will be assessed based on production of infectious virus and intracellular levels of virus RNA synthesis during serial passages in the presence of aminoglycosides with anti-LCMV activity. ..
  76. In Vivo Antiviral Activity of Saponins
    MICHAEL RONER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The extract is well suited to such an application as it is pH stable, is already approved as a food additive, is inexpensive, readily available and is soluble in water. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..