antioxidants

Summary

Summary: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance
    Ron Mittler
    Dept of Botany, Plant Sciences Institute, 353 Bessey Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 7:405-10. 2002
  2. ncbi Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Chem Biol Interact 160:1-40. 2006
  3. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease
    Marian Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:44-84. 2007
  4. pmc Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species
    Julio F Turrens
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    J Physiol 552:335-44. 2003
  5. pmc Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome
    Shigetada Furukawa
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004
  6. ncbi Cell survival responses to environmental stresses via the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway
    Thomas W Kensler
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 47:89-116. 2007
  7. pmc Oncogene-induced Nrf2 transcription promotes ROS detoxification and tumorigenesis
    Gina M DeNicola
    Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK
    Nature 475:106-9. 2011
  8. pmc The Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway and its activation by oxidative stress
    Truyen Nguyen
    Schering Plough Research Institute, Summit, New Jersey 07901, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:13291-5. 2009
  9. ncbi Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals
    Ikuroh Ohsawa
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Development and Aging Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1 396 Kosugi cho, Nakahara ku, Kawasaki City 211 8533, Japan
    Nat Med 13:688-94. 2007
  10. ncbi Nrf2-Keap1 defines a physiologically important stress response mechanism
    Hozumi Motohashi
    Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology Japan Science and Technology Corporation, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305 8577, Japan
    Trends Mol Med 10:549-57. 2004

Detail Information

Publications339 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance
    Ron Mittler
    Dept of Botany, Plant Sciences Institute, 353 Bessey Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Trends Plant Sci 7:405-10. 2002
    ..ROIs) were considered to be toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, which were disposed of using antioxidants. However, in recent years, it has become apparent that plants actively produce ROIs as signaling molecules to ..
  2. ncbi Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Chem Biol Interact 160:1-40. 2006
    ..of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids, thiol antioxidants (glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid), flavonoids, ..
  3. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease
    Marian Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:44-84. 2007
    ..of free radical generation; (ii) damage to DNA, to proteins, and to lipids by free radicals; (iii) role of antioxidants (e.g...
  4. pmc Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species
    Julio F Turrens
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    J Physiol 552:335-44. 2003
    ..We also discuss various physiological and pathological scenarios resulting from an increased steady state concentration of mitochondrial oxidants...
  5. pmc Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome
    Shigetada Furukawa
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004
    ....
  6. ncbi Cell survival responses to environmental stresses via the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway
    Thomas W Kensler
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 47:89-116. 2007
    ..This review highlights the key elements in this adaptive response to protection against acute and chronic cell injury provoked by environmental stresses...
  7. pmc Oncogene-induced Nrf2 transcription promotes ROS detoxification and tumorigenesis
    Gina M DeNicola
    Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK
    Nature 475:106-9. 2011
    ..Thus, the Nrf2 antioxidant and cellular detoxification program represents a previously unappreciated mediator of oncogenesis...
  8. pmc The Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway and its activation by oxidative stress
    Truyen Nguyen
    Schering Plough Research Institute, Summit, New Jersey 07901, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:13291-5. 2009
    ..In addition, a possible role of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element transcriptional pathway in neuroprotection will also be discussed...
  9. ncbi Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals
    Ikuroh Ohsawa
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Development and Aging Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1 396 Kosugi cho, Nakahara ku, Kawasaki City 211 8533, Japan
    Nat Med 13:688-94. 2007
    ..Thus H(2) can be used as an effective antioxidant therapy; owing to its ability to rapidly diffuse across membranes, it can reach and react with cytotoxic ROS and thus protect against oxidative damage...
  10. ncbi Nrf2-Keap1 defines a physiologically important stress response mechanism
    Hozumi Motohashi
    Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology Japan Science and Technology Corporation, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305 8577, Japan
    Trends Mol Med 10:549-57. 2004
    ..Furthermore, extensive studies have suggested that the Nrf2-Keap1 system contributes to protection against various pathologies, including carcinogenesis, liver toxicity, respiratory distress and inflammation...
  11. pmc Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production
    Scott K Powers
    Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    Physiol Rev 88:1243-76. 2008
    ..Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction...
  12. ncbi Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications
    R J Nijveldt
    Department of Surgery, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 74:418-25. 2001
    ..We review the different groups of known flavonoids, the probable mechanisms by which they act, and the potential clinical applications of these fascinating natural substances...
  13. ncbi The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays
    Dejian Huang
    Food Science and Technology Program, Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
    J Agric Food Chem 53:1841-56. 2005
    This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays...
  14. ncbi Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress
    M Valko
    Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, SK 812 37 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Curr Med Chem 12:1161-208. 2005
    ..b>Antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) provide protection against deleterious metal-mediated free radical attacks...
  15. ncbi Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance
    Nicholas Houstis
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Nature 440:944-8. 2006
    ..Together, our findings suggest that increased ROS levels are an important trigger for insulin resistance in numerous settings...
  16. ncbi Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now?
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    J Neurochem 97:1634-58. 2006
    ..After a long lag period, therapeutic and other interventions based on a knowledge of redox biology are on the horizon for at least some of the neurodegenerative diseases...
  17. ncbi Molecular mechanisms activating the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway of antioxidant gene regulation
    Makoto Kobayashi
    ERATO JST, Center for TARA and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305 8577, Japan
    Antioxid Redox Signal 7:385-94. 2005
    ..This review article recounts recent knowledge of the Nrf2-Keap1 system, focusing especially on the molecular mechanism of Nrf2 regulation...
  18. pmc Oxidative stress, insulin signaling, and diabetes
    Justin L Rains
    Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 50:567-75. 2011
    ..Intervention and therapy that alter or disrupt these mechanisms may serve to reduce the risk of insulin resistance and the development of diabetes...
  19. pmc Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)
    Scott M Lippman
    Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    JAMA 301:39-51. 2009
    ..Secondary analyses of 2 randomized controlled trials and supportive epidemiologic and preclinical data indicated the potential of selenium and vitamin E for preventing prostate cancer...
  20. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects
    T P A Devasagayam
    Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085
    J Assoc Physicians India 52:794-804. 2004
    ..Newer and future approaches include gene therapy to produce more antioxidants in the body, genetically engineered plant products with higher level of antioxidants, synthetic antioxidant ..
  21. pmc Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review
    Olga Blokhina
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Physiology, Viikki Biocenter, FIN 00014 Helsinki University, Finland
    Ann Bot 91:179-94. 2003
    ..The formation of ROS is prevented by an antioxidant system: low molecular mass antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione, tocopherols), enzymes regenerating the reduced forms of antioxidants, and ROS-..
  22. ncbi Diabetes, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review
    A C Maritim
    Moi University, College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:24-38. 2003
    ....
  23. ncbi Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements
    Ronald L Prior
    U S Department of Agriculture, Arkansas Children s Nutrition Center, 1120 Marshall Street, Little Rock, Arkansas 72202, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 53:4290-302. 2005
    ..on Antioxidant Methods in 2004 and in the literature, as well as consideration of potential end uses of antioxidants, it is proposed that procedures and applications for three assays be considered for standardization: the oxygen ..
  24. ncbi Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification
    Ron Kohen
    Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    Toxicol Pathol 30:620-50. 2002
    ..This review thus includes different topics essential for understanding oxidative stress phenomena and provides tools for those intending to conduct study and research in this field...
  25. pmc Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans
    Michael Ristow
    Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition, University of Jena, Jena D 07743, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8665-70. 2009
    ..However, exercise also increases mitochondrial formation of presumably harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants are widely used as supplements but whether they affect the health-promoting effects of exercise is unknown...
  26. pmc Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)
    Eric A Klein
    Department of Urology, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    JAMA 306:1549-56. 2011
    ..Longer follow-up and more prostate cancer events provide further insight into the relationship of vitamin E and prostate cancer...
  27. pmc Keap1 is a redox-regulated substrate adaptor protein for a Cul3-dependent ubiquitin ligase complex
    Donna D Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri Columbia, M121 Medical Sciences Building, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:10941-53. 2004
    ....
  28. pmc Redox homeostasis and antioxidant signaling: a metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological responses
    Christine H Foyer
    Crop Performance and Improvement Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK
    Plant Cell 17:1866-75. 2005
  29. ncbi Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants, and the mammalian thioredoxin system
    J Nordberg
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Free Radic Biol Med 31:1287-312. 2001
    ..Dinitrohalobenzenes constitute a unique class of immunostimulatory TrxR inhibitors and we consider the immunomodulatory effects of dinitrohalobenzene compounds in view of their reactions with the Trx system...
  30. ncbi Regulation of antioxidant enzymes: a significant role for melatonin
    Carmen Rodriguez
    Departamento de Morfologia y Biologia Celular, Facultad de Medicina, c Julian Claveria, Oviedo, Spain
    J Pineal Res 36:1-9. 2004
    ..We also analyze the possible mechanisms by which melatonin regulates these enzymes...
  31. ncbi Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies
    Ilja C W Arts
    RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:317S-325S. 2005
    Plant polyphenols, a large group of natural antioxidants, are serious candidates in explanations of the protective effects of vegetables and fruits against cancer and cardiovascular diseases...
  32. ncbi Mitochondria, oxidative stress and cell death
    Martin Ott
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Apoptosis 12:913-22. 2007
    ..Conversely, mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes protect from apoptosis. Hence, there is accumulating evidence supporting a direct link between mitochondria, oxidative stress and cell death...
  33. ncbi Curcumin prevents Cr(VI)-induced renal oxidant damage by a mitochondrial pathway
    Eduardo Molina-Jijón
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 University City, DF, Mexico
    Free Radic Biol Med 51:1543-57. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that the preservation of mitochondrial function plays a key role in the protective effects of curcumin pretreatment against K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal oxidant damage...
  34. ncbi Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes
    Joseph L Evans
    University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Endocr Rev 23:599-622. 2002
    ..Studies with antioxidants such as vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, and N-acetylcysteine suggest that new strategies may become available to ..
  35. pmc Genetic ablation of Nrf2 enhances susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice
    Tirumalai Rangasamy
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:1248-59. 2004
    ..The responsiveness of the Nrf2 pathway may act as a major determinant of susceptibility to tobacco smoke-induced emphysema by upregulating antioxidant defenses and decreasing lung inflammation and alveolar cell apoptosis...
  36. pmc Curcumin activates the haem oxygenase-1 gene via regulation of Nrf2 and the antioxidant-responsive element
    Elisabeth Balogun
    Vascular Biology Unit, Department of Surgical Research, Northwick Park Institute for Medical Research, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ, UK
    Biochem J 371:887-95. 2003
    ..Recently, the natural antioxidants curcumin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) have been identified as potent inducers of haem oxygenase-1 (..
  37. ncbi Mechanism of human SIRT1 activation by resveratrol
    Margie T Borra
    Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:17187-95. 2005
    ..We propose that binding of resveratrol to SIRT1 promotes a conformational change that better accommodates the attached coumarin group...
  38. ncbi Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Cell 10:241-52. 2006
    ..Excessive ROS causes oxidative mitochondrial damage, inactivation of redox-sensitive molecules, and massive cell death. In vivo, PEITC exhibits therapeutic activity and prolongs animal survival...
  39. ncbi Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases
    Augustin Scalbert
    Laboratoire des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA, Centre de Recherche de Clermont Ferrand Theix, St Genes Champanelle, France
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45:287-306. 2005
    Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet and are widespread constituents of fruits, vegetables, cereals, dry legumes, chocolate, and beverages, such as tea, coffee, or wine...
  40. ncbi Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Goran Bjelakovic
    The Cochrane Hepato Biliary Group, Copenhagen Trial Unit, Center for Clinical Intervention Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    JAMA 297:842-57. 2007
    ..Antioxidant supplements are used for prevention of several diseases...
  41. ncbi Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model
    Lutz W D Weber
    Institute of Toxicology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Munich, P O Box 1129, D 85758 Neuherberg FRG
    Crit Rev Toxicol 33:105-36. 2003
    ..Several of the above-mentioned toxication processes can be specifically interrupted with the use of antioxidants and mitogens, respectively, by restoring cellular methylation, or by preserving calcium sequestration...
  42. ncbi A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation
    Ozcan Erel
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Medical Faculty, Research Hospital, Harran University, Sanliurfa TR63200, Turkey
    Clin Biochem 37:277-85. 2004
    ..To develop a novel colorimetric and automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC)...
  43. pmc Oxidants, antioxidants and the current incurability of metastatic cancers
    Jim Watson
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, NY 11724, USA
    Open Biol 3:120144. 2013
    ..evolve from their epithelial cell progenitors, they almost inevitably possess much-heightened amounts of antioxidants that effectively block otherwise highly effective oxidant therapies...
  44. ncbi Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants: location and functional significance
    Giovanni Agati
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisica Applicata Carrara, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I 50019 Sesto F no, Firenze, Italy
    Plant Sci 196:67-76. 2012
    ..Antioxidant flavonoids may effectively control key steps of cell growth and differentiation, thus acting regulating the development of the whole plant and individual organs...
  45. pmc Pharmacologic ascorbic acid concentrations selectively kill cancer cells: action as a pro-drug to deliver hydrogen peroxide to tissues
    Qi Chen
    Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:13604-9. 2005
    ..These findings give plausibility to i.v. ascorbic acid in cancer treatment, and have unexpected implications for treatment of infections where H(2)O(2) may be beneficial...
  46. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants - quo vadis?
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 32:125-30. 2011
    The field of free radicals and antioxidants, or 'redox biology', is fundamental to aerobic life. Aerobes constantly make reactive species, but modulate their actions by synthesizing antioxidants...
  47. pmc Vitamins C and E: beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective
    Maret G Traber
    Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 51:1000-13. 2011
    The mechanistic properties of two dietary antioxidants that are required by humans, vitamins C and E, are discussed relative to their biological effects...
  48. ncbi Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in vascular disease
    Ulrich Förstermann
    Department of Pharmacology, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, 55101, Mainz, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 459:923-39. 2010
    ..Also, small molecular weight antioxidants may play a role in the defense against oxidative stress...
  49. pmc Nrf2 is a critical regulator of the innate immune response and survival during experimental sepsis
    Rajesh K Thimmulappa
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:984-95. 2006
    ..Nrf2's regulation of cellular glutathione and other antioxidants is critical for optimal NF-kappaB activation in response to LPS and TNF-alpha...
  50. ncbi Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs
    W Zheng
    Fruit Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 49:5165-70. 2001
    ..longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves...
  51. ncbi Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Nutr Rev 70:257-65. 2012
    ..Mega-doses of dietary antioxidants have also generally failed to prevent human disease, in part because they do not decrease oxidative damage in ..
  52. ncbi Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe
    B Ou
    Brunswick Laboratories, 6 Thacher Lane, Wareham, Massachusetts 02571, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 49:4619-26. 2001
    ..It is concluded that, unlike other popular methods, the improved ORAC(FL) assay provides a direct measure of hydrophilic chain-breaking antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radical...
  53. ncbi Peroxiredoxins: a historical overview and speculative preview of novel mechanisms and emerging concepts in cell signaling
    Sue Goo Rhee
    Laboratory of Cell Signaling, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 38:1543-52. 2005
    ..This reversible overoxidation may represent an adaptation unique to eukaryotic cells that accommodates the intracellular messenger function of H(2)O(2), but experimental validation of such speculation is yet to come...
  54. ncbi The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse
    G P Lim
    Departments of Medicine and Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosci 21:8370-7. 2001
    ..Microgliosis was also suppressed in neuronal layers but not adjacent to plaques. In view of its efficacy and apparent low toxicity, this Indian spice component shows promise for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease...
  55. ncbi Fumaric acid esters exert neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammation via activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Brain 134:678-92. 2011
    ....
  56. pmc Resveratrol delays age-related deterioration and mimics transcriptional aspects of dietary restriction without extending life span
    Kevin J Pearson
    Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Cell Metab 8:157-68. 2008
    ..Our findings indicate that resveratrol treatment has a range of beneficial effects in mice but does not increase the longevity of ad libitum-fed animals when started midlife...
  57. ncbi Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases
    J M Mates
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Spain
    Clin Biochem 32:595-603. 1999
    ....
  58. ncbi Studies on in vitro antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of some important medicinal plants
    A Mishra
    University of Allahabad, Department of Biochemistry, Allahabad, India
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 57:16-25. 2011
    ..Many phytochemicals have been found to play as potential antioxidants and antimicrobials...
  59. ncbi Pyrethroid tolerance is associated with elevated expression of antioxidants and agricultural practice in Anopheles arabiensis sampled from an area of cotton fields in Northern Cameroon
    Pie Müller
    Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    Mol Ecol 17:1145-55. 2008
    ..These genes may constitute an important general defence mechanism against insecticides. Intriguingly, the levels of expression of these genes were strongly correlated suggesting a common regulatory mechanism...
  60. ncbi Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of skin disease
    David R Bickers
    Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 126:2565-75. 2006
    ..These include non-enzymatic and enzymatic molecules that function as potent antioxidants or oxidant-degrading systems...
  61. ncbi Oxidative stress as a mediator of life history trade-offs: mechanisms, measurements and interpretation
    Pat Monaghan
    Division of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G128QQ, UK
    Ecol Lett 12:75-92. 2009
    ..is currently used somewhat loosely by many ecologists, and the erroneous assumption often made that dietary antioxidants are necessarily the major line of defence against ROS-induced damage...
  62. ncbi Flavonoids as antioxidants
    P G Pietta
    Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, National Council of Research Via F lli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate Mi, Italy
    J Nat Prod 63:1035-42. 2000
    ..They act in plants as antioxidants, antimicrobials, photoreceptors, visual attractors, feeding repellants, and for light screening...
  63. pmc Protection against electrophile and oxidant stress by induction of the phase 2 response: fate of cysteines of the Keap1 sensor modified by inducers
    Nobunao Wakabayashi
    The Lewis B and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2040-5. 2004
    ....
  64. pmc Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians' Health Study II randomized controlled trial
    Howard D Sesso
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Ave E, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    JAMA 300:2123-33. 2008
    ..However, few long-term trials have evaluated men at initially low risk of cardiovascular disease, and no previous trial in men has examined vitamin C alone in the prevention of cardiovascular disease...
  65. ncbi Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases
    Goran Bjelakovic
    Department of InternalMedicine, Medical Faculty, University ofNis, Nis, Serbia
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD007176. 2012
    ..Our systematic review has demonstrated that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. We have now updated this review...
  66. ncbi Dual action of the active oxygen species during plant stress responses
    J Dat
    Vakgroep Moleculaire Genetica, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie VIB, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
    Cell Mol Life Sci 57:779-95. 2000
    ..The numerous AOS sources and a complex system of oxidant scavengers provide the flexibility necessary for these functions. This review discusses the dual action of AOS during plant stress responses...
  67. pmc Regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 signaling for cancer chemoprevention: antioxidant coupled with antiinflammatory
    Rong Hu
    Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China
    Antioxid Redox Signal 13:1679-98. 2010
    ..We will also discuss some of the potential caveats of Nrf2 in cancer treatment and future opportunity and challenges on regulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant and antiinflammatory signaling in the context of cancer prevention...
  68. ncbi Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer
    Yizhong Cai
    Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China
    Life Sci 74:2157-84. 2004
    ..Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer might be potential sources of potent natural antioxidants and beneficial chemopreventive agents.
  69. ncbi Mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress, and antioxidant gene expression are induced by hepatitis C virus core protein
    Michiari Okuda
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0641, USA
    Gastroenterology 122:366-75. 2002
    ..Indirect evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury play a role. The aim of this study was to determine if the HCV core protein itself alters mitochondrial function and contributes to oxidative stress...
  70. ncbi The Nrf2 system as a potential target for the development of indirect antioxidants
    Kyeong Ah Jung
    College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk do 712 749, Korea
    Molecules 15:7266-91. 2010
    ..In this review, we discuss the role of the Nrf2 system, with particular focus on Nrf2-controlled target genes and the potential pleiotropic effects of Nrf2 activation of indirect antioxidants.
  71. pmc Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more
    Maret G Traber
    Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 6512, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 43:4-15. 2007
    ..it seems unlikely that these pathways are specifically under the control of alpha-tocopherol given that various antioxidants other than alpha-tocopherol and various oxidative stressors can manipulate their responses...
  72. ncbi Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules?
    Robert J Williams
    Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, King s College London, Guy s Campus, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 36:838-49. 2004
    ..an emerging view that flavonoids, and their in vivo metabolites, do not act as conventional hydrogen-donating antioxidants but may exert modulatory actions in cells through actions at protein kinase and lipid kinase signalling ..
  73. ncbi Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease
    T Heitzer
    Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin, Abteilung Kardiologie, Hamburg, Germany
    Circulation 104:2673-8. 2001
    ..This study was designed to determine whether endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress have prognostic impact on cardiovascular event rates in patients with coronary artery disease...
  74. ncbi Antioxidants: Molecules, medicines, and myths
    John M C Gutteridge
    Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, UK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 393:561-4. 2010
    There is an industry-driven public obsession with antioxidants, which are equated to safe, health-giving molecules to be swallowed as mega-dose supplements or in fortified foods...
  75. ncbi Chronic oxidative stress as a central mechanism for glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes
    R Paul Robertson
    Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:42351-4. 2004
  76. ncbi Human serum paraoxonase (PON 1) is inactivated by oxidized low density lipoprotein and preserved by antioxidants
    M Aviram
    The Lipid Research Laboratory, Technion Faculty of Medicine, The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
    Free Radic Biol Med 26:892-904. 1999
    ..b>Antioxidants such as the flavonoids glabridin or quercetin, when present during LDL oxidation in the presence of PON, ..
  77. pmc NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme and exceptionally versatile cytoprotector
    Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
    Biomedical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 501:116-23. 2010
    ....
  78. ncbi New concepts in reactive oxygen species and cardiovascular reperfusion physiology
    Lance B Becker
    Emergency Resuscitation Center, Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine MC5068, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 61:461-70. 2004
    ..whole organ and animal models continue to report contradictory results on reperfusion injury and the role of antioxidants as a therapy...
  79. ncbi Selenium: a double-edged sword for defense and offence in cancer
    Jela Brozmanová
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Vlarska 7, 833 91, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Arch Toxicol 84:919-38. 2010
    ..Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a powerful tool for addressing some important questions regarding Se biology, a part of this review is devoted to this model system...
  80. ncbi Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: results of a cross-sectional study
    Dario Maggio
    Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia, 06122 Perugia, Italy
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1523-7. 2003
    ..between dietary vitamin C intake and bone mineral density, data on plasma levels of vitamin C or other antioxidants in osteoporotic subjects are scanty...
  81. ncbi Moderate exercise is an antioxidant: upregulation of antioxidant genes by training
    Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Blasco Ibañez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:126-31. 2008
    ..We have found that interfering with free radical metabolism with antioxidants may hamper useful adaptations to training.
  82. ncbi Role of free radicals in the neurodegenerative diseases: therapeutic implications for antioxidant treatment
    B Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Drugs Aging 18:685-716. 2001
    ..Hence, there are many attempts to develop antioxidants that can cross the blood-brain barrier and decrease oxidative damage...
  83. ncbi The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals
    Serge Hercberg
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité de Recherche Médicale INSERM Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Conservatoire National des Ants et Métiers CNAM, Paris, France
    Arch Intern Med 164:2335-42. 2004
    ..We tested the efficacy of nutritional doses of supplementation with a combination of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in reducing the incidence of cancer and ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population...
  84. ncbi Regulation of oxidative stress by ATM is required for self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells
    Keisuke Ito
    Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano machi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 431:997-1002. 2004
    ..These results show that the self-renewal capacity of HSCs depends on ATM-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress...
  85. ncbi Identification of the NF-E2-related factor-2-dependent genes conferring protection against oxidative stress in primary cortical astrocytes using oligonucleotide microarray analysis
    Jong Min Lee
    School of Pharmacy, Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:12029-38. 2003
    ....
  86. pmc Oxidative stress in prostate cancer
    Lakshmipathi Khandrika
    Signal Transduction and Molecular Urology Laboratory, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, 12700 E 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Cancer Lett 282:125-36. 2009
    ..In this review we summarize the causes for increased ROS generation and its potential role in etiology and progression of prostate cancer...
  87. ncbi Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds
    M P Kähkönen
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Division of Food Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014, Helsinki, Finland
    J Agric Food Chem 47:3954-62. 1999
    ..In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.
  88. ncbi Antioxidant therapy in human endocrine disorders
    Saeid Golbidi
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Med Sci Monit 16:RA9-24. 2010
    ..b>Antioxidants can delay or prevent oxidative stress and are widely used in the hope of maintaining health and preventing ..
  89. ncbi Vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activation in diabetes: a double-edged sword in redox signalling
    Ling Gao
    Cardiovascular Division, School of Medicine, King s College London, London, UK
    Cardiovasc Res 82:9-20. 2009
    ..Given the largely negative outcome of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of diabetic complications, targeting the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nfr2 may provide an effective strategy to restore antioxidant defenses in diabetes...
  90. ncbi Keap1-dependent proteasomal degradation of transcription factor Nrf2 contributes to the negative regulation of antioxidant response element-driven gene expression
    Michael McMahon
    Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:21592-600. 2003
    ..Within Nrf2, the N-terminal Neh2 domain is identified as the redox-sensitive degron. These data suggest that Keap1 negatively regulates Nrf2 by both enhancing its rate of proteasomal degradation and altering its subcellular distribution...
  91. ncbi Selective targeting of a redox-active ubiquinone to mitochondria within cells: antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties
    G F Kelso
    Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Otago, Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Biol Chem 276:4588-96. 2001
    ..We have shown that selectively manipulating mitochondrial antioxidant status with targeted and recyclable antioxidants is a feasible approach to investigate the role of mitochondrial oxidative damage in apoptotic cell death...
  92. pmc Antioxidants in health and disease
    I S Young
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Institute of Clinical Science, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
    J Clin Pathol 54:176-86. 2001
    ..b>Antioxidants prevent free radical induced tissue damage by preventing the formation of radicals, scavenging them, or by ..
  93. ncbi Oxidative stress and nuclear factor-kappaB activation: a reassessment of the evidence in the light of recent discoveries
    A Bowie
    Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
    Biochem Pharmacol 59:13-23. 2000
    ..peroxide is cell-specific and distinct from physiological activators such as IL-1 and TNF, while inhibition by antioxidants, also found to be cell- and stimulus-specific, can involve diverse and unexpected targets which may be distinct ..
  94. pmc Reactive species and antioxidants. Redox biology is a fundamental theme of aerobic life
    Barry Halliwell
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597
    Plant Physiol 141:312-22. 2006
  95. ncbi Evaluation of Launaea procumbens use in renal disorders: a rat model
    Rahmat Ali Khan
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid i Azam University Islamabad, 4400 Pakistan
    J Ethnopharmacol 128:452-61. 2010
    ..Launaea procumbens is used ethnopharmacologically in renal disorders. Its methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane fractions were evaluated against CCl(4)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat...
  96. pmc Adaptive induction of NF-E2-related factor-2-driven antioxidant genes in endothelial cells in response to hyperglycemia
    Zoltan Ungvari
    Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, 73104, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 300:H1133-40. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that adaptive activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway confers endothelial protection under diabetic conditions...
  97. ncbi Production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria: central role of complex III
    Qun Chen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:36027-31. 2003
    ..In mitochondria, complex III is the principal site for ROS generation during the oxidation of complex I substrates, and rotenone protects by limiting electron flow into complex III...
  98. ncbi Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage
    N Ercal
    University of Missouri Rolla, Department of Chemistry, 65409 0010, USA
    Curr Top Med Chem 1:529-39. 2001
    ..redox cycling whereas redox-inactive metals, such as lead, cadmium, mercury and others deplete cells' major antioxidants, particularly thiol-containing antioxidants and enzymes...
  99. ncbi Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance
    Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:142-9. 2008
    ..There is, however, considerable debate regarding the beneficial health effects of vitamin C supplementation...
  100. ncbi Biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from tropical seaweeds
    L S Costa
    UFRN, Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Polímeros Naturais Biopol, Centro de Biociencias, Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av Sen Salgado Filho, 3000, 59072970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
    Biomed Pharmacother 64:21-8. 2010
    ....
  101. pmc Molecular mechanisms of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response
    Wenge Li
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Mol Carcinog 48:91-104. 2009
    ..Free floating Nrf2 protein functions as a redox-sensitive probe. Keap1 instead functions as a gate keeper to control the availability of Nrf2 probes and thus regulates the overall sensitivity of the redox signaling...

Research Grants75

  1. Retinoid and Carotenoid Depletion in Patients at High-Risk for Liver Cancer
    Peter H Gann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, deficiencies in dietary antioxidants such as retinoids and carotenoids, which previously have been reported in CLD, may constitute a major ..
  2. The influence of air pollution mixtures on biomarkers of airway oxidative stress
    Roby Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Dr. Greenwald will receive laboratory training in the analysis of exhaled antioxidants and redox biomarkers (with Dr...
  3. Investigating Mechanism of Intracellular Rotational Transport with Optical T
    Jeffrey N Anker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These local cytoskeletal oxidations, in concert with the oxidation of secondary messengers and the depletion of antioxidants, cause global cytoskeletal damage and dysfunction, DNA damage, and cell death...
  4. Targeting Inflammation for the Amelioration of Cisplatin-Hearing Loss
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..One current treatment strategy uses antioxidants to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS), which has been implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity...
  5. Nanoparticle Coupled Antioxidants for Respiratory Illness in Veterans
    RODNEY JON SCHLOSSER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Antioxidant enzymes that metabolize ROS, thus serve as potential therapeutic agents. These antioxidants include superoxide dismutase (SOD), which converts superoxide, one of the most toxic ROS, to much less reactive ..
  6. Novel PET imaging agents for early diagnosis of plaque deposition in Alzheimer's
    Padmakar Kulkarni; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This is significant at a time when a number of therapies for AD are in clinical trial including the use of antioxidants, BACE and gamma secratase inhibitors and metal chelators...
  7. Prolonged Inhibition of Pathologic Neovascularization by Catalytic Antioxidants
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ROS occurs "upstream" of most other retinal pathologies, it represents a common node which can be targeted by antioxidants and other molecules which increase the expression of "Phase II" antioxidant enzymes...
  8. Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Antioxidant on Degenerative Eye Disorders
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..retinal cells combat oxidative stress by generating sufficient antioxidant enzymes or small molecular weight antioxidants like glutathione (GSH)...
  9. Mechanism-Based Discovery of Protectants Against Iron-Dependant Oxidative Injury
    JUSTIN M SCHWARTZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..2. Synthesis and evaluation of lysosomal targeted antioxidants (LTAs) as cytoprotectants against iron- dependant oxidative injury...
  10. Role of Mitochondria in the Regulation of Iron metabolism by Alcohol
    DUYGU DEE DEE HARRISON-FINDIK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Treatment with antioxidants abolished the effect of alcohol on hepcidin expression...
  11. Purkinje Origin of Ischemic Ventricular Tachycardia and Fibrillation
    James B Martins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Similarly such drugs may be combined with other antioxidants to prevent dangerous heart rhythms.
  12. Genetic Studies of Optic Atrophy
    Taosheng Huang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Finally, we will test if antioxidants can rescue the shortened lifespan phenotype...
  13. FOLLOW UP OF THE ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, BETA-CAROTENE CANCER PREVENTION (ATBC) STUDY
    Jarmo Virtamo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have pursued and completed investigations of vitamin E and selenium status;carotenoids and other antioxidants;one-carbon metabolism;energy balance, insulin, and growth factors;sex steroids;and genetic variants impacting ..
  14. Prevention of Inherited Retinal Diseases by Therapeutic Rare Earth Nanoparticles
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This is "oxidative stress" as a result of a chronic or acute rise in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Antioxidants and over-expression of antioxidant enzymes have been shown to inhibit the progression of many retinal diseases...
  15. Role of Glutathione S-Transferase P in Heart Failure
    Sumanth D Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of heart failure (HF), clinical trials with antioxidants targeting first generation reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O2/ and H2O2 have not yielded compelling ..
  16. Alcohol-Induced Bone Resorption: The Role of Oxidative Stress
    Martin J J Ronis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to probe the molecular cascade from EtOH to RANKL and the inhibition of EtOH-induced RANKL by NAC and other antioxidants. NOX gain and loss of function studies will be performed by transient transfection and use of siRNA and the ..
  17. Effects of GSH +/- Arginine on Markers of Inflammation Among Adults with CVD Risk
    Christopher D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Despite the null findings from recent trials, the biological plausibility of potential benefits from antioxidants remains strong...
  18. Pulmonary effects of biomass fuel indoor PM from rural India
    Shyam Biswal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3 (Mechanisms of asthma-dietary interventions against environmental triggers) and will test the hypothesis that antioxidants such as sulforaphane present in the diet can cause chemoprotection by activating the Nrf2 pathway to counteract ..
  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY: OXIDATIVE STRESS AND EARLY ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    David Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..these issues, we propose continuation of R01 HL053560, locally called Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA)...
  20. EPIDEMIOLOGY: OXIDATIVE STRESS AND EARLY ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    David R Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these issues, we propose continuation of R01 HL053560, locally called Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA)...
  21. Transplantation of Reduced-Size Fatty Livers
    Zhi Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The effects of antioxidants (Ad-superoxide dismutase, N-acetylcysteine and polyphenols) and antinitrative therapies (nitric oxide synthase ..
  22. A Novel Murine Model of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontitus
    Helieh S Oz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The approach will be to treat mice with distinct antioxidants, a cysteine prodrug 2-(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine- 4(R)-carboxylic acid (PTCA) and a glutathione (GSH) prodrug s-..
  23. Dietary Cholesterol and Defects in Cholesterol Synthesis
    ROBERT DAVID STEINER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We further hypothesize that statins, bile acids, antioxidants and molecular chaperones selectively restore SLOS cell metabolism and function...
  24. Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-models
    Marcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..increase mitochondrial peroxide detoxification capacity will help delineate the value of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants as a viable clinical therapy for ALS...
  25. Role of Oxidative Stress in Post-MI Cardiac Failure Associated with Diabetes
    MICHAEL FREDERICK HILL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and oxyblot analyses, and 3) to rescue diabetic post-MI hearts from oxidant imposed HF by therapy with antioxidants and IsoK scavengers...
  26. Molecular Studies of Bone Marrow Failure
    Monica Bessler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test whether an increase in telomerase activity and/or antioxidants will delay the onset of senescence in the mutant cells...
  27. Cyclic AMP, Cytokine Modulation and Alcoholic Liver Disease
    Craig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ALD is associated with an increase in oxidative stress with a concomitant decrease in cellular antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) and importantly, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), due to subnormal synthesis...
  28. Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in Chagas Disease
    Nisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major preliminary observations that provide support to our hypothesis include (1) T. cruzi expression of antioxidants enhanced parasite virulence, (2) host sustains chronic oxidative/inflammatory stress that was contributory to ..
  29. Investigating the pathogenesis of CoQ10 deficiencies
    Catarina M Quinzii; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These data are corroborated by preliminary results of treatment with CoQ10 and other antioxidants in fibroblasts from the CoQ10 deficient patients...
  30. Novel therapeutics for vesicants and toxic inhaled chemicals (U54)
    Carl W White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..models of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity to lung and skin, understand injury pathogenesis, and evaluate novel antioxidants to rescue SM-mediated injuries...
  31. Developing a New Antioxidant Activator to Intervene in Lung Inflammatory Diseases
    JOHN WILLIMANN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Antioxidants synthesized in lung tissues are known to offer protection against pathologic processes associated with many of ..
  32. Effect of Inducible Antioxidants on Hemoglobin Toxicity
    Raymond F Regan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The ultimate goal is to reduce brain injury in tissue surrounding a blood clot, and to thereby improve the likelihood of survival and return to an independent, productive life. ..
  33. Alcohol &Antiretrovirals in HIV Infection, Oxidative Stress and Liver Disease
    Marianna K Baum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Plasma antioxidants (glutathione, vitamins A and E, 1 and 2-carotenes, zinc and selenium) will also be determined...
  34. Hypothermia, anesthesia and NMR metabolomics in ischemic neonatal brain slices
    Lawrence Litt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and metabolomics, in situations where superoxide production is or is not attenuated by any of three exogenous antioxidants: dimeric apocynin (inhibits NADPD-oxidase), S-PBN, and ethyl pyruvate...
  35. Apple peel extract inhibits Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer
    Zhuo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These plant-derived phytochemicals are rich sources of naturally occurring antioxidants. Our preliminary studies have shown that oral administration of apple peel extract decreased the number of ..
  36. Quantitation of Tocopherol Metabolism in Humans
    ANDREW JOSEPH CLIFFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These Vitamin E formulas occur naturally in many foods and act as biological antioxidants. Previous studies have shown differences in the way humans metabolize vitamin E...
  37. TNF and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in ALD
    Craig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..chronic alcohol abusecauses increased gut permeability and endotoxemia(increased LPS), depletionof critical antioxidants (e.g...
  38. The Organ Specific Role of Superoxide Dismutase in Sepsis
    Alix Ashare; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Mitochondrial antioxidants are known to prevent cellular apoptosis in response to oxidative stress such as that associated with sepsis...
  39. Triple Quadrupole/Linear Ion Trap LC-MS/MS for LPI
    Jan Frederik Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..has established itself as a national and international leader in research and education on micronutrients and antioxidants, and is one of a few research centers in the US to focus entirely on increasing human "healthspan" - the period ..
  40. Cigarette Smoke-derived Electrophilic Aldehydes and Airway Inflammation
    Albert van Der Vliet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to CS-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), largely based on observations of protective effects of thiol-based antioxidants, the main thiol-reactive agents within CS are acrolein (2,3- propenal) and other related unsaturated aldehydes...
  41. ROS, Redox Regulation and Novel Targets for Cancer Therapy
    Peng Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells exhibited intrinsic oxidative stress and were highly dependent on cellular antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) to maintain redox balance...
  42. Cardioprotective Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide
    DAVID JOSEPH LEFER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1, and Kir 6.2 subunits) treated with H2S and subjected to MI-R. Specific Aim 2: To investigate the role of antioxidants in H2S-mediated cardioprotection...
  43. GSK3beta, a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity
    Xianglin Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..C3G-mediated neuroprotection is much more potent than other antioxidants and GSK3[unreadable] inhibitors. C3G can cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and distribute in the brain...
  44. Environment, Novel Aging Outcomes, and Genetics
    Sung Kyun Park; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..also examine if the associations between pollutants and age-related diseases are modified by dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and cruciferous vegetables) and omega-3 fatty acids...
  45. PROTEIN CARBONYLATION AND AXONAL DAMAGE IN EAE
    Oscar A Bizzozero; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We envision that in the future these agents could be administered in combination with antioxidants, anti-inflammatory or neuroactive substances for an improved clinical management of chronic MS.
  46. Embryonic Gene Expression During Diabetic Embryopathy
    Mary R Loeken; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for neural tube and neural crest development, is significantly reduced in embryos of diabetic mice, and antioxidants block the inhibition of Pax3 as well as the associated neural tube and neural crest defects...
  47. VOLUME REGULATION IN NORMAL AND CATARACTOUS LENSES
    Richard T Mathias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which rely on the inwardly directed extracellular fluid flow to carry essential nutrients, amino acids and antioxidants into the lens...
  48. Green tea effects on gene expression in tobacco users
    Joel L Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to containing antioxidants that can directly inactivate carcinogens, GT has shown the ability, largely in vitro, to induce apoptosis in ..
  49. C MYC--TRANSCRIPTION AND APOPTOSIS
    Chi V Dang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and to adapt to low oxygen tension, is essential for the cancer-inducing ability of MYC and plan to determine how the antioxidants, vitamin C and N- acetylcysteine, decrease the function of HIF to inhibit MYC-mediated cancer growth.
  50. Impact of obesity on airway responses to air pollution
    Stephanie A Shore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To address this hypothesis, we will measure lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation products as well as antioxidants in the lungs and blood after room air exposure or at various times after acute O3 exposure...
  51. Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-targeted Antioxidants
    ANUMANTHA GOUNDER KANTHASAMY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposal is to develop neuroprotective strategies that involve synthesis and testing of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in a preclinical mouse model of Parkinson's Disease (PD) that can be subsequently translated to patients ..
  52. RPE Phenotype and Oxidative Stress
    Janice M Burke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Antioxidants will also be tested to see if binding them to organelles helps the RPE sustain normal organelle motility ..
  53. Peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine and HSP90 in neuronal death
    ALVARO G ESTEVEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the copper in zinc-deficient SOD can act as a non-specific one-electron oxidase, robbing electrons from antioxidants like ascorbate and glutathione that can be transferred to oxygen to produce superoxide...
  54. Enhancing Nrf2 by Sulforaphane Treatment in COPD
    Robert A Wise; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..whether ingestion of sulforaphane by COPD patients will increase Nrf2 activity and expression of downstream antioxidants in alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells...
  55. Emerging Functions of Mitochondrial Fission in Postischemic Endothelial Cells
    BARBARA RITA ALEVRIADOU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Fission in I/RP-exposed ECs is inhibited by antioxidants or NO synthase inhibitors, and is accompanied by phosphorylation of the fission protein dynamin-related protein ..
  56. Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant and protects UV-induced carcinogenesis
    Zhuo Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent studies suggest that various fruits and vegetables contain high concentrations of antioxidants. Quercitrin is a glycosylated form of flavonoid compounds, widely distributed in nature, and is ubiquitous in ..
  57. Biomarkers of NNK in prediction of lung cancer development in smokers
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..their corresponding glucuronides), and total isothiocyanates in urine, and beta-cryptoxanthin and other dietary antioxidants in serum on all study subjects...
  58. Ocular Oxygen Metabolism and the Etiology of Open Angle Glaucoma
    Carla J Siegfried; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will map pO2 levels and measure aqueous humor antioxidants and outflow facility at each stage...
  59. A Prospective Study of Diet and Prostate Cancer
    Edward Giovannucci; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..that many of the proposed modifiable factors for prostate cancer (intakes of vitamin D, calcium, milk, antioxidants, n-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fat, hyperinsulinemic diets, obesity, anti-inflammatory agents) may operate ..
  60. Role of the Unfolded Protein Response in Beta Cell
    Randal J Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Does excessive,.(Proinsulin synthesis (such as elF2aAA) cause p cell dedifferentiation and can; antioxidants protect p cells under these conditions? We will sort GFP+ elF2aAA p cells from mice (+/- BHAsupplemented diet) ..
  61. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dys
    Ula V Jurkunas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary studies have identified a decrease in the antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven antioxidants, overexpression of extracellular and stress-related proteins, and an increase in the levels of oxidized ..
  62. Antioxidants and Antiinflammatory in Colorectal Cancer
    Ah Ng Tony Kong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): This is an R01 competing continuation application to study the mechanism of action of antioxidants [the isothiocyanates, sulforaphane (SFN) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] and the anti-inflammatory [the ..
  63. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF OXIDATION OF LDL
    Sampath Parthasarathy; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Some incubations will be conducted in the presence of antioxidants. A number of peptides from apo B and albumin, especially from lysine-rich regions of these proteins, will be ..
  64. PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY TRAINING GRANT
    Harry Koo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Povlishock); endothelial cell, glycolipid and immune injury mechanisms (Dr. Yu); oxidants and antioxidants in tissue damage and repair (Drs. W. Chan, N. Kuemmerle)...
  65. FREE RADICAL LIPID PEROXIDATION DAMAGE
    ALOYS TAPPEL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Protection is provided by biological antioxidants, and some requiring further evaluation will be studied. Specific aims are: 1...
  66. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROMETER
    Cecilia Giulivi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..this instrument to carry out research in several areas as follows: a) fundamental chemistry and biochemistry of antioxidants such as vitamin E, C and flavonoids;b) biochemistry of NO production in mosquito vectors of malaria parasites ..
  67. Influence of Dietary Flavonoids on the Expression of At*
    Carl Keen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Vitamins and minerals contribute to the oxidative defense system because: (1) they are antioxidants (vitamins E, C and B-carotene); (2) they are essential for the function of enzyme antioxidants (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, ..
  68. TRANSGENIC MICE, AGING, CANCER, AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGE
    Arlan Richardson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..oxidative stress hypothesis of aging using transgenic mouse models in which the balance between prooxidants and antioxidants is altered so that the steady state accumulation of oxidative damage is accelerated...
  69. Synthesis and Evaluation of Nano-antioxidants for Medical Applications
    Choon Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Antioxidants have been reported to be beneficial for prevention of a variety of human diseases including cancer and cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, pulmonary and chronic ailments...
  70. BIOLOGIC ACTIVITY OF BETA-CAROTENE METABOLITES
    Robert Russell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..results in increased lung cell oxidative stress, thereby causing decreased tissue levels of other important antioxidants, such as ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol, which have a stabilizing effect on unoxidized beta-carotene...
  71. VITAMIN C, GLUTATHIONE, AND ENDOTHELIUM DERIVED NO
    John Keaney; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..EDNO action is particularly sensitive to increased vascular oxidative stress (an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former)...
  72. Cardiovascular Effects of Scutellaria baicelensis
    Chun Su Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..nontraditional antioxidants may play in its acute treatment...
  73. LUNG SURFACE ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSES AGAINST AIR POLLUTANTS
    CARROLL CROSS; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The RTLFs contain significant amounts of low-molecular mass antioxidants (ascorbate, urate, glutathione (GSH) and a-tocopherol), that may serve to protect functional constituents ..
  74. Mechanisms of PCP genotoxicity & antioxidant modulation
    BENZHAN ZHU; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..through a novel, metal-independent mechanism (the so-called organic Fenton reaction); and that dietary antioxidants markedly inhibit -OH production from PCP metabolites...
  75. RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS
    David Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..With an interest in abrogating endothelial cell injury, they have incorporated antioxidants into infected cell culture systems...