- Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector
Molecular Microbiology Group, University of Southampton Medical School, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom
PLoS Pathog 7:e1002258. 2011
..trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions...
- Loss of the starvation-induced gene Rack1 leads to glycogen deficiency and impaired autophagic responses in Drosophila
Department of Anatomy, Cell and Developmental Biology, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary
Autophagy 8:1124-35. 2012
..Loss of Rack1 led to attenuated autophagic response to starvation, and glycogen stores were decreased 11.8-fold in Rack1 mutant cells...
- Glycogen and its metabolism: some new developments and old themes
Peter J Roach
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Biochem J 441:763-87. 2012
b>Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that acts as a store of energy in times of nutritional sufficiency for utilization in times of need...
- Requirement of glycogenolysis for uptake of increased extracellular K+ in astrocytes: potential implications for K+ homeostasis and glycogen usage in brain
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, China Medical University, No 92 Beier Road, Heping District, Shenyang, People s Republic of China
Neurochem Res 38:472-85. 2013
..This will allow Kir1.4-mediated release and reuptake by the less powerful neuronal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...
- Regulation of feeding and metabolism by neuronal and peripheral clocks in Drosophila
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Cell Metab 8:289-300. 2008
..tissues, in particular in the fat body, also display increased food consumption but have decreased levels of glycogen and a higher sensitivity to starvation...
- Role that phosphorylation of GSK3 plays in insulin and Wnt signalling defined by knockin analysis
Edward J McManus
MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, MSI WTB complex, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland
EMBO J 24:1571-83. 2005
The inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 has been proposed to play important roles in insulin and Wnt signalling...
- Muscle-specific expression of PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha improves exercise performance and increases peak oxygen uptake
Jennifer A Calvo
Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1304-12. 2008
..Thus this study demonstrates that upregulation of PGC-1alpha in muscle in vivo is sufficient to greatly improve exercise performance under various exercise paradigms as well as increase peak oxygen uptake...
- Suppression of autophagy permits successful enzyme replacement therapy in a lysosomal storage disorder--murine Pompe disease
Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Autophagy 6:1078-89. 2010
..disease, a lysosomal storage disorder in which acid alphaglucosidase, the enzyme involved in the breakdown of glycogen, is deficient or absent. Clinically the disease manifests as a cardiac and skeletal muscle myopathy...
- Acetylation negatively regulates glycogen phosphorylase by recruiting protein phosphatase 1
State Key Lab of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 20032, China
Cell Metab 15:75-87. 2012
b>Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogen catabolism and plays a key role in maintaining cellular and organismal glucose homeostasis...
- Unexpected and widespread connections between bacterial glycogen and trehalose metabolism
Departments of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
Microbiology 157:1565-72. 2011
b>Glycogen, a large α-glucan, is a ubiquitous energy storage molecule among bacteria, and its biosynthesis by the classical GlgC-GlgA pathway and its degradation have long been well understood - or so we thought...
- Regulation of glycogen metabolism in yeast and bacteria
Wayne A Wilson
Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, USA
FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:952-85. 2010
..b>Glycogen biosynthesis is a main strategy for such metabolic storage, and a variety of sensing and signaling mechanisms ..
- Global regulation by the small RNA-binding protein CsrA and the non-coding RNA molecule CsrB
Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, 76107 2699, USA
Mol Microbiol 29:1321-30. 1998
..b>Glycogen synthesis and catabolism, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, motility, cell surface properties and adherence are ..
- CsrA regulates glycogen biosynthesis by preventing translation of glgC in Escherichia coli
Carol S Baker
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Mol Microbiol 44:1599-610. 2002
..CsrA binding to glgCAP transcripts inhibits glycogen metabolism by promoting glgCAP mRNA decay...
- The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis
Unite de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, UMR 8576 CNRS USTL, Batiment C9, Cite Scientifique, F 59655 Villeneuve d Ascq, France
J Exp Bot 62:1775-801. 2011
Solid semi-crystalline starch and hydrosoluble glycogen define two distinct physical states of the same type of storage polysaccharide...
- From bacterial glycogen to starch: understanding the biogenesis of the plant starch granule
Steven G Ball
Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, UMR 8576 du CNRS, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Bâtiment C9 Cité Scientifique, France
Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:207-33. 2003
..Plant starch metabolism can be distinguished from that of bacterial glycogen by the presence of multiple forms of enzyme activities for each step of the pathway...
- Identification and molecular characterization of csrA, a pleiotropic gene from Escherichia coli that affects glycogen biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, cell size, and surface properties
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Texas, Fort Worth 76107 2699
J Bacteriol 175:4744-55. 1993
..metabolic pathways that is transcriptionally activated in the stationary phase is the pathway for biosynthesis of glycogen. To identify factors that regulate glycogen biosynthesis in trans, a collection of transposon mutants was ..
- Astrocyte glycogen and brain energy metabolism
Angus M Brown
School of Biomedical Sciences, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, United Kingdom
Glia 55:1263-71. 2007
The brain contains glycogen but at low concentration compared with liver and muscle. In the adult brain, glycogen is found predominantly in astrocytes...
- Interleukin-6 acts as insulin sensitizer on glycogen synthesis in human skeletal muscle cells by phosphorylation of Ser473 of Akt
Dept of Internal Medicine, Div of Endocrinology, Metabolism, Pathobiochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Univ of Tübingen, Otfried Muller Strasse 10, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 289:E251-7. 2005
Previous studies showed an insulin-"desensitizing" action of IL-6 on glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes. We recently found no inhibition of the proximal steps of the insulin signal cascade in human skeletal muscle cells...
- Capsular glucan and intracellular glycogen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biosynthesis and impact on the persistence in mice
Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
Mol Microbiol 70:762-74. 2008
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species produce large amounts of a glycogen-like alpha-glucan that represents the major polysaccharide of their outermost capsular layer...
- Glycogen in Bacillus subtilis: molecular characterization of an operon encoding enzymes involved in glycogen biosynthesis and degradation
J A Kiel
Department of Genetics, State University of Groningen, Haren, The Netherlands
Mol Microbiol 11:203-18. 1994
Although it has never been reported that Bacillus subtilis is capable of accumulating glycogen, we have isolated a region from the chromosome of B. subtilis containing a glycogen operon...
- Glycogen is a preferred glutamate precursor during learning in 1-day-old chick: biochemical and behavioral evidence
Marie E Gibbs
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
J Neurosci Res 85:3326-33. 2007
..of biochemical events, including glutamate release, increase in forebrain level of glutamate and utilization of glycogen and glucose...
- Brain glycogen content and metabolism in subjects with type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness
Department of Radiology, Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32:256-63. 2012
Supercompensated brain glycogen may contribute to the development of hypoglycemia unawareness in patients with type 1 diabetes by providing energy for the brain during periods of hypoglycemia...
- Physiological control of liver glycogen metabolism: lessons from novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors
Institute of Cellular Medicine, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE24HH, UK
Mini Rev Med Chem 10:1175-87. 2010
Liver glycogen is synthesized in the postprandial state in response to elevated concentrations of glucose and insulin or by activation of neuroendocrine signals and it is degraded in the postabsorptive state in response to changes in the ..
- Transcriptional activation of the IL-6 gene in human contracting skeletal muscle: influence of muscle glycogen content
The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
FASEB J 15:2748-50. 2001
..of 180 min of two-legged dynamic knee extensor with either normal or low (~60% of control) pre-exercise muscle glycogen levels. Increases in plasma IL-6 during exercise were significantly higher (P<0...
- Glucose utilization via glycogen phosphorylase sustains proliferation and prevents premature senescence in cancer cells
Molecular Oncology Laboratories, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
Cell Metab 16:751-64. 2012
..Hypoxia in tumors represents a hostile environment that can encourage these transformations. We report that glycogen metabolism is upregulated in tumors in vivo and in cancer cells in vitro in response to hypoxia...
- Rab25 increases cellular ATP and glycogen stores protecting cancer cells from bioenergetic stress
Kwai Wa Cheng
Department of Systems Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
EMBO Mol Med 4:125-41. 2012
..Unexpectedly, Rab25 induced the accumulation of glycogen in epithelial cancer cells, a process not previously identified...
- The effect of the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis on the lipid and glycogen content of its intermediate host Gammarus pulex
S J Plaistow
Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France
Int J Parasitol 31:346-51. 2001
..presence of the acanthocephalan parasite, Pomphorhynchus laevis, and inter-individual variation in the lipid and glycogen content of its crustacean host, Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda)...
- Hypoxia promotes glycogen accumulation through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of glycogen synthase 1
Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
PLoS ONE 5:e9644. 2010
..Here we show that oxygen regulates the expression of the muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1). Hypoxic GYS1 induction requires HIF activity and a Hypoxia Response Element within its promoter...
- The molecular basis of glycogen breakdown and transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae
D Wade Abbott
Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P6
Mol Microbiol 77:183-99. 2010
..We show that of the commonly occurring exogenous alpha-glucans, S. pneumoniae TIGR4 is only able to grow on glycogen in a MalX- and SpuA-dependent manner...
- Insulin promotes glycogen synthesis in the absence of GSK3 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E28-35. 2008
Insulin promotes dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase (GS) by inactivating glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 through phosphorylation...
- PTG, a protein phosphatase 1-binding protein with a role in glycogen metabolism
J A Printen
Department of Physiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Science 275:1475-8. 1997
..A PP1C-targeting protein expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (called PTG, for protein targeting to glycogen) was cloned and characterized. PTG was expressed predominantly in insulin-sensitive tissues...
- Malin decreases glycogen accumulation by promoting the degradation of protein targeting to glycogen (PTG)
Carolyn A Worby
Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0721, USA
J Biol Chem 283:4069-76. 2008
..A hallmark of LD is the accumulation of insoluble glycogen in the cytoplasm of cells from most tissues...
- Glycogen synthase kinase 3: a key regulator of cellular fate
J E Forde
Biomedical Sciences Building, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Museum Avenue, CF10 3US, Cardiff, UK
Cell Mol Life Sci 64:1930-44. 2007
The serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as a key regulator of insulin-dependent glycogen synthesis...
- AMPK: a key sensor of fuel and energy status in skeletal muscle
D Grahame Hardie
Division of Molecular Physiology, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland
Physiology (Bethesda) 21:48-60. 2006
..Recent work using a muscle-specific knockout of the upstream kinase, LKB1, has confirmed that the LKB1-->AMPK cascade is the signaling pathway responsible for many of these effects...
- Clinical outcomes after long-term treatment with alglucosidase alfa in infants and children with advanced Pompe disease
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Hopital Debrousse, University Lyon, Lyon, France
Genet Med 11:210-9. 2009
..A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of alglucosidase alfa in infants and children with advanced Pompe disease...
- Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase controls glycogen synthesis in muscle
University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
Cell Metab 12:456-66. 2010
b>Glycogen synthase (GS), a key enzyme in glycogen synthesis, is activated by the allosteric stimulator glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and by dephosphorylation through inactivation of GS kinase-3 with insulin...
- Functional significance of brain glycogen in sustaining glutamatergic neurotransmission
Helle M Sickmann
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
J Neurochem 109:80-6. 2009
The involvement of brain glycogen in sustaining neuronal activity has previously been demonstrated...
- Globular adiponectin increases GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake but reduces glycogen synthesis in rat skeletal muscle cells
R B Ceddia
Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada
Diabetologia 48:132-9. 2005
..The aim of this study was to determine whether adiponectin elicits glucose uptake via increased GLUT4 translocation and to investigate the metabolic fate of glucose in skeletal muscle cells treated with globular adiponectin...
- n-3 fatty acids and rosiglitazone improve insulin sensitivity through additive stimulatory effects on muscle glycogen synthesis in mice fed a high-fat diet
Department of Adipose Tissue Biology, Institute of Physiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
Diabetologia 52:941-51. 2009
..We hypothesised that a combined treatment with a DHA and EPA concentrate (DHA/EPA) and rosiglitazone would correct, by complementary additive mechanisms, impairments of lipid and glucose homeostasis in obesity...
- Autophagy-assisted glycogen catabolism regulates asexual differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae
Yi Zhen Deng
Fungal Patho Biology Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory and Department of Biological Sciences, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Autophagy 5:33-43. 2009
..Comparative proteomics based identification and characterization of Gph1, a glycogen phosphorylase that catalyzes glycogen breakdown, indicated that autophagy-assisted glycogen homeostasis is likely ..
- Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement
John L Ivy
Exercise Physiology and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
J Appl Physiol 93:1337-44. 2002
..that a carbohydrate-protein (CHO-Pro) supplement would be more effective in the replenishment of muscle glycogen after exercise compared with a carbohydrate supplement of equal carbohydrate content (LCHO) or caloric ..
- Training with low muscle glycogen enhances fat metabolism in well-trained cyclists
Carl J Hulston
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:2046-55. 2010
To determine the effects of training with low muscle glycogen on exercise performance, substrate metabolism, and skeletal muscle adaptation.
- Chronic treatment with the AMP-kinase activator AICAR increases glycogen storage and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscles but does not reduce hyperglucagonemia and hyperglycemia in insulin deficient rats
Kaio F Vitzel
Muscle Health Research Center School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
PLoS ONE 8:e62190. 2013
This study tested whether the glycogen-accumulating effect of chronic in vivo pharmacological 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation could improve glycemic control under conditions of insulin deficiency...
- Freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) from Greenland and Europe
National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Silkeborg, Denmark
Cryobiology 57:286-91. 2008
..When frozen, E. albidus responded by catabolising glycogen to glucose, which likely acted as a cryoprotectant...
- The pharmacological chaperone AT2220 increases recombinant human acid α-glucosidase uptake and glycogen reduction in a mouse model of Pompe disease
Amicus Therapeutics Inc, Cranbury, New Jersey, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e40776. 2012
..deficiency in the enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA), and is characterized by progressive accumulation of lysosomal glycogen primarily in heart and skeletal muscles...
- Laforin is a glycogen phosphatase, deficiency of which leads to elevated phosphorylation of glycogen in vivo
Vincent S Tagliabracci
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19262-6. 2007
..Lafora bodies, deposits of abnormally branched, insoluble glycogen-like polymers, form in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues...
- Selective small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 modulate glycogen metabolism and gene transcription
M P Coghlan
Department of Vascular Biology, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Essex, UK
Chem Biol 7:793-803. 2000
b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, the activity of which is inhibited by a variety of extracellular stimuli including insulin, growth factors, cell specification factors and cell adhesion...
- Impaired glycogen synthesis causes metabolic overflow reactions and affects stress responses in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Institute of Biology Biochemistry of Plants, Chausseestrasse 117, Berlin, Germany
Microbiology 158:3032-43. 2012
The biosynthesis of glycogen or starch is one of the main strategies developed by living organisms for the intracellular storage of carbon and energy...
- Glycogen and maltose utilization by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the mouse intestine
Shari A Jones
Advanced Center for Genome Technology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
Infect Immun 76:2531-40. 2008
..e., maltose, maltodextrin, and glycogen, is important for Escherichia coli colonization of the intestine...
- The glycogen-binding domain on the AMPK beta subunit allows the kinase to act as a glycogen sensor
Division of Molecular Physiology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
Cell Metab 9:23-34. 2009
AMPK beta subunits contain a conserved domain that causes association with glycogen. Although glycogen availability is known to affect AMPK regulation in vivo, the molecular mechanism for this has not been clear...
- Acute signalling responses to intense endurance training commenced with low or normal muscle glycogen
Wee Kian Yeo
Exercise Metabolism Group, School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
Exp Physiol 95:351-8. 2010
..programme in which selected high-intensity interval training (HIT) sessions were commenced with low muscle glycogen content increased the maximal activities of several oxidative enzymes that promote endurance adaptations to a ..
- High density lipoprotein (HDL) promotes glucose uptake in adipocytes and glycogen synthesis in muscle cells
Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Cardiovascular Diseases and Molecular Intervention, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People s Republic of China
PLoS ONE 6:e23556. 2011
..This investigation was designed to determine the effects and mechanisms of HDL on glucose uptake in adipocytes and glycogen synthesis in muscle cells.
- A signalling role for muscle glycogen in the regulation of pace during prolonged exercise
H G L Rauch
UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sports Science Institute, Boundary Road, Newlands, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
Br J Sports Med 39:34-8. 2005
In this study we examined the pacing strategy and the end muscle glycogen contents in eight cyclists, once when they were carbohydrate loaded and once when they were non-loaded.
- Chocolate milk and endurance exercise recovery: protein balance, glycogen, and performance
William R Lunn
Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, Moore Field House, Room 169, New Haven, CT 06515, USA
Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:682-91. 2012
This study examined effects of fat-free chocolate milk (MILK) consumption on kinetic and cellular markers of protein turnover, muscle glycogen, and performance during recovery from endurance exercise.
- Molecular mechanism by which AMP-activated protein kinase activation promotes glycogen accumulation in muscle
Roger W Hunter
MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
Diabetes 60:766-74. 2011
..AMPK) promotes glucose transport and glycolysis for ATP production, while it is thought to inhibit anabolic glycogen synthesis by suppressing the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) to maintain the energy balance in muscle...
- Brain glucagon-like peptide-1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage
UMR 5018, Universite Paul Sabatier, IFR31, Toulouse, France USA
J Clin Invest 115:3554-63. 2005
..of the specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (Ex9) increased muscle glucose utilization and glycogen content...
- Toll-like receptor 2 activation by Chlamydia trachomatis is plasmid dependent, and plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci are coordinately regulated in response to glucose limitation by C. trachomatis but not by C. muridarum
CATHERINE M O'CONNELL
Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Infect Immun 79:1044-56. 2011
..muridarum. As observed with plasmid-deficient C. muridarum, CTD153 displayed impaired accumulation of glycogen within inclusions...
- Crystal structure of full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv glycogen branching enzyme: insights of N-terminal beta-sandwich in substrate specificity and enzymatic activity
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543
J Biol Chem 285:20897-903. 2010
..We have assayed the amylase activity with amylose and starch as substrates and the glycogen branching activity using amylose as a substrate for MtbGlgBWT and the N1 domain-deleted (the first 108 residues ..
- Autophagy and mitochondria in Pompe disease: nothing is so new as what has long been forgotten
NIAMS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 1820, USA
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 160:13-21. 2012
..recent data provide strong evidence for the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of Pompe disease, a lysosomal glycogen storage disease caused by deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA)...
- Roles of two protein phosphatases, Reg1-Glc7 and Sit4, and glycogen synthesis in regulation of SNF1 protein kinase
Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:6349-54. 2011
..The SNF1 β-subunit contains a glycogen-binding domain that has been implicated in glucose inhibition of Snf1 Thr210 phosphorylation...
- Glycogen synthase kinase-3 in insulin and Wnt signalling: a double-edged sword?
Ontario Cancer Institute, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada
Biochem Soc Trans 32:803-8. 2004
b>Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is an unusual protein serine/threonine kinase that, unlike most of its 500-odd relatives in the genome, is active under resting conditions and is inactivated upon cell stimulation...
- Inhibition of glycogenolysis in astrocytes interrupts memory consolidation in young chickens
Marie E Gibbs
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
Glia 54:214-22. 2006
..glycolysis; however, the metabolic inhibitor used, iodoacetate, inhibits pyruvate formation from both glucose and glycogen. At specific time points after training transient reductions in brain glycogen content occur, mirrored by ..
- The NDR kinase DBF-2 is involved in regulation of mitosis, conidial development, and glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, The Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
Eukaryot Cell 9:502-13. 2010
..demonstrate that DBF-2 is involved in three fundamental processes in a filamentous fungus: cell cycle regulation, glycogen biosynthesis, and conidiation...
- PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Department of Medicine, Kovler Center for Biomedical Discovery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e37103. 2012
..Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner...
- The imprinted Phlda2 gene regulates extraembryonic energy stores
S J Tunster
Genetics Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3AX, United Kingdom
Mol Cell Biol 30:295-306. 2010
..of the imprinted Phlda2 gene characterized by a dramatically reduced junctional zone and a decrease in stored glycogen. In addition, glycogen cells do not migrate into the maternal decidua in a timely fashion, but instead, Tpbpa-..
- Photoperiodic regulation of glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, and glutamine synthesis in tanycytes of the Siberian hamster suggests novel roles of tanycytes in hypothalamic function
Rowett Institute for Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Glia 59:1695-705. 2011
..This analysis revealed upregulation in expression of genes involved in glycogen and glucose metabolism in short photoperiod and localized to the tanycyte layer of the third ventricle...
- Regulation of glycogen synthase activity and phosphorylation by exercise
Jakob N Nielsen
Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Proc Nutr Soc 63:233-7. 2004
b>Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyses the rate-limiting step of UDP-glucose incorporation into glycogen...
- Starch-binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) and glycogen metabolism: Identification of the Atg8 family interacting motif (AIM) in Stbd1 required for interaction with GABARAPL1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 413:420-5. 2011
b>Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, acts as an intracellular carbon and energy reserve in many tissues and cell types. An important pathway for its degradation is by transport to lysosomes in an autophagy-like process...
- Resveratrol ameliorates diabetes-related metabolic changes via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream targets in db/db mice
Gyeong Min Do
Center for Food and Nutritional Genomics Research, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
Mol Nutr Food Res 56:1282-91. 2012
..This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (RV) on diabetes-related metabolic changes in a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, as well as activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and downstream targets...
- Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions
Ana F Soares
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Magn Reson Med 61:1-5. 2009
Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats...
- Neuron-glia metabolic coupling and plasticity
Pierre J Magistretti
Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Switzerland and Centre de Neurosciences Psychiatriques, CHUV, Departement de Psychiatrie, Site de Cery, CH1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
J Exp Biol 209:2304-11. 2006
..In addition, marked variations in the expression of genes involved in glial glycogen metabolism are observed during the sleep-wake cycle, with in particular a marked induction of expression of the ..
- PTG gene deletion causes impaired glycogen synthesis and developmental insulin resistance
Sean M Crosson
Department of Medicine, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0650, USA
J Clin Invest 111:1423-32. 2003
Protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) is a scaffolding protein that targets protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha) to glycogen, and links it to enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and degradation...
- Glycogen hyperphosphorylation underlies lafora body formation
Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Ann Neurol 68:925-33. 2010
b>Glycogen, the largest cytosolic macromolecule, acquires solubility, essential to its function, through extreme branching. Lafora bodies are aggregates of polyglucosan, a long, linear, poorly branched, and insoluble form of glycogen...
- AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates R5/PTG, the glycogen targeting subunit of the R5/PTG-protein phosphatase 1 holoenzyme, and accelerates its down-regulation by the laforin-malin complex
Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC and CIBER de Enfermedades Raras CIBERER, Jaime Roig 11, Valencia 46010, Spain
J Biol Chem 284:8247-55. 2009
R5/PTG is one of the glycogen targeting subunits of type 1 protein phosphatase, a master regulator of glycogen synthesis...
- Postexercise muscle glycogen recovery enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement
John M Berardi
Exercise Nutrition Research Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada
Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1106-13. 2006
..assessed whether liquid carbohydrate-protein (C+P) supplements, ingested early during recovery, enhance muscle glycogen resynthesis versus isoenergetic liquid carbohydrate (CHO) supplements, given early or an isoenergetic solid meal ..
- Last step in the conversion of trehalose to glycogen: a mycobacterial enzyme that transfers maltose from maltose 1-phosphate to glycogen
Alan D Elbein
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
J Biol Chem 285:9803-12. 2010
..show that Mycobacterium smegmatis has an enzyme catalyzing transfer of maltose from [(14)C]maltose 1-phosphate to glycogen. This enzyme was purified 90-fold from crude extracts and characterized...
- Effects of larval growth condition and water availability on desiccation resistance and its physiological basis in adult Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto
Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UK
Malar J 9:225. 2010
..Natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. are exposed to large seasonal and daily fluctuations in relative humidity and temperature, which makes coping with drought a crucial aspect of their ecology...
- Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism during and after exercise
Thomas E Jensen
Molecular Physiology Group, Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
J Physiol 590:1069-76. 2012
Utilization of carbohydrate in the form of intramuscular glycogen stores and glucose delivered from plasma becomes an increasingly important energy substrate to the working muscle with increasing exercise intensity...
- Potential mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of glycogen synthesis by insulin
A K Srivastava
Research Center, CHUM, Hotel Dieu Campus, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Mol Cell Biochem 182:135-41. 1998
Stimulation of glycogen synthesis is one of the major physiological responses modulated by insulin...
- Molecular analysis of GPH1, the gene encoding glycogen phosphorylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
P K Hwang
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0448
Mol Cell Biol 9:1659-66. 1989
In yeast cells, the activity of glycogen phosphorylase is regulated by cyclic AMP-mediated phosphorylation of the enzyme. We have previously cloned the gene for glycogen phosphorylase (GPH1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
- ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a regulatory enzyme for bacterial glycogen synthesis
Miguel A Ballicora
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:213-25, table of contents. 2003
..In bacteria and plants, the synthesis of glycogen and starch occurs by utilizing ADP-glucose as the glucosyl donor for elongation of the alpha-1,4-glucosidic chain...
- Immunocytochemical localization of glycogen phosphorylase isozymes in rat nervous tissues by using isozyme-specific antibodies
Physiologisch Chemisches Institut der Universität and Institut für Organische Chemie der Universität, Tubingen, Germany
J Neurochem 85:73-81. 2003
Isozyme-specific antibodies were raised against peptides from the low-homology regions of the sequences of rat glycogen phosphorylase BB and MM isozymes by immunization of rabbits and guinea pigs...
- MRI detection of glycogen in vivo by using chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging (glycoCEST)
Peter C M van Zijl
Division of Magnetic Resonance Research, Neurology Section, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4359-64. 2007
Detection of glycogen in vivo would have utility in the study of normal physiology and many disorders...
- Glycogen branches out: new perspectives on the role of glycogen metabolism in the integration of metabolic pathways
Cynthia C Greenberg
Department of Medicine, Committee on Molecular Metabolism and Nutrition, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E1-8. 2006
b>Glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrate for virtually every organism from yeast to primates. Most mammalian tissues store glucose as glycogen, with the major depots located in muscle and liver...
- Gain-of-function R225W mutation in human AMPKgamma(3) causing increased glycogen and decreased triglyceride in skeletal muscle
Sheila R Costford
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
PLoS ONE 2:e903. 2007
..Here we report the first gain-of-function mutation in the muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3) subunit in humans...
- The Saccharomyces SHP1 gene, which encodes a regulator of phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 with differential effects on glycogen metabolism, meiotic differentiation, and mitotic cell cycle progression
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn 11203 2098
Mol Cell Biol 15:2037-50. 1995
..phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunit encoded by the Saccharomyces GLC7 gene is involved in control of glycogen metabolism, meiosis, translation, chromosome segregation, cell polarity, and G2/M cell cycle progression...
- A mutation in PRKAG3 associated with excess glycogen content in pig skeletal muscle
Laboratoire de Genetique Cellulaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
Science 288:1248-51. 2000
A high proportion of purebred Hampshire pigs carries the dominant RN- mutation, which causes high glycogen content in skeletal muscle. The mutation has beneficial effects on meat content but detrimental effects on processing yield...
- Selective suppression of AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle: update on 'lazy mice'
Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Clinical Research Building, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6148, USA
Biochem Soc Trans 31:236-41. 2003
..These same mice could not maintain sufficient glycogen in their skeletal muscle and it was rapidly depleted when the animals were subjected to mild exercise...
- Conditional essentiality of the csrA gene in Escherichia coli
Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium
J Bacteriol 191:1722-4. 2009
..Deletion of the glgCAP operon in the csrA::cat mutant restored the ability to grow on LB and on synthetic medium containing glycolytic carbon sources, showing that growth inhibition is due to an excess of glycogen synthesis.
- Glycogen synthase localization and activity in rat skeletal muscle is strongly dependent on glycogen content
J N Nielsen
Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Department of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
J Physiol 531:757-69. 2001
1. The influence of muscle glycogen content on glycogen synthase (GS) localization and GS activity was investigated in skeletal muscle from male Wistar rats. 2...
- The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase gamma3 isoform has a key role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in glycolytic skeletal muscle
Brian R Barnes
Department of Surgical Sciences and the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 279:38441-7. 2004
..missense mutation (R225Q) in pig PRKAG3, encoding the muscle-specific gamma3 isoform, causes a marked increase in glycogen content...
- Recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase enzyme therapy for infantile glycogen storage disease type II: results of a phase I/II clinical trial
Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Genet Med 3:132-8. 2001
PURPOSE: Infantile glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II) is a fatal genetic muscle disorder caused by deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA)...
- Control of glucose utilization in working perfused rat heart
National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Rockville, Maryland 20895
J Biol Chem 269:25502-14. 1994
..05 unit/ml), or both. Net glycogen breakdown occurred in the glucose group only and was converted to net glycogen synthesis in the presence of all ..
- Regulation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase activity and substrate utilization in exercising human skeletal muscle
Jorgen F P Wojtaszewski
Department of Human Physiology, Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E813-22. 2003
..The experiment was performed twice, once in a glycogen-loaded (glycogen concentration approximately 900 mmol/kg dry wt) and once in a glycogen-depleted (glycogen ..
- Generalized glycogen storage and cardiomegaly in a knockout mouse model of Pompe disease
A G Bijvoet
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Hum Mol Genet 7:53-62. 1998
b>Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII; Pompe disease), caused by inherited deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase, is a lysosomal disorder affecting heart and skeletal muscles...
- Catalytic isoforms Tpk1 and Tpk2 of Candida albicans PKA have non-redundant roles in stress response and glycogen storage
Catedra de Microbiologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, IBYF CONICET, Avda San Martin 4453, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina
Yeast 26:273-85. 2009
..albicans PKA in response to saline, heat and oxidative stresses as well as in glycogen storage. To fine-tune the analysis, we performed the studies on several C...
- The genotype-phenotype correlation in Pompe disease
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 160:59-68. 2012
Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal glycogen storage disorder that is caused by acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency and is due to pathogenic sequence variations in the corresponding GAA gene...
- Role of insulin on exercise-induced GLUT-4 protein expression and glycogen supercompensation in rat skeletal muscle
Chia Hua Kuo
Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
J Appl Physiol 96:621-7. 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of insulin on skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein expression and glycogen storage after postexercise carbohydrate supplementation...
- Physiological and biochemical changes in summer and winter diapause and non-diapause pupae of the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae L. during long-term cold acclimation
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Yamagata University, Tsuruoka 997 8555, Japan
J Insect Physiol 49:1153-9. 2003
..During cold acclimation, glycogen content remained at higher levels in WD and SD than in ND...
- Determinants of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of muscle glycogen synthase
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
FEBS J 272:3197-213. 2005
Muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) presents a nuclear speckled pattern in primary cultured human muscle and in 3T3-L1 cells deprived of glucose and with depleted glycogen reserves...
- Placental glycogen stores are increased in mice with H19 null mutations but not in those with insulin or IGF type 1 receptor mutations
Diego R Esquiliano
Endocrine Division, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Placenta 30:693-9. 2009
The function of glycogen in the placenta remains controversial. Whether it is used as a source of fuel for placental consumption or by the fetus in times of need has yet to be determined...