- New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Genet 42:105-16. 2010
- Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin
William C Knowler
Diabetes Prevention Program Coordinating Center, Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, 6110 Executive Blvd, Suite 750, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
N Engl J Med 346:393-403. 2002
..We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes...
- A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance
Division of Biological Sciences and Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 420:333-6. 2002
..Thus, JNK is a crucial mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for therapeutics...
- Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes
Boyd E Metzger
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
N Engl J Med 358:1991-2002. 2008
..It is controversial whether maternal hyperglycemia less severe than that in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes...
- Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK
Lancet 375:2215-22. 2010
..We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances...
- Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes
N Engl J Med 358:2560-72. 2008
..In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain...
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome
Unit of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, Italy
Diabetes 50:1844-50. 2001
..NAFLD may be considered an additional feature of the metabolic syndrome, with specific hepatic insulin resistance...
- Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Care 26:3160-7. 2003
- Loss-of-function mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance
Daniela M L Tsukumo
Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Diabetes 56:1986-98. 2007
..Thus, TLR4 appears to be an important mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and a potential target for the therapy of these highly prevalent medical conditions...
- Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen
A M Shapiro
Surgical Medical Research Institute and the Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
N Engl J Med 343:230-8. 2000
..Registry data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who undergo pancreatic islet transplantation indicate that only 8 percent are free of the need for insulin therapy at one year...
- Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome
Department of Internal Medicine, Jakobstad Hospital, Finland
Diabetes Care 24:683-9. 2001
..To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization..
- Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes
Hertzel C Gerstein
N Engl J Med 358:2545-59. 2008
- Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes
David M Nathan
Diabetes Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Diabetes Care 32:193-203. 2009
..In this revision, we focus on the new classes of medications that now have more clinical data and experience...
- FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator
Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
J Clin Invest 115:1627-35. 2005
..Thus, we conclude that FGF-21, which we have identified as a novel metabolic factor, exhibits the therapeutic characteristics necessary for an effective treatment of diabetes...
- Glycemic control with diet, sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: progressive requirement for multiple therapies (UKPDS 49). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group
R C Turner
Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England
JAMA 281:2005-12. 1999
..8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) or glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) below 7% is unknown...
- Clinical risk factors, DNA variants, and the development of type 2 diabetes
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
N Engl J Med 359:2220-32. 2008
..Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to develop from an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. We examined whether clinical or genetic factors or both could predict progression to diabetes in two prospective cohorts...
- Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients
Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20:1595-9. 2000
..These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy...
- Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Guildford Hospital, UK
Diabetologia 52:2046-55. 2009
..The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in type 2 diabetes mellitus vs placebo and insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), all in combination with metformin and glimepiride...
- Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Science 313:1137-40. 2006
..Our results demonstrate that chemical chaperones enhance the adaptive capacity of the ER and act as potent antidiabetic modalities with potential application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
- Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults
Department of Epidemiology and the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
N Engl J Med 362:800-11. 2010
..Fasting glucose is the standard measure used to diagnose diabetes in the United States. Recently, glycated hemoglobin was also recommended for this purpose...
- Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene
J L Halaas
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockfeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 269:543-6. 1995
..2 to 0.7 percent. These data suggest that the OB protein serves an endocrine function to regulate body fat stores...
- DURATION-5: exenatide once weekly resulted in greater improvements in glycemic control compared with exenatide twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes
Texas Diabetes and Endocrinology, 6500 North Mopac Expressway, Building 3, Suite 200, Austin, Texas 78731, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:1301-10. 2011
..We wanted to understand the effects of once-weekly vs. twice-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonism for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes...
- Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta)
Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Science 292:1728-31. 2001
..We show that mice deficient in Akt2 are impaired in the ability of insulin to lower blood glucose because of defects in the action of the hormone on liver and skeletal muscle...
- Severe hypoglycemia and risks of vascular events and death
George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
N Engl J Med 363:1410-8. 2010
..We analyzed data from a large study of intensive glucose lowering to explore the relationship between severe hypoglycemia and adverse clinical outcomes...
- Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control
Susan L Norris
Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Diabetes Care 25:1159-71. 2002
..To evaluate the efficacy of self-management education on GHb in adults with type 2 diabetes...
- Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene
Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, 3655 Drummond Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3G 1Y6
Science 283:1544-8. 1999
..Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of ..
- Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall II study
Adam G Tabak
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK
Lancet 373:2215-21. 2009
..We aimed to characterise trajectories of fasting and postload glucose, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes...
- Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk--a meta-analysis of observational studies
Alan W Barclay
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Am J Clin Nutr 87:627-37. 2008
..Inconsistent findings from observational studies have prolonged the controversy over the effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on the risk of certain chronic diseases...
- Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are acutely increased by hyperglycemia in humans: role of oxidative stress
Department of Geriatric and Metabolic Diseases, Second University of Naples, Italy
Circulation 106:2067-72. 2002
..We assessed the role of glucose in the regulation of circulating levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), as well as the effect of the antioxidant glutathione...
- Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes
Caroline A Crowther
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
N Engl J Med 352:2477-86. 2005
..We conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine whether treatment of women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduced the risk of perinatal complications...
- International trial of the Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation
A M James Shapiro
Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
N Engl J Med 355:1318-30. 2006
..We conducted an international, multicenter trial to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of islet transplantation with the use of a single common protocol (the Edmonton protocol)...
- Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S
Earl S Ford
Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Diabetes Care 28:2745-9. 2005
..S. adults and to compare it with the prevalence estimated using the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)...
- Exendin-4 stimulates both beta-cell replication and neogenesis, resulting in increased beta-cell mass and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats
Elliott P Joslin Research Laboratories, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Diabetes 48:2270-6. 1999
..Thus, GLP-I and analogs thereof hold promise as a novel therapy to stimulate beta-cell growth and differentiation when administered to diabetic individuals with reduced beta-cell mass...
- Once weekly exenatide compared with insulin glargine titrated to target in patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-3): an open-label randomised trial
Diabetes Centre, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Lancet 375:2234-43. 2010
..We aimed to test the hypothesis that improvement in haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) achieved with once weekly exenatide was superior to that achieved with insulin glargine titrated to glucose targets...
- Fasting serum glucose level and cancer risk in Korean men and women
Sun Ha Jee
Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
JAMA 293:194-202. 2005
..Diabetes is a serious and costly disease that is becoming increasingly common in many countries. The role of diabetes as a cancer risk factor remains unclear...
- Lipid-induced insulin resistance in human muscle is associated with changes in diacylglycerol, protein kinase C, and IkappaB-alpha
Samar I Itani
Diabetes Unit, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
Diabetes 51:2005-11. 2002
..Whether acute FFA-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle is caused by the activation of these specific PKC isoforms and the IKK-beta/IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway remains to be established...
- Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000
Nita G Forouhi
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
Diabetes 57:2619-25. 2008
..However, prospective data using the biomarker serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are limited and therefore examined in the present study...
- Objectively measured light-intensity physical activity is independently associated with 2-h plasma glucose
Genevieve N Healy
Cancer Prevention Research Centre, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Diabetes Care 30:1384-9. 2007
..We examined the associations of objectively measured sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with fasting and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose in Australian adults...
- Control of hepatic gluconeogenesis through the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1
J C Yoon
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 413:131-8. 2001
b>Blood glucose levels are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus...
- Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study
Bruce B Duncan
Graduate Studies Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Diabetes 52:1799-805. 2003
..7 (P for linear trend = 0.008). In conclusion, a low-grade inflammation predicts incident type 2 diabetes. The association is absent in smokers and African-Americans...
- Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproduction
J C Bruning
Klinik II und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin and Center of Molecular Medicine ZMMK der Universität zu Köln, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50931 Cologne, Germany
Science 289:2122-5. 2000
..Thus, IR signaling in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of energy disposal, fuel metabolism, and reproduction...
- Common variants at 10 genomic loci influence hemoglobin A₁(C) levels via glycemic and nonglycemic pathways
Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, U K
Diabetes 59:3229-39. 2010
..We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA₁(c) levels...
- International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
Am J Clin Nutr 76:5-56. 2002
..The revised table also lists the glycemic load associated with the consumption of specified serving sizes of different foods...
- Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials
N G Boulé
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Ottawa Health Research Institute, 1053 Carling Ave, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Y 4E9
JAMA 286:1218-27. 2001
..However, clinical trials on the effects of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes have had small sample sizes and conflicting results...
- The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease
David S Ludwig
Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
JAMA 287:2414-23. 2002
..The purpose of this review is to examine the physiological effects of the glycemic index and the relevance of these effects in preventing and treating obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
- Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes
Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care Center, Phoenix, AZ 85012, USA
N Engl J Med 360:129-39. 2009
..The effects of intensive glucose control on cardiovascular events in patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus remain uncertain...
- Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid may improve liver and muscle but not adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in obese men and women
Center for Human Nutrition and Atkins Center of Excellence in Obesity Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
Diabetes 59:1899-905. 2010
..The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TUDCA therapy on multiorgan insulin action and metabolic factors associated with insulin resistance in obese men and women...
- Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component
Anoja S Attele
Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Diabetes 51:1851-8. 2002
..01) compared with vehicle-treated ob/ob mice. The improvement in blood glucose levels in the extract-treated ob/ ob mice was associated with a significant reduction in serum insulin levels ..
- Chronic oxidative stress as a central mechanism for glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes
R Paul Robertson
Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA
J Biol Chem 279:42351-4. 2004
- Intensive glucose control and macrovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes
F M Turnbull
The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
Diabetologia 52:2288-98. 2009
..The aim of these analyses was to generate more precise estimates of the effects of more-intensive, compared with less-intensive, glucose control on the risk of major cardiovascular events amongst patients with type 2 diabetes...
- Exercise, glucose transport, and insulin sensitivity
L J Goodyear
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Annu Rev Med 49:235-61. 1998
..However, there is now extensive epidemiological evidence demonstrating that long-term regular physical exercise can significantly reduce the risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...
- Weight reduction increases plasma levels of an adipose-derived anti-inflammatory protein, adiponectin
W S Yang
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3815-9. 2001
..In addition, the increase in plasma adiponectin despite the reduction of the only tissue of its own synthesis suggests that the expression of adiponectin is under feedback inhibition in obesity...
- CREB regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through the coactivator PGC-1
Peptide Biology Laboratories, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 1002, USA
Nature 413:179-83. 2001
..Fasting hyperglycaemia is strongly correlated with type II diabetes, so our results suggest that the activation of PGC-1 by CREB in liver contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of this disease...
- Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus
David B Sacks
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thorn 530, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Clin Chem 48:436-72. 2002
..Multiple laboratory tests are used in the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes mellitus. The quality of the scientific evidence supporting the use of these assays varies substantially...
- Effect of intensive glucose lowering treatment on all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and microvascular events in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Department of General Medicine, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France
BMJ 343:d4169. 2011
..To determine all cause mortality and deaths from cardiovascular events related to intensive glucose lowering treatment in people with type 2 diabetes...
- Structure-function studies of the adipocyte-secreted hormone Acrp30/adiponectin. Implications fpr metabolic regulation and bioactivity
Utpal B Pajvani
Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
J Biol Chem 278:9073-85. 2003
..Combined, these results shed new light on the regulation of this complex protein and suggest a new model for in vivo activation of the protein, implicating a serum reductase activity...
- Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in flies: growth and diabetic phenotypes
Eric J Rulifson
Department of Developmental Biology, Beckman Center B300, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
Science 296:1118-20. 2002
..Interestingly, the phenotype of flies lacking IPCs includes certain features of diabetes mellitus...
- Multipotent stromal cells from human marrow home to and promote repair of pancreatic islets and renal glomeruli in diabetic NOD/scid mice
Ryang Hwa Lee
Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17438-43. 2006
..The hMSCs lowered blood glucose levels in the diabetic mice on day 32 relative to untreated controls (18.34 mM +/- 1.12 SE vs. 27.78 mM +/- 2...
- Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function protects mice against adiposity
James M Ntambi
Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11482-6. 2002
..These observations suggest that a consequence of SCD1 deficiency is an activation of lipid oxidation in addition to reduced triglyceride synthesis and storage...
- The mechanism of diabetes control after gastrointestinal bypass surgery reveals a role of the proximal small intestine in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes
IRCAD European Institute of Telesurgery, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
Ann Surg 244:741-9. 2006
..We sought to distinguish between these two mechanisms...
- A novel locus, Mody4, distal to D7Mit189 on chromosome 7 determines early-onset NIDDM in nonobese C57BL/6 (Akita) mutant mice
Department of Hygiene, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan
Diabetes 46:887-94. 1997
..At 7 weeks of age, the mean morning blood glucose levels (mmol/l) under ad libitum feeding conditions were significantly higher (P < 0...
- Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study
Nicola M McKeown
Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 76:390-8. 2002
The influence of whole grains on cardiovascular disease risk may be mediated through multiple pathways, eg, a reduction in blood lipids and blood pressure, an enhancement of insulin sensitivity, and an improvement in blood glucose control.
- Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction after successful reperfusion
Lazaros A Nikolaidis
Cardiovascular Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
Circulation 109:962-5. 2004
..Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with both insulinotropic and insulinomimetic properties that stimulate glucose uptake without the requirements for concomitant glucose infusion...
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4 stimulate beta-cell neogenesis in streptozotocin-treated newborn rats resulting in persistently improved glucose homeostasis at adult age
Laboratory of Physiopathology of Nutrition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ESA 7059, Université Paris7 Denis Diderot, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France
Diabetes 50:1562-70. 2001
..Further studies are needed to understand the dissociation between beta-cell regeneration and the lack of improvement in beta-cell function...
- Disruption of IRS-2 causes type 2 diabetes in mice
D J Withers
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 391:900-4. 1998
..Our results indicate that dysfunction of IRS-2 may contribute to the pathophysiology of human type 2 diabetes...
- Glycemic control and complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Department of Clinical Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Am J Med 123:S3-11. 2010
..Ongoing research into the mechanisms responsible for diabetic complications may provide new markers to help identify patients with type 2 diabetes who can benefit from earlier antidiabetes treatments...
- Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes
University of California, San Francisco, Primary Care Research Center, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
JAMA 288:475-82. 2002
..Little is known about the extent to which health literacy affects clinical health outcomes...
- A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk
CNRS UMR 8090, Institute of Biology and Lille 2 University, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France
Nat Genet 41:89-94. 2009
..Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway...
- Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha induces fibrosis and insulin resistance in white adipose tissue
Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Mol Cell Biol 29:4467-83. 2009
..Collectively, our observations are consistent with a model in which adipose tissue hypoxia serves as an early upstream initiator for adipose tissue dysfunction by inducing a local state of fibrosis...
- Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Endocrine Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P O Box 4763, Tehran 19395, Iran
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 61:29-37. 2003
..This report on the metabolic syndrome from Iran shows a high prevalence of this disorder. Efforts on promoting healthy diets, physical activity, and blood pressure control must be undertaken...
- Hypoglycaemia: the limiting factor in the glycaemic management of Type I and Type II diabetes
P E Cryer
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Diabetologia 45:937-48. 2002
- Fibroblast growth factor 21 reverses hepatic steatosis, increases energy expenditure, and improves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice
Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, USA
Diabetes 58:250-9. 2009
..The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model...
- Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy men
Orfeu M Buxton
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Diabetes 59:2126-33. 2010
..This study tests the hypothesis that decreasing nighttime sleep duration reduces insulin sensitivity and assesses the effects of a drug, modafinil, that increases alertness during wakefulness...
- Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial
Rena R Wing
Department of Psychiatry, The Miriam Hospital Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02860, USA
Arch Intern Med 170:1566-75. 2010
..We examined the effects of lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness, and CVD risk factors during a 4-year study...
- Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the ACCORD randomised trial
Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 4951, USA
Lancet 376:419-30. 2010
..We investigated whether reduction of blood glucose concentration decreases the rate of microvascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Metabolic syndrome vs Framingham Risk Score for prediction of coronary heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus
S Goya Wannamethee
Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, England
Arch Intern Med 165:2644-50. 2005
..We sought to compare metabolic syndrome (MetS) with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) as predictors of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in middle-aged men...
- Variants in MTNR1B influence fasting glucose levels
1 Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK 2 Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK 3 These authors contributed equally to this work
Nat Genet 41:77-81. 2009
..Our analyses also confirm previous associations of fasting glucose with variants at the G6PC2 (rs560887, P = 1.1 x 10(-57)) and GCK (rs4607517, P = 1.0 x 10(-25)) loci...
- Insulin-sensitive obesity
Department of Medicine, Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research, University of Leipzig, Germany
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299:E506-15. 2010
..This suggests that mechanisms beyond a positive caloric balance such as inflammation and adipokine release determine the pathological metabolic consequences in patients with obesity...
- Dietary combination of fucoxanthin and fish oil attenuates the weight gain of white adipose tissue and decreases blood glucose in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice
Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3 1 1 Minato, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041 8611, Japan
J Agric Food Chem 55:7701-6. 2007
..and antidiabetic effects of fucoxanthin and fish oil, we investigated the effect on the WAT weight, blood glucose, and insulin levels of KK- A(y) mice...
- Systematic review: glucose control and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes
Tanika N Kelly
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2000, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Ann Intern Med 151:394-403. 2009
..Results from clinical trials examining the effect of intensive glucose control on cardiovascular disease have been conflicting...
- Effect of glycemic carbohydrates on short-term satiety and food intake
G Harvey Anderson
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Fitzgerald Building, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E2
Nutr Rev 61:S17-26. 2003
..g., 2 to 3 hours). There is no consistent evidence that an increase in blood glucose, either acute or sustained, is the primary determinant of their effects on food intake and satiety...
- Activation of oxidative stress by acute glucose fluctuations compared with sustained chronic hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes
Department of Metabolic Diseases, Lapeyronie Hospital, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
JAMA 295:1681-7. 2006
..Glycemic disorders, one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, are associated with activation of oxidative stress...
- Nocturnal hypertension in mice consuming a high fructose diet
Boonshoft School of Medicine of Wright State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dayton, OH 45401, USA
Auton Neurosci 130:41-50. 2006
..To investigate the effect of fructose consumption on the light/dark pattern of blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic neural function in mice...
- The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver
Nicola L Beer
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
Hum Mol Genet 18:4081-8. 2009
- Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men
Medical Corps Headquarters, Tel Hashomer, Israel
N Engl J Med 353:1454-62. 2005
..55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear...
- The metabolic state of diabetic monkeys is regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21
Lilly Research Laboratories, A Division of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
Endocrinology 148:774-81. 2007
..These data support the development of FGF-21 for the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic diseases...
- Common genetic variation near melatonin receptor MTNR1B contributes to raised plasma glucose and increased risk of type 2 diabetes among Indian Asians and European Caucasians
John C Chambers
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, U K
Diabetes 58:2703-8. 2009
..Fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes are higher among Indian Asians than among European and North American Caucasians. Few studies have investigated genetic factors influencing glucose metabolism among Indian Asians...
- Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular performance in conscious dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy
Lazaros A Nikolaidis
Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
Circulation 110:955-61. 2004
- Plasma visfatin concentrations and fat depot-specific mRNA expression in humans
University of Leipzig, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Diabetes 54:2911-6. 2005
..In addition, we did not find differences in visfatin mRNA expression between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans...
- Increased intestinal permeability in obese mice: new evidence in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Department of Histology, Univ of Padua, Via Gabelli 63, Padova, Italy
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292:G518-25. 2007
..We suggest that in metabolic syndrome, patients may likewise have a greater intestinal mucosa permeability and increased lipopolysaccharide levels in portal blood that can contribute to the liver inflammatory damage...
- Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008
R Phillip Dellinger
Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, USA
Crit Care Med 36:296-327. 2008
..To provide an update to the original Surviving Sepsis Campaign clinical management guidelines, "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock," published in 2004...
- Glucose variability; does it matter?
Sarah E Siegelaar
Academic Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Meibergdreef 9, Room F4 255, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Endocr Rev 31:171-82. 2010
- Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Claus M Larsen
Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark
N Engl J Med 356:1517-26. 2007
- Evaluating the glucose tolerance test in mice
Univ of Melbourne, Dept of Medicine, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria, Australia
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E1323-32. 2008
..We conclude that 2 g/kg glucose administered orally following 6 h of fasting is best to assess glucose tolerance in mice under these conditions...
- Relationship between blood glucose and carotid intima media thickness: A meta-analysis
Thomas R Einarson
Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Cardiovasc Diabetol 9:37. 2010
..The link has not been established between glucose and CIMT; therefore, we sought to assess the relationship between glucose and CIMT...
- The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based cohort study
Leon A Adams
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Gastroenterology 129:113-21. 2005
..The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the community remains unknown. We sought to determine survival and liver-related morbidity among community-based NAFLD patients...
- Neonatal exendin-4 prevents the development of diabetes in the intrauterine growth retarded rat
Doris A Stoffers
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Clinical Research Building 611B, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Diabetes 52:734-40. 2003
..These results indicate that exposure to Ex-4 in the newborn period reverses the adverse consequences of fetal programming and prevents the development of diabetes in adulthood...
- Diabetes prevalence and therapeutic target achievement in the United States, 1999 to 2006
Bernard M Y Cheung
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Am J Med 122:443-53. 2009
..Changes in the prevalence, treatment, and management of diabetes in the United States from 1999 to 2006 were studied using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
- Insulin promotes glycogen synthesis in the absence of GSK3 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E28-35. 2008
..This suggests that allosteric regulation of GS by G-6-P may play a key role in insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthesis in vivo...
- Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice
College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487 8501, Japan
J Nutr 140:527-33. 2010
..Dietary BBE significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and enhanced insulin sensitivity...
- Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile
Liza A H Rosén
Division of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Nutr J 8:42. 2009
..The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism for a reduced post-prandial insulin demand with rye products...