Summary: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Articles from Journal RESEARCH

Top Publications

  1. pmc Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation
    Matthew G Vander Heiden
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 324:1029-33. 2009
  2. ncbi Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 306:457-61. 2004
  3. ncbi PGC-1alpha-responsive genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are coordinately downregulated in human diabetes
    Vamsi K Mootha
    Whitehead Institute MIT Center for Genome Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 34:267-73. 2003
  4. ncbi Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
    A R Saltiel
    Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nature 414:799-806. 2001
  5. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006
  6. pmc Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action
    G Zhou
    Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
    J Clin Invest 108:1167-74. 2001
  7. ncbi Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 313:1137-40. 2006
  8. pmc MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity
    Hajime Kanda
    Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    J Clin Invest 116:1494-505. 2006
  9. ncbi The control of the metabolic switch in cancers by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
    Arnold J Levine
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Science 330:1340-4. 2010
  10. ncbi TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival
    Ken Inoki
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Cell 115:577-90. 2003

Detail Information

Articles from Journal RESEARCH1

Publications322 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation
    Matthew G Vander Heiden
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 324:1029-33. 2009
    ..A better understanding of the mechanistic links between cellular metabolism and growth control may ultimately lead to better treatments for human cancer...
  2. ncbi Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 306:457-61. 2004
    ..Pharmacologic manipulation of this pathway may offer novel opportunities for treating these common diseases...
  3. ncbi PGC-1alpha-responsive genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are coordinately downregulated in human diabetes
    Vamsi K Mootha
    Whitehead Institute MIT Center for Genome Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 34:267-73. 2003
    ..Expression of these genes is high at sites of insulin-mediated glucose disposal, activated by PGC-1alpha and correlated with total-body aerobic capacity...
  4. ncbi Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
    A R Saltiel
    Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nature 414:799-806. 2001
    The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In both disorders, tissues such as muscle, fat and liver become less responsive or resistant to insulin...
  5. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006
    ..lipid infusion to (a) suppress insulin signaling in muscle and (b) reduce insulin-mediated changes in systemic glucose metabolism...
  6. pmc Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action
    G Zhou
    Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
    J Clin Invest 108:1167-74. 2001
    Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization...
  7. ncbi Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 313:1137-40. 2006
    ..Our results demonstrate that chemical chaperones enhance the adaptive capacity of the ER and act as potent antidiabetic modalities with potential application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  8. pmc MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity
    Hajime Kanda
    Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    J Clin Invest 116:1494-505. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice...
  9. ncbi The control of the metabolic switch in cancers by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
    Arnold J Levine
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Science 330:1340-4. 2010
    ..Tumor cells take up much more glucose and mainly process it through aerobic glycolysis, producing large quantities of secreted lactate with a lower use ..
  10. ncbi TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival
    Ken Inoki
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Cell 115:577-90. 2003
    ..These observations demonstrate a model where TSC2 functions as a key player in regulation of the common mTOR pathway of protein synthesis, cell growth, and viability in response to cellular energy levels...
  11. pmc Macrophage-specific PPARgamma controls alternative activation and improves insulin resistance
    Justin I Odegaard
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5103, USA
    Nature 447:1116-20. 2007
    ..activation, and predisposes these animals to development of diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance...
  12. pmc The Lin28/let-7 axis regulates glucose metabolism
    Hao Zhu
    Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Children s Hospital Boston and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA
    Cell 147:81-94. 2011
    ..Conversely, muscle-specific loss of Lin28a or overexpression of let-7 results in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance...
  13. pmc Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans
    Kimber L Stanhope
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, UCD, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:1322-34. 2009
    Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance...
  14. pmc Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice independently of the LKB1/AMPK pathway via a decrease in hepatic energy state
    Marc Foretz
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 120:2355-69. 2010
    ..Surprisingly, here we have found that in mice lacking AMPK in the liver, blood glucose levels were comparable to those in wild-type mice, and the hypoglycemic effect of metformin was maintained...
  15. ncbi The effects of alternate optimal solutions in constraint-based genome-scale metabolic models
    R Mahadevan
    Genomatica, Inc, Bioprocessing Division, 5405 Morehouse Drive, Suite 210, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Metab Eng 5:264-76. 2003
    ..Sample results are provided for growth predictions of E. coli using glucose, acetate, and lactate as carbon substrates...
  16. ncbi Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes
    Bradford B Lowell
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 99 Brookline Avenue, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 307:384-7. 2005
    Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels depends on a complex interplay between the insulin responsiveness of skeletal muscle and liver and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells...
  17. pmc The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin
    Reuben J Shaw
    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 310:1642-6. 2005
    ..Adenoviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) for TORC2 reduced PGC-1alpha expression and normalized blood glucose levels in mice with deleted liver LKB1, indicating that TORC2 is a critical target of LKB1/AMPK signals in the ..
  18. pmc Myc regulates a transcriptional program that stimulates mitochondrial glutaminolysis and leads to glutamine addiction
    David R Wise
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18782-7. 2008
    Mammalian cells fuel their growth and proliferation through the catabolism of two main substrates: glucose and glutamine...
  19. ncbi Pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells generates glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells in vivo
    Evert Kroon
    Novocell, Inc, 3550 General Atomics Ct, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 26:443-52. 2008
    ..Here we show that pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells efficiently generates glucose-responsive endocrine cells after implantation into mice...
  20. pmc Targeting lactate-fueled respiration selectively kills hypoxic tumor cells in mice
    Pierre Sonveaux
    Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    J Clin Invest 118:3930-42. 2008
    ..Hypoxic tumor cells primarily use glucose for glycolytic energy production and release lactic acid, creating a lactate gradient that mirrors the oxygen ..
  21. pmc Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis
    Evan D Rosen
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 444:847-53. 2006
    ..Adipose tissue also serves as a crucial integrator of glucose homeostasis...
  22. pmc HIF-1: upstream and downstream of cancer metabolism
    Gregg L Semenza
    Vascular Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Broadway Research Building, Suite 671, 733 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 20:51-6. 2010
    ..HIF-1) plays a key role in the reprogramming of cancer metabolism by activating transcription of genes encoding glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, which take up glucose and convert it to lactate; pyruvate dehydrogenase ..
  23. ncbi Nutrient control of glucose homeostasis through a complex of PGC-1alpha and SIRT1
    Joseph T Rodgers
    Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 434:113-8. 2005
    Homeostatic mechanisms in mammals respond to hormones and nutrients to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range...
  24. ncbi Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of glucose transporters GLUT1-4
    Linfeng Sun
    State Key Laboratory of Bio membrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Nature 490:361-6. 2012
    b>Glucose transporters are essential for metabolism of glucose in cells of diverse organisms from microbes to humans, exemplified by the disease-related human proteins GLUT1, 2, 3 and 4...
  25. pmc Ablation of CD11c-positive cells normalizes insulin sensitivity in obese insulin resistant animals
    David Patsouris
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Cell Metab 8:301-9. 2008
    ..Together, these results indicate that these CD11c+ cells are a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and type II diabetes...
  26. ncbi AMP-activated protein kinase induces a p53-dependent metabolic checkpoint
    Russell G Jones
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Mol Cell 18:283-93. 2005
    ..Here we show that proliferating mammalian cells have a cell-cycle checkpoint that responds to glucose availability...
  27. pmc Beyond aerobic glycolysis: transformed cells can engage in glutamine metabolism that exceeds the requirement for protein and nucleotide synthesis
    Ralph J DeBerardinis
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Room 450, BRB II III, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6160, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19345-50. 2007
    ..Many tumor cells exhibit rapid glucose consumption, with most of the glucose-derived carbon being secreted as lactate despite abundant oxygen ..
  28. ncbi The CREB coactivator TORC2 is a key regulator of fasting glucose metabolism
    Seung Hoi Koo
    Peptide Biology Laboratories, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, California 92037 1002, USA
    Nature 437:1109-11. 2005
    b>Glucose homeostasis is regulated systemically by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, and at the cellular level by energy status...
  29. pmc ATP-citrate lyase links cellular metabolism to histone acetylation
    Kathryn E Wellen
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 324:1076-80. 2009
    ..Metazoans, however, use glucose as their main carbon source and have exposure only to low concentrations of extracellular acetate...
  30. ncbi Akt stimulates aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells
    Rebecca L Elstrom
    Department of Cancer Biology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Cancer Res 64:3892-9. 2004
    ..However, Akt stimulated glucose consumption in transformed cells without affecting the rate of oxidative phosphorylation...
  31. pmc Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis
    Congcong He
    Center for Autophagy Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Nature 481:511-5. 2012
    ..BCL2 AAA mice show decreased endurance and altered glucose metabolism during acute exercise, as well as impaired chronic exercise-mediated protection against high-fat-diet-..
  32. ncbi Nrf2 redirects glucose and glutamine into anabolic pathways in metabolic reprogramming
    Yoichiro Mitsuishi
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryo machi, Aoba ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980 8575, Japan
    Cancer Cell 22:66-79. 2012
    ..Here, we show that Nrf2 redirects glucose and glutamine into anabolic pathways, especially under the sustained activation of PI3K-Akt signaling...
  33. ncbi Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity: studies in subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity
    E Bonora
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Verona Medical School, Italy
    Diabetes Care 23:57-63. 2000
    ..To evaluate whether the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) is a reliable surrogate measure of in vivo insulin sensitivity in humans...
  34. ncbi Protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking TNF-alpha function
    K T Uysal
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 389:610-4. 1997
    ..These results indicate that TNF-alpha is an important mediator of insulin resistance in obesity through its effects on several important sites of insulin action...
  35. ncbi Targeting hypoxia, HIF-1, and tumor glucose metabolism to improve radiotherapy efficacy
    Tineke W H Meijer
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Cancer Res 18:5585-94. 2012
    ..studies and the first clinical phase I/II trials, it can be concluded that targeting HIF-1 and tumor glucose metabolism at several levels reduces the antioxidant capacity of tumors, affects the tumor microenvironment, and ..
  36. pmc Lack of interleukin-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) protects mice from high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation coincident with improved glucose homeostasis
    Fiona C McGillicuddy
    Nutrigenomics Research Group, University College Dublin Conway Institute, School of Public Health and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Diabetes 60:1688-98. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that lack of IL-1RI may ameliorate HFD-induced IR by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation...
  37. ncbi Glucose restriction extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span by inducing mitochondrial respiration and increasing oxidative stress
    Tim J Schulz
    Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition, University of Jena, D 07743 Jena, Germany
    Cell Metab 6:280-93. 2007
    Increasing cellular glucose uptake is a fundamental concept in treatment of type 2 diabetes, whereas nutritive calorie restriction increases life expectancy...
  38. ncbi AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus
    Yasuhiko Minokoshi
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 428:569-74. 2004
    ..hypothalamus (PVH) by the anorexigenic hormone leptin, and in multiple hypothalamic regions by insulin, high glucose and refeeding...
  39. ncbi Translational control is required for the unfolded protein response and in vivo glucose homeostasis
    D Scheuner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, 48109, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Mol Cell 7:1165-76. 2001
    ..Subsequently, transcription of genes encoding adaptive functions including the glucose-regulated proteins is induced...
  40. ncbi Cancer's molecular sweet tooth and the Warburg effect
    Jung whan Kim
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Cancer Res 66:8927-30. 2006
    More than 80 years ago, the renowned biochemist Otto Warburg described how cancer cells avidly consume glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions...
  41. ncbi Hypoxia, HIF1 and glucose metabolism in the solid tumour
    Nicholas C Denko
    Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 8:705-13. 2008
    ..As discussed in this Perspective, new data suggests that this metabolic switch may provide a benefit to the tumour not by increasing glycolysis but by decreasing mitochondrial activity...
  42. pmc Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge
    Richa Saxena
    Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 42:142-8. 2010
    b>Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes...
  43. ncbi Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance
    Valeria R Fantin
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cancer Cell 9:425-34. 2006
    ..These results demonstrate that LDH-A plays a key role in tumor maintenance...
  44. ncbi Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver
    E D Abel
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 409:729-33. 2001
    The earliest defect in developing type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, characterized by decreased glucose transport and metabolism in muscle and adipocytes...
  45. ncbi Regulation of glucose transporter translocation in health and diabetes
    Jonathan S Bogan
    Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8020, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 81:507-32. 2012
    To enhance glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells, insulin stimulates the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular membranes to the cell surface...
  46. pmc Lipid-induced insulin resistance: unravelling the mechanism
    Varman T Samuel
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536 8012, USA
    Lancet 375:2267-77. 2010
    ..More than 40 years ago, Randle and colleagues postulated that lipids impaired insulin-stimulated glucose use by muscles through inhibition of glycolysis at key points...
  47. pmc A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information
    Adam M Feist
    Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Mol Syst Biol 3:121. 2007
    ..The increased scope and computational capability using this new reconstruction is expected to broaden the spectrum of both basic biology and applied systems biology studies of E. coli metabolism...
  48. ncbi Regulation of glucose transport by insulin: traffic control of GLUT4
    Dara Leto
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 13:383-96. 2012
    Despite daily fasting and feeding, plasma glucose levels are normally maintained within a narrow range owing to the hormones insulin and glucagon...
  49. pmc Glucose-induced beta cell production of IL-1beta contributes to glucotoxicity in human pancreatic islets
    Kathrin Maedler
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Clin Invest 110:851-60. 2002
    ..Recently, we have shown that increased glucose concentrations also induce Fas expression and beta cell apoptosis in human islets...
  50. pmc Glucose-independent glutamine metabolism via TCA cycling for proliferation and survival in B cells
    Anne Le
    Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell Metab 15:110-21. 2012
    ..of a MYC-inducible human Burkitt lymphoma model P493 cell line to aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and to glucose deprivation, using stable isotope-resolved metabolomics...
  51. ncbi A pancreatic islet-specific microRNA regulates insulin secretion
    Matthew N Poy
    Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases and Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 432:226-30. 2004
    ..Here we show that overexpression of miR-375 suppressed glucose-induced insulin secretion, and conversely, inhibition of endogenous miR-375 function enhanced insulin secretion...
  52. ncbi Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta)
    H Cho
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 292:1728-31. 2001
    b>Glucose homeostasis depends on insulin responsiveness in target tissues, most importantly, muscle and liver...
  53. pmc Intrahepatic fat, not visceral fat, is linked with metabolic complications of obesity
    Elisa Fabbrini
    Center for Human Nutrition and Atkins Center of Excellence in Obesity Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15430-5. 2009
    ..Furthermore, alterations in tissue fatty acid transport could be involved in the pathogenesis of ectopic triglyceride accumulation by redirecting plasma fatty acid uptake from adipose tissue toward other tissues...
  54. pmc Toward homosuccinate fermentation: metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for anaerobic production of succinate from glucose and formate
    Boris Litsanov
    Institut für Bio und Geowissenschaften, IBG 1 Biotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:3325-37. 2012
    ..studies have demonstrated the capability of Corynebacterium glutamicum for anaerobic succinate production from glucose under nongrowing conditions...
  55. pmc Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) links mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum function with insulin signaling and is essential for normal glucose homeostasis
    David Sebastian
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:5523-8. 2012
    ..Liver-specific ablation of Mfn2 in mice led to numerous metabolic abnormalities, characterized by glucose intolerance and enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Mfn2 deficiency impaired insulin signaling in liver and muscle...
  56. ncbi The adipocyte-secreted protein Acrp30 enhances hepatic insulin action
    A H Berg
    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    Nat Med 7:947-53. 2001
    ..Acrp30 leads to a 2-3-fold elevation in circulating Acrp30 levels, which triggers a transient decrease in basal glucose levels...
  57. ncbi How Saccharomyces responds to nutrients
    Shadia Zaman
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 42:27-81. 2008
  58. ncbi Obesity-induced overexpression of miRNA-143 inhibits insulin-stimulated AKT activation and impairs glucose metabolism
    Sabine D Jordan
    Department of Mouse Genetics and Metabolism, Institute for Genetics, Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging Associated Diseases CECAD, University of Cologne, University Hospital Cologne, Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Zulpicher Strasse 47, D 50674 Cologne, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 13:434-46. 2011
    ..Induced transgenic overexpression of miR-143, but not miR-145, impairs insulin-stimulated AKT activation and glucose homeostasis...
  59. ncbi Dual roles for glucokinase in glucose homeostasis as determined by liver and pancreatic beta cell-specific gene knock-outs using Cre recombinase
    C Postic
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:305-15. 1999
    ..GK only in the liver are only mildly hyperglycemic but display pronounced defects in both glycogen synthesis and glucose turnover rates during a hyperglycemic clamp...
  60. ncbi Crosstalk between components of circadian and metabolic cycles in mammals
    Gad Asher
    Department of Molecular Biology and National Centre of Competence in Research Frontiers in Genetics, Sciences III, University of Geneva, 30, Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Cell Metab 13:125-37. 2011
    ..The intertwining between these acute regulators and circadian clock components is so tight that the discrimination between metabolic and circadian oscillations may be somewhat arbitrary...
  61. ncbi Nutrient overload, insulin resistance, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, S6K1
    Sung Hee Um
    Department of Genome Science, Genome Research Institute, University of Cincinnati, 2180 E Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237, USA
    Cell Metab 3:393-402. 2006
    ..Thus, S6K1 may mediate deleterious effects, like insulin resistance, and potentially type 2 diabetes in the face of nutrient excess...
  62. pmc Lipid-induced insulin resistance mediated by the proinflammatory receptor TLR4 requires saturated fatty acid-induced ceramide biosynthesis in mice
    William L Holland
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:1858-70. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that sphingolipids such as ceramide might be key components of the signaling networks that link lipid-induced inflammatory pathways to the antagonism of insulin action that contributes to diabetes...
  63. ncbi Fat accumulation in the liver is associated with defects in insulin suppression of glucose production and serum free fatty acids independent of obesity in normal men
    Anneli Seppälä-Lindroos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Helsinki, FIN 00029 HUCH, Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3023-8. 2002, and total (determined by magnetic resonance imaging) fat; and insulin sensitivity of endogenous glucose rate of production (R(a)) and suppression of serum FFA [euglycemic insulin clamp combined with [3-(3)H]glucose (0-..
  64. pmc Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase diverts glycolytic flux and contributes to oncogenesis
    Jason W Locasale
    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 43:869-74. 2011
    Most tumors exhibit increased glucose metabolism to lactate, however, the extent to which glucose-derived metabolic fluxes are used for alternative processes is poorly understood...
  65. pmc The histone deacetylase Sirt6 regulates glucose homeostasis via Hif1alpha
    Lei Zhong
    The Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Cell 140:280-93. 2010
    ..Consistent with this notion, SIRT6-deficient cells exhibit increased Hif1alpha activity and show increased glucose uptake with upregulation of glycolysis and diminished mitochondrial respiration...
  66. pmc Physiological significance of a peripheral tissue circadian clock
    Katja A Lamia
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15172-7. 2008
    ..The liver plays a well known role in glucose homeostasis, and we report here that mice with a liver-specific deletion of Bmal1, an essential clock component, ..
  67. pmc Control of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity by the Let-7 family of microRNAs
    Robert J A Frost
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:21075-80. 2011
    ..Here we show that the Let-7 family of microRNAs regulates glucose metabolism in multiple organs...
  68. pmc T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1
    Robert F Margolskee
    Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15075-80. 2007
    Dietary sugars are transported from the intestinal lumen into absorptive enterocytes by the sodium-dependent glucose transporter isoform 1 (SGLT1)...
  69. ncbi High glucose level and free fatty acid stimulate reactive oxygen species production through protein kinase C--dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in cultured vascular cells
    T Inoguchi
    Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushyu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Diabetes 49:1939-45. 2000
    ..In this study, we examined the effect of high glucose level and free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate) on ROS production in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and ..
  70. pmc Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism
    Gregory J Morton
    Diabetes and Obesity Center of Excellence, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Physiol Rev 91:389-411. 2011
    The regulation of body fat stores and blood glucose levels is critical for survival. This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes...
  71. pmc p53 regulates biosynthesis through direct inactivation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
    Peng Jiang
    Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027, China
    Nat Cell Biol 13:310-6. 2011
    Cancer cells consume large quantities of glucose and primarily use glycolysis for ATP production, even in the presence of adequate oxygen...
  72. pmc A gene expression network model of type 2 diabetes links cell cycle regulation in islets with diabetes susceptibility
    Mark P Keller
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53076, USA
    Genome Res 18:706-16. 2008
  73. pmc Increased energy expenditure, decreased adiposity, and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B-deficient mice
    L D Klaman
    Cancer Biology Program, Division of Hematology Oncology, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:5479-89. 2000
    ..In addition, insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal is enhanced significantly in PTP-1B-deficient animals, as shown by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp ..
  74. pmc Evidence for an alternative glycolytic pathway in rapidly proliferating cells
    Matthew G Vander Heiden
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 329:1492-9. 2010
    ..cells, including cancer cells, require altered metabolism to efficiently incorporate nutrients such as glucose into biomass...
  75. ncbi Akt1/PKBalpha is required for normal growth but dispensable for maintenance of glucose homeostasis in mice
    H Cho
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:38349-52. 2001
    ..However, in striking contrast to Akt2/PKBbeta null mice, Akt1/PKBalpha-deficient mice are normal with regard to glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated disposal of blood glucose...
  76. pmc SIRT1 regulates hepatocyte lipid metabolism through activating AMP-activated protein kinase
    Xiuyun Hou
    Vascular Biology Unit and Molecular Cardiology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, and Section of Endocrinology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:20015-26. 2008 expression of FAS (fatty acid synthase), and lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes exposed to high glucose. These effects of polyphenols are largely abolished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of SIRT1, ..
  77. pmc Initiation and execution of lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic beta-cells
    Daniel A Cunha
    Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
    J Cell Sci 121:2308-18. 2008
    ..The FFA-induced ER stress response was not modified by high glucose concentrations, suggesting that ER stress in primary beta-cells is primarily lipotoxic, and not glucolipotoxic...
  78. pmc Alterations in TCF7L2 expression define its role as a key regulator of glucose metabolism
    Daniel Savic
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Genome Res 21:1417-25. 2011
    ..of the spatial-temporal expression patterns of TCF7L2, including expression in tissues involved in the control of glucose homeostasis...
  79. pmc Class IIa histone deacetylases are hormone-activated regulators of FOXO and mammalian glucose homeostasis
    Maria M Mihaylova
    Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 145:607-21. 2011
    ..Loss of class IIa HDACs in murine liver results in inhibition of FOXO target genes and lowers blood glucose, resulting in increased glycogen storage...
  80. pmc Glucose signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    George M Santangelo
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 5018, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70:253-82. 2006
    ..of signal transduction mechanisms with which to sense and respond to the ubiquitous fermentable carbon source glucose. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a fertile model system with which to identify ..
  81. ncbi Diabetes and mitochondrial function: role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress
    Anabela P Rolo
    Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology of Coimbra, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004 517 Coimbra, Portugal
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 212:167-78. 2006
    Hyperglycemia resulting from uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely recognized as the causal link between diabetes and diabetic complications...
  82. pmc Metabolic control of muscle mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation through SIRT1/PGC-1alpha
    Zachary Gerhart-Hines
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    EMBO J 26:1913-23. 2007
    ..Consistent with a switch from glucose to fatty acid oxidation that occurs in nutrient deprivation states, SIRT1 is required for induction and ..
  83. pmc Snowdrift game dynamics and facultative cheating in yeast
    Jeff Gore
    Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 459:253-6. 2009
    ..We are able to alter the outcome of the competition by varying either the cost of cooperation or the glucose concentration in the media...
  84. pmc TGR5-mediated bile acid sensing controls glucose homeostasis
    Charles Thomas
    Institut de Génétique et Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 67404 Illkirch, France
    Cell Metab 10:167-77. 2009
    ..glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, leading to improved liver and pancreatic function and enhanced glucose tolerance in obese mice...
  85. ncbi Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects
    Toshimasa Yamauchi
    Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Nature 423:762-9. 2003
    ..Administration of adiponectin causes glucose-lowering effects and ameliorates insulin resistance in mice...
  86. pmc Movement of eukaryotic mRNAs between polysomes and cytoplasmic processing bodies
    Muriel Brengues
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 0106, USA
    Science 310:486-9. 2005
    ..Moreover, the presence of related proteins in P-bodies and maternal mRNA storage granules suggests this mechanism is widely adapted for mRNA storage...
  87. ncbi Energy substrate modulates mitochondrial structure and oxidative capacity in cancer cells
    Rodrigue Rossignol
    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA
    Cancer Res 64:985-93. 2004
    ..We compared our finding on HeLa cells with those for nontransformed fibroblasts to help distinguish the regulatory pathways...
  88. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces skeletal muscle insulin resistance in healthy human subjects via inhibition of Akt substrate 160 phosphorylation
    Peter Plomgaard
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshopitalet University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 54:2939-45. 2005
    ..TNF-alpha infusion in healthy humans induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, without effect on endogenous glucose production, as estimated by a combined euglycemic insulin clamp and stable isotope tracer method...
  89. ncbi Chronic oxidative stress as a central mechanism for glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes
    R Paul Robertson
    Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:42351-4. 2004
  90. ncbi Adiponectin and AdipoR1 regulate PGC-1alpha and mitochondria by Ca(2+) and AMPK/SIRT1
    Masato Iwabu
    Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Nature 464:1313-9. 2010
    ..Decreased levels of adiponectin and AdipoR1 in obesity may have causal roles in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance seen in diabetes...
  91. ncbi Exercise, glucose transport, and insulin sensitivity
    L J Goodyear
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Annu Rev Med 49:235-61. 1998
    ..Similarly to insulin, a single bout of exercise increases the rate of glucose uptake into the contracting skeletal muscles, a process that is regulated by the translocation of GLUT4 glucose ..
  92. pmc Targeting glucose metabolism for cancer therapy
    Robert B Hamanaka
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Exp Med 209:211-5. 2012
    ..Among the metabolic changes exhibited by tumor cells is an increase in glucose metabolism and glucose dependence...
  93. ncbi Lipid-induced insulin resistance in human muscle is associated with changes in diacylglycerol, protein kinase C, and IkappaB-alpha
    Samar I Itani
    Diabetes Unit, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Diabetes 51:2005-11. 2002
    ..In keeping with previous reports, rates of insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance (G(Rd)) were normal after 2 h but were reduced by 43% (from 52.7 +/- 8.2 to 30.0 +/- 5.3 micromol...
  94. pmc Glucose deprivation contributes to the development of KRAS pathway mutations in tumor cells
    Jihye Yun
    Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Science 325:1555-9. 2009
    ..cell lines that differed only in the mutational status of their KRAS or BRAF genes, we found that GLUT1, encoding glucose transporter-1, was one of three genes consistently up-regulated in cells with KRAS or BRAF mutations...
  95. ncbi Gone with the Wnts: beta-catenin, T-cell factor, forkhead box O, and oxidative stress in age-dependent diseases of bone, lipid, and glucose metabolism
    Stavros C Manolagas
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the Central Arkansas Veterans Health Care System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 7199, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 21:2605-14. 2007
  96. ncbi Brain glucose metabolism in hypothyroidism: a positron emission tomography study before and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy
    M Bauer
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Technische Universitat Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, Dresden, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:2922-9. 2009
    ..Hypothyroidism is frequently associated with subtle behavioral and psychiatric symptoms. The consequences of inadequate thyroid hormone availability to brain metabolism are poorly understood...
  97. ncbi Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets
    N Lumelsky
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-4092, USA
    Science 292:1389-94. 2001
    ..b>Glucose triggers insulin release from these cell clusters by mechanisms similar to those employed in vivo...
  98. ncbi Impaired insulin secretion and beta-cell loss in tissue-specific knockout mice with mitochondrial diabetes
    J P Silva
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nat Genet 26:336-40. 2000
    ..of the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired Ca(2+)-signalling and lowered insulin release in response to glucose stimulation. We observed reduced beta-cell mass in older mutants...
  99. pmc Tyrosine phosphorylation inhibits PKM2 to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth
    Taro Hitosugi
    Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Sci Signal 2:ra73. 2009
    The Warburg effect describes a pro-oncogenic metabolism switch such that cancer cells take up more glucose than normal tissue and favor incomplete oxidation of glucose even in the presence of oxygen...
  100. pmc Glucose restriction inhibits skeletal myoblast differentiation by activating SIRT1 through AMPK-mediated regulation of Nampt
    Marcella Fulco
    Laboratory of Muscle Stem Cells and Gene Regulation, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Dev Cell 14:661-73. 2008
    ..Here, we have investigated how nutrients (glucose) affect skeletal myogenesis...
  101. pmc Restoration of insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) gene expression in muscle cells by the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1
    L F Michael
    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:3820-5. 2001
    Muscle tissue is the major site for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo, due primarily to the recruitment of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane...

Research Grants74

  1. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  2. Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexity
    DANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These tools will be made publicly available, including a friendly graphical user interface and visualization. ..
  3. Novel TIRF microscopy analyzing trafficking & signaling at the cell cortex
    Derek Toomre; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Consistent with the recovery act's goal, this funding will provide full-time summer employment for 4 undergraduate students and accelerate scientific achievement of the parent DP2 award...
  4. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase kinase as Therapeutic Target for Hepatic Steatosis, Obesit
    Robert A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..regulation of the expression of PDKs is a critical component of the mechanism by which insulin controls blood glucose. Second, PDK knock out mice maintained on a high-fat, diabetogenic diet accumulate less fat in their livers, are ..
  5. Role of Chromogranin A in Metabolic Syndrome
    Sushil K Mahata; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The primary goal of this proposal is to reduce hypertension and at the same time minimize hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance associated with insulin resistance...
  6. Pharmacogenetics of obesity and endocannabinergic modulation (POEM)
    Russell A Wilke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..traits: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, insulin, insulin/glucose ratio, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting ..
  7. Comprehensive biomarker study to capitalize on existing GWAS in 10K South Asians
    Danish Saleheen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and assayed the IBC 50K "cardiochip" gene array in 4000 participants) and (4) assayed standard lipids, glucose and HbA1c...
  8. Autonomic, Endothelial, and Inflammatory Correlates of Sleep Duration
    ..Metabolic syndrome components (blood pressure, lipids, glucose, anthropometrics), the prevalence of mood disorders, medical history, and health behaviors will be determined ..
  9. Effective treatment of sleep apnea in prediabetes to reduce cardiometabolic risk
    Esra Tasali; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recent estimates reveal that about 57 million of Americans have prediabetes, an intermediate state between normal glucose tolerance and overt diabetes, characterized by elevated glucose levels, insulin resistance and abnormalities in ..
  10. Ang II and Aldosterone Effects on Insulin Resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..chronic exposure to excess RAAS activates ROS/ROK pathways leading to impairment of vasorelaxation, myocardial glucose utilization and diastolic relaxation because of ROK induced site-specific Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1...
  11. Effects of Evoked Resistance Training and Testosterone after Spinal Cord Injury
    Ashraf Gorgey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cord injury (SCI) are at a lifelong risk of increasing obesity and several chronic metabolic disorders such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia secondary to deterioration in body composition...
    Patrice G Guyenet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..during stresses such as infection, hypotension, pain and hypoxia and they also contribute to the regulation of glucose metabolism...
  13. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase as a Target for Ischemic Cardioprotection
    Donna M Van Winkle; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..induced by reversible coronary ligation, and in cultured cardiomyocytes subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)...
  14. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Liver Disease in Transaldolase Deficiency
    Andras Perl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..TAL deficiency resulted in accumulation of sedoheptulose 7-phoshate (S7P) and depletion of glucose 6-phoshate (G6P), indicating a failure to recycle ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) into G6P through the non-oxidative ..
  15. Role of Txnip in adapting fuel metabolism to nutritional state
    SIMON HUI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To compensate for energy deficiency, glucose uptake and glycolysis are elevated...
  16. Ang II and Overnutrition and Insulin resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These co-morbidities may be driven by a decrease in INS-mediated vasorelaxation and glucose transport in cardiovascular (CV) and skeletal muscle tissue...
  17. Role of SCD1 and Dietary Methionine Restriction on Energy Homeostasis
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..disease risk factors including insulin resistance, high blood pressure and dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism...
  18. Regulation of ER stress-induced cell death
    Randal J Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2013 insulin-resistant mice profoundly increases beta cell mass and improves beta cell function to maintain glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and prevent progression of diabetes...
    Michael J LaMonte; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Metabolic syndrome (Metsyn) is a condition of coexisting abnormalities in glucose, lipid, blood pressure, and body fat homeostasis, that affects more than half of U.S. adults 55 years and older...
    Maureen J Charron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Modulation of hepatic substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity is crucial for maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis as it integrates signals from the gut, peripheral tissue and central nervous system...
  21. Med1 in Liver Metabolism, Regeneration and Cancer
    Janardan K Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies with conditional Med1 null mutation have established that Med1 is required for fatty acid oxidation and glucose metabolism...
  22. Genetic and physiological causes of inherited Vascular and Metabolic Diseases
    Arya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Oral glucose tolerance tests in nondiabetic R611C mutation carriers have shown that they are hyperinsulinemic, indicating that ..
  23. Iron, Metabolic Regulation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk
    Donald A McClain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and replicated the findings in humans in a pilot study of the effects of phlebotomy in pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance)...
  24. Insulin Signaling and the Heart in Diabetes
    EVAN DALE ABEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..also determine if the suppression of cardiomyocyte autophagy by insulin signaling requires increased uptake of glucose or amino acids...
  25. Biology and Pathologies of Type V Collagen
    Daniel S Greenspan; Fiscal Year: 2013 most highly expressed in adipose tissue, and Col5a3-/- females also have decreased adiposity, accompanied by glucose-intolerance, insulin-resistance, and decreased adipokine levels...
  26. Prostate cancer chemoprevention by penta-galloyl-glucose
    Junxuan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The overall goal of this research project is to develop Oriental herbal compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- beta-D-glucose (PGG) for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer (PCa), the number 2 cause of cancer death in US men...
  27. Pathobiology of Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes in a Ferret Model
    Zoe Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, CF ferrets have high perinatal mortality from abnormal intestinal and pancreatic function, altered glucose and lipid metabolism, and lung infections...
    JERROLD MICHAEL OLEFSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013 assess the effects of FOX01 repression of PPAR3 on overall in vivo insulin sensitivity TZD-responsiveness and glucose homeostasis...
  29. Neuroprotection and Myelin Repair Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis
    Inderjit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved, intracellular energy sensor switch which helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, in the context of the survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OP) progenitor cells ..
  30. Role for Na,K-ATPase in Nucleoplasmic Calcium Homeostasis
    Craig Gatto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. glucose, amino acids)...
  31. Neural mechanisms by which chronic stress regulates inflammation in asthma
    Melissa A Rosenkranz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tomography (PET) will be used to measure the neural response to the stressor, such that uptake of radiolabeled glucose will take place during performance of the stress task...
    Lisa M Salati; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme, which lacks transcriptional regulation, as a unique model we have ..
  33. New insights in mechanisms of renal injury
    Balakuntalam S Kasinath; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2. In renal proximal tubular epithelial (MCT) cells in vitro, high glucose is required to inhibit GK 3beta activity for it to increase laminin and fibronectin mRNA and protein expression...
  34. Role of Diabetes in Development of Renal Cell Carcinoma
    SAMY LEWIZ HABIB; Fiscal Year: 2013 that incubation of rat renal proximal tubular cells (the cell origin of renal cell carcinoma) in high glucose results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhanced tuberin phosphorylation and decreased OGG1 expression...
  35. Regulation of microRNA-375 by cyclic-AMP in pancreatic beta-cells
    DAVID MATTHEW KELLER; Fiscal Year: 2010 elevated following exposure to hormones, neurotransmitters, and other nutrient secretagogues, and potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
  36. Notch and Regulators of Notch Signaling Impact Both Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
    UTPAL BHAGIRATH PAJVANI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..generalized insulin resistance;currently available insulin sensitizers are only partially effective at improving glucose disposal in skeletal muscle and suppressing glucose production in liver...
  37. Biology of IGFs in Bone
    Thomas L Clemens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, insulin induces production of osteocalcin (OC), which influences glucose utilization and energy expenditure...
  38. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Nuclear Receptors
    John Y L Chiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways and play critical roles in regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy metabolisms...
  39. Osteocalcin and Metabolic Risk Factors. The Framingham Study
    Yi Hsiang Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..for how OC interacting with adipocytes, pancreatic 2 cells and other molecules functionally involved in glucose homeostasis are still unclear...
  40. Regulation of Cell Signaling by Human Biliverdin Reductase
    Mahin D Maines; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BVR include regulation and/or activation of kinases in the insulin/IGF/MAPK/PI3K signaling pathways that regulate glucose uptake, cell growth, apoptosis and stress-response gene expression (c-fos, c-jun, HO-1, CREB/ATF- 2)...
    ANTHONY JUSTIN MUSLIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of an intracellular signaling pathway that stimulates the serine/threonine kinase Akt2, leading to increased glucose uptake, glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis...
  42. The Relationship Between STK39, Salt Sensitivity, and HCTZ-induced BP Response
    YEN PEI CHRISTY CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Interestingly, the STK39 genotypes associated with higher BP are also associated with lower fasting glucose, raising the possibility that STK39 genotypes might predict a subgroup of salt-sensitive hypertensives with lower ..
  43. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome
    W Timothy Garvey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pre-Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and heart disease are insulin resistant due to an inability of insulin to move glucose from bloodstream into skeletal muscle...
  44. Hospital - Based Surveillance of Acute Febrile Illness in Western Ghat Region of
    ..Hospital laboratories routinely perform Gram stain, glucose/protein levels, cell count, and bacterial culture (where media/reagents are available) on cerebrospinal fluid (..
  45. Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis
    Anthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ask whether arcuate glutamate neurons respond to long distance cues relating to energy homeostasis, particularly glucose and leptin...
  46. Parathyroid Hormone & Vitamin D Effects on Salt Sensitivity and Vascular Function
    ANNA LIZA BELEN VALINA TOTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..blood pressure (BP)and vascular and pressure- sensitive target organ injury, weight gain, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance...
  47. PUFA Synthesis and the Control of Hepatic Metabolism
    Donald B Jump; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mechanism for the control of blood glucose was linked to the suppression of hepatic nuclear content of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), a major transcription factor ..
  48. Metabolic mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer
    ..I will also study the functional effects of these drugs in vitro by studying glucose uptake, mitochondrial activity and ROS measurement to ensure expected effects...
  49. Weight Loss &Exercise Effects on Telomere Length in Postmenopausal Women
    ANNE M MCTIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..length and other analytes already measured in the trial: DNA damage repair (COMET), sex hormones, insulin &glucose, inflammation (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin-6), insulin like growth factor 1 and binding ..
  50. The genetics and pathophysiology of impaired Wnt signaling in metabolic syndrome
    Arya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Oral glucose tolerance tests and studies of intrahepatic fat content in LRP6 mutation carriers have indicated that the ..
  51. Surgical amelioration of type 2 diabetes: Hormones, microbiota and mitochondria
    PETER J contact HAVEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In our current studies, we have demonstrated improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and a significant (~3 month) delay in the age of diabetes onset in IT compared ..
  52. Regulation of Hepatic SphK2 by Bile Acids: Effects on Lipid Metabolism
    HUIPING ROSE ZHOU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the expression of numerous genes encoding enzymes/proteins involved in the metabolism/synthesis of bile acids, glucose, fatty acids, and lipoproteins as well as energy metabolism by activating specific nuclear receptors, a G protein ..
  53. Neural Functioning of Feeding Centers in Obese Youth
    ROBERT STANLEY SHERWIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Dr. Caprio's research is mainly in peripheral insulin and glucose metabolism in obese adolescents...
  54. Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program
    Catherine Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Intriguing observations suggest that endogenous sex hormones (ESH) may contribute to glucose intolerance in postmenopausal women...
  55. Early Life Conditions, Survival, and Health: A Pedigree-Based Population Study
    Ken R Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..creatinine, serum cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS &DHEA), fasting glucose and insulin resistance, telomere length, blood pressure, heart rate, grip strength, forced expiratory volume (..
  56. Transgenerational effects of endocrine disruptors: epigenetics and physiology
    Rebecca A Simmons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have shown that exposure of rodents to BPA during pregnancy results in increased adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance in adulthood...
  57. A2b Adenosine Receptor Regulation of Metabolic Disease and Inflammation
    Anna Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and mortality in the United States T2D is defined by an inability of the body to respond to changing blood glucose levels due to reduced responsiveness of tissues to the glucose regulatory hormone, insulin, and/or an ..
    Cornelia M Weyand; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In Specific Aim 3, we will explore how competition for glucose affects CD4 T cell survival during priming...
  59. Modifiers of Cyst Progression in Polycystic Kidney Disease
    Phillip Darwin Bell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hypothesis: That the presence of reduced renal mass or elevated blood glucose levels result in the initiation and acceleration of cystogenesis in mouse models of PKD...
  60. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury of Human Endothelium: Role of Glucose and Statins
    THOMAS JAY EBERT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Abstract Title of grant: Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury of Human Endothelium: Role of Glucose and Statins Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to vital organs and tissue can occur in a variety of clinical ..
  61. Role of GDNF in the regulation of hepatic steatosis
    SHANTHI K SRINIVASAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..assessed by indirect calorimetry, (iv) compared to WT mice fed a high fat diet the GDNF-tg mice have lower serum glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance tests...
  62. Neuroimaging Assessments of Brain Integrity in Aging Mice
    Ai Ling Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the brain, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of glucose is the predominant source of energy (ATP production), supporting energy demands (maintaining neuronal integrity ..
  63. Passivating Proteins in Implantable Glucose Sensors
    W Ward; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Inadequate control of blood glucose contributes to the complications of diabetes (renal, retinal, neural)...
  64. Needle-Implantable, Wireless Multi-Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring
    Santhisagar Vaddiraju; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..5 mm x 0.5 mm x 5 mm) capable of continuously monitoring glucose. The underlying principle in developing this miniaturized sensor hinges on extreme miniaturization utilizing ..
  65. Glucose monitoring using polarized light
    Gerard L Cote; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires daily management to prevent large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and Diabetes disease management as well as biomedical sensor development is prime targets of the NIDDK and ..
  66. Liver Glycogen in Control of Plasma Glucose
    Katarina Borer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have recently found that a 20% lowering of blood glucose and altered pancreatic hormone response depend on exercise being performed in fasted/postabsorptive state, as ..
  67. Vascular smooth muscle apoptosis prevention by glucose
    Frank Brosius; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Description (Provided by applicant): Glucose uptake and metabolism are critical to life. It is therefore not surprising that modulation of these processes affects cell death pathways...
  68. Novel Puerarin Analogs with Anti-Diabetic Activity
    NICHOLAS CAIRNS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..provided by applicant): In diabetics, hyperglycemia is most pronounced following a meal due to the absorption of glucose from the GI tract...
    DANA HARDIN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance...
    James Russell; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of DN and recent clinical trials have shown a reduction in the progression of DN with careful control of blood glucose an intensive insulin therapy. However even excellent glycemic control fails to prevent or reverse DN...
  71. Endothelial Function Predictors in Adolescent Diabetes
    ROBERT PAUL HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is unknown what effect short-term glucose control and acute glucose level have on these measurements...
    SUSAN VANNUCCI; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Normal cerebral development requires a constant supply of metabolizable substrate, predominantly glucose, to the brain during the perinatal period...
    Thomas Thekkumkara; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that in normal physiology, expression of the hAT1 receptor is achieved by normalized interactions between glucose and insulin on hAT1 gene transcription...
    ALICE RYAN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..whose initial research and funded pilot projects focused on the effects of diet and exercise on obesity and glucose metabolism in sedentary normals and patients with diabetes...