dietary carbohydrates

Summary

Summary: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)

Top Publications

  1. pmc International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008
    Fiona S Atkinson
    Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Diabetes Care 31:2281-3. 2008
  2. ncbi Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome
    Sharon S Elliott
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:911-22. 2002
  3. ncbi Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women
    Karen L Teff
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2963-72. 2004
  4. ncbi Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial
    Lawrence J Appel
    Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 2223, USA
    JAMA 294:2455-64. 2005
  5. ncbi Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women
    Simin Liu
    Center of Cardiovascular Prevention, the Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02215, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 75:492-8. 2002
  6. ncbi International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002
    Kaye Foster-Powell
    Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:5-56. 2002
  7. ncbi Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial
    Joanna McMillan-Price
    Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Arch Intern Med 166:1466-75. 2006
  8. ncbi National estimates of dietary fructose intake increased from 1977 to 2004 in the United States
    Bernadette P Marriott
    Abt Associates Inc, Durham, NC 27703, USA
    J Nutr 139:1228S-1235S. 2009
  9. ncbi Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease
    Frank B Hu
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    JAMA 288:2569-78. 2002
  10. ncbi Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms
    E J Parks
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, St Paul, MN 55108 6099, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 71:412-33. 2000

Detail Information

Publications280 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008
    Fiona S Atkinson
    Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Diabetes Care 31:2281-3. 2008
    ..To systematically tabulate published and unpublished sources of reliable glycemic index (GI) values...
  2. ncbi Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome
    Sharon S Elliott
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:911-22. 2002
    ....
  3. ncbi Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women
    Karen L Teff
    Monell Chemical Senses Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2963-72. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial
    Lawrence J Appel
    Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 2223, USA
    JAMA 294:2455-64. 2005
    ..Reduced intake of saturated fat is widely recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease. The type of macronutrient that should replace saturated fat remains uncertain...
  5. ncbi Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women
    Simin Liu
    Center of Cardiovascular Prevention, the Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02215, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 75:492-8. 2002
    ..Recent prospective data suggest that intake of rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a high dietary glycemic load is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease...
  6. ncbi International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002
    Kaye Foster-Powell
    Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:5-56. 2002
    ..The revised table also lists the glycemic load associated with the consumption of specified serving sizes of different foods...
  7. ncbi Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial
    Joanna McMillan-Price
    Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Arch Intern Med 166:1466-75. 2006
    ..Despite the popularity of low-glycemic index (GI) and high-protein diets, to our knowledge no randomized, controlled trials have systematically compared their relative effects on weight loss and cardiovascular risk...
  8. ncbi National estimates of dietary fructose intake increased from 1977 to 2004 in the United States
    Bernadette P Marriott
    Abt Associates Inc, Durham, NC 27703, USA
    J Nutr 139:1228S-1235S. 2009
    ..Although comparison of estimates of fructose intakes between data from the 1977-1978 NFCS and the NHANES 1999-2004 showed an increase, this increase was dwarfed by greater increases in total daily energy and carbohydrate intakes...
  9. ncbi Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease
    Frank B Hu
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    JAMA 288:2569-78. 2002
    ..Thus, identification of the dietary changes that most effectively prevent CHD is critical...
  10. ncbi Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms
    E J Parks
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, St Paul, MN 55108 6099, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 71:412-33. 2000
    ....
  11. ncbi Meta-analysis of dietary glycemic load and glycemic index in relation to risk of coronary heart disease
    Jia Yi Dong
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
    Am J Cardiol 109:1608-13. 2012
    ..Further studies are needed to verify these findings and elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
  12. ncbi Rutin attenuates metabolic changes, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and cardiovascular remodeling in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats
    Sunil K Panchal
    Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
    J Nutr 141:1062-9. 2011
    ..These results suggest a non-nutritive role for rutin to attenuate chronic changes in metabolic syndrome...
  13. ncbi Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism
    M Denise Robertson
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:559-67. 2005
    ..Resistant starch may modulate insulin sensitivity, although the precise mechanism of this action is unknown...
  14. pmc Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study
    Koert N J Burger
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e25955. 2011
    ..The associations of glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender...
  15. ncbi Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance
    Itziar Abete
    Department of Nutrition, Food Science, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Nutr Rev 68:214-31. 2010
    ....
  16. ncbi Evidence-based nutritional approaches to the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus
    J I Mann
    Edgar National Centre for Diabetes Research, Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 14:373-94. 2004
  17. ncbi Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women
    Raquel Villegas
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2525 West End Ave, Ste 600, Nashville, TN 37203 1738, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:2310-6. 2007
    ..Much uncertainty exists about the role of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in populations that traditionally subsist on a diet high in carbohydrates...
  18. ncbi Dietary glycemic load and index and risk of coronary heart disease in a large italian cohort: the EPICOR study
    Sabina Sieri
    Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy
    Arch Intern Med 170:640-7. 2010
    ....
  19. ncbi Effect of glycemic carbohydrates on short-term satiety and food intake
    G Harvey Anderson
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Fitzgerald Building, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E2
    Nutr Rev 61:S17-26. 2003
    ..Many other preabsorptive and postabsorptive signals for satiety exist and may be the determining factors. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of glycemic carbohydrates and their mechanisms of action in determining satiety...
  20. ncbi High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats
    Sunil K Panchal
    Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 57:611-24. 2011
    ..In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome...
  21. pmc Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals
    Kimber L Stanhope
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 8669, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1194-203. 2008
    ..However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States...
  22. ncbi Regulation of metabolism by dietary carbohydrates in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content
    Biju Sam Kamalam
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA, Nutrition, Metabolism and Aquaculture Unit UR1067, F 64310 Saint Pée sur Nivelle, France
    J Exp Biol 215:2567-78. 2012
    ..investigated whether genetic selection for high muscle fat content led to a better capacity to metabolise dietary carbohydrates. Juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinised starch (17...
  23. ncbi Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women
    Supriya Krishnan
    Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:2304-9. 2007
    ..Previous studies of carbohydrate quality and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus have yielded inconsistent findings. Because diet is in part culturally determined, a study of dietary factors in US black women is of interest...
  24. ncbi High-glycemic index carbohydrate increases nuclear factor-kappaB activation in mononuclear cells of young, lean healthy subjects
    Scott Dickinson
    Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1188-93. 2008
    ..Postprandial glycemia within the normal range may promote oxidative stress and inflammatory processes underlying the development of disease...
  25. ncbi High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study
    Joline W J Beulens
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Am Coll Cardiol 50:14-21. 2007
    ..The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  26. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and intake of carbohydrate and rice in relation to risk of mortality from stroke and its subtypes in Japanese men and women
    Shino Oba
    Department of Prevention for Lifestyle Related Diseases, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan
    Metabolism 59:1574-82. 2010
    ..05). The current study implies that diets with a high dietary GI increase the risk of mortality from stroke among Japanese women...
  27. ncbi A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women
    S Liu
    Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, The Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 71:1455-61. 2000
    ..Little is known about the effects of the amount and type of carbohydrates on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  28. ncbi Physiological validation of the concept of glycemic load in lean young adults
    J C Brand-Miller
    Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Nutr 133:2728-32. 2003
    ..001) and insulinemia (P < 0.001). These findings support the concept of dietary glycemic load as a measure of overall glycemic response and insulin demand...
  29. ncbi Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum
    Alexandra M Johnstone
    Division of Obesity and Metabolic Health and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:44-55. 2008
    ..Altering the macronutrient composition of the diet influences hunger and satiety. Studies have compared high- and low-protein diets, but there are few data on carbohydrate content and ketosis on motivation to eat and ad libitum intake...
  30. ncbi Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial
    Christopher D Gardner
    Stanford Prevention Research Center and the Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, Calif, USA
    JAMA 297:969-77. 2007
    ..Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately...
  31. ncbi The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein
    Thomas M S Wolever
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, and the Department of Medicine, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:114-25. 2008
    ..The optimal source and amount of dietary carbohydrate for managing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown...
  32. ncbi Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study
    Ivonne Sluijs
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:905-11. 2010
    ..Carbohydrate quantity and quality may play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes...
  33. pmc Food intake of individuals with and without diabetes across different countries and ethnic groups
    U Nöthlings
    Epidemiology Section, Institute for Experimental Medicine, Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:635-41. 2011
    ..We investigated this hypothesis in two large prospective studies including different countries and ethnic groups...
  34. ncbi Effects of dietary glycaemic index on adiposity, glucose homoeostasis, and plasma lipids in animals
    Dorota B Pawlak
    Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Lancet 364:778-85. 2004
    ..This study examined the independent effects of GI in animals...
  35. ncbi Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber in relation to risk of stroke in women
    Kyungwon Oh
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 161:161-9. 2005
    ..In addition, high consumption of cereal fiber was associated with lower risk of total and hemorrhagic stroke...
  36. ncbi Carbohydrate ingestion influences skeletal muscle cytokine mRNA and plasma cytokine levels after a 3-h run
    D C Nieman
    Department of Health, Fischer Hamilton Nycom Biochemistry Laboratory, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina 28608, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 94:1917-25. 2003
    ..063). CHO compared with Pla beverage ingestion attenuates the increase in plasma IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1ra and gene expression for IL-6 and IL-8 in athletes running 3 h at 70% Vo(2 max) despite no differences in muscle glycogen content...
  37. pmc The association of sleep duration with adolescents' fat and carbohydrate consumption
    Allison Weiss
    Center for Clinical Investigation, Case Western Reserve University School ofMedicine, USA
    Sleep 33:1201-9. 2010
    ..To investigate the relation between sleep duration and energy consumption in an adolescent cohort...
  38. ncbi Sex-specific interactions between the IRS1 polymorphism and intakes of carbohydrates and fat on incident type 2 diabetes
    Ulrika Ericson
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmo, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Genetic Epidemiology, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    Am J Clin Nutr 97:208-16. 2013
    ..Dietary intake can influence the regulation of IRS1, and studies have indicated sex-specific associations between IRS1 and adiposity...
  39. ncbi Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a 6-mo randomized, controlled trial
    Anette Due
    Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1232-41. 2008
    ..The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades...
  40. pmc Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and stroke mortality: a systematic review with meta-analysis
    Jingyao Fan
    Sino German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, the State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e52182. 2012
    ..The relationship between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and stroke-related mortality is inconsistent...
  41. ncbi Carbohydrate-electrolyte feedings and 1 h time trial cycling performance
    Ben Desbrow
    School of Health Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 9726, Australia
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14:541-9. 2004
    ....
  42. pmc Novel locus including FGF21 is associated with dietary macronutrient intake
    Audrey Y Chu
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 22:1895-902. 2013
    ..9 × 10(-9)). A cytokine involved in cellular metabolism, FGF21 is a potential susceptibility gene for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our results highlight the potential of genetic variation for determining dietary macronutrient intake...
  43. ncbi Body composition, dietary carbohydrates and fatty acids determine post-fertilisation development of bovine oocytes in vitro
    S J Adamiak
    Scottish Agricultural College, Craibstone Estate, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, UK
    Reproduction 131:247-58. 2006
    ..The data establish a robust nutritional framework for more detailed studies into the mechanistic effects of dietary composition on the post-fertilisation developmental potential of oocytes...
  44. ncbi Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression 1
    James W Krieger
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 0370, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:260-74. 2006
    ..It is unclear whether low-carbohydrate, high-protein, weight-loss diets benefit body mass and composition beyond energy restriction alone...
  45. pmc Children with NAFLD are more sensitive to the adverse metabolic effects of fructose beverages than children without NAFLD
    Ran Jin
    Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:E1088-98. 2012
    ..Dietary fructose induces unfavorable lipid alterations in animal models and adult studies. Little is known regarding metabolic tolerance of dietary fructose in children...
  46. ncbi Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    Nassib Bezerra Bueno
    Laboratório de Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Campus A C Simões, BR 104 Norte, Km 97, 57 072 970 Tabuleiro do Martins, Maceio, AL, Brazil
    Br J Nutr 110:1178-87. 2013
    ..Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity...
  47. pmc Differential effects of cream, glucose, and orange juice on inflammation, endotoxin, and the expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3
    Rupali Deopurkar
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, State University of New York at Buffalo and Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Diabetes Care 33:991-7. 2010
    ..Saturated fat and carbohydrates, components of the HFHC meal, known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, also induce an increase in LPS, TLR-4, and SOCS3...
  48. ncbi Chocolate milk and endurance exercise recovery: protein balance, glycogen, and performance
    William R Lunn
    Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, Moore Field House, Room 169, New Haven, CT 06515, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:682-91. 2012
    ..This study examined effects of fat-free chocolate milk (MILK) consumption on kinetic and cellular markers of protein turnover, muscle glycogen, and performance during recovery from endurance exercise...
  49. ncbi The influence of carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion on soccer skill performance
    Ajmol Ali
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1969-76. 2007
    ..To investigate the effect of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO-E), in subjects with reduced carbohydrate stores, during an intermittent shuttle running test (LIST) on soccer passing (LSPT) and shooting (LSST) performance...
  50. ncbi Regulation of de novo hepatic lipogenesis by insulin infusion in rainbow trout fed a high-carbohydrate diet
    S Polakof
    INRA, UR1067 Nutrition Metabolism Aquaculture, F 64310 Saint Pée sur Nivelle, France
    J Anim Sci 89:3079-88. 2011
    ....
  51. pmc Effects of a low-fat dietary intervention on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification trial
    James M Shikany
    Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 94:75-85. 2011
    ..Glycemic effects of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) low-fat dietary intervention are unknown...
  52. ncbi Postexercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves subsequent exercise performance and intracellular signaling for protein synthesis
    Lisa Ferguson-Stegall
    Exercise Physiology and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
    J Strength Cond Res 25:1210-24. 2011
    ..7 vs. 69.2 ± 5.5%, p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that postexercise CM supplementation can improve subsequent exercise performance and provide a greater intracellular signaling stimulus for PRO synthesis compared to CHO and placebo...
  53. ncbi Vitamin D deficiency in obese rats exacerbates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increases hepatic resistin and Toll-like receptor activation
    Christian L Roth
    Division of Endocrinology, Seattle Children s Hospital Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Hepatology 55:1103-11. 2012
    ..05). Logistic regression analyses showed significant associations between NAS score and liver mRNA levels of TLRs 2, 4, and 9, endotoxin receptor CD14, as well as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ, and HO-1...
  54. ncbi Trends in energy intake in U.S. between 1977 and 1996: similar shifts seen across age groups
    Samara Joy Nielsen
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27516 3997, USA
    Obes Res 10:370-8. 2002
    ..To determine the trends in locations and food sources of Americans stratified by age group for both total energy and the meal and snack subcomponents...
  55. ncbi Glycemic index and obesity
    Janette C Brand-Miller
    Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Am J Clin Nutr 76:281S-5S. 2002
    ..These findings provide the scientific rationale to justify randomized, controlled, multicenter intervention studies comparing the effects of conventional and low-GI diets on weight control...
  56. ncbi Hepatic glucokinase is induced by dietary carbohydrates in rainbow trout, gilthead seabream, and common carp
    S Panserat
    Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Institut Français de Recherche pour l Exploitation de la Mer, 64310 St Pée sur Nivelle, France
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 278:R1164-70. 2000
    ..The absence of an inducible GK has been suggested to explain the poor utilization of dietary carbohydrates in rainbow trout...
  57. ncbi No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet
    Birgitte Sloth
    Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, 30 Rolighedsvej, DK 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:337-47. 2004
    ..The role of glycemic index (GI) in appetite and body-weight regulation is still not clear...
  58. ncbi Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate during recovery from endurance exercise stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans
    Krista R Howarth
    Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 106:1394-402. 2009
    ..However, adding protein or additional CHO to a feeding strategy that provided 1.2 g CHO x kg(-1) x h(-1) did not further enhance glycogen resynthesis during recovery...
  59. ncbi Intake of refined carbohydrates and whole grain foods in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease
    Simin Liu
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Am Coll Nutr 21:298-306. 2002
    ..It seems prudent, therefore, to distinguish whole-grain rather than refined-grain cereal products for the prevention of chronic diseases...
  60. ncbi Overall glycaemic index and glycaemic load of habitual diet and risk of heart disease
    Katrine Grau
    Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Public Health Nutr 14:109-18. 2011
    ..To test the hypothesis that diets with high glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) increase the risk of heart disease...
  61. ncbi Prior short-term consumption of resistant starch enhances postprandial insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects
    M D Robertson
    Oxford Lipid Metabolism Group, OCDEM, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Diabetologia 46:659-65. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to assess whether acute changes in the insoluble-fibre (resistant starch) content of the diet would have effects on postprandial carbohydrate and lipid handling...
  62. ncbi Reduced glycemic index and glycemic load diets do not increase the effects of energy restriction on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in obese men and women
    Susan K Raatz
    General Clinical Research Center, Department of Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    J Nutr 135:2387-91. 2005
    ..In summary, lowering the glycemic load and glycemic index of weight reduction diets does not provide any added benefit to energy restriction in promoting weight loss in obese subjects...
  63. ncbi Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it
    Tine Ebersbach
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, 2860 Soeborg, Denmark
    Int J Food Microbiol 140:218-24. 2010
    ..In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that different non-digestible carbohydrates can have entirely different effects on the intestinal colonisation and translocation of a pathogenic bacterium...
  64. ncbi Randomized clinical trial of the effects of oral preoperative carbohydrates on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    J Hausel
    Centre of Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, SE 116 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Br J Surg 92:415-21. 2005
    ..A carbohydrate-rich drink (CHO) has been shown to reduce preoperative discomfort. It was hypothesized that it may also reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)...
  65. ncbi The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the interleukin-6 response to a 90-minute run time trial
    Paula Robson-Ansley
    School of Psychology and Sport Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Int J Sports Physiol Perform 4:186-94. 2009
    ..3+/-1.9 pg.mL(-1) and 6.6+/-3.0 pg.mL(-1), respectively; p=.0313), this difference was considered physiologically too small to mediate the improvement in time trial performance...
  66. ncbi Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
    Jia Yi Dong
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, People s Republic of China
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 126:287-94. 2011
    ..However, there is no significant association between dietary GL and breast cancer risk...
  67. ncbi Seasonal variation in amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrate from the intestine after breakfast in young female Thai subjects: comparison with that of Japanese subjects
    Yuki Tsumura
    Department of Food and Nutrition Studies, Junshin Junior College, Thailand
    J Physiol Anthropol 29:141-7. 2010
    ..These results suggest that differences in seasonal change in a living environment have different effects on seasonal variations in the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in the intestine after breakfast...
  68. ncbi A high-protein, high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet reduces energy intake, hepatic lipogenesis, and adiposity in rats
    Lisa Pichon
    UMR INRA 914 Physiologie de la Nutrition et du Comportement Alimentaire, Institut National Agronomique Paris Grignon, F75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Nutr 136:1256-60. 2006
    ..These reductions in adipose tissue development with decreases in the C:L ratio of the diet seemed to be due primarily to reduced hepatic lipogenesis...
  69. ncbi The Diet, Obesity and Genes (Diogenes) Dietary Study in eight European countries - a comprehensive design for long-term intervention
    T M Larsen
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Obes Rev 11:76-91. 2010
    ..Despite major cultural and dietary regional differences in Europe, interventions addressing effects of dietary factors are feasible with a reasonable attrition...
  70. ncbi Carbohydrate for weight and metabolic control: where do we stand?
    Kevin J Acheson
    Department of Nutrition and Health, Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nutrition 26:141-5. 2010
    ..Hopefully, future studies will indicate whether diets with a more equilibrated macronutrient composition than presently recommended are more appropriate for body weight and metabolic control...
  71. ncbi The influence of the glycaemic index of breakfast and lunch on substrate utilisation during the postprandial periods and subsequent exercise
    Emma Stevenson
    Sport and Exercise Nutrition Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
    Br J Nutr 93:885-93. 2005
    ..Furthermore, during subsequent exercise, plasma glucose concentrations were better maintained following the LGI CHO meals...
  72. ncbi Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement
    John L Ivy
    Exercise Physiology and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Appl Physiol 93:1337-44. 2002
    ..These results suggest that a CHO-Pro supplement is more effective for the rapid replenishment of muscle glycogen after exercise than a CHO supplement of equal CHO or caloric content...
  73. pmc Drinking caloric beverages increases the risk of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
    Kiyah J Duffey
    Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27516 3997, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:954-9. 2010
    ..Intake of caloric beverages is hypothesized to contribute to adverse health outcomes, but the beverages and populations studied vary considerably...
  74. ncbi Regulation of short-chain fatty acid production
    Sandra Macfarlane
    University of Dundee, MRC Microbiology and Gut Biology Group, Ninewells Hospital Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 62:67-72. 2003
    ..In the latter organism acetate and succinate are the major fermentation products when substrate is abundant, whereas succinate is decarboxylated to produce propionate when C and energy sources are limiting...
  75. ncbi Effects of whole grains on coronary heart disease risk
    Kristina A Harris
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 12:368-76. 2010
    ..Understanding how individual grains, in both natural and processed states, affect CHD risk can inform nutrition recommendations and policies and ultimately benefit public health...
  76. ncbi A review of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets
    Eric C Westman
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Box 50, Suite 200 B Wing, 2200 West Main Street, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 5:476-83. 2003
    ..This review summarizes the physiology and recent clinical studies regarding this type of diet...
  77. ncbi Leucine or carbohydrate supplementation reduces AMPK and eEF2 phosphorylation and extends postprandial muscle protein synthesis in rats
    Gabriel J Wilson
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301:E1236-42. 2011
    ..Administering Leu or CHO supplements ∼2 h after a meal maintains cellular energy status and extends the postprandial duration of MPS...
  78. ncbi Dietary carbohydrates, glycaemic load, food groups and newly detected type 2 diabetes among urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study 59)
    Viswanathan Mohan
    Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Dr Mohan s Diabetes Specialities Centre, WHO Collaborating Centre for Non Communicable diseases, Gopalapuram, Chennai, India
    Br J Nutr 102:1498-506. 2009
    The aim of the study was to examine the association of dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load with the risk of type 2 diabetes among an urban adult Asian Indian population...
  79. ncbi Low-carbohydrate-high-protein diet and long-term survival in a general population cohort
    A Trichopoulou
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
    Eur J Clin Nutr 61:575-81. 2007
    ..We have evaluated the effects on mortality of habitual low carbohydrate-high-protein diets that are thought to contribute to weight control...
  80. ncbi The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease
    David S Ludwig
    Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    JAMA 287:2414-23. 2002
    ..The purpose of this review is to examine the physiological effects of the glycemic index and the relevance of these effects in preventing and treating obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
  81. ncbi Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence
    Carlo Colantuoni
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Obes Res 10:478-88. 2002
    ..Because palatable food stimulates neural systems that are implicated in drug addiction, it was hypothesized that intermittent, excessive sugar intake might create dependency, as indicated by withdrawal signs...
  82. ncbi Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment
    Lee S Gross
    Inter Medic Medical Group, 2630 Bobcat Village Center Road, North Port, FL 34288, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:774-9. 2004
    ....
  83. pmc Time-of-day-dependent dietary fat consumption influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters in mice
    M S Bray
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 34:1589-98. 2010
    ..Despite growing acceptance that biological rhythms profoundly influence energy homeostasis, little is known regarding how the timing of nutrient ingestion influences development of common metabolic diseases...
  84. ncbi Postexercise muscle glycogen recovery enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement
    John M Berardi
    Exercise Nutrition Research Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1106-13. 2006
    ....
  85. ncbi Carbohydrate intake during exercise and performance
    Asker E Jeukendrup
    Human Performance Laboratory, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Nutrition 20:669-77. 2004
    ....
  86. ncbi Emotional eating, depressive symptoms and self-reported food consumption. A population-based study
    Hanna Konttinen
    Department of Social Psychology, University of Helsinki, Unionink 37 P O Box 54, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Appetite 54:473-9. 2010
    ..Emotional eating could be one factor explaining the association between depressive symptoms and consumption of sweet foods, while other factors may be more important with respect to non-sweet foods and vegetables/fruit...
  87. ncbi Predictors of children's body mass index: a longitudinal study of diet and growth in children aged 2-8 y
    J D Skinner
    Nutrition Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 1920, USA
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28:476-82. 2004
    ..To identify longitudinal variables related to children's body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) at age 8 y...
  88. ncbi The effect of a high-protein, low glycemic-load diet versus a conventional, high glycemic-load diet on biochemical parameters associated with acne vulgaris: a randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial
    Robyn N Smith
    School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Am Acad Dermatol 57:247-56. 2007
    ..No previous study has sought to examine the influence of dietary composition on acne vulgaris...
  89. ncbi Intake of carbohydrates compared with intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: importance of the glycemic index
    Marianne U Jakobsen
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:1764-8. 2010
    ..The effect of carbohydrates, however, may depend on the type consumed...
  90. ncbi Acute ingestion of resistant starch reduces food intake in healthy adults
    Caroline L Bodinham
    Diabetes and Endocrinology, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7WG, UK
    Br J Nutr 103:917-22. 2010
    ..059). These results suggest that consumption of 48 g RS, over a 24-h period, may be useful in the management of the metabolic syndrome and appetite. Further studies are required to determine the exact mechanisms...
  91. ncbi Perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency in the college students of China Seven Cities
    Chunhong Liu
    College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou, China
    Physiol Behav 92:748-54. 2007
    ..The link between food consumption frequency, perceived stress and depression suggests that diet intervention may be considered a mediate strategy integrated in psychology prevention program among normal population of the college...
  92. ncbi Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women
    Thomas L Halton
    Departments of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:1991-2002. 2006
    ..Low-carbohydrate diets have been advocated for weight loss and to prevent obesity, but the long-term safety of these diets has not been determined...
  93. ncbi Failure of protein to improve time trial performance when added to a sports drink
    Martin van Essen
    Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1476-83. 2006
    ..e., a race in which a fixed distance or set amount of work is performed as quickly as possible)...
  94. ncbi Prenatal exposure to a maternal low-protein diet programmes a preference for high-fat foods in the young adult rat
    Leanne Bellinger
    Centre for Reproduction and Early Life, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
    Br J Nutr 92:513-20. 2004
    ..Maternal nutrition may thus promote changes in systems that are involved in control of appetite or the perception of palatability...
  95. ncbi Effects of a carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and muscle damage
    Michael J Saunders
    School of Kinesiology and Recreation Studies, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1233-8. 2004
    ..3% and 1.8% concentrations) versus a carbohydrate-only (CHO; 7.3%) beverage...
  96. ncbi Prospective study of major dietary patterns and stroke risk in women
    Teresa T Fung
    Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, 300 The Fenway, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Stroke 35:2014-9. 2004
    ..Many foods have been suggested to influence the risk of stroke. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between overall dietary patterns and risk of stroke...
  97. ncbi Did fat intake in the United States really decline between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996?
    Prithiva Chanmugam
    School of Human Ecology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 103:867-72. 2003
    ..These preliminary findings should be interpreted cautiously until they are confirmed by formal secular trend analyses...
  98. pmc Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior
    Nicole M Avena
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    J Nutr 139:623-8. 2009
    ....
  99. ncbi Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    A E Cust
    Dietary Exposure Assessment Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
    Eur J Clin Nutr 63:S37-60. 2009
    ..To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study...
  100. ncbi Low-carbohydrate diets: nutritional and physiological aspects
    A Adam-Perrot
    Cerestar R and D Vilvoorde Center, Havenstraat 84, 1800 Vilvoorde, Belgium
    Obes Rev 7:49-58. 2006
    ..The latter findings support the need to do more research on this type of hypocaloric low-carbohydrate diet...
  101. ncbi Improved glycemic control and lipid profile and normalized fibrinolytic activity on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic patients
    A E Järvi
    Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, Uppsala University, Sweden
    Diabetes Care 22:10-8. 1999
    ..To evaluate the effects of varying the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate-rich foods on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients...

Research Grants72

  1. MEMBRANES OF THE DENTAL PATHOGEN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A major virulence factor is demineralization of teeth by generation of lactic acid from dietary carbohydrates and bacterial tolerance of the acid products...
  2. Do Genotype Patterns Predict Weight Loss Success for Low Carb vs. Low Fat Diets?
    Christopher D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on prior genetic studies evaluating the body's physiological responses to dietary carbohydrates or fats, we identified multi-locus genotype patterns with SNPs from three genes (FABP2, PPARG, and ADRB2): ..
  3. Making a quantum leap in plaque research with modern sciences
    Wenyuan Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These methods are based on the knowledge that oral plaque bacteria ferment dietary carbohydrates to produce pH-reducing organic acids...
  4. From Sugar to Fat: How Transcription Factor XBP1 Regulates Hepatic Lipogenesis
    LAURIE HOLLIS GLIMCHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): From sugar to fat: How the transcription factor XBP1 regulates hepatic lipogenesis Abstract Dietary carbohydrates regulate hepatic lipogenesis by controlling the expression of critical enzymes in glycolytic and lipogenic ..
  5. Control of lipid metabolism in insulin resistant states
    Sudha B Biddinger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mice, which are unresponsive to insulin, show a rapamycin- sensitive increase in SREBP-1c in response to dietary carbohydrates. These data indicate the existence of an insulin-independent signaling pathway that could potentially ..
  6. Pediatric Type 1 diabetes: Intervention Trials With Glucagon Suppressors
    Rubina A Heptulla; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is currently managed using modulation of dietary carbohydrates and insulin. Paradoxical post-meal hyperglucagonemia is associated with post-prandial hyperglycemia in T1DM...
  7. GENE REGULATION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS
    Robert A Burne; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In cases when dietary carbohydrates are provided in excess and the host develops dental caries, Streptococcus mutans and other acid-resistant ..
  8. Gut microbial promotion of energy gain from processed diets
    RACHEL NAOMI CARMODY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A large literature indicates that food processing enhances energy gain by increasing the proportion of dietary carbohydrates that are assimilated in the small intestine...
  9. EFFECT OF CHRONIC AMYLOSE FEEDING IN ADIPOSITY
    DANIEL BESSESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>Dietary carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates, or sugars, and complex carbohydrates, or starches...
  10. Liver Glycogen in Control of Plasma Glucose
    Katarina Borer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..aim 3);and lower and increase the level of hepatic glycogen repletion by, respectively, limiting evening dietary carbohydrates to 20 g, or providing a high carbohydrate evening meal and overnight intravenous glucose infusion that ..
  11. S MUTANTS GLG GENE EXPRESSION
    Grace Spatafora; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..mutans-induced caries formation is the metabolism of exogenous dietary carbohydrates; this results in the production of lactic acid in the oral cavity which leads to the demineralization of ..
  12. GQ/11-RGS Mediated Signaling
    THOMAS WILKIE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our hypothesis is that Gq/11 signaling promotes fatty acid oxidation during fasting, and that dietary carbohydrates inhibit fatty acid oxidation by inducing RGS gene expression, mRNA stability, protein translation, and Gq-..
  13. Dietary Glycemic Load, Body Weight, and Blood Lipids
    Yunsheng Ma; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. GLYCEMIC INDEX/GLYCEMIC LOAD AND BLOOD LIPIDS IN THE WHI
    James Shikany; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Glycemic load (GL) is a measure that incorporates both the high dietary carbohydrates. There is mounting evidence from observational studies that high dietary GI and may adversely affect blood ..
  15. FOUR-CORNERS BREAST AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER STUDY
    MARTHA OR MARTY SLATTERY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, IGF-1, and IGFBP3 will be evaluated with respect to breast and endometrial cancer in a subset of women. ..
  16. DIET AND SOMATIC MUTATIONS IN COLON CANCER
    MARTHA OR MARTY SLATTERY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..e. p53, K-ras, and microsatellite instability). Differences in colon and rectal tumors will be compared. Additionally data from rectal tumors will be combined with that from colon tumors to define disease pathways. ..
  17. DIET INDUCED HYPERINSULINEMIA AND BETA CELL FUNCTION
    Mulchand Patel; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This unique rat model has the potential for providing new and significant insight into the "fuel hypothesis" for altered insulin secretory response in response to diet and maternal influences on fetal pancreatic adaptations. ..
  18. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ALASKA NATIVES & AMERICAN INDIANS
    MARTHA OR MARTY SLATTERY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The AIAN cohort will serve as a resource to enhance research and training activities of AIAN students interested in health research, health education, and general public health. ..
  19. Growth Factors and Colon Cancer
    MARTHA OR MARTY SLATTERY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This study builds on a unique existing resource to study genetic and environmental associations with colorectal cancer. It will provide insight into colon cancer etiology and therefore avenues to disease prevention. ..
  20. Mechanism and Molecular Recognition in Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
    Mulchand Patel; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health
    Dariush Mozaffarian; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..End of Abstract) [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. ETHANOL EFFECTS ON BONE FORMATION IN PREGNANCY
    Martin Ronis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The role of CYP2E1 and free radicals in the skeletal toxicity of ethanol during these periods will also be studied. ..
  23. EXERCISE AND PREGNANCY
    JAMES CLAPP; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Evaluations (mothers and offspring) will include a lifestyle and medical questionnaire, a physical examination, a lipid profile, and assessment of body composition, fitness, cardiovascular function and insulin resistance. ..
  24. REGULATION OF MAMMALIAN DIHYDROLIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE
    Mulchand Patel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Glycemic Index and Metabolic Syndrome
    ANASTASSIOS PITTAS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) Infants
    AGNETA LISBETH SUNEHAG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A clear understanding of the mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis in the extremely low birth weight infant will permit us to develop evidence based strategies to maintain euglycemia while providing appropriate energy intake. ..
  27. DIETARY OBESITY
    George Bray; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We now propose these well founded, important and exciting studies which will provide critical new insights into anatomical, physiological and molecular mechanisms by which high levels of dietary fat induce obesity. ..
  28. Genetic Epidemiology of Blood Pressure Intervention
    Jiang He; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In addition, identifying genes related to salt-sensitivity and potassium-sensitivity of BP should enable the discovery of new pharmaceutical treatment for hypertension. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Clinical Trial of Dietary Protein on Blood Pressure
    Jiang He; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Results from the proposed study may provide the scientific evidence for protein supplementation recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hypertension in the general population. ..
  30. Glucose & Lipid Metabolism in Obese Adolescents
    Agneta Sunehag; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This information is likely to lead to identifying factors and potentially new strategies to prevent and/or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in adolescents. ..
  31. ENDOCRINE EFFECTS OF HUMAN LEPTIN REPLACEMENT
    Julio Licinio; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Discontinuation of this study would be highly deleterious, not only for the patients, but also for our understanding of the long-term effects of leptin in humans. ..
  32. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in obese teens & preteens: Neurobahavioral effects
    Dean Beebe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT AND RISK OF DISEASE IN ADOLESCENTS
    Michael Goran; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  34. Nutritional and Hormonal Determinants of Peak Bone Mass
    Madhusmita Misra; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The effects of estrogen in weight recovered vs. non-weight recovered AN will also be studied. ..
  35. Long-term follow-up of postobese black and white women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. MOLECULAR BASIS OF HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY
    ERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The results of this work will provide important insight into the contribution of allelic variation in the pathways of HDL metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance to the complex phenotype of low HDL-C. ..
  37. Spatial epidemiology of diabetes in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study
    ANGELA LIESE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This effort may provide novel leads for subsequent etiologic studies of pediatric diabetes and will assist health care planners in identifying geographic areas in particular need of health services resources. ..
  38. Neuropharmacology of Learned Food Preferences
    Anthony Sclafani; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It will advance our understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in the development of food preferences and may provide insights into the clinical treatment of overeating and obesity. ..
  39. Cysteine, Related Gene Variants and Breast Cancer Risk
    Walter C Willett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  40. Identification of biomarkers of fatty acid intake
    Hannia Campos; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. Sodium and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
    Jiang He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  42. DIETARY COMPOSITION, OBESITY, AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    ERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. GENE-DIET INTERACTIONS AND HEART DISEASE
    HANNAI CAMPOS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This study will provide the most complete data set to study numerous hypotheses relating genes, diet, and CHD, and could lead to specific targeted interventions for reducing the development of CHD. ..
  44. UCLA GRADUATE TRAINING PROGRAM IN TRANSITIONAL INVESTIGA
    Julio Licinio; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  46. DIETARY FATTY ACIDS, PPAR ACTIVATED GENES, AND CHD
    HANNAI CAMPOS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Because polyunsaturated FAs are important as activators of PPARs and their capacity to regulate gene expression at the level of transcription, this metabolic system is a suitable candidate for the proposed study. ..
  47. Developing Educational Approaches for Mexican-Americans
    Julio Licinio; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Their input will also be incorporated into the article that will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. ..
  48. Pharmacogenetics of the Statin Response
    ERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These results can be used to formulate guidelines for identifying elderly subjects for statin treatment to prevent future CHD. ..
  49. Intramuscular lipid and insulin action: ethnic aspects
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. Fat Metabolism During Exercise in Obesity
    EDWARD MELANSON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..I believe the results from these studies will lead directly to additional studies to further explain why exercise may be important in the prevention and treatment of obesity. ..
  51. Reduced Carbohydrate Diet Intervention for PCOS
    Barbara A Gower; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the lower GL diet will be more effective in decreasing insulin secretion, increasing insulin sensitivity, decreasing ectopic adipose tissue, decreasing inflammation, and improvin% (<10% saturated fat) saturated fat) ..
  52. Walnuts vs. Walnut-Oil, Glucose Homeostasis, PCOS
    Sidika Kasim Karakas; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. Physical Activity & Weight Concerns: Adolescent Girls
    Donna Spruijt Metz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..I. to interact with the sponsor, Dr. Goran, in addition to Dr. Anderson-Johnson, Dr. Stacy, Dr. Chou, and other excellent scientist at USC will promote her continued development as an independent researcher. ..
  54. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY DIETARY FAT
    LISA SALATI; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Thus, the experiments in the current proposal will provide new data on regulation of splicing pre se and define a new pathway by which nutrients regulate gene expression. ..
  55. IMMUNE MODULATION BY INTESTINAL CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    Gary Wu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which nutrition affects metabolic and immunologic responses to intestinal parasitic infections. ..
  56. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HEALTH IN RUNNERS AND WALKERS
    Paul Williams; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..1%). Additionally, a detectable reduction in breast cancer risk as small as 1.5% per mile run in women is calculated, which is below the 1.7% reduction in risk estimated from other published data. ..
  57. ETHANOL METABOLISM IN PREGNANCY--ROLE OF DIET
    Martin Ronis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  58. The Role of Food Viscosity in Calorie Intake Regulation
    Terry Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  59. Apical CI/OH-/HCO3-exchanger in kidney and GI tract
    Manoocher Soleimani; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..They should further facilitate future investigations into the role of this transporter in pathophysiologic states affecting electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. ..
  60. Adenosine receptors and hypoglycemic responses
    Charles Mobbs; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies could lead to the development of A2a receptor antagonists to improve outcome of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes. ..
  61. IRON SUPPLEMENTS AND ZINC IN PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
    Janet King; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Results from this comprehensive, longitudinal study will provide new data on the effects of iron supplementation on zinc utilization during pregnancy and lactation. ..
  62. Dietary Patterns, Obesity and Associated Metabolic Outcomes in Adolescent Girls
    LYNN MOORE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  63. Patient Oriented Research in Pediatric Nutrition
    Nancy Krebs; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  64. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Treatment of Major Depression
    David Mischoulon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e. integrates biological findings with treatment in order to have a direct impact on the clinical practice of psychiatry. ..
  65. Adaptation of a CBT Intervention for Eating Disorders
    Michael Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  66. Mechanisms ot Maternal Immune Tolerence
    Laurie Glimcher; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  67. Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease
    Karen Marder; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  68. Investigation of a Behavioral Substitute for Sunbathing
    Sherry Pagoto; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Prevention interventions that target high-risk segments of the community in settings where risk behavior occurs have potential for a large and focused public health impact. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  69. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NFATP IN CHONDROGENESIS
    Laurie Glimcher; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....