interferons

Summary

Summary: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 3 18 22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nat Immunol 5:730-7. 2004
  2. ncbi Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3
    Rashu B Seth
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Cell 122:669-82. 2005
  3. pmc Interferon-inducible antiviral effectors
    Anthony J Sadler
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:559-68. 2008
  4. ncbi IFN-lambdas mediate antiviral protection through a distinct class II cytokine receptor complex
    Sergei V Kotenko
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:69-77. 2003
  5. pmc STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling
    Hiroki Ishikawa
    Department of Medicine and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Nature 455:674-8. 2008
  6. ncbi Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine
    Ernest C Borden
    Taussig Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, and Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 6:975-90. 2007
  7. ncbi Interferons, immunity and cancer immunoediting
    Gavin P Dunn
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Box 8118, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:836-48. 2006
  8. ncbi Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures
    Richard E Randall
    School of Biology, University of St Andrews, The North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:1-47. 2008
  9. pmc Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus
    Emily C Baechler
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2610-5. 2003
  10. pmc Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda), a type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo
    Nina Ank
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, The Bartholin Building, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    J Virol 80:4501-9. 2006

Detail Information

Publications300 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 3 18 22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nat Immunol 5:730-7. 2004
    ..Subsequent gene activation by these factors induced antiviral functions, including type I interferon production. Thus, RIG-I is key in the detection and subsequent eradication of the replicating viral genomes...
  2. ncbi Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3
    Rashu B Seth
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Cell 122:669-82. 2005
    ..of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF 3, which coordinately regulate the expression of type-I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-beta)...
  3. pmc Interferon-inducible antiviral effectors
    Anthony J Sadler
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:559-68. 2008
    Since the discovery of interferons (IFNs), considerable progress has been made in describing the nature of the cytokines themselves, the signalling components that direct the cell response and their antiviral activities...
  4. ncbi IFN-lambdas mediate antiviral protection through a distinct class II cytokine receptor complex
    Sergei V Kotenko
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:69-77. 2003
    ..This receptor-ligand system may contribute to antiviral or other defenses by a mechanism similar to, but independent of, type I IFNs...
  5. pmc STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling
    Hiroki Ishikawa
    Department of Medicine and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Nature 455:674-8. 2008
    ..Thus, as well as identifying a regulator of innate immune signalling, our results imply a potential role for the translocon in innate signalling pathways activated by select viruses as well as intracellular DNA...
  6. ncbi Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine
    Ernest C Borden
    Taussig Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, and Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 6:975-90. 2007
    ..Our goal is to offer a molecular and clinical perspective that will enable IFNs or their TLR agonist inducers to reach their full clinical potential...
  7. ncbi Interferons, immunity and cancer immunoediting
    Gavin P Dunn
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Box 8118, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:836-48. 2006
    ..The interferons (IFNs) - that is, the type I IFNs (IFNalpha and IFNbeta) and type II IFN (IFNgamma) - have emerged as central ..
  8. ncbi Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures
    Richard E Randall
    School of Biology, University of St Andrews, The North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:1-47. 2008
    ....
  9. pmc Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus
    Emily C Baechler
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2610-5. 2003
    ..These results provide insights into the genetic pathways underlying SLE, and identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from therapies targeting the IFN pathway...
  10. pmc Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda), a type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo
    Nina Ank
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, The Bartholin Building, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    J Virol 80:4501-9. 2006
    Type III interferons (IFNs) (interleukin-28/29 or lambda interferon [IFN-lambda]) are cytokines with IFN-like activities. Here we show that several classes of viruses induce expression of IFN-lambda1 and -lambda2/3 in similar patterns...
  11. pmc Antiviral actions of interferons
    C E Samuel
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 9610, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:778-809, table of contents. 2001
    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of IFNs...
  12. pmc Inhibition of interferon signaling by dengue virus
    Jorge L Munoz-Jordan
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:14333-8. 2003
    ..This protein, encoded by a positive strand RNA virus, is implicated as an IFN-signaling inhibitor...
  13. pmc INTERFEROME: the database of interferon regulated genes
    Shamith A Samarajiwa
    Center for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:D852-7. 2009
    ....
  14. pmc RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling is inhibited in HIV-1 infection by a protease-mediated sequestration of RIG-I
    Mayra Solis
    Terry Fox Molecular Oncology Group, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 85:1224-36. 2011
    ..This study reveals a novel PR-dependent mechanism employed by HIV-1 to counteract the early IFN response to viral RNA in infected cells...
  15. pmc Interferon-dependent immunity is essential for resistance to primary dengue virus infection in mice, whereas T- and B-cell-dependent immunity are less critical
    Sujan Shresta
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Virol 78:2701-10. 2004
    ....
  16. ncbi Distinct poly(I-C) and virus-activated signaling pathways leading to interferon-beta production in hepatocytes
    Kui Li
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 1019, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:16739-47. 2005
    ..We conclude that hepatocytes contain two distinct antiviral signaling pathways leading to expression of type I IFNs, one dependent upon TLR3 and the other dependent on RIG-I, with little cross-talk between these pathways...
  17. pmc RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 synergistically play an important role in restriction of dengue virus infection
    A M A Nasirudeen
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore, Singapore
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e926. 2011
    ..Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the intracellular RNA virus sensors (RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3) are activated upon DV infection and are essential for host defense against the virus...
  18. pmc Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein plays a major role in induction of the fish innate immune response against RNA and DNA viruses
    Stephane Biacchesi
    INRA, CRJ, Jouy en Josas, France
    J Virol 83:7815-27. 2009
    ..through cellular sensor molecules which activate multiple signaling cascades that induce the production of interferons (IFN) and other cytokines...
  19. ncbi PML and PML nuclear bodies: implications in antiviral defence
    Roger D Everett
    MRC Virology Unit, Institute of Virology, Church Street, Glasgow, UK
    Biochimie 89:819-30. 2007
    The establishment of an intracellular antiviral state is the defining activity of interferons (IFNs) as well as the property that permitted their discovery...
  20. doi Immunologic messenger molecules: cytokines, interferons, and chemokines
    Scott P Commins
    University of Virginia Health System, Carter Center for Immunology Research, Asthma and Allergic Disease Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908 1355, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:S53-72. 2010
    ..A discussion of chemokine function and their role in cell trafficking and disease follows...
  21. pmc Coronavirus papain-like proteases negatively regulate antiviral innate immune response through disruption of STING-mediated signaling
    Li Sun
    Division of Infection and Immunity, Department of Electromagnetic and Laser Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e30802. 2012
    ..These results describe a new mechanism used by CoVs in which CoV PLPs negatively regulate antiviral defenses by disrupting the STING-mediated IFN induction...
  22. pmc Innate and adaptive interferons suppress IL-1α and IL-1β production by distinct pulmonary myeloid subsets during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Katrin D Mayer-Barber
    Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 35:1023-34. 2011
    ..Moreover, we demonstrated that interferons (IFNs) played important roles in regulating IL-1 production by these cells in vivo...
  23. pmc SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs) by dNTP depletion, but its expression in DCs and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes cannot be upregulated by interferons
    Corine St Gelais
    Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, 1900 Coffey Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Retrovirology 9:105. 2012
    ..SAMHD1 has been reported as a type I interferon (IFN)-inducible protein, but whether type I IFNs upregulate SAMHD1 expression in primary DCs and CD4+ T-lymphocytes is unknown...
  24. doi Early antiviral response and virus-induced genes in fish
    Eloi R Verrier
    INRA, Fish Infection and Immunity, Molecular Virology and Immunology, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy en Josas, France
    Dev Comp Immunol 35:1204-14. 2011
    ..Most of the ISG-based pathways remain to be directly determined in fish. Fish ISGs are often duplicated and the functional specialization of multigenic families will be of particular interest for future studies...
  25. pmc HCV infection induces a unique hepatic innate immune response associated with robust production of type III interferons
    Emmanuel Thomas
    Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Gastroenterology 142:978-88. 2012
    ..the IL28B gene have been associated with clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV), indicating a role for type III interferons (IFNs) in HCV infection...
  26. doi Interferons and viral infections
    Volker Fensterl
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Biofactors 35:14-20. 2009
    b>Interferons represent a family of cytokines, which is of central importance in the innate immune response to virus infections...
  27. ncbi JAK-STAT signaling: from interferons to cytokines
    Christian Schindler
    Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:20059-63. 2007
  28. pmc Protein kinase PKR and RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1: new roles for old players as modulators of the interferon response
    Christian K Pfaller
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 23:573-82. 2011
    ....
  29. pmc Species-specific activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in overcoming restriction by tetherin/BST2
    Bin Jia
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000429. 2009
    ....
  30. doi IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29: promising cytokines with type I interferon-like properties
    Katrin Witte
    Interdisciplinary Group of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology Medical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 21:237-51. 2010
    IL-28A, IL-28B and IL-29 (also designated type III interferons) constitute a new subfamily within the IL-10-interferon family...
  31. pmc The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 inhibits the innate immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Nan Yan
    Immune Disease Institute and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital, and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:1005-13. 2010
    ..HIV-stimulated interferon production in cells deficient in TREX1 did not involve known nucleic acid sensors...
  32. pmc Type III interferon (IFN) induces a type I IFN-like response in a restricted subset of cells through signaling pathways involving both the Jak-STAT pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinases
    Zhangle Zhou
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    J Virol 81:7749-58. 2007
    ..We also tested the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by type III IFN and found that type III IFN relies strongly upon both p38 and JNK MAP kinases for gene induction...
  33. doi Respiratory virus induction of alpha-, beta- and lambda-interferons in bronchial epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    M R Khaitov
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    Allergy 64:375-86. 2009
    ..Rhinoviruses and other respiratory viruses infect both BECs and macrophages, but their relative capacities for alpha-, beta- and lambda-interferon production are unknown...
  34. ncbi Pregnancy recognition and conceptus implantation in domestic ruminants: roles of progesterone, interferons and endogenous retroviruses
    Thomas E Spencer
    Center for Animal Biotechnology andGenomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Reprod Fertil Dev 19:65-78. 2007
    ..recognition and conceptus development and implantation in sheep with respect to regulation by progesterone, interferons and endogenous retroviruses...
  35. pmc Establishment, immortalisation and characterisation of pteropid bat cell lines
    Gary Crameri
    CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia
    PLoS ONE 4:e8266. 2009
    ..New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions...
  36. pmc Blocking of interferon-induced Jak-Stat signaling by Japanese encephalitis virus NS5 through a protein tyrosine phosphatase-mediated mechanism
    Ren Jye Lin
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Virol 80:5908-18. 2006
    ..We suggest that JEV NS5 is an IFN antagonist and that it may play a role in blocking IFN-stimulated Jak-Stat signaling via activation of PTPs during JEV infection...
  37. ncbi Induction of an interferon response by RNAi vectors in mammalian cells
    Alan J Bridge
    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Nat Genet 34:263-4. 2003
    ..Although siRNAs are thought to be too short to induce interferon expression, we report here that a substantial number of shRNA vectors can trigger an interferon response...
  38. pmc Human TRIM gene expression in response to interferons
    Laetitia Carthagena
    Departement des Maladies Infectieuses, Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS, UMR 8104, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e4894. 2009
    ..The recent discovery of the anti-HIV activity of TRIM5alpha in primate cells has stimulated much interest in the potential role of TRIM proteins in antiviral activities and innate immunity...
  39. ncbi Hepatitis C virus triggers apoptosis of a newly developed hepatoma cell line through antiviral defense system
    Haizhen Zhu
    Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Gastroenterology 133:1649-59. 2007
    ..However, the interaction between HCV and hepatocyte innate antiviral defense systems is not understood. The aim of this study was to examine how human hepatocytes respond to HCV infection...
  40. ncbi Interferon-induced mx proteins: dynamin-like GTPases with antiviral activity
    Otto Haller
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, D 79008 Freiburg, Germany
    Traffic 3:710-7. 2002
    ..As a consequence, these viral components are trapped and sorted to locations where they become unavailable for the generation of new virus particles...
  41. ncbi Distinct patterns of cytokine regulation of APOBEC3G expression and activity in primary lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells
    Kim S Stopak
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:3539-46. 2007
    ..Together, these results highlight the distinct inductive effects of select cytokines on A3G gene expression and A3G complex assembly that occur in natural cellular targets of HIV infection...
  42. ncbi Functional classification of interferon-stimulated genes identified using microarrays
    M J de Veer
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 69:912-20. 2001
    b>Interferons (IFNs) are a family of multifunctional cytokines that activate transcription of subsets of genes. The gene products induced by IFNs are responsible for IFN antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory properties...
  43. ncbi How cells respond to interferons
    G R Stark
    Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 67:227-64. 1998
    b>Interferons play key roles in mediating antiviral and antigrowth responses and in modulating immune response. The main signaling pathways are rapid and direct...
  44. pmc Lambda interferon is the predominant interferon induced by influenza A virus infection in vivo
    Nancy A Jewell
    The Research Institute at Nationwide Children s Hospital, and Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA
    J Virol 84:11515-22. 2010
    The type I alpha/beta interferons (IFN-α/β) are known to play an important role in host defense against influenza A virus infection, but we have now discovered that the recently identified type III IFNs (IFN-λ) constitute the major ..
  45. ncbi Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in human UNC-93B deficiency
    Armanda Casrouge
    Laboratoire de Genetique Humaine des Maladies Infectieuses, Université de Paris René Descartes, INSERM, U550, Faculte de Medecine Necker, Paris 75015, France
    Science 314:308-12. 2006
    ..HSE can result from a single-gene immunodeficiency that does not compromise immunity to most pathogens, unlike most known primary immunodeficiencies. Other severe infectious diseases may also reflect monogenic disorders of immunity...
  46. pmc Hepatitis C virus reveals a novel early control in acute immune response
    Noëlla Arnaud
    Institut Pasteur, Hepacivirus and Innate Immunity, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002289. 2011
    ..Among those, ISG15 acts to negatively control the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, at the level of RIG-I ubiquitination.These data give novel insights in the machinery involved in the early events of innate immune response...
  47. doi Viral evasion and subversion of pattern-recognition receptor signalling
    Andrew G Bowie
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:911-22. 2008
    ..and the description of the molecular basis of their signalling pathways, which lead to the production of interferons and other cytokines...
  48. doi Interferons as therapeutic agents for infectious diseases
    Scott J Bergman
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville SIUE School of Pharmacy, Edwardsville, IL 62026, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 25:819-34. 2011
    This article explains the rationale for development of interferons as therapeutic agents, and describes commercial products available today...
  49. pmc Induction of interferon-stimulated genes by Simian virus 40 T antigens
    Abhilasha V Rathi
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, 559 Crawford Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Virology 406:202-11. 2010
    ..Our genetic studies using several TAg-mutants reveal an unexplored function of TAg and indicate that the LXCXE motif and p53 binding are required for the upregulation of ISGs...
  50. pmc Evolutionary genetic dissection of human interferons
    Jeremy Manry
    Unit of Human Evolutionary Genetics, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, F 75015 Paris, France
    J Exp Med 208:2747-59. 2011
    b>Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that play a key role in innate and adaptive immune responses...
  51. pmc Inborn errors of anti-viral interferon immunity in humans
    Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu
    Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U980, Necker Medical School, Paris 75015, France
    Curr Opin Virol 1:487-96. 2011
    ..These recent discoveries highlight the importance of human type I and III IFNs in protective immunity against viruses, including the TLR3-IFN pathway in protection against HSE...
  52. pmc USP18-based negative feedback control is induced by type I and type III interferons and specifically inactivates interferon α response
    Véronique François-Newton
    Institut Pasteur, Cytokine Signaling Unit, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 1961, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e22200. 2011
    Type I interferons (IFN) are cytokines that are rapidly secreted upon microbial infections and regulate all aspects of the immune response...
  53. pmc The C-terminal 42 residues of the Tula virus Gn protein regulate interferon induction
    Valery Matthys
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Life Sciences Room 126, Stony Brook, NY 11794 5222, USA
    J Virol 85:4752-60. 2011
    ..Thus, in addition to IFN regulation, hantaviruses contain discrete virulence determinants which permit them to be human pathogens...
  54. doi Interferons and microRNAs
    Michael David
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0322, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:825-8. 2010
    ..that are adapted to specific viral antigens, and also employ nonadaptive defenses, such as production of interferons (IFNs) that block viral replication and stimulate the host immune response...
  55. doi Limited use of interleukin 28B in the setting of response-guided treatment with detailed on-treatment virological monitoring
    Alessandra Mangia
    Liver Unit, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
    Hepatology 54:772-80. 2011
    ..However, achievement of on-treatment virological milestones was the critical factor in determining outcome. IL28B type appeared to have limited potential for response-guided treatment strategies...
  56. doi Genetic variants of interferon-stimulated genes and IL-28B as host prognostic factors of response to combination treatment for chronic hepatitis C
    R Lopez-Rodriguez
    Liver Unit, Gastroenterology Service, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitario Princesa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 90:712-21. 2011
    ..74). In conclusion, ISG SNPs could constitute a valuable tool for individualizing CHC therapy...
  57. doi Remodelling of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in response to interferons
    Ulrike Seifert
    Institut fur Biochemie, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, CCM Campus Charité Mitte, Monbijoustrasse 2, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Biochem Soc Trans 36:879-84. 2008
    ..system) is rate-limiting in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation in response to virus-induced IFNs (interferons). In this process, the role of IFN-induced rapid remodelling of the UPS is less defined...
  58. doi Pharmacology and therapeutic potential of interferons
    Peter M George
    Cardiothoracic Pharmacology, National Heart and Lung Institute NHLI, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK
    Pharmacol Ther 135:44-53. 2012
    ..Finally, we look to the future of interferon drug treatment, examining the potential for emerging therapies...
  59. ncbi Targeted disruption of the mouse Stat1 gene results in compromised innate immunity to viral disease
    J E Durbin
    Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA
    Cell 84:443-50. 1996
    ..Thus, STAT1 appears to be specific for IFN pathways that are essential for viability in the face of otherwise innocuous pathogens...
  60. ncbi Interferons and osteosarcoma
    Hans Strander
    Department of Oncology Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, S 17176, Stockholm, Sweden
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 18:373-80. 2007
    ..The trial is briefly outlined in this article...
  61. ncbi Poxviruses and immune evasion
    Bruce T Seet
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Annu Rev Immunol 21:377-423. 2003
    ..Poxviruses target many of the primary mediators of innate immunity including interferons, tumor necrosis factors, interleukins, complement, and chemokines...
  62. ncbi Viral suppression of the interferon system
    Friedemann Weber
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, D 79008 Freiburg, Germany
    Biochimie 89:836-42. 2007
    Type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) were originally discovered by their strong and direct antiviral activity [A. Isaacs, J. Lindenmann, Virus interference. I. The interferon, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 147 (1957) 258-267]...
  63. pmc Antiviral response in pandemic influenza viruses
    Adolfo Garcia-Sastre
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10028, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:44-7. 2006
    ....
  64. doi Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist
    Z Chen
    Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
    Virology 398:87-97. 2010
    ..These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development...
  65. doi Identification of an Atlantic salmon IFN multigene cluster encoding three IFN subtypes with very different expression properties
    Baojian Sun
    Department of Marine Biotechnology, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, N 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    Dev Comp Immunol 33:547-58. 2009
    ..IFNc genes showed expression patterns different from both IFNa and IFNb. Taken together, salmon IFNa and IFNb are not orthologs of mammalian IFN-beta and IFN-alpha, respectively, but appear to utilize similar induction pathways...
  66. ncbi Interferons and progesterone for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy: interactions among novel cell signaling pathways
    Fuller W Bazer
    Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 2471, USA
    Reprod Biol 8:179-211. 2008
    Type I and/or type II interferons (IFNs) are important in establishing uterine receptivity to implantation in mammals. Gene expression effected by IFNs may be induced, stimulated or inhibited, but most are IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs)...
  67. pmc Interferons direct an effective innate response to Legionella pneumophila infection
    Courtney R Plumlee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:30058-66. 2009
    ..pneumophila. Surprisingly, this suppression is mediated by a pathway that is independent of Stat1, Stat2, Stat3, but correlates with the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 or classically activated phenotype...
  68. doi Despite IFN-lambda receptor expression, blood immune cells, but not keratinocytes or melanocytes, have an impaired response to type III interferons: implications for therapeutic applications of these cytokines
    K Witte
    Interdisciplinary Group of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology Medical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, Berlin, Germany
    Genes Immun 10:702-14. 2009
    ....
  69. pmc How cells respond to interferons revisited: from early history to current complexity
    George R Stark
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland OH 44195, United States
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 18:419-23. 2007
    ..I then outline the complex responses of cells to interferons, including the roles of kinases other than JAKs and transcription factors other than STATs, differential ..
  70. ncbi Immunodeficiency and chronic myelogenous leukemia-like syndrome in mice with a targeted mutation of the ICSBP gene
    T Holtschke
    Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell 87:307-17. 1996
    ..These results suggest a novel role for ICSBP in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells...
  71. doi Macrophage polarization and HIV-1 infection
    Edana Cassol
    AIDS Immunopathogenesis Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Leukoc Biol 87:599-608. 2010
    ..In vivo polarization of MP is likely to span a spectrum of activation phenotypes that may change the permissivity to and alter the outcome of HIV-1 and other viral infections...
  72. pmc Viral encounters with 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and RNase L during the interferon antiviral response
    Robert H Silverman
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue NB40, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Virol 81:12720-9. 2007
  73. pmc Processing of genome 5' termini as a strategy of negative-strand RNA viruses to avoid RIG-I-dependent interferon induction
    Matthias Habjan
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 3:e2032. 2008
    ....
  74. pmc Enhanced expression of interferon-regulated genes in the liver of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: detection by suppression-subtractive hybridization
    R Patzwahl
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Georg August Universitat, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Virol 75:1332-8. 2001
    ..The data on enhanced expression of IFN-alpha/beta inducible genes might be germane to therapeutic considerations...
  75. pmc PKR stimulates NF-kappaB irrespective of its kinase function by interacting with the IkappaB kinase complex
    M C Bonnet
    Unité de Virologie et d Immunologie Cellulaire, URA CNRS 1930, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Mol Cell Biol 20:4532-42. 2000
    ..Therefore, our results reveal a novel pathway by which PKR can modulate the NF-kappaB signaling pathway without using its kinase activity...
  76. doi Antiviral effects of the interferon-induced protein guanylate binding protein 1 and its interaction with the hepatitis C virus NS5B protein
    Yasuhiro Itsui
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatology 50:1727-37. 2009
    b>Interferons (IFNs) and the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) play a central role in antiviral responses against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection...
  77. pmc Hepatitis C virus core protein blocks interferon signaling by interaction with the STAT1 SH2 domain
    Wenyu Lin
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Virol 80:9226-35. 2006
    ....
  78. ncbi The interferon-inducible GTPases
    Sascha Martens
    Division of Neurobiology, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 22:559-89. 2006
    Mammalian cells respond to interferons (IFNs) secreted during infection by the transcriptional upregulation of as many as a thousand genes...
  79. pmc The NS1 gene contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses
    Zejun Li
    Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, 427 Maduan Street, Harbin 150001, People s Republic of China
    J Virol 80:11115-23. 2006
    ....
  80. ncbi Induction of genes mediating interferon-dependent extracellular trap formation during neutrophil differentiation
    Sibylla Martinelli
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Bern, CH 3010, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 279:44123-32. 2004
    b>Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that possess potent anti-viral and immunoregulatory activities. In contrast, their potential role(s) in anti-bacterial defense and neutrophil activation mechanisms is less well explored...
  81. pmc Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda) in serum is decreased in hantavirus-infected patients, and in vitro-established infection is insensitive to treatment with all IFNs and inhibits IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide production
    Malin Stoltz
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Virol 81:8685-91. 2007
    ..syndrome (HCPS), are known to be sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) and to pretreatment with type I and II interferons (alpha interferon [IFN-alpha]/IFN-beta and IFN-gamma, respectively)...
  82. pmc Nonstructural proteins of respiratory syncytial virus suppress premature apoptosis by an NF-kappaB-dependent, interferon-independent mechanism and facilitate virus growth
    Vira Bitko
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, 307 University Blvd, Mobile, AL 36688 0002, USA
    J Virol 81:1786-95. 2007
    ..NS-dependent suppression of apoptosis was observed in Vero cells that are naturally devoid of type I interferons (IFN). The siRNA-based results were confirmed by the use of NS-deleted RSV mutants...
  83. ncbi Viruses know it all: new insights into IFN networks
    Hartmut Hengel
    Institute for Virology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Trends Immunol 26:396-401. 2005
    ..Early cytokines, such as interferons (IFNs), which integrate innate and adaptive immune responses, are essential targets for viruses...
  84. ncbi ICSBP directs bipotential myeloid progenitor cells to differentiate into mature macrophages
    T Tamura
    Laboratory of Molecular Growth Regulation, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Immunity 13:155-65. 2000
    ..Together, ICSBP has a key role in the myeloid cell lineage selection and macrophage maturation...
  85. ncbi The interferon response circuit: induction and suppression by pathogenic viruses
    Otto Haller
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, D 79008 Freiburg, Germany
    Virology 344:119-30. 2006
    Type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) are potent antiviral cytokines and modulators of the adaptive immune system...
  86. ncbi Paramyxovirus strategies for evading the interferon response
    Bin Gotoh
    Department of Microbiology, Fukui Medical University School of Medicine, Shimoaizuki 23 3, Matsuoka cho, Yoshida gun, Fukui 910 1193, Japan
    Rev Med Virol 12:337-57. 2002
    ....
  87. ncbi Evasion of intracellular host defence by hepatitis C virus
    Michael Gale
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390 9048, USA
    Nature 436:939-45. 2005
    ..These evasion strategies support persistent infection and the spread of HCV. Defining the molecular mechanisms by which HCV regulates the host response is of crucial importance and may reveal targets for novel therapeutic strategies...
  88. ncbi Biological assays for interferons
    Anthony Meager
    Division of Immunobiology, The National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts, EN6 3QG, UK
    J Immunol Methods 261:21-36. 2002
    b>Interferons (IFN) are potent biologically active proteins synthesised and secreted by somatic cells of all mammalian species...
  89. ncbi Weapons of STAT destruction. Interferon evasion by paramyxovirus V protein
    Curt M Horvath
    Department of Medicine, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Research Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
    Eur J Biochem 271:4621-8. 2004
    ..Exposure of the viral weapons of STAT destruction may also be instructive for application to STAT-directed therapeutics for diseases characterized by STAT hyperactivity...
  90. ncbi Mechanism of interferon action: cDNA structure, expression, and regulation of the interferon-induced, RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2 alpha protein kinase from human cells
    D C Thomis
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106
    Virology 188:33-46. 1992
    ..The amino-terminal half of the P1 protein did not possess conserved kinase motifs, but did show extensive homology with vaccinia virus-predicted protein E3L...
  91. ncbi Viral infection and Toll-like receptor agonists induce a differential expression of type I and lambda interferons in human plasmacytoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Eliana M Coccia
    Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune Mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 34:796-805. 2004
    ..Overall, our data indicate that the coordinated expression of IFN-lambda with IFN-beta would be of crucial importance for the maturation of DC...
  92. pmc Unphosphorylated STAT1 prolongs the expression of interferon-induced immune regulatory genes
    Hyeonjoo Cheon
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9373-8. 2009
    In normal human cells treated with interferons (IFNs), the concentration of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 (YP-STAT1), which drives the expression of a large number of genes, increases quickly but then decreases over a period of several ..
  93. ncbi Mechanism of action of interferon and ribavirin in treatment of hepatitis C
    Jordan J Feld
    Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Building 31, Room 9A27, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 436:967-72. 2005
    ..To optimize current therapeutic strategies and to develop new therapies, a better understanding of the mechanism of action of IFN and ribavirin will be essential...
  94. doi The role of interferons in the treatment of osteosarcoma
    Jeremy Whelan
    Department of Oncology, University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 54:350-4. 2010
    b>Interferons, a group of cytokines with antiangiogenic, direct antitumour and immunostimulating properties, have shown significant activity against osteosarcoma in vitro and in xenograft models...
  95. ncbi Neuropsychiatric complications of interferons: classification, neurochemical bases, and management
    Parviz Malek-Ahmadi
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 8103, USA
    Ann Clin Psychiatry 19:113-23. 2007
    Recombinant interferons are widely used for a number of serious illnesses. However, their use is sometimes associated with severe and disabling neuropsychiatric side effects.
  96. doi Interferons as potential adjuvants in prophylactic vaccines
    Roberta Toporovski
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 422 Curie Blvd, 505 Stellar Chance Labs, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 10:1489-500. 2010
    ..One of the most promising uses of IFNs is as adjuvants that are co-applied with antigen in vaccines...
  97. doi A novel reporter gene assay for interferons based on CHO-K1 cells
    V Smilović
    National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    J Immunol Methods 333:192-6. 2008
    b>Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines playing an important role in the immune response and defence against viruses. They are widely used as biopharmaceuticals...
  98. doi Interferons and scleroderma-a new clue to understanding the pathogenesis of scleroderma?
    Luiz Felipe Leomil Coelho
    Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Departamento de Parasitologia e Microbiologia, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Brazil
    Immunol Lett 118:110-5. 2008
    ..Recently, some emerging data have been showing a possible link between the type I and II interferons (IFNs) and SSc pathogenesis. IFNs are well-known immunomodulators and inhibitors of collagen production...
  99. doi Interferon therapy of hepatitis C: molecular insights into success and failure
    Magdalena Sarasin-Filipowicz
    Hepatology Laboratory, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, Hebelstrasse 20, Basel, Switzerland
    Swiss Med Wkly 140:3-11. 2010
    ....
  100. pmc Mutually positive regulatory feedback loop between interferons and estrogen receptor-alpha in mice: implications for sex bias in autoimmunity
    Ravichandran Panchanathan
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10868. 2010
    ..Here we report that activation of IFN (alpha or gamma)-signaling in immune cells up-regulates expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha; encoded by the Esr1 gene) and stimulates expression of target genes...
  101. ncbi Inhibitory effects of interferons on pancreatic stellate cell activation
    Jan Tido Baumert
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Medical Faculty, University of Rostock, 18057 Rostock, Germany
    World J Gastroenterol 12:896-901. 2006
    ..To analyze and to compare the effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma on pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation in vitro and to elucidate the molecular basis of IFN action...

Research Grants82

  1. Viral Mediated Type I Interferon Induction
    Genhong Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..have developed various strategies to inhibit the ability of host cells to either produce or respond to type I interferons. To understand this paradox of host and pathogen interactions, we seek to determine how host cells can ..
  2. Dendritic Cells in the Breaking of Peripheral Tolerance in Type 1 Diabetes
    JONATHAN DAVID contact KATZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, mcDC enhance inflammatory immunity to apoptotic self in part by producing copious levels of type 1 interferons. Rationale: Our recent studies have found that mcDC are not only more numerous but also more biologically ..
  3. Regulation of interferon receptor by Leishmania kinase
    SERGE FUCHS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..II interferon (IFN?) in resistance to Leishmania is well established, according to the current paradigm, Type I interferons (such as IFNa species) are not considered of major importance...
  4. Mechanisms of viral proteases in coronavirus replication and pathogenesis
    Andrew D Mesecar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results from our research will allow us to identify sites in the viral protease that may be targeted for antiviral drug development or modified to improve vaccine development. ..
  5. PROTECTIVE ANTIGENS FROM HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM
    GEORGE DEEPE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. PROTECTIVE ANTIGENS FROM HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM
    GEORGE DEEPE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..rhsp 60 serves as a paradigm, and the data emerging from this proposal may be broadly applicable to other antigens against intracellular pathogens. ..
  7. Role of Type I Interferons in a Self-Sustaining Murine Model of Myositis
    Thomas Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..for induction and maintenance of endogenous MHC class I expression is unclear, though we theorize that type I interferons are involved, since they are potent inducers of MHC class I expression, and there is evidence for type I ..
  8. Interferon-gamma To Treat Chronic HCV Infection
    Andrew Muir; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Secondary endpoints include the biochemical response, inflammatory and regulatory cytokine levels, and quality of life during treatment. ..
  9. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTITUMOR DRUGS
    Leroy F Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) that is induced by type I interferons (IFNs)...
  10. Resistance to Antiviral Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C
    Norah Terrault; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..therapy has been shown to be superior to interferon monotherapy and preliminary data indicate pegylated interferons are superior to standard interferons...
  11. Hepatocarcinogenesis Secondary to Hepatitis C
    Srikanta Dash; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research proposal intends to develop intracellular immunization strategy to inhibit HCV. If these experiments are successful it can potentially lead to a therapy for chronic HCV infection and prevent liver cancer. ..
  12. Macrophage transcriptional responses to Legionella pneumophila
    RUSSELL VANCE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recent exciting data from several labs have indicated that type I interferons (IFNs) are an important signature of infection with many, if not all, intracellular pathogens...
  13. Viral Mediated Type I Interferon Induction
    Genhong Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have developed various strategies to inhibit the ability of host cells to either produce or respond to type I interferons. To understand this paradox of host and pathogen interactions, we seek to determine how host cells can ..
  14. INTERFERON ACTION AND PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in the actions which natural and recombinant interferons mediate on viral and host functions...
  15. Interferons in taste cell turnover and taste disorders
    Hong Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In this application, we will focus our research on the roles of interferons in infection-caused taste disorders...
  16. Macrophage transcriptional responses to Legionella pneumophila
    Russell E Vance; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recent exciting data from several labs have indicated that type I interferons (IFNs) are an important signature of infection with many, if not all, intracellular pathogens...