cytokines

Summary

Summary: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Pathogen recognition and innate immunity
    Shizuo Akira
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Cell 124:783-801. 2006
  2. pmc Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation
    David M Mosser
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:958-69. 2008
  3. pmc Development of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells
    Frederic Geissmann
    Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology of Inflammation, Division of Immunology, Infection, and Inflammatory Diseases, King s College London, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Science 327:656-61. 2010
  4. ncbi Alternative activation of macrophages: mechanism and functions
    Siamon Gordon
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Immunity 32:593-604. 2010
  5. ncbi Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes
    Alberto Mantovani
    Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, I 20157 Milan, Italy
    Trends Immunol 23:549-55. 2002
  6. ncbi A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
    H Hemmi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Suita
    Nature 408:740-5. 2000
  7. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
  8. ncbi IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines
    Jochen Schmitz
    Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Inc, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Immunity 23:479-90. 2005
  9. pmc From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain
    Robert Dantzer
    Integrative Immunology and Behavior, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:46-56. 2008
  10. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004

Detail Information

Publications250 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Pathogen recognition and innate immunity
    Shizuo Akira
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Cell 124:783-801. 2006
    ..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity...
  2. pmc Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation
    David M Mosser
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:958-69. 2008
    ..We characterize each population and provide examples of macrophages from specific disease states that have the characteristics of one or more of these populations...
  3. pmc Development of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells
    Frederic Geissmann
    Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology of Inflammation, Division of Immunology, Infection, and Inflammatory Diseases, King s College London, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Science 327:656-61. 2010
    ..Despite this, the origin and differentiation cues for many tissue macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cell subsets in mice, and the corresponding cell populations in humans, remain to be elucidated...
  4. ncbi Alternative activation of macrophages: mechanism and functions
    Siamon Gordon
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Immunity 32:593-604. 2010
    ..in this field, argue for a restricted definition, and explore pathways by which the T helper 2 (Th2) cell cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 mediate their effects on macrophage cell biology, their biosynthesis, and ..
  5. ncbi Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes
    Alberto Mantovani
    Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, I 20157 Milan, Italy
    Trends Immunol 23:549-55. 2002
    ..Macrophages that infiltrate tumor tissues are driven by tumor-derived and T cell-derived cytokines to acquire a polarized M2 phenotype...
  6. ncbi A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
    H Hemmi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Suita
    Nature 408:740-5. 2000
    ..The in vivo CpG-DNA-mediated T-helper type-1 response was also abolished in TLR9-/- mice. Thus, vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll-like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA...
  7. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury...
  8. ncbi IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines
    Jochen Schmitz
    Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Inc, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Immunity 23:479-90. 2005
    b>Cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, such as IL-1 alpha/beta and IL-18, have important functions in host defense, immune regulation, and inflammation...
  9. pmc From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain
    Robert Dantzer
    Integrative Immunology and Behavior, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:46-56. 2008
    In response to a peripheral infection, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour...
  10. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004
    ..These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions...
  11. ncbi Biologic basis for interleukin-1 in disease
    C A Dinarello
    Department of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA USA
    Blood 87:2095-147. 1996
    ..importance of the IL-1R accessory protein, newly discovered signal transduction pathways, naturally occurring cytokines limiting IL-1 production or activity, the effects of blocking cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide, and the outcomes ..
  12. ncbi Osteoprotegerin ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation
    D L Lacey
    Department of Pathology, Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California 91320 1789, USA
    Cell 93:165-76. 1998
    ..These data suggest that OPGL is an osteoclast differentiation and activation factor. The effects of OPGL are blocked in vitro and in vivo by OPG, suggesting that OPGL and OPG are key extracellular regulators of osteoclast development...
  13. pmc Differentiation of effector CD4 T cell populations (*)
    Jinfang Zhu
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1892, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 28:445-89. 2010
    ..their development; the networks of transcription factors involved in their differentiation; the epigenetic regulation of their key cytokines and transcription factors; and human diseases involving defective CD4 T cell differentiation.
  14. pmc HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells
    Michael R Betts
    Immunology Laboratory, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 107:4781-9. 2006
    ..Thus, rather than quantity or phenotype, the quality of the CD8(+) T-cell functional response serves as an immune correlate of HIV disease progression and a potential qualifying factor for evaluation of HIV vaccine efficacy...
  15. pmc Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF
    V A Fadok
    Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    J Clin Invest 101:890-8. 1998
    ..Therefore, it is likely that resolution of inflammation depends not only on the removal of apoptotic cells but on active suppression of inflammatory mediator production. Disorders in either could result in chronic inflammatory diseases...
  16. pmc How regulatory T cells work
    Dario A A Vignali
    Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:523-32. 2008
    ..In addition, we propose the hypothesis that effector T cells may not be 'innocent' parties in this suppressive process and might in fact potentiate T(Reg)-cell function...
  17. ncbi Development, cytokine profile and function of human interleukin 17-producing helper T cells
    Nicholas J Wilson
    Department of Discovery Research, Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Palo Alto, California 94304 1104, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:950-7. 2007
    ..Psoriatic skin lesions contained IL-23-producing dendritic cells and were enriched in the cytokines produced by human T(H)-17 cells that promote the production of antimicrobial peptides in human keratinocytes...
  18. pmc Interferon-inducible antiviral effectors
    Anthony J Sadler
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:559-68. 2008
    Since the discovery of interferons (IFNs), considerable progress has been made in describing the nature of the cytokines themselves, the signalling components that direct the cell response and their antiviral activities...
  19. ncbi OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph-node organogenesis
    Y Y Kong
    Amgen Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nature 397:315-23. 1999
    ..Thus OPGL is a new regulator of lymph-node organogenesis and lymphocyte development and is an essential osteoclast differentiation factor in vivo...
  20. ncbi Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokines
    Sabine Werner
    Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zurich, Honggerberg, HPM D42, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Physiol Rev 83:835-70. 2003
    ..Initial approaches at addressing this question focused on the expression analysis of various growth factors, cytokines, and their receptors in different wound models, with first functional data being obtained by applying ..
  21. pmc Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its regulation
    Peter C Heinrich
    Institut fur Biochemie, RWTH Aachen, Universitatsklinikum, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Biochem J 374:1-20. 2003
    The IL (interleukin)-6-type cytokines IL-6, IL-11, LIF (leukaemia inhibitory factor), OSM (oncostatin M), ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-1 and cardiotrophin-like cytokine are an important family of mediators involved in the ..
  22. ncbi Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3
    Shohei Hori
    Laboratory of Immunopathology, Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, Institute for Physical and Chemical Research, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
    Science 299:1057-61. 2003
    ..Thus, Foxp3 is a key regulatory gene for the development of regulatory T cells...
  23. pmc T cell activation
    Jennifer E Smith-Garvin
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 27:591-619. 2009
    ..complex (MHC) complex pSMAC: peripheral supramolecular activation cluster PTK: protein tyrosine kinase Signal transduction: biochemical events linking surface receptor engagement to cellular responses TCR: T cell antigen receptor..
  24. ncbi Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases
    Gary L Johnson
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Science 298:1911-2. 2002
    ..The p38 MAPKs are activated by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses and may contribute to diseases like asthma and autoimmunity.
  25. ncbi Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Michelle L Monje
    Stanford University, Department of Neurosurgery, MSLS P309, Mail Code 5487, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305 5487, USA
    Science 302:1760-5. 2003
    ....
  26. doi Systemic lupus erythematosus
    Anisur Rahman
    Centre for Rheumatology Research, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 358:929-39. 2008
  27. ncbi The role of tumour-associated macrophages in tumour progression: implications for new anticancer therapies
    L Bingle
    Tumour Targeting Group, Division of Genomic Medicine, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
    J Pathol 196:254-65. 2002
    ..It also outlines the range of pro- and anti-tumour functions performed by TAMs, and the novel therapies recently devised using TAMs to stimulate host immune responses or deliver therapeutic gene constructs to solid tumours...
  28. doi Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths
    Judith E Allen
    Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:375-88. 2011
    ..Finally, we more broadly consider how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity...
  29. ncbi Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis
    Michelle A Lowes
    Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 178, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 445:866-73. 2007
    ..thought to be activation of the cellular immune system, with T cells, dendritic cells and various immune-related cytokines and chemokines implicated in pathogenesis...
  30. pmc Inflammation directs memory precursor and short-lived effector CD8(+) T cell fates via the graded expression of T-bet transcription factor
    Nikhil S Joshi
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Immunity 27:281-95. 2007
    ..The decision between SLEC and MPEC fates was regulated by the amount of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-12) present during T cell priming...
  31. ncbi Microglia as a source and target of cytokines
    Uwe Karsten Hanisch
    Department of Cellular Neurosciences, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
    Glia 40:140-55. 2002
    b>Cytokines constitute a significant portion of the immuno- and neuromodulatory messengers that can be released by activated microglia...
  32. ncbi Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism
    Diana L Vargas
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Ann Neurol 57:67-81. 2005
    ..chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor growth factor-beta1, derived from neuroglia, were the most prevalent cytokines in brain tissues. CSF showed a unique proinflammatory profile of cytokines, including a marked increase in MCP-1...
  33. pmc Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its implications for fibrosis
    Raghu Kalluri
    Center for Matrix Biology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave DANA 514, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1776-84. 2003
    ..This review highlights recent advances in the process of EMT signaling in health and disease and how it may be attenuated or reversed by selective cytokines and growth factors.
  34. doi Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing
    Stephan Barrientos
    University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA
    Wound Repair Regen 16:585-601. 2008
    ..process is executed and regulated by an equally complex signaling network involving numerous growth factors, cytokines and chemokines...
  35. pmc Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression
    Andrew H Miller
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:732-41. 2009
    ..depression have been found to exhibit increased peripheral blood inflammatory biomarkers, including inflammatory cytokines, which have been shown to access the brain and interact with virtually every pathophysiologic domain known to be ..
  36. doi Inflammatory bowel disease
    Arthur Kaser
    Department of Medicine II, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria
    Annu Rev Immunol 28:573-621. 2010
    ..This review examines these interactions and, where possible, potential lessons from IBD-directed, biologic therapies that may allow for elucidation of pathways that are central to disease pathogenesis in humans...
  37. pmc The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation
    Wenjun Ouyang
    Department of Immunology, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Immunity 28:454-67. 2008
    ..Th17 cells and their effector cytokines mediate host defensive mechanisms to various infections, especially extracellular bacteria infections, and are ..
  38. ncbi Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    Masahiro Yamamoto
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Science 301:640-3. 2003
    ..These findings demonstrate that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense...
  39. pmc A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
    ..In addition, the cellular source of cytokines that control TH2 differentiation in vivo has not been defined...
  40. pmc Mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and plasticity of helper CD4+ T cells
    JOHN J O'SHEA
    Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1616, USA
    Science 327:1098-102. 2010
    ..These T cells specialize to become distinct subsets and produce restricted patterns of cytokines, which are tailored to combat various microbial pathogens...
  41. ncbi Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6
    Bente K Pedersen
    The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism at Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Physiol Rev 88:1379-406. 2008
    Skeletal muscle has recently been identified as an endocrine organ. It has, therefore, been suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert paracrine, autocrine, or ..
  42. pmc Proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases
    Warren Strober
    Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Gastroenterology 140:1756-67. 2011
    ..In Crohn's disease, the major cytokines arise from T-helper cell (Th) 1 and Th17 CD4(+) T-cell differentiation and consist of interferon-γ and ..
  43. ncbi Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3
    L Alexopoulou
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA
    Nature 413:732-8. 2001
    ..lethal effect of poly(I:C) when sensitized with d-galactosamine (d-GalN), and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines. MyD88 is an adaptor protein that is shared by all the known TLRs...
  44. doi Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells
    Kazuyo Moro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 463:540-4. 2010
    ..antigen receptors but rapidly exhibit cytotoxic activities against virus-infected cells and produce various cytokines. Here we report a new type of innate lymphocyte present in a novel lymphoid structure associated with adipose ..
  45. ncbi Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia
    Menno D de Jong
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, 190 Ben Ham Tu, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    Nat Med 12:1203-7. 2006
    ..The focus of clinical management should be on preventing this intense cytokine response, by early diagnosis and effective antiviral treatment...
  46. ncbi IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge
    Shabaana A Khader
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:369-77. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets
    M A Cooper
    Dept of Veterinary Biosciences and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, 458A Starling-Loving Hall, 320 West 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Trends Immunol 22:633-40. 2001
    ..Owing to their early production of cytokines and chemokines, and ability to lyse target cells without prior sensitization, NK cells are crucial components of ..
  48. ncbi Immunology of multiple sclerosis
    Mireia Sospedra
    Cellular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1400, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 23:683-747. 2005
    ..It is now clear that MS is not just a disease of the immune system, but that factors contributed by the central nervous system are equally important and must be considered in the future...
  49. doi Regulatory T cells exert checks and balances on self tolerance and autoimmunity
    Kajsa Wing
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    Nat Immunol 11:7-13. 2010
    ....
  50. ncbi Cell-mediated immune responses in tuberculosis
    Andrea M Cooper
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 27:393-422. 2009
    ..We must also determine how to induce both known and novel immunoprotective responses without inducing immunopathologic consequences...
  51. ncbi Selective ablation of proliferating microglial cells exacerbates ischemic injury in the brain
    Mélanie Lalancette-Hébert
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Neurosci 27:2596-605. 2007
    ....
  52. doi Transforming growth factor-beta 'reprograms' the differentiation of T helper 2 cells and promotes an interleukin 9-producing subset
    Marc Veldhoen
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nat Immunol 9:1341-6. 2008
    ..Thus, transforming growth factor-beta constitutes a regulatory 'switch' that in combination with other cytokines can 'reprogram' effector T cell differentiation along different pathways.
  53. ncbi Points of control in inflammation
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nature 420:846-52. 2002
    ....
  54. doi A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T(H)-17 responses
    Elisabetta Volpe
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U653, Paris F 75248, France
    Nat Immunol 9:650-7. 2008
    ..methods, we show here that transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 (IL-23) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) were all essential for human T(H)-17 differentiation...
  55. ncbi Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin
    L V Borovikova
    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 405:458-62. 2000
    ..Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal...
  56. pmc CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults
    Jinfang Zhu
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 112:1557-69. 2008
    ....
  57. pmc TSLP promotes interleukin-3-independent basophil haematopoiesis and type 2 inflammation
    Mark C Siracusa
    Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 477:229-33. 2011
    ....
  58. pmc Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency
    Horst von Bernuth
    Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U550, Paris, France
    Science 321:691-6. 2008
    ..The MyD88-dependent TLRs and IL-1Rs are therefore essential for protective immunity to a small number of pyogenic bacteria, but redundant for host defense to most natural infections...
  59. pmc Human IL-23-producing type 1 macrophages promote but IL-10-producing type 2 macrophages subvert immunity to (myco)bacteria
    Frank A W Verreck
    Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, NL 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4560-5. 2004
    ..Mphi heterogeneity thus may be an important determinant of immunity and disease outcome in intracellular bacterial infection...
  60. ncbi Loss of CTLA-4 leads to massive lymphoproliferation and fatal multiorgan tissue destruction, revealing a critical negative regulatory role of CTLA-4
    E A Tivol
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Immunity 3:541-7. 1995
    ..In the absence of CTLA-4, peripheral T cells are activated, can spontaneously proliferate, and may mediate lethal tissue injury...
  61. ncbi Immune function of microglia
    F Aloisi
    Neurophysiology Unit, Laboratory of Organ and System Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy
    Glia 36:165-79. 2001
    ..This article focuses on the signals regulating microglia innate immune functions, the role of microglia in antigen presentation, and their possible involvement in the development of CNS immunopathology...
  62. ncbi SOCS proteins, cytokine signalling and immune regulation
    Akihiko Yoshimura
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Nat Rev Immunol 7:454-65. 2007
    ..In this Review we bring together data from recent studies on SOCS proteins and their role in immunity, and propose a cohesive model of how cytokine signalling regulates immune-cell function...
  63. ncbi Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow?
    F Balkwill
    ICRF Translational Oncology Laboratory, St Bartholomew s and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
    Lancet 357:539-45. 2001
    ..We suggest that the inflammatory cells and cytokines found in tumours are more likely to contribute to tumour growth, progression, and immunosuppression than they ..
  64. ncbi Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs
    Julie K Olson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004
    ..microglia infected with a neurotropic strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus secreted innate immune cytokines and up-regulated costimulatory molecules and MHC class II, enabling the cells to present viral and myelin Ags to ..
  65. pmc Harmful molecular mechanisms in sepsis
    Daniel Rittirsch
    Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 1301 Catherine Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0602, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:776-87. 2008
    ..In this Review, we highlight recent insights into the molecular interactions that occur during sepsis and attempt to unravel the nature of the dysregulated immune response during sepsis...
  66. ncbi The role for endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitus
    Decio L Eizirik
    Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Route de Lennik, 808 CP 618, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
    Endocr Rev 29:42-61. 2008
    ..In vitro data suggest that ER stress may also contribute to cytokine-induced beta-cell death. Thus, the cytokines IL-1beta and interferon-gamma, putative mediators of beta-cell loss in type 1 diabetes, induce severe ER stress ..
  67. ncbi IL-28, IL-29 and their class II cytokine receptor IL-28R
    Paul Sheppard
    ZymoGenetics, Inc, 1201 Eastlake Avenue E, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:63-8. 2003
    b>Cytokines play a critical role in modulating the innate and adaptive immune systems...
  68. ncbi Inflammatory mediators in the elderly
    Karen Suarez Krabbe
    Department of Infectious Diseases, H S, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, M7641, Blegdamsvej 9, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Exp Gerontol 39:687-99. 2004
    Ageing is accompanied by 2-4-fold increases in plasma/serum levels of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and acute phase proteins...
  69. ncbi Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease
    Anders H Berg
    Department of Cell Biology, Bronx, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Circ Res 96:939-49. 2005
    ..The targeted suppression of various proinflammatory cascades in adipocytes specifically represents an exciting new therapeutic opportunity for the cardiovascular disease area...
  70. doi Multifunctional CD4(+) T cells correlate with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Nadia Caccamo
    Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Biotecnologie Mediche e Forensi, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 40:2211-20. 2010
    Th1 CD4(+) T cells and their derived cytokines are crucial for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  71. ncbi Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virus
    Darwyn Kobasa
    Respiratory Viruses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada
    Nature 445:319-23. 2007
    ..The ability of influenza viruses to modulate host immune responses, such as that demonstrated for the avian H5N1 influenza viruses, may be a feature shared by the virulent influenza viruses...
  72. pmc Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenza
    Jesus F Bermejo-Martin
    National Centre of Influenza, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
    Crit Care 13:R201. 2009
    ..We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1...
  73. pmc Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2
    Benjamin N Gantner
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, 98103, USA
    J Exp Med 197:1107-17. 2003
    ..particles, and in macrophages and dendritic cells dectin-1 and TLRs are synergistic in mediating production of cytokines such as interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha...
  74. ncbi Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual severity of human disease?
    C Y Cheung
    Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, SAR, Hong Kong, China
    Lancet 360:1831-7. 2002
    ..The biological basis for the severity of human H5N1 disease has remained unclear. We tested the hypothesis that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation has a role...
  75. pmc Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection
    Robert M Anthony
    The Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 7:975-87. 2007
    ..Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the components of the ..
  76. doi Homeostasis of naive and memory T cells
    Charles D Surh
    The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Immunity 29:848-62. 2008
    ..Typical memory cells are kept alive and induced to divide intermittently by a mixture of IL-7 and IL-15. This review highlights recent advances in how naive and memory T cell homeostasis is regulated...
  77. doi Delayed clearance of viral load and marked cytokine activation in severe cases of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection
    Kelvin K W To
    Infectious Disease Division, Queen Mary Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Clin Infect Dis 50:850-9. 2010
    ..Infections caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus range from mild upper respiratory tract syndromes to fatal diseases. However, studies comparing virological and immunological profile of different clinical severity are lacking...
  78. pmc Bcl6 mediates the development of T follicular helper cells
    Roza I Nurieva
    Department of Immunology, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 325:1001-5. 2009
    ..Development of T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells that provide help to B cells is mediated by the cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-21 but is independent of TH1, TH2, and TH17 effector cell lineages...
  79. ncbi Visfatin: a protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulin
    Atsunori Fukuhara
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, and Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Science 307:426-30. 2005
    ..Surprisingly, visfatin binds to and activates the insulin receptor. Further study of visfatin's physiological role may lead to new insights into glucose homeostasis and/or new therapies for metabolic disorders such as diabetes...
  80. pmc New insights into the regulation of T cells by gamma(c) family cytokines
    Yrina Rochman
    National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1674, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:480-90. 2009
    Common cytokine receptor gamma-chain (gamma(c)) family cytokines have crucial roles in the development, proliferation, survival and differentiation of multiple cell lineages of both the innate and adaptive immune systems...
  81. pmc IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation
    Claire L Langrish
    Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Exp Med 201:233-40. 2005
    ..analysis of IL-23-driven autoreactive T cells identified a unique expression pattern of proinflammatory cytokines and other novel factors, distinguishing them from IL-12-driven T cells...
  82. pmc Identification and functional characterization of human CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties isolated from peripheral blood
    H Jonuleit
    Department of Dermatology, University of Mainz, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
    J Exp Med 193:1285-94. 2001
    ..However, the refractory state of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells was partially reversible by the addition of IL-2 or IL-4. These data demonstrate that human blood contains a resident T cell population with potent regulatory properties...
  83. ncbi Inflammatory cytokines and the risk to develop type 2 diabetes: results of the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study
    Joachim Spranger
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Benjamin Franklin Medical Center, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Diabetes 52:812-7. 2003
    ..We therefore examined prospectively the effects of the central inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the development of type 2 diabetes...
  84. pmc AMPed up immunity: how antimicrobial peptides have multiple roles in immune defense
    Yuping Lai
    Division of Dermatology, Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
    Trends Immunol 30:131-41. 2009
    ..Opposing this, some microbes have evolved mechanisms to inactivate or avoid AMPs and subsequently become pathogens. Thus, AMPs are multifunctional molecules that have a central role in infection and inflammation...
  85. pmc Dendritic cells require a systemic type I interferon response to mature and induce CD4+ Th1 immunity with poly IC as adjuvant
    M Paula Longhi
    Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology and Chris Browne Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1589-602. 2009
    ..Therefore, the adjuvant action of poly IC requires a widespread innate type I IFN response that directly links antigen presentation by DCs to adaptive immunity...
  86. ncbi IKKbeta/NF-kappaB activation causes severe muscle wasting in mice
    Dongsheng Cai
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell 119:285-98. 2004
    ....
  87. pmc Reciprocal activating interaction between natural killer cells and dendritic cells
    Franca Gerosa
    Department of Pathology, Section of Immunology, University of Verona, 37100 Verona, Italy
    J Exp Med 195:327-33. 2002
    ..These data demonstrated for the first time a bidirectional cross talk between NK cells and DC, in which NK cells activated by IL-2 or by mature DC induce DC maturation...
  88. pmc Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients
    Harry Sokol
    Unité Ecologie et Physiologie du Système Digestif, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique U910, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16731-6. 2008
    ..These results suggest that counterbalancing dysbiosis using F. prausnitzii as a probiotic is a promising strategy in CD treatment...
  89. ncbi Host attachment, invasion, and stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by Campylobacter concisus and other non-Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter species
    Si Ming Man
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Australia
    J Infect Dis 202:1855-65. 2010
    ..In the present study, we investigated the interaction between these bacteria and the human intestinal epithelium and immune cells...
  90. pmc A biphasic innate immune MAPK response discriminates between the yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans in epithelial cells
    David L Moyes
    Department of Oral Medicine, Pathology, and Immunology, King s College London Dental Institute, King s College London, London, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 8:225-35. 2010
    ..MAPK/MKP1/c-Fos activation may represent a "danger response" pathway that is critical for identifying and responding to the pathogenic switch of commensal microbes...
  91. pmc Proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by influenza A (H5N1) viruses in primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells
    M C W Chan
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China
    Respir Res 6:135. 2005
    ..H1N1, the H5N1 viruses in 1997 (A/Hong Kong/483/97) (H5N1/97) were more potent inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor-a) and chemokines (e.g...
  92. doi Induction, function and regulation of IL-17-producing T cells
    Kingston H G Mills
    Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur J Immunol 38:2636-49. 2008
    ..The induction or function of Th17 cells is regulated by cytokines secreted by the other major subtypes of T cells, including IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and at high concentrations, ..
  93. pmc Inflammatory cytokines in vascular dysfunction and vascular disease
    Alexander H Sprague
    Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 78:539-52. 2009
    ..increased expression of adhesion molecules by ECs and recruitment of inflammatory cells, growth factors, and cytokines, with consequent effects on ECs, VSMCs and ECM...
  94. ncbi Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8
    Florian Heil
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Science 303:1526-9. 2004
    ..dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages to secrete interferon-alpha and proinflammatory, as well as regulatory, cytokines. By using Toll-like receptor (TLR)-deficient mice and genetic complementation, we show that murine TLR7 and ..
  95. ncbi JAK-STAT signaling: from interferons to cytokines
    Christian Schindler
    Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:20059-63. 2007
  96. doi The role of proinflammatory cytokines in the generation and maintenance of joint pain
    H G Schaible
    Institute of Physiology Neurophysiology, Universitatsklinikum Jena, Jena, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1193:60-9. 2010
    The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) not only promote and maintain inflammation, they also contribute to the generation and maintenance of inflammatory pain by acting at ..
  97. ncbi CD107a as a functional marker for the identification of natural killer cell activity
    Galit Alter
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts, USA
    J Immunol Methods 294:15-22. 2004
    ..Cumulatively, the data presented here demonstrate that CD107a is a sensitive marker of NK cell activity...
  98. pmc The Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist, imiquimod, and the TLR9 agonist, CpG ODN, induce antiviral cytokines and chemokines but do not prevent vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus when applied intravaginally to rhesus macaques
    Yichuan Wang
    California National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Virol 79:14355-70. 2005
    ..We conclude that induction of mucosal innate immunity including an IFN-alpha response is not sufficient to prevent sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus...
  99. ncbi TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells
    Marc Veldhoen
    Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Immunity 24:179-89. 2006
    ..Our data indicate that, in the presence of IL-6, TGFbeta1 subverts Th1 and Th2 differentiation for the generation of IL-17-producing T cells...
  100. ncbi Novel p19 protein engages IL-12p40 to form a cytokine, IL-23, with biological activities similar as well as distinct from IL-12
    B Oppmann
    DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Immunity 13:715-25. 2000
    ..Similar to IL-12, human IL-23 stimulates IFN-gamma production and proliferation in PHA blast T cells, as well as in CD45RO (memory) T cells...
  101. ncbi Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesis
    Maria Yazdanbakhsh
    Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands
    Science 296:490-4. 2002
    ..More recently, elevations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10, that occur during long-term helminth infections have been shown to be inversely ..

Research Grants82

  1. Novel Cytokine Regulation of Gut Function and Inflammation
    Aiping Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..balance among the individual Th cell lineages that are controlled, in part, through reciprocal regulation of the cytokines. It is known that pathogen-induced up-regulation of Th1 vs Th2 cytokines induces stereotypic and sometimes ..
  2. ORAL GENE THERAPY WITH NiMOS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
    Mansoor M Amiji; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..suggest that IBD may be caused by alterations in the delicate balance between pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract...
  3. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Cytokines secondary to inflammation and exogenous treatment with steroids can cause mood and cognitive changes in these ..
  4. Project 1: In vitro Studies: Correlate the physical and chemical characteristics
    David L Eaton; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..known to be proinflammatory, especially when taken up by tissue macrophages that can elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [38-40]...
  5. Modulation of Biodefense Responses to Microbial Pathogens
    Leo Lefrancois; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..An emerging in inducing and perhaps mitigating disease. An emerging aspect in this model is a role for key cytokines during the induction of lung injury and this idea will be tested in during induction of lung injury and this ..
  6. EVOLUTION OF IMMUNE RECOGNITION AND EVASION
    Austin Hughes; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..subjects are primed for effector function against MTB, but TB may be associated with release of deactivating cytokines such as TGFbeta...
  7. ORAL GENE THERAPY WITH NiMOS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
    Mansoor Amiji; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..suggest that IBD may be caused by alterations in the delicate balance between pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract...
  8. MOLECULAR BASIS FOR DRUG INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY IN AIDS
    CRAIG CLARKSON; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..There is growing evidence that infection with HIV-1 can stimulate the formation of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL1-beta...
  9. MOLECULAR BASIS FOR DRUG INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY IN AIDS
    CRAIG CLARKSON; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..There is growing evidence that infection with HIV-1 can stimulate the formation of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL1-beta...
  10. MOLECULAR BASIS FOR DRUG INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY IN AIDS
    CRAIG CLARKSON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..There is growing evidence that infection with HIV-1 can stimulate the formation of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL1-beta...
  11. HUMAN IL-13 GENE REGULATION AND IMPACT OF POLYMORPHISMS
    Donata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..provided by applicant): The pathogenesis of asthma and allergy is marked by dysregulated expression of the Th2 cytokines IL4 (which is critical for Th2 differentiation and IgE synthesis) and IL13 (which is the central effector of ..
  12. Vitamin A adjuvant to enhance gut immunity and rotavirus vaccines in neonates
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..DCs) convert dietary VitA to retinoic acid (RA) and DCs and/or RA in concert with key signaling molecules (cytokines, inflammatory mediators), imprint gut homing (CCR9, a4[unreadable]7) on T and B cells, promote isotype switching ..
  13. Vitamin A adjuvant to enhance gut immunity and rotavirus vaccines in neonates
    Linda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..DCs) convert dietary VitA to retinoic acid (RA) and DCs and/or RA in concert with key signaling molecules (cytokines, inflammatory mediators), imprint gut homing (CCR9, a4[unreadable]7) on T and B cells, promote isotype switching ..
  14. DHA, Inflammation, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Pregnant Women
    Debra Krummel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The obese, pregnant woman has increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and low circulating levels of adiponectin leading to decreased insulin sensitivity, which has been suggested to ..
  15. DHA, Inflammation, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Pregnant Women
    Debra Krummel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The obese, pregnant woman has increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and low circulating levels of adiponectin leading to decreased insulin sensitivity, which has been suggested to ..
  16. A novel transgenic silkworm system for recombinant glycoprotein production
    Donald Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many biomedically significant proteins, including antibodies, cytokines, anticoagulants, blood clotting factors, and others are glycoproteins...
  17. A novel transgenic silkworm system for recombinant glycoprotein production
    Donald Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Many biomedically significant proteins, including antibodies, cytokines, anticoagulants, blood clotting factors, and others are glycoproteins...
  18. A novel transgenic silkworm system for recombinant glycoprotein production
    Donald L Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many biomedically significant proteins, including antibodies, cytokines, anticoagulants, blood clotting factors, and others are glycoproteins...
  19. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF PLASMODIUM VIVAX SURFACE ANTIGENS
    Mary Galinski; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We will study effects of exogenously administered cytokines on hematopoietic compartment expansion, sites of cellular infection, and viral replication and burden following ..
  20. ORAL EPITHELIAL CELL CYTOKINES--CANDIDA & PMN ACTIVATION
    Anna Dongari Bagtzoglou; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Several cytokines provide signals for neutrophil activation of antifungal functions, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b) and ..
  21. ORAL EPITHELIAL CELL CYTOKINES CANDIDA & PMN ACTIVATION
    Anna Dongari Bagtzoglou; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Several cytokines provide signals for neutrophil activation of antifungal functions, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b) and ..
  22. ORAL EPITHELIAL CELL CYTOKINES CANDIDA & PMN ACTIVATION
    Anna Dongari Bagtzoglou; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Several cytokines provide signals for neutrophil activation of antifungal functions, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b) and ..
  23. Innate Immunity and Herpes Simplex Infection
    Robert Finberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of host response to infection has led to a series of investigations related to the role of host proteins and cytokines in microbial pathogenesis...
  24. UROTHELIAL CELL ACTIVATION IN INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS
    Monica Liebert; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..We hypothesize that this condition is due to or is exacerbated by the production of cytokines by the urothelial cells of the bladder, and that the local action of immunosuppressive drugs, such as ..
  25. UROTHELIAL CELL ACTIVATION IN INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS
    Monica Liebert; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We hypothesize that this condition is due to or is exacerbated by the production of cytokines by the urothelial cells of the bladder, and that the local action of immunosuppressive drugs, such as ..
  26. Mechanisms of hepcidin effects in the anemia of chronic disease
    Robert T Means; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the effects of cytokines on the hepcidin/erythropoiesis relationship;E...
  27. CYTOKINE INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS AND MUCIN REGULATION IN MIDDLE EAR EPITHELIUM
    Joseph E Kerschner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): The objective of this proposal is to further elucidate the role and interrelationship of cytokines and mucins in middle ear epithelium...
  28. CYTOKINE INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS AND MUCIN REGULATION IN MIDDLE EAR EPITHELIUM
    Joseph Kerschner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The objective of this proposal is to further elucidate the role and interrelationship of cytokines and mucins in middle ear epithelium...
  29. CYTOKINE INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS AND MUCIN REGULATION IN MIDDLE EAR EPITHELIUM
    Joseph Kerschner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The objective of this proposal is to further elucidate the role and interrelationship of cytokines and mucins in middle ear epithelium...
  30. CYTOKINE INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS AND MUCIN REGULATION IN MIDDLE EAR EPITHELIUM
    Joseph Kerschner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..by applicant): The objective of this proposal is to further elucidate the role and interrelationship of cytokines and mucins in middle ear epithelium...
  31. EXPRESSION OF TUBERCULOSIS IN THE LUNG
    Elizabeth Rich; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..subjects are primed for effector function against MTB, but TB may be associated with release of deactivating cytokines such as TGFbeta...
  32. Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Angiogenesis
    HAROLD DVORAK; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..focuses on the structure and function of tumor blood vessels from many angles: roles and functions of angiogenic cytokines and endogenous inhibitors in tumors and in surrogate tumor blood vessels, the gene expression induced by these ..
  33. Effect of SS-associated cytokines on salivary gland dysfunction
    OLGA JULIANA BAKER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-1 (TNF1), interferon-3 (IFN3), IL-12, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18) and ..
  34. IMMUNOSUPPRESSION, CYTOKINES, AND NITRIC OXIDE
    JUDD SHELLITO; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The hypothesis is that a deficiency of CD4- positive lymphocytes impairs the release of cytokines involved in the upregulation of nitric oxide synthase in alveolar macrophages...
  35. CYTOKINE REGULATION IN SEPSIS AND INFLAMMATION
    Lyle Moldawer; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Our knowledge of the role that cytokines play in both the beneficial and pathologic sequelae to surgical injury and bacterial infection has greatly increased...
  36. HISTOPATHOLOGIC STUDIES OF ASTHMA
    Mark Liu; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..responses are associated with the presence of helper T lymphocytes characterized by the production of certain cytokines characterizing the Th2-subset of helper T lymphocytes...
  37. HISTOPATHOLOGIC STUDIES OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION OF AIRWAYS
    Mark Liu; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..responses are associated with the presence of helper T lymphocytes characterized by the production of certain cytokines characterizing the Th2-subset of helper T lymphocytes...
  38. The role of IL-6 in jet fuel irritant dermatitis
    RANDLE GALLUCCI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..elicit different cytokine/chemokine profiles as compared to irritants in skin, yet it is not known if specific cytokines are associated with irritant type or strength...
  39. The role of IL-6 in jet fuel irritant dermatitis
    RANDLE MICHAEL GALLUCCI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..elicit different cytokine/chemokine profiles as compared to irritants in skin, yet it is not known if specific cytokines are associated with irritant type or strength...
  40. Biologic scaffold prostheses to enhance meniscus repair
    JOE WEINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have also shown that mechanical stress and cytokines alter the metabolism of menisci and inhibit repair of meniscal injury...
  41. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Cell-medicated immunity is controlled by two major categories of cytokines. The Th1 cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-g), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), favor the ..
  42. Immune Cytokines Promote Oral Bone Loss Through IKK
    Cun Yu Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..At the initial stage of host defense, immune cells produce a variety of immune cytokines to fight against the bacterial infection...
  43. Immune Cytokines Promote Oral Bone Loss Through IKK
    Cun Yu Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..At the initial stage of host defense, immune cells produce a variety of immune cytokines to fight against the bacterial infection...
  44. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Cell-medicated immunity is controlled by two major categories of cytokines. The Th1 cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-g), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), favor the ..
  45. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Cell-medicated immunity is controlled by two major categories of cytokines. The Th1 cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-g), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), favor the ..
  46. CYTOKINE EFFECTS IN HYPOTHALAMUS/STEROID MODULATION
    Pushpa Kalra; Fiscal Year: 1999
    b>Cytokines, the integral arm of bidirectional communication between the immune and central nervous systems, are also constitutive components of the hypothalamus where they may act as interneuronal signals...
  47. NFkB in the Astrocyte Swelling/Brain Edema with Acute Liver Failure
    MICHAEL DAVID NORENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Mounting evidence suggests, however, that in addition to ammonia, cytokines and related sepsis and inflammation also contribute to the brain edema in ALF...
  48. JAK-3 AND MYELOID CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    E Reddy; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..which include JAK1, JAK2, and TYK2) that play a pivotal role in the signal transduction process mediated by cytokines and interferons...
  49. JAK-3 AND MYELOID CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    E Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..which include JAK1, JAK2, and TYK2) that play a pivotal role in the signal transduction process mediated by cytokines and interferons...
  50. Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and Sleep
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and to determine the relationship these changes have to viral- induced changes in profiles of chemokines and cytokines in the brain...
  51. Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and Sleep
    LARRY D contact SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and to determine the relationship these changes have to viral- induced changes in profiles of chemokines and cytokines in the brain...
  52. Innate Immune Bacterial Recognition and Osteoclastogenesis
    Caroline A Genco; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have been reported to contribute to the acceleration of bone resorption by the production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and receptor activator of nuclear factor B ..
  53. Innate Immune Bacterial Recognition and Osteoclastogenesis
    Caroline Genco; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..have been reported to contribute to the acceleration of bone resorption by the production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and receptor activator of nuclear factor B ..
  54. Role(s) of VEGF in Resolution of Inflammation
    Manuela M Martins Green; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Inflammation is a key process in normal wound repair. Upon wounding, cytokines are activated and chemoattract leukocytes, including macrophages, to the wound site...
  55. OCULAR NEUROIMMUNOLOGY
    Bryan Gebhardt; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..factors produced by neural cells and immunologically competent lymphocytes and that these cells and cytokines form the basis of a regulatory network...
  56. Role(s) of VEGF in Resolution of Inflammation
    Manuela Martins Green; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Inflammation is a key process in normal wound repair. Upon wounding, cytokines are activated and chemoattract leukocytes, including macrophages, to the wound site...
  57. ROLE OF TGF-BETA IN EPITHELIAL CELL CYTOKINE SECRETION
    Dennis McGee; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) by IEC-6 cells, as were IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha (all inflammatory cytokines themselves) able to induce IL-6 secretion by these cells...
  58. CANNABINOID EFFECTS ON BRAIN CYTOKINES
    Guy Cabral; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The goal of this project is to define the effect of THC on the expression of cytokines and nitric oxide by astrocytes and microglial cells...
  59. CANNABINOID EFFECTS ON BRAIN CYTOKINES
    Guy Cabral; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The goal of this project is to define the effect of THC on the expression of cytokines and nitric oxide by astrocytes and microglial cells...
  60. CANNABINOID EFFECTS ON BRAIN CYTOKINES
    Guy Cabral; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The goal of this project is to define the effect of THC on the expression of cytokines and nitric oxide by astrocytes and microglial cells...
  61. Novel Cytokine Regulation of Gut Function and Inflammation
    Aiping Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..balance among the individual Th cell lineages that are controlled, in part, through reciprocal regulation of the cytokines. It is known that pathogen-induced up-regulation of Th1 vs Th2 cytokines induces stereotypic and sometimes ..
  62. MODULATION OF IRON METABOLISM BY CYTOKINES
    Kenneth Bridges; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..b>Cytokines such as Il-1beta activate the immune response by stimulating T- cells. T-cells also need iron for proliferation...
  63. CC Chemokine Secretion to Protect Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells from HIV
    Catarina E Hioe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CD4 Th1 cells invariably display differential expression of MIP-1[unreadable] vs. other Th1 cytokines such as IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF- a, and the overall profiles of chemokines and cytokines produced by the responding ..
  64. Effects of glycemic control on immunity
    Thomas P Shanley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Following CPB, release of both stress-related hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to post-operative organ dysfunction by mediating endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion and vascular ..
  65. CC Chemokine Secretion to Protect Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells from HIV
    CATARINA HIOE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..CD4 Th1 cells invariably display differential expression of MIP-1[unreadable] vs. other Th1 cytokines such as IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF- a, and the overall profiles of chemokines and cytokines produced by the responding ..
  66. Effects of glycemic control on immunity
    Thomas Shanley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Following CPB, release of both stress-related hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to post-operative organ dysfunction by mediating endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion and vascular ..
  67. CYTOKINE REGULATION OF P450 IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES
    Joseph Williams; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The objective of the research is to elucidate the role and mechanism of action of cytokines mediators of the acute phase response in regulation of cytochrome P450 (P450), a family of hemoproteins responsible for biotransformation of many ..
  68. Methamphetamine, HIV, Neuroinflammation and Behavior
    Rodney Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..is thought to be due to soluble factors released by infected or activated microglia such as inflammatory cytokines. That MA abuse may activate or sensitize microglial cells and promote neuroinflammation in HIV-1 patients is ..
  69. Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetus
    BARBARA STONESTREET; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In utero hemodynamic abnormalities possibly in association with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokines) such as IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-1 predispose to brain injury, particularly in premature neonates...
  70. The Role of B Cells and B Cell Toll-like Receptors in Glucose Intolerance
    Barbara Nikolajczyk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These cytokines likely play important roles in the chronic systemic inflammation characterizing T2D and other metabolic ..
  71. Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetus
    BARBARA STONESTREET; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In utero hemodynamic abnormalities possibly in association with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokines) such as IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-1 predispose to brain injury, particularly in premature neonates...
  72. CYTOKINES AND PROTEINASES IN THE PERIODONTIUM
    David Richards; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..It is proposed that the epithelium secretes cytokines that induce extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes in connective tissue fibroblasts, and that the fibroblasts in ..
  73. Cytokines and Sympathetic Activation in Heart Failure
    Robert Felder; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The present project examines the potential role of the pro- inflammatory cytokines, which increase in plasma and brain of rats with ischemia-induced heart failure, are capable of NAD(P)H oxidase ..