Genomes and Genes
Summary: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Publications250 found, 100 shown here
- Pathogen recognition and innate immunityShizuo Akira
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Cell 124:783-801. 2006..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity...
- Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activationDavid M Mosser
Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 8:958-69. 2008..We characterize each population and provide examples of macrophages from specific disease states that have the characteristics of one or more of these populations...
- Development of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cellsFrederic Geissmann
Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology of Inflammation, Division of Immunology, Infection, and Inflammatory Diseases, King s College London, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 1UL, UK
Science 327:656-61. 2010..Despite this, the origin and differentiation cues for many tissue macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cell subsets in mice, and the corresponding cell populations in humans, remain to be elucidated...
- Alternative activation of macrophages: mechanism and functionsSiamon Gordon
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
Immunity 32:593-604. 2010..in this field, argue for a restricted definition, and explore pathways by which the T helper 2 (Th2) cell cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 mediate their effects on macrophage cell biology, their biosynthesis, and ..
- Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytesAlberto Mantovani
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, I 20157 Milan, Italy
Trends Immunol 23:549-55. 2002..Macrophages that infiltrate tumor tissues are driven by tumor-derived and T cell-derived cytokines to acquire a polarized M2 phenotype...
- A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNAH Hemmi
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Suita
Nature 408:740-5. 2000..The in vivo CpG-DNA-mediated T-helper type-1 response was also abolished in TLR9-/- mice. Thus, vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll-like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA...
- Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cellsEstelle Bettelli
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 441:235-8. 2006..Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury...
- IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokinesJochen Schmitz
Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Inc, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
Immunity 23:479-90. 2005b>Cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, such as IL-1 alpha/beta and IL-18, have important functions in host defense, immune regulation, and inflammation...
- From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brainRobert Dantzer
Integrative Immunology and Behavior, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA
Nat Rev Neurosci 9:46-56. 2008In response to a peripheral infection, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour...
- Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasisSeth Rakoff-Nahoum
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
Cell 118:229-41. 2004..These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions...
- Biologic basis for interleukin-1 in diseaseC A Dinarello
Department of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA USA
Blood 87:2095-147. 1996..importance of the IL-1R accessory protein, newly discovered signal transduction pathways, naturally occurring cytokines limiting IL-1 production or activity, the effects of blocking cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide, and the outcomes ..
- Osteoprotegerin ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activationD L Lacey
Department of Pathology, Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California 91320 1789, USA
Cell 93:165-76. 1998..These data suggest that OPGL is an osteoclast differentiation and activation factor. The effects of OPGL are blocked in vitro and in vivo by OPG, suggesting that OPGL and OPG are key extracellular regulators of osteoclast development...
- Differentiation of effector CD4 T cell populations (*)Jinfang Zhu
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1892, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 28:445-89. 2010..their development; the networks of transcription factors involved in their differentiation; the epigenetic regulation of their key cytokines and transcription factors; and human diseases involving defective CD4 T cell differentiation.
- HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cellsMichael R Betts
Immunology Laboratory, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Blood 107:4781-9. 2006..Thus, rather than quantity or phenotype, the quality of the CD8(+) T-cell functional response serves as an immune correlate of HIV disease progression and a potential qualifying factor for evaluation of HIV vaccine efficacy...
- Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAFV A Fadok
Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
J Clin Invest 101:890-8. 1998..Therefore, it is likely that resolution of inflammation depends not only on the removal of apoptotic cells but on active suppression of inflammatory mediator production. Disorders in either could result in chronic inflammatory diseases...
- How regulatory T cells workDario A A Vignali
Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 2794, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 8:523-32. 2008..In addition, we propose the hypothesis that effector T cells may not be 'innocent' parties in this suppressive process and might in fact potentiate T(Reg)-cell function...
- Development, cytokine profile and function of human interleukin 17-producing helper T cellsNicholas J Wilson
Department of Discovery Research, Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Palo Alto, California 94304 1104, USA
Nat Immunol 8:950-7. 2007..Psoriatic skin lesions contained IL-23-producing dendritic cells and were enriched in the cytokines produced by human T(H)-17 cells that promote the production of antimicrobial peptides in human keratinocytes...
- Interferon-inducible antiviral effectorsAnthony J Sadler
Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
Nat Rev Immunol 8:559-68. 2008Since the discovery of interferons (IFNs), considerable progress has been made in describing the nature of the cytokines themselves, the signalling components that direct the cell response and their antiviral activities...
- OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph-node organogenesisY Y Kong
Amgen Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nature 397:315-23. 1999..Thus OPGL is a new regulator of lymph-node organogenesis and lymphocyte development and is an essential osteoclast differentiation factor in vivo...
- Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokinesSabine Werner
Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zurich, Honggerberg, HPM D42, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Physiol Rev 83:835-70. 2003..Initial approaches at addressing this question focused on the expression analysis of various growth factors, cytokines, and their receptors in different wound models, with first functional data being obtained by applying ..
- Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its regulationPeter C Heinrich
Institut fur Biochemie, RWTH Aachen, Universitatsklinikum, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D 52074 Aachen, Germany
Biochem J 374:1-20. 2003The IL (interleukin)-6-type cytokines IL-6, IL-11, LIF (leukaemia inhibitory factor), OSM (oncostatin M), ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-1 and cardiotrophin-like cytokine are an important family of mediators involved in the ..
- Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3Shohei Hori
Laboratory of Immunopathology, Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, Institute for Physical and Chemical Research, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
Science 299:1057-61. 2003..Thus, Foxp3 is a key regulatory gene for the development of regulatory T cells...
- T cell activationJennifer E Smith-Garvin
Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 27:591-619. 2009..complex (MHC) complex pSMAC: peripheral supramolecular activation cluster PTK: protein tyrosine kinase Signal transduction: biochemical events linking surface receptor engagement to cellular responses TCR: T cell antigen receptor..
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinasesGary L Johnson
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Science 298:1911-2. 2002..The p38 MAPKs are activated by inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses and may contribute to diseases like asthma and autoimmunity.
- Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesisMichelle L Monje
Stanford University, Department of Neurosurgery, MSLS P309, Mail Code 5487, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305 5487, USA
Science 302:1760-5. 2003....
- Systemic lupus erythematosusAnisur Rahman
Centre for Rheumatology Research, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 358:929-39. 2008
- The role of tumour-associated macrophages in tumour progression: implications for new anticancer therapiesL Bingle
Tumour Targeting Group, Division of Genomic Medicine, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
J Pathol 196:254-65. 2002..It also outlines the range of pro- and anti-tumour functions performed by TAMs, and the novel therapies recently devised using TAMs to stimulate host immune responses or deliver therapeutic gene constructs to solid tumours...
- Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminthsJudith E Allen
Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, UK
Nat Rev Immunol 11:375-88. 2011..Finally, we more broadly consider how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity...
- Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasisMichelle A Lowes
Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 178, New York, New York 10021, USA
Nature 445:866-73. 2007..thought to be activation of the cellular immune system, with T cells, dendritic cells and various immune-related cytokines and chemokines implicated in pathogenesis...
- Inflammation directs memory precursor and short-lived effector CD8(+) T cell fates via the graded expression of T-bet transcription factorNikhil S Joshi
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Immunity 27:281-95. 2007..The decision between SLEC and MPEC fates was regulated by the amount of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-12) present during T cell priming...
- Microglia as a source and target of cytokinesUwe Karsten Hanisch
Department of Cellular Neurosciences, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
Glia 40:140-55. 2002b>Cytokines constitute a significant portion of the immuno- and neuromodulatory messengers that can be released by activated microglia...
- Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autismDiana L Vargas
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Ann Neurol 57:67-81. 2005..chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor growth factor-beta1, derived from neuroglia, were the most prevalent cytokines in brain tissues. CSF showed a unique proinflammatory profile of cytokines, including a marked increase in MCP-1...
- Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its implications for fibrosisRaghu Kalluri
Center for Matrix Biology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave DANA 514, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1776-84. 2003..This review highlights recent advances in the process of EMT signaling in health and disease and how it may be attenuated or reversed by selective cytokines and growth factors.
- Growth factors and cytokines in wound healingStephan Barrientos
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA
Wound Repair Regen 16:585-601. 2008..process is executed and regulated by an equally complex signaling network involving numerous growth factors, cytokines and chemokines...
- Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depressionAndrew H Miller
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Biol Psychiatry 65:732-41. 2009..depression have been found to exhibit increased peripheral blood inflammatory biomarkers, including inflammatory cytokines, which have been shown to access the brain and interact with virtually every pathophysiologic domain known to be ..
- Inflammatory bowel diseaseArthur Kaser
Department of Medicine II, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria
Annu Rev Immunol 28:573-621. 2010..This review examines these interactions and, where possible, potential lessons from IBD-directed, biologic therapies that may allow for elucidation of pathways that are central to disease pathogenesis in humans...
- The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammationWenjun Ouyang
Department of Immunology, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Immunity 28:454-67. 2008..Th17 cells and their effector cytokines mediate host defensive mechanisms to various infections, especially extracellular bacteria infections, and are ..
- Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathwayMasahiro Yamamoto
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Science 301:640-3. 2003..These findings demonstrate that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense...
- A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responsesCaroline L Sokol
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008..In addition, the cellular source of cytokines that control TH2 differentiation in vivo has not been defined...
- Mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and plasticity of helper CD4+ T cellsJOHN J O'SHEA
Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1616, USA
Science 327:1098-102. 2010..These T cells specialize to become distinct subsets and produce restricted patterns of cytokines, which are tailored to combat various microbial pathogens...
- Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6Bente K Pedersen
The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism at Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Physiol Rev 88:1379-406. 2008Skeletal muscle has recently been identified as an endocrine organ. It has, therefore, been suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert paracrine, autocrine, or ..
- Proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseasesWarren Strober
Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Gastroenterology 140:1756-67. 2011..In Crohn's disease, the major cytokines arise from T-helper cell (Th) 1 and Th17 CD4(+) T-cell differentiation and consist of interferon-γ and ..
- Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3L Alexopoulou
Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA
Nature 413:732-8. 2001..lethal effect of poly(I:C) when sensitized with d-galactosamine (d-GalN), and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines. MyD88 is an adaptor protein that is shared by all the known TLRs...
- Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cellsKazuyo Moro
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
Nature 463:540-4. 2010..antigen receptors but rapidly exhibit cytotoxic activities against virus-infected cells and produce various cytokines. Here we report a new type of innate lymphocyte present in a novel lymphoid structure associated with adipose ..
- Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemiaMenno D de Jong
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, 190 Ben Ham Tu, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Nat Med 12:1203-7. 2006..The focus of clinical management should be on preventing this intense cytokine response, by early diagnosis and effective antiviral treatment...
- IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challengeShabaana A Khader
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA
Nat Immunol 8:369-77. 2007....
- The biology of human natural killer-cell subsetsM A Cooper
Dept of Veterinary Biosciences and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, 458A Starling-Loving Hall, 320 West 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Trends Immunol 22:633-40. 2001..Owing to their early production of cytokines and chemokines, and ability to lyse target cells without prior sensitization, NK cells are crucial components of ..
- Immunology of multiple sclerosisMireia Sospedra
Cellular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1400, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 23:683-747. 2005..It is now clear that MS is not just a disease of the immune system, but that factors contributed by the central nervous system are equally important and must be considered in the future...
- Regulatory T cells exert checks and balances on self tolerance and autoimmunityKajsa Wing
Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Nat Immunol 11:7-13. 2010....
- Cell-mediated immune responses in tuberculosisAndrea M Cooper
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA
Annu Rev Immunol 27:393-422. 2009..We must also determine how to induce both known and novel immunoprotective responses without inducing immunopathologic consequences...
- Selective ablation of proliferating microglial cells exacerbates ischemic injury in the brainMélanie Lalancette-Hébert
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
J Neurosci 27:2596-605. 2007....
- Transforming growth factor-beta 'reprograms' the differentiation of T helper 2 cells and promotes an interleukin 9-producing subsetMarc Veldhoen
Division of Molecular Immunology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, UK
Nat Immunol 9:1341-6. 2008..Thus, transforming growth factor-beta constitutes a regulatory 'switch' that in combination with other cytokines can 'reprogram' effector T cell differentiation along different pathways.
- Points of control in inflammationCarl Nathan
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Nature 420:846-52. 2002....
- A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T(H)-17 responsesElisabetta Volpe
Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U653, Paris F 75248, France
Nat Immunol 9:650-7. 2008..methods, we show here that transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 (IL-23) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) were all essential for human T(H)-17 differentiation...
- Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxinL V Borovikova
The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
Nature 405:458-62. 2000..Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal...
- CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faultsJinfang Zhu
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Blood 112:1557-69. 2008....
- TSLP promotes interleukin-3-independent basophil haematopoiesis and type 2 inflammationMark C Siracusa
Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
Nature 477:229-33. 2011....
- Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiencyHorst von Bernuth
Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U550, Paris, France
Science 321:691-6. 2008..The MyD88-dependent TLRs and IL-1Rs are therefore essential for protective immunity to a small number of pyogenic bacteria, but redundant for host defense to most natural infections...
- Human IL-23-producing type 1 macrophages promote but IL-10-producing type 2 macrophages subvert immunity to (myco)bacteriaFrank A W Verreck
Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, NL 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4560-5. 2004..Mphi heterogeneity thus may be an important determinant of immunity and disease outcome in intracellular bacterial infection...
- Loss of CTLA-4 leads to massive lymphoproliferation and fatal multiorgan tissue destruction, revealing a critical negative regulatory role of CTLA-4E A Tivol
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Immunity 3:541-7. 1995..In the absence of CTLA-4, peripheral T cells are activated, can spontaneously proliferate, and may mediate lethal tissue injury...
- Immune function of microgliaF Aloisi
Neurophysiology Unit, Laboratory of Organ and System Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy
Glia 36:165-79. 2001..This article focuses on the signals regulating microglia innate immune functions, the role of microglia in antigen presentation, and their possible involvement in the development of CNS immunopathology...
- SOCS proteins, cytokine signalling and immune regulationAkihiko Yoshimura
Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
Nat Rev Immunol 7:454-65. 2007..In this Review we bring together data from recent studies on SOCS proteins and their role in immunity, and propose a cohesive model of how cytokine signalling regulates immune-cell function...
- Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow?F Balkwill
ICRF Translational Oncology Laboratory, St Bartholomew s and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK
Lancet 357:539-45. 2001..We suggest that the inflammatory cells and cytokines found in tumours are more likely to contribute to tumour growth, progression, and immunosuppression than they ..
- Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRsJulie K Olson
Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004..microglia infected with a neurotropic strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus secreted innate immune cytokines and up-regulated costimulatory molecules and MHC class II, enabling the cells to present viral and myelin Ags to ..
- Harmful molecular mechanisms in sepsisDaniel Rittirsch
Department of Pathology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 1301 Catherine Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0602, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 8:776-87. 2008..In this Review, we highlight recent insights into the molecular interactions that occur during sepsis and attempt to unravel the nature of the dysregulated immune response during sepsis...
- The role for endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitusDecio L Eizirik
Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Route de Lennik, 808 CP 618, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
Endocr Rev 29:42-61. 2008..In vitro data suggest that ER stress may also contribute to cytokine-induced beta-cell death. Thus, the cytokines IL-1beta and interferon-gamma, putative mediators of beta-cell loss in type 1 diabetes, induce severe ER stress ..
- IL-28, IL-29 and their class II cytokine receptor IL-28RPaul Sheppard
ZymoGenetics, Inc, 1201 Eastlake Avenue E, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
Nat Immunol 4:63-8. 2003b>Cytokines play a critical role in modulating the innate and adaptive immune systems...
- Inflammatory mediators in the elderlyKaren Suarez Krabbe
Department of Infectious Diseases, H S, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, M7641, Blegdamsvej 9, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Exp Gerontol 39:687-99. 2004Ageing is accompanied by 2-4-fold increases in plasma/serum levels of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and acute phase proteins...
- Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseaseAnders H Berg
Department of Cell Biology, Bronx, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Circ Res 96:939-49. 2005..The targeted suppression of various proinflammatory cascades in adipocytes specifically represents an exciting new therapeutic opportunity for the cardiovascular disease area...
- Multifunctional CD4(+) T cells correlate with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infectionNadia Caccamo
Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Biotecnologie Mediche e Forensi, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Eur J Immunol 40:2211-20. 2010Th1 CD4(+) T cells and their derived cytokines are crucial for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
- Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virusDarwyn Kobasa
Respiratory Viruses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada
Nature 445:319-23. 2007..The ability of influenza viruses to modulate host immune responses, such as that demonstrated for the avian H5N1 influenza viruses, may be a feature shared by the virulent influenza viruses...
- Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenzaJesus F Bermejo-Martin
National Centre of Influenza, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
Crit Care 13:R201. 2009..We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1...
- Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2Benjamin N Gantner
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, 98103, USA
J Exp Med 197:1107-17. 2003..particles, and in macrophages and dendritic cells dectin-1 and TLRs are synergistic in mediating production of cytokines such as interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha...
- Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual severity of human disease?C Y Cheung
Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, SAR, Hong Kong, China
Lancet 360:1831-7. 2002..The biological basis for the severity of human H5N1 disease has remained unclear. We tested the hypothesis that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation has a role...
- Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infectionRobert M Anthony
The Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 7:975-87. 2007..Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the components of the ..
- Homeostasis of naive and memory T cellsCharles D Surh
The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Immunity 29:848-62. 2008..Typical memory cells are kept alive and induced to divide intermittently by a mixture of IL-7 and IL-15. This review highlights recent advances in how naive and memory T cell homeostasis is regulated...
- Delayed clearance of viral load and marked cytokine activation in severe cases of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infectionKelvin K W To
Infectious Disease Division, Queen Mary Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Clin Infect Dis 50:850-9. 2010..Infections caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus range from mild upper respiratory tract syndromes to fatal diseases. However, studies comparing virological and immunological profile of different clinical severity are lacking...
- Bcl6 mediates the development of T follicular helper cellsRoza I Nurieva
Department of Immunology, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Science 325:1001-5. 2009..Development of T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells that provide help to B cells is mediated by the cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-21 but is independent of TH1, TH2, and TH17 effector cell lineages...
- Visfatin: a protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulinAtsunori Fukuhara
Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, and Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Science 307:426-30. 2005..Surprisingly, visfatin binds to and activates the insulin receptor. Further study of visfatin's physiological role may lead to new insights into glucose homeostasis and/or new therapies for metabolic disorders such as diabetes...
- New insights into the regulation of T cells by gamma(c) family cytokinesYrina Rochman
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1674, USA
Nat Rev Immunol 9:480-90. 2009Common cytokine receptor gamma-chain (gamma(c)) family cytokines have crucial roles in the development, proliferation, survival and differentiation of multiple cell lineages of both the innate and adaptive immune systems...
- IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammationClaire L Langrish
Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
J Exp Med 201:233-40. 2005..analysis of IL-23-driven autoreactive T cells identified a unique expression pattern of proinflammatory cytokines and other novel factors, distinguishing them from IL-12-driven T cells...
- Identification and functional characterization of human CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties isolated from peripheral bloodH Jonuleit
Department of Dermatology, University of Mainz, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
J Exp Med 193:1285-94. 2001..However, the refractory state of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells was partially reversible by the addition of IL-2 or IL-4. These data demonstrate that human blood contains a resident T cell population with potent regulatory properties...
- Inflammatory cytokines and the risk to develop type 2 diabetes: results of the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam StudyJoachim Spranger
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Benjamin Franklin Medical Center, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Diabetes 52:812-7. 2003..We therefore examined prospectively the effects of the central inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the development of type 2 diabetes...
- AMPed up immunity: how antimicrobial peptides have multiple roles in immune defenseYuping Lai
Division of Dermatology, Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
Trends Immunol 30:131-41. 2009..Opposing this, some microbes have evolved mechanisms to inactivate or avoid AMPs and subsequently become pathogens. Thus, AMPs are multifunctional molecules that have a central role in infection and inflammation...
- Dendritic cells require a systemic type I interferon response to mature and induce CD4+ Th1 immunity with poly IC as adjuvantM Paula Longhi
Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology and Chris Browne Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
J Exp Med 206:1589-602. 2009..Therefore, the adjuvant action of poly IC requires a widespread innate type I IFN response that directly links antigen presentation by DCs to adaptive immunity...
- IKKbeta/NF-kappaB activation causes severe muscle wasting in miceDongsheng Cai
Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Cell 119:285-98. 2004....
- Reciprocal activating interaction between natural killer cells and dendritic cellsFranca Gerosa
Department of Pathology, Section of Immunology, University of Verona, 37100 Verona, Italy
J Exp Med 195:327-33. 2002..These data demonstrated for the first time a bidirectional cross talk between NK cells and DC, in which NK cells activated by IL-2 or by mature DC induce DC maturation...
- Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patientsHarry Sokol
Unité Ecologie et Physiologie du Système Digestif, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique U910, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16731-6. 2008..These results suggest that counterbalancing dysbiosis using F. prausnitzii as a probiotic is a promising strategy in CD treatment...
- Host attachment, invasion, and stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by Campylobacter concisus and other non-Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter speciesSi Ming Man
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Australia
J Infect Dis 202:1855-65. 2010..In the present study, we investigated the interaction between these bacteria and the human intestinal epithelium and immune cells...
- A biphasic innate immune MAPK response discriminates between the yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans in epithelial cellsDavid L Moyes
Department of Oral Medicine, Pathology, and Immunology, King s College London Dental Institute, King s College London, London, UK
Cell Host Microbe 8:225-35. 2010..MAPK/MKP1/c-Fos activation may represent a "danger response" pathway that is critical for identifying and responding to the pathogenic switch of commensal microbes...
- Proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by influenza A (H5N1) viruses in primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cellsM C W Chan
Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China
Respir Res 6:135. 2005..H1N1, the H5N1 viruses in 1997 (A/Hong Kong/483/97) (H5N1/97) were more potent inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor-a) and chemokines (e.g...
- Induction, function and regulation of IL-17-producing T cellsKingston H G Mills
Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
Eur J Immunol 38:2636-49. 2008..The induction or function of Th17 cells is regulated by cytokines secreted by the other major subtypes of T cells, including IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and at high concentrations, ..
- Inflammatory cytokines in vascular dysfunction and vascular diseaseAlexander H Sprague
Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Biochem Pharmacol 78:539-52. 2009..increased expression of adhesion molecules by ECs and recruitment of inflammatory cells, growth factors, and cytokines, with consequent effects on ECs, VSMCs and ECM...
- Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8Florian Heil
Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
Science 303:1526-9. 2004..dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages to secrete interferon-alpha and proinflammatory, as well as regulatory, cytokines. By using Toll-like receptor (TLR)-deficient mice and genetic complementation, we show that murine TLR7 and ..
- JAK-STAT signaling: from interferons to cytokinesChristian Schindler
Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
J Biol Chem 282:20059-63. 2007
- The role of proinflammatory cytokines in the generation and maintenance of joint painH G Schaible
Institute of Physiology Neurophysiology, Universitatsklinikum Jena, Jena, Germany
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1193:60-9. 2010The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) not only promote and maintain inflammation, they also contribute to the generation and maintenance of inflammatory pain by acting at ..
- CD107a as a functional marker for the identification of natural killer cell activityGalit Alter
Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts, USA
J Immunol Methods 294:15-22. 2004..Cumulatively, the data presented here demonstrate that CD107a is a sensitive marker of NK cell activity...
- The Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist, imiquimod, and the TLR9 agonist, CpG ODN, induce antiviral cytokines and chemokines but do not prevent vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus when applied intravaginally to rhesus macaquesYichuan Wang
California National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
J Virol 79:14355-70. 2005..We conclude that induction of mucosal innate immunity including an IFN-alpha response is not sufficient to prevent sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus...
- TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cellsMarc Veldhoen
Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
Immunity 24:179-89. 2006..Our data indicate that, in the presence of IL-6, TGFbeta1 subverts Th1 and Th2 differentiation for the generation of IL-17-producing T cells...
- Novel p19 protein engages IL-12p40 to form a cytokine, IL-23, with biological activities similar as well as distinct from IL-12B Oppmann
DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
Immunity 13:715-25. 2000..Similar to IL-12, human IL-23 stimulates IFN-gamma production and proliferation in PHA blast T cells, as well as in CD45RO (memory) T cells...
- Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesisMaria Yazdanbakhsh
Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands
Science 296:490-4. 2002..More recently, elevations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10, that occur during long-term helminth infections have been shown to be inversely ..
- Novel Cytokine Regulation of Gut Function and InflammationAiping Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2009..balance among the individual Th cell lineages that are controlled, in part, through reciprocal regulation of the cytokines. It is known that pathogen-induced up-regulation of Th1 vs Th2 cytokines induces stereotypic and sometimes ..
- ORAL GENE THERAPY WITH NiMOS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASEMansoor M Amiji; Fiscal Year: 2010..suggest that IBD may be caused by alterations in the delicate balance between pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract...
- HUMAN IL-13 GENE REGULATION AND IMPACT OF POLYMORPHISMSDonata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2011..provided by applicant): The pathogenesis of asthma and allergy is marked by dysregulated expression of the Th2 cytokines IL4 (which is critical for Th2 differentiation and IgE synthesis) and IL13 (which is the central effector of ..
- A novel transgenic silkworm system for recombinant glycoprotein productionDonald Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2009Many biomedically significant proteins, including antibodies, cytokines, anticoagulants, blood clotting factors, and others are glycoproteins...
- A novel transgenic silkworm system for recombinant glycoprotein productionDonald Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2007Many biomedically significant proteins, including antibodies, cytokines, anticoagulants, blood clotting factors, and others are glycoproteins...
- A novel transgenic silkworm system for recombinant glycoprotein productionDonald L Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2010Many biomedically significant proteins, including antibodies, cytokines, anticoagulants, blood clotting factors, and others are glycoproteins...
- ORAL EPITHELIAL CELL CYTOKINES CANDIDA & PMN ACTIVATIONAnna Dongari Bagtzoglou; Fiscal Year: 2002..Several cytokines provide signals for neutrophil activation of antifungal functions, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1b) and ..
- CYTOKINE INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS AND MUCIN REGULATION IN MIDDLE EAR EPITHELIUMJoseph E Kerschner; Fiscal Year: 2010The objective of this proposal is to further elucidate the role and interrelationship of cytokines and mucins in middle ear epithelium...
- CYTOKINE INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS AND MUCIN REGULATION IN MIDDLE EAR EPITHELIUMJoseph Kerschner; Fiscal Year: 2007The objective of this proposal is to further elucidate the role and interrelationship of cytokines and mucins in middle ear epithelium...
- Immune Cytokines Promote Oral Bone Loss Through IKKCun Yu Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010..At the initial stage of host defense, immune cells produce a variety of immune cytokines to fight against the bacterial infection...
- TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLYInnocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2001..Cell-medicated immunity is controlled by two major categories of cytokines. The Th1 cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-g), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 12 (IL-12), favor the ..
- NFkB in the Astrocyte Swelling/Brain Edema with Acute Liver FailureMICHAEL DAVID NORENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010..Mounting evidence suggests, however, that in addition to ammonia, cytokines and related sepsis and inflammation also contribute to the brain edema in ALF...
- Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and SleepLARRY D contact SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010..and to determine the relationship these changes have to viral- induced changes in profiles of chemokines and cytokines in the brain...
- Innate Immune Bacterial Recognition and OsteoclastogenesisCaroline A Genco; Fiscal Year: 2010..have been reported to contribute to the acceleration of bone resorption by the production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and receptor activator of nuclear factor B ..
- Novel Cytokine Regulation of Gut Function and InflammationAiping Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2010..balance among the individual Th cell lineages that are controlled, in part, through reciprocal regulation of the cytokines. It is known that pathogen-induced up-regulation of Th1 vs Th2 cytokines induces stereotypic and sometimes ..
- CC Chemokine Secretion to Protect Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells from HIVCatarina E Hioe; Fiscal Year: 2010..CD4 Th1 cells invariably display differential expression of MIP-1 vs. other Th1 cytokines such as IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF- a, and the overall profiles of chemokines and cytokines produced by the responding ..
- Effects of glycemic control on immunityThomas P Shanley; Fiscal Year: 2010..Following CPB, release of both stress-related hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to post-operative organ dysfunction by mediating endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion and vascular ..
- Effects of glycemic control on immunityThomas Shanley; Fiscal Year: 2009..Following CPB, release of both stress-related hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to post-operative organ dysfunction by mediating endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion and vascular ..
- Methamphetamine, HIV, Neuroinflammation and BehaviorRodney Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2007..is thought to be due to soluble factors released by infected or activated microglia such as inflammatory cytokines. That MA abuse may activate or sensitize microglial cells and promote neuroinflammation in HIV-1 patients is ..
- Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetusBARBARA STONESTREET; Fiscal Year: 2009..In utero hemodynamic abnormalities possibly in association with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokines) such as IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-1 predispose to brain injury, particularly in premature neonates...
- Cytokines and the blood-brain barrier in the ovine fetusBARBARA STONESTREET; Fiscal Year: 2009..In utero hemodynamic abnormalities possibly in association with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokines) such as IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-1 predispose to brain injury, particularly in premature neonates...
- Cytokines and Sympathetic Activation in Heart FailureRobert Felder; Fiscal Year: 2009..The present project examines the potential role of the pro- inflammatory cytokines, which increase in plasma and brain of rats with ischemia-induced heart failure, are capable of NAD(P)H oxidase ..