Genomes and Genes
tissue plasminogen activator
Summary: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to PLASMIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from URINARY PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases. EC 126.96.36.199.
Publications354 found, 100 shown here
- Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic strokeWerner Hacke
Department of Neurology, Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
N Engl J Med 359:1317-29. 2008..We tested the efficacy and safety of alteplase administered between 3 and 4.5 hours after the onset of a stroke...
- Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trialsKennedy R Lees
Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
Lancet 375:1695-703. 2010Early administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after ischaemic stroke improves outcome...
- Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the AtherosHarold P Adams
Stroke 38:1655-711. 2007..The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients within the first 48 hours after stroke. In addition, information for healthcare policy makers is included...
- Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational studyNils Wahlgren
Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Lancet 369:275-82. 2007..Under European Union regulations, SITS-MOST was required to assess the safety profile of alteplase in clinical practice by comparison with results in randomised controlled trials...
- Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the AtherosHarold P Adams
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, USA
Circulation 115:e478-534. 2007..The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients within the first 48 hours after stroke. In addition, information for healthcare policy makers is included...
- Intrapleural use of tissue plasminogen activator and DNase in pleural infectionNajib M Rahman
UKCRC Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, Oxford Centre for Respiratory Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital Site, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LJ, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 365:518-26. 2011..Drainage of infected fluid is key to successful treatment, but intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy did not improve outcomes in an earlier, large, randomized trial...
- Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS II). Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study InvestigatorsW Hacke
Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Lancet 352:1245-51. 1998..We have assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase (0.9 mg/kg bodyweight) within 6 h of stroke onset...
- Physiological consequences of loss of plasminogen activator gene function in miceP Carmeliet
Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142
Nature 368:419-24. 1994..Mice with combined t-PA and u-PA deficiency suffer extensive spontaneous fibrin deposition, with its associated effects on growth, fertility and survival...
- National US estimates of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator use: ICD-9 codes substantially underestimateDawn Kleindorfer
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 231 Albert Sabin Way ML 0525, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0525, USA
Stroke 39:924-8. 2008Current US estimates of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) use have been based either on extrapolation of regional studies or on administrative database estimates, both of which may have inherent biases...
- Tissue plasminogen activator binding to the annexin II tail domain. Direct modulation by homocysteineK A Hajjar
Department of Pediatrics, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA
J Biol Chem 273:9987-93. 1998b>Tissue plasminogen activator binds to endothelial cells via the calcium-regulated phospholipid-binding protein annexin II, an interaction that is inhibited by the prothrombotic amino acid homocysteine...
- High plasminogen activator inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator levels in plasma precede a first acute myocardial infarction in both men and women: evidence for the fibrinolytic system as an independent primary risk factorA M Thögersen
Department of Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Nutritional Research and Pathology Umeå University Hospital, University of Umea, Sweden
Circulation 98:2241-7. 1998..So far, there have been no primary prospective studies of PAI-1...
- Matrix metalloproteinase-9 pretreatment level predicts intracranial hemorrhagic complications after thrombolysis in human strokeJoan Montaner
Cerebrovascular Unit, Vall d Hebron Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
Circulation 107:598-603. 2003..Moreover, MMP inhibitors reduce hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after embolic ischemia in tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-treated animals...
- Factors affecting the apparent efficacy and safety of tissue plasminogen activator in thrombotic occlusion models of stroke: systematic review and meta-analysisEmily S Sena
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:1905-13. 2010Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) improves outcome in animal models of stroke and in clinical trial, but is associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage...
- Tissue plasminogen activator promotes matrix metalloproteinase-9 upregulation after focal cerebral ischemiaKiyoshi Tsuji
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA
Stroke 36:1954-9. 2005Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in ischemic stroke is limited by increased risks of cerebral hemorrhage and brain injury...
- Tissue-type plasminogen activator induces opening of the blood-brain barrier via the LDL receptor-related proteinManuel Yepes
Department of Vascular Biology, Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross, Rockville, Maryland 20855, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1533-40. 2003....
- Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator induces blood-brain barrier breakdown by a matrix metalloproteinase-9-independent pathway after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mouseJean Christophe Copin
Division of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Eur J Neurosci 34:1085-92. 2011..Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) is the only approved thrombolytic treatment of ischemic stroke but r-tPA is potentially ..
- Why are stroke patients excluded from TPA therapy? An analysis of patient eligibilityP A Barber
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Neurology 56:1015-20. 2001..Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke (<3 hours) will not have a major impact on death and dependency unless it is accessible to more patients...
- Mechanisms of hemorrhagic transformation after tissue plasminogen activator reperfusion therapy for ischemic strokeXiaoying Wang
Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA
Stroke 35:2726-30. 2004Reperfusion therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a rational therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Properly titrated use of tPA improves clinical outcomes...
- Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of stroke: therapeutic strategiesRao Muralikrishna Adibhatla
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 7:243-53. 2008....
- Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient miceLeif R Lund
Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen, Denmark
EMBO J 25:2686-97. 2006....
- Traditional Chinese medicine, Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction, potentiates tissue plasminogen activator against thromboembolic stroke in ratsJie Jen Lee
Department of Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital and Mackay Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan
J Ethnopharmacol 134:824-30. 2011..to the hospital with acute ischemic stroke are initially considered candidates for the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). However, rt-PA therapy is still lesser than ideal due to its major side effect of hemorrhaging...
- The JNK inhibitor XG-102 protects from ischemic damage with delayed intravenous administration also in the presence of recombinant tissue plasminogen activatorKarine Wiegler
Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Suisse
Cerebrovasc Dis 26:360-6. 2008..We also tested the compatibility of the compound with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), commonly used for intravenous thrombolysis and known to enhance excitotoxicity.
- Enhancement of endogenous fibrinolysis does not reduce local fibrin deposition, but modulates inflammation upon intestinal ischemia and reperfusionIvo G Schoots
Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Thromb Haemost 91:497-505. 2004..Circulatory fibrinolysis was enhanced by intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) or by inhibition of PAI-I by administration of MA-33H1F7...
- Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review and meta-analysisJoanna M Wardlaw
Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
Lancet 379:2364-72. 2012Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) improved functional outcome in patients treated soon after acute ischaemic stroke in randomised trials, but licensing is restrictive and use varies widely...
- Neutralisation of uPA with a monoclonal antibody reduces plasmin formation and delays skin wound healing in tPA-deficient miceAnnika Jögi
Finsen Laboratory, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen Biocenter, Copenhagen, Denmark
PLoS ONE 5:e12746. 2010..In contrast, individual genetic deficiencies in either uPA or tPA lead to wound healing kinetics with no or only slightly delayed closure of skin wounds...
- Informed consent for thrombolytic therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke treated in routine clinical practiceJulie R Rosenbaum
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, Conn, USA
Stroke 35:e353-5. 2004Little is known about informed consent for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)...
- The role of endogenous versus exogenous tPA on edema formation in murine ICHRuth Thiex
Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
Exp Neurol 189:25-32. 2004..evolved evacuating the hematoma by stereotaxic injection of a fibrinolytic agent such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), followed by aspiration of the lysed clot...
- Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Malaysian subjectsZaid Al-Hamodi
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Cardiovasc Diabetol 10:23. 2011Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity and decreased tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity could be considered a true component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with an increased risk of ..
- Annexin A2 combined with low-dose tPA improves thrombolytic therapy in a rat model of focal embolic strokeHaihao Zhu
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:1137-46. 2010Recent studies showed that soluble annexin A2 dramatically increases tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated plasmin generation in vitro, and reduces thrombus formation in vivo...
- Body temperature and response to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic strokeM Millan
Department of Neurosciences, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain
Eur J Neurol 15:1384-9. 2008To determine the relationship between body temperature (BT), arterial recanalization, functional outcome, and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) of cerebral infarction in patients treated with i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA).
- Efficacy and safety of tissue plasminogen activator 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke: a metaanalysisMaarten G Lansberg
Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304 9705, USA
Stroke 40:2438-41. 2009..European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS-3) demonstrated a benefit of treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute stroke in the 3- to 4.5-hour time-window...
- A pilot dose-escalation safety study of tenecteplase in acute ischemic strokeE Clarke Haley
Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Stroke 36:607-12. 2005..This open-label, dose-escalation safety study was conducted to develop initial experience with TNK in the treatment of ischemic stroke...
- Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Alteplase) for ischemic stroke 3 to 5 hours after symptom onset. The ATLANTIS Study: a randomized controlled trial. Alteplase Thrombolysis for Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic StrokeW M Clark
Oregon Stroke Center, Portland 97201, USA
JAMA 282:2019-26. 1999..This restricts the number of patients who can be treated, since most stroke patients present more than 3 hours after symptom onset...
- Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: where do we go from here? A cumulative meta-analysisJ M Wardlaw
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
Stroke 34:1437-42. 2003Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA; Actilyse) is not as widely used in clinical practice as it could be. Have new data since 1995 strengthened the evidence sufficiently to justify more widespread use of rtPA?
- Tissue plasminogen activator in the amygdala is critical for stress-induced anxiety-like behaviorRobert Pawlak
Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
Nat Neurosci 6:168-74. 2003..These studies support the idea that tPA is critical for the development of anxiety-like behavior after stress...
- Mice lacking tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator genes show attenuated matrix metalloproteases activity after sciatic nerve crushLisa B Siconolfi
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
J Neurosci Res 74:430-4. 2003..These findings show that the PAs are important for MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity at the crush site...
- Normobaric hyperoxia reduces the neurovascular complications associated with delayed tissue plasminogen activator treatment in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemiaWenlan Liu
College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
Stroke 40:2526-31. 2009A major limitation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is the narrow time window for safe and effective therapy...
- Tissue-type plasminogen activator: a historical perspective and personal accountD Collen
Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
J Thromb Haemost 2:541-6. 2004..Genetically modified variants of t-PA have been developed for bolus administration in patients with AMI...
- NR2D-containing NMDA receptors mediate tissue plasminogen activator-promoted neuronal excitotoxicityA Baron
INSERM U, Cyceron, University of Caen Basse Normandie, Caen, France
Cell Death Differ 17:860-71. 2010..This study shows that the earlier described pro-neurotoxic effect of tPA is mediated by NR2D-containing NMDAR-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, a deleterious effect prevented by synaptic pre-activation...
- Safety profile of tissue plasminogen activator treatment among stroke patients carrying a common polymorphism (C-1562T) in the promoter region of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 geneJoan Montaner
Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Stroke Unit, Vall d Hebron Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
Stroke 34:2851-5. 2003..barrier disruption, has been implicated in the appearance of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment in stroke patients...
- Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase in thrombolysis-associated hemorrhagic transformation after embolic focal ischemia in ratsToshihisa Sumii
Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA
Stroke 33:831-6. 2002Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute ischemic stroke remains complicated by risks of hemorrhagic transformation...
- Prospective study of fibrinolytic factors and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) StudyA R Folsom
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, MN 55454-1015, USA
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21:611-7. 2001..of middle-aged adults, we examined the association of incident CHD with several fibrinolytic factors: tissue plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, plasminogen, and fibrin fragment D-dimer as well as a ..
- Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is effective in fibrin clearance in the absence of its receptor or tissue-type plasminogen activatorT H Bugge
Division of Developmental Biology, Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:5899-904. 1996....
- Lipoprotein receptor-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase by tissue plasminogen activatorXiaoying Wang
Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Med 9:1313-7. 2003Although thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a stroke therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, its efficacy may be limited by neurotoxic side effects...
- Cleavage of proBDNF by tPA/plasmin is essential for long-term hippocampal plasticityPetti T Pang
Section on Neural Development and Plasticity, Laboratory of Cellular and Synaptic Neurophysiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Science 306:487-91. 2004..Two secretory proteins, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been implicated in this process, but their ..
- Stroke research priorities for the next decade--A representative view of the European scientific communityStephen Meairs
Neurologische Klinik, Ruprecht Karls Universitat Heidelberg, Theodor Kutzer Ufer, DE 68135 Mannheim Germany
Cerebrovasc Dis 22:75-82. 2006
- Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage following thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke: a review of the risk factorsMaarten G Lansberg
Stanford University, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
Cerebrovasc Dis 24:1-10. 2007....
- Inhibition of p75 neurotrophin receptor attenuates isoflurane-mediated neuronal apoptosis in the neonatal central nervous systemBrian P Head
Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
Anesthesiology 110:813-25. 2009..proBDNF is cleaved into mature BDNF (mBDNF) by plasmin, a protease converted from plasminogen by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) that is released with neuronal activity; mBDNF supports survival and stabilizes synapses through ..
- Tissue-type plasminogen activator in the ischemic brain: more than a thrombolyticManuel Yepes
Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Trends Neurosci 32:48-55. 2009..Here, the best studied pathways of tPA neurotoxicity are discussed along with future directions for a safer use of tPA as a thrombolytic agent in the setting of acute ischemic stroke...
- Role of plasminogen system components in focal cerebral ischemic infarction: a gene targeting and gene transfer study in miceN Nagai
Center for Transgene Technology and Gene Therapy, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, KU Leuven, Belgium
Circulation 99:2440-4. 1999....
- The human tissue plasminogen activator-Cre mouse: a new tool for targeting specifically neural crest cells and their derivatives in vivoThomas Pietri
UMR 144 Compartimentation et Dynamique Cellulaire Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Institut Curie, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
Dev Biol 259:176-87. 2003..We have established a new transgenic line expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the human tissue plasminogen activator promoter (Ht-PA)...
- Fibrinolysis: the key to new pathogenetic mechanismsEsther Zorio
Hospital Universitario La Fe, Centro de Investigacion, Servicio de Cardiología y Servicio de Ginecología Valencia, Spain
Curr Med Chem 15:923-9. 2008....
- Tissue plasminogen activator mediates microglial activation via its finger domain through annexin IIChia Jen Siao
Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
J Neurosci 22:3352-8. 2002..One molecule whose expression is upregulated after excitotoxic injury is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease with dual roles in the CNS...
- Dissociation and protection of the neurovascular unit after thrombolysis and reperfusion in ischemic rat brainToru Yamashita
Department of Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:715-25. 2009In the ischemic brain, reperfusion with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) sometimes causes catastrophic hemorrhagic transformation (HT); however, the mechanism remains elusive...
- Does the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale favor left hemisphere strokes? NINDS t-PA Stroke Study GroupD Woo
Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45220, USA
Stroke 30:2355-9. 1999..Of 42 possible points, 7 points are directly related to measurement of language compared with only 2 points related to neglect...
- Influence of fibrin network conformation and fibrin fiber diameter on fibrinolysis speed: dynamic and structural approaches by confocal microscopyJ P Collet
Department of Cardiology, Hemostasis Laboratory, Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Hotel Dieu Hospital, Paris, France
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20:1354-61. 2000..A dynamic study of FITC-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator distribution within the fibrin matrix during the course of fibrinolysis showed that the binding front ..
- Metalloproteinase inhibition reduces thrombolytic (tissue plasminogen activator)-induced hemorrhage after thromboembolic strokeP A Lapchak
Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0624, USA
Stroke 31:3034-40. 2000A potentially dangerous side effect associated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) use is cerebral hemorrhage. We have focused on developing drugs that could be administered with tPA to reduce the rate of hemorrhage...
- Age-related differences in characteristics, performance measures, treatment trends, and outcomes in patients with ischemic strokeGregg C Fonarow
Ahmanson UCLA Cardiomyopathy Center, UCLA Medical Center, 10833 LeConte Ave, Room 47 123 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1679, USA
Circulation 121:879-91. 2010..We sought to examine age-related differences in characteristics, performance measures, temporal trends, and early clinical outcomes for acute ischemic stroke in a large contemporary cohort...
- Risk factors for severe hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator: a secondary analysis of the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study (ECASS II)V Larrue
Department of Neurology, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France
Stroke 32:438-41. 2001Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) improves the outcome for ischemic stroke patients who can be treated within 3 hours of symptom onset...
- Methodology of the Interventional Management of Stroke III TrialPooja Khatri
Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way ML 0525, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0525, USA
Int J Stroke 3:130-7. 2008..a.) approach to recanalization may be more effective than standard i.v. rt-PA (Activase) alone for moderate-to-large National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS>or=10) strokes, and with a similar safety profile...
- Free radical scavenger edaravone administration protects against tissue plasminogen activator induced oxidative stress and blood brain barrier damageVioleta Lukic-Panin
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
Curr Neurovasc Res 7:319-29. 2010One of the therapeutics for acute cerebral ischemia is tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Using t-PA after 3 hour time window increases the chances of hemorrhage, involving multiple mechanisms...
- Upregulation of tPA/plasminogen proteolytic system in the periphery of amyloid deposits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's diseaseJoo Yong Lee
Asan Institute for Life Science, Department of Neurology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138 736, Republic of Korea
Neurosci Lett 423:82-7. 2007Although the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen/plasmin proteolytic system is thought to modulate the catabolism of amyloid-beta (Abeta), in vivo evidence remains insufficient...
- Acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in a patient taking dabigatran with radiographic evidence of recanalizationNavdeep Sangha
Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 21:917.e5-8. 2012..4 seconds. Recanalization of the middle cerebral artery with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was apparent on digital subtraction angiography, and there was no evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage ..
- Study on construction of nano tPA plasmid to prevent thrombosis after mechanical valve replacement in dogsShangyi Ji
Shenzhen Sun Yat sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen Heart Institute, Guangdong, China
J Surg Res 168:e1-5. 2011..Mechanical valve is inclined to induce thrombosis. We intend to elucidate the transfection of nano tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) gene plasmid to prevent thrombosis after tricuspid mechanical valve replacement in dogs...
- Role of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor polymorphism in myocardial infarctionWaqas Ahmed
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad, 45600, Pakistan
Mol Biol Rep 38:2541-8. 2011..72, OR=3.7 (95% CI=1.71-8.18)) and lower HDL levels (P<0.05) were found to be significantly associated with the disease. In conclusion the PAI-1 gene polymorphism was found to have a gender specific role in the female MI patients...
- Older age does not increase risk of hemorrhagic complications after intravenous and/or intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute strokeSvetlna Pundik
The Neurological Institute of University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 17:266-72. 2008..However, it is unclear whether age over 80 years is a predictor for hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous, intra-arterial, or a combination of both thrombolytic therapies...
- An extracellular proteolytic cascade promotes neuronal degeneration in the mouse hippocampusS E Tsirka
Department of Pharmacology, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, New York 11794 8651, USA
J Neurosci 17:543-52. 1997Mice lacking the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are resistant to excitotoxin-mediated hippocampal neuronal degeneration. We have used genetic and cellular analyses to study the role of tPA in neuronal cell death...
- Inhibition of plasminogen activation by lipoprotein(a): critical domains in apolipoprotein(a) and mechanism of inhibition on fibrin and degraded fibrin surfacesMark A Hancock
Department of Biochemistry, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
J Biol Chem 278:23260-9. 2003..Lp(a) may interfere with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated plasminogen activation in fibrinolysis, thereby generating a hypercoagulable state in ..
- Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptorsDavid Pineda
Cancer Research Programme, IMIM Hospital del Mar, C Dr Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Glia 60:526-40. 2012..b>Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many ..
- A multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase III study to investigate EXtending the time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits (EXTEND)Henry Ma
National Stroke Research Institute, Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria, Australia
Int J Stroke 7:74-80. 2012Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator is effective for acute ischaemic stroke within 4·5 h of onset. Patients who wake up with stroke are generally ineligible for stroke thrombolysis...
- TESPI (Thrombolysis in Elderly Stroke Patients in Italy): a randomized controlled trial of alteplase (rt-PA) versus standard treatment in acute ischaemic stroke in patients aged more than 80 years where thrombolysis is initiated within three hours after sSvetlana Lorenzano
Unità di Trattamento Neurovascolare, Department of Neurological Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I Sapienza University, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy
Int J Stroke 7:250-7. 2012..This article describes the design of the Thrombolysis in Elderly Stroke Patients in Italy (TESPI) trial planned to fill the lack of controlled data on i.v. thrombolysis in this age category of stroke patients...
- Impact of COX-2 rs5275 and rs20417 and GPIIIa rs5918 polymorphisms on 90-day ischemic stroke functional outcome: a novel findingJane Maguire
School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 20:134-44. 2011..in platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) rs224309 and rs6065, glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) rs5918, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) rs63020761, plasminogen activating inhibitor (PAI-1) rs72578597, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) ..
- Body temperature and outcome after stroke thrombolysisL Ernon
Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Acta Neurol Scand 114:23-8. 2006We studied whether baseline body temperature and temperature increases after stroke adversely affect outcome after thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA).
- Intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute stroke in patients 80 and older: a comparison of results in patients younger than 80 yearsD Kim
University of California at Los Angeles Stroke Center, Department of Neurology, UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:159-63. 2007..The purpose of this study was to compare the baseline characteristics, complications, and outcomes between intra-arterially treated ischemic stroke patients aged > or = 80 years and their younger counterparts...
- Intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator for complicated pleural effusionsDionne A Skeete
Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
J Trauma 57:1178-83. 2004This study is aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) for complicated pleural effusions, including posttraumatic hemothorax.
- A proposed reference method for plasminogen activators that enables calculation of enzyme activities in SI unitsC Longstaff
Division of Haematology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, UK
J Thromb Haemost 2:1416-21. 2004..of a range of plasminogen activators (PAs) used as thrombolytic agents, including streptokinase, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and variants, and urokinase (uPA), both single and two chain forms...
- Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and stroke in the elderlyW T Longstreth
Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195, USA
Am J Emerg Med 28:359-63. 2010..in 1995 of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke, the benefit and frequency of use of IV tPA in the elderly have ..
- Microglial low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates the effect of tissue-type plasminogen activator on matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in the ischemic brainChen Zhang
Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29:1946-54. 2009..The results of our study indicate that the interaction between tPA and microglial LRP1 increases MMP-9 expression and activity resulting in the degradation of claudin-5 and development of cerebral edema...
- Acute tissue-type plasminogen activator release in human microvascular endothelial cells: the roles of Galphaq, PLC-beta, IP3 and 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acidJames A S Muldowney
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 6300, USA
Thromb Haemost 97:263-71. 2007..These studies suggest that thrombin-stimulated t-PA release is Galphaq-, PLC-beta-, IP3-, and 5,6-EET-dependent while being prostacyclin-, NO- and K+ channel-independent in HMECs...
- Modulation of the expression of tissue plasminogen activator and its inhibitor by hypoxia in human peritoneal and adhesion fibroblastsGhassan M Saed
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
Fertil Steril 79:164-8. 2003To determine whether normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts express tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-I) and whether their expression is regulated by oxygen.
- Effects of alteplase beyond 3 h after stroke in the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET): a placebo-controlled randomised trialStephen M Davis
Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia
Lancet Neurol 7:299-309. 2008Whether intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase) is effective beyond 3 h after onset of acute ischaemic stroke is unclear...
- Hyperglycemia promotes tissue plasminogen activator-induced hemorrhage by Increasing superoxide productionSeok Joon Won
Neurology and Rehabilitation Service, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, CA, USA
Ann Neurol 70:583-90. 2011Risk of intracerebral hemorrhage is the primary factor limiting use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for stroke...
- Tissue plasminogen activator is required for the development of fetal alcohol syndrome in miceMelissa Noel
Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5069-74. 2011..Because tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurodegeneration, we examined whether it mediates FAS...
- Sustained benefit of a community and professional intervention to increase acute stroke therapyLewis B Morgenstern
Stroke Program, Department of Neurology, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, USA
Arch Intern Med 163:2198-202. 2003..The ultimate test of an educational intervention is the sustainability of the effect after the intervention ceases...
- Is there evidence of implicit exclusion criteria for elderly subjects in randomized trials? Evidence from the GUSTO-1 studyHarlan M Krumholz
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn 06520 8088, USA
Am Heart J 146:839-47. 2003....
- Phase IIB/III trial of tenecteplase in acute ischemic stroke: results of a prematurely terminated randomized clinical trialE Clarke Haley
Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
Stroke 41:707-11. 2010..If promise was established, then the trial would continue as a Phase III efficacy trial comparing the selected tenecteplase dose to standard rtPA...
- Association of serial biochemical markers with acute ischemic stroke: the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke StudyEdward C Jauch
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0769, USA
Stroke 37:2508-13. 2006..Serum samples from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study were analyzed for the presence of 4 biochemical markers of neuronal, glial, and ..
- Thrombolysis in very elderly people: controlled comparison of SITS International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry and Virtual International Stroke Trials ArchiveNishant K Mishra
Acute Stroke Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK
BMJ 341:c6046. 2010..To assess effect of age on response to alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke...
- Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA stroke trialsWerner Hacke
Medical University at Heidelberg, Germany
Lancet 363:768-74. 2004Quick administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) after stroke improved outcomes in previous trials. We aimed to analyse combined data for individual patients to confirm the importance of rapid treatment.
- Tissue-type plasminogen activator is a neuroprotectant in the mouse hippocampusRamiro Echeverry
Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
J Clin Invest 120:2194-205. 2010..These data show that tPA can act as an endogenous neuroprotectant in the murine hippocampus...
- Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke in late pregnancy with intra-arterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activatorDavid M Johnson
Department of Neurosurgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
Stroke 36:e53-5. 2005..The authors present the first successful administration of intra-arterial cerebral tissue plasminogen activator to treat an embolic cerebral vascular accident in a 37-week parturient resulting in complete recovery ..
- Neural stem cells rescue nervous purkinje neurons by restoring molecular homeostasis of tissue plasminogen activator and downstream targetsJianxue Li
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Neurosci 26:7839-48. 2006..We previously identified in nr cerebellum a 10-fold increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a key component of the mechanism causing nr PN death...
- Gender-specific correlations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator levels with cardiovascular disease-related traitsF W Asselbergs
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
J Thromb Haemost 5:313-20. 2007..was to examine the correlations between plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and cardiovascular disease-related traits in a general population and whether these correlations ..
- The rewards of nicotine: regulation by tissue plasminogen activator-plasmin system through protease activated receptor-1Taku Nagai
Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920 1192, Japan
J Neurosci 26:12374-83. 2006..Here we show that the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-plasmin system regulates nicotine-induced reward and dopamine release by activating protease ..
- Activation of the epidermal growth factor signalling pathway by tissue plasminogen activator in pancreas cancer cellsMariano Hurtado
Unitat de Recerca Biomedica, Institut de Recerca, Hospital Vall d Hebron, Pg Vall d Hebron 119 129, Barcelona 08035, Spain
Gut 56:1266-74. 2007b>Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the major activator of plasminogen in plasma. This serine protease is overexpressed by exocrine pancreas tumour cells, where it promotes tumour cell proliferation, growth, and invasion...
- Photoreceptor status after resolved macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion treated with tissue plasminogen activatorTomoaki Murakami
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
Am J Ophthalmol 143:171-3. 2007To evaluate the integrity of photoreceptors in macular edema (ME) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion after intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator.
- Tissue-type plasminogen activator rescues neurones from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis through a mechanism independent of its proteolytic activityGeraldine Liot
INSERM, INSERM Avenir tPA in the working brain, Caen, France Université de Caen Basse Normandie, Caen, France GIP Cyceron, Caen, France
J Neurochem 98:1458-64. 2006....
- The role of tissue plasminogen activator in methamphetamine-related reward and sensitizationTaku Nagai
Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsuruma cho, Showa Ku, Nagoya 466 8560, Japan
J Neurochem 92:660-7. 2005In the central nervous system, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and remodeling. Our recent study has suggested that tPA participates in the rewarding effects of morphine by regulating dopamine release...
- The effects of polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels are dependent on environmental contextFolkert W Asselbergs
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Hum Genet 122:275-81. 2007..The present study emphasizes the importance of including environmental factors in genetic analyses to fully comprehend the genetic architecture of a specific trait...
- Portal vein thrombosis after hematopoietic cell transplantation: frequency, treatment and outcomeK Kikuchi
Gastroenterology Hepatology Section and the Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
Bone Marrow Transplant 29:329-33. 2002..Prognosis depended on the severity of the underlying VOD and not PVT per se, suggesting that treatments directed solely toward dissolution of portal vein thrombi should be used with caution in this setting...
- Male-female differences in the genetic regulation of t-PA and PAI-1 levels in a Ghanaian populationJ A Schoenhard
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical School, Nashville, TN, USA
Hum Genet 124:479-88. 2008....
- Specialized Program of Translational Research In Acute Stroke at the PartnersKaren Furie; Fiscal Year: 2007..cell death, NBO may be a useful adjunctive therapy that extends the narrow (3-hour) time window for IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy...
- Antiphospholipid antibodies and lupus: new molecular targets for treatmentSilvia S Pierangeli; Fiscal Year: 2010..There is strong evidence that annexin A2, a receptor for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), a receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (..
- Clotting genetic variant, hormones and venous thrombosisNicholas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007..protein C receptor, protein S, antithrombin III, tissue activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), and factors VIII, IX, X, and XlII A and B...
- MRI of Acute Vascular Injury and Hemorrhagic Transformation in Ischemic StrokeRobert A Knight; Fiscal Year: 2010..Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) acts to increase blood flow to the ischemic tissue and is the only approved treatment for acute ..
- MRI of Acute Vascular Injury and Hemorrhagic Transformation in Ischemic StrokeRobert Knight; Fiscal Year: 2009..Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) acts to increase blood flow to the ischemic tissue and is the only approved treatment for acute ..
- Transcranial Sonothrombolysis with Diagnostic UltrasoundThilo Hoelscher; Fiscal Year: 2009..contrast agents (UCA) potentiate the effect of sonothrombolysis, without or in combination with tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)...
- Transcranial Sonothrombolysis with Diagnostic UltrasoundThilo Hoelscher; Fiscal Year: 2010..contrast agents (UCA) potentiate the effect of sonothrombolysis, without or in combination with tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)...
- Interaction of Estrogen and Tissue Plasminogen ActivatorShaohua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2009The demonstration that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is useful for acute management is changing the approach to ischemic stroke. However, after more than a decade, the use of tPA therapy remains limited...
- ENDOTHELIAL CELL DIVERSITY DURING FETAL DEVELOPMENTEugene Levin; Fiscal Year: 2001..Using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression as an endothelial cell marker, we have found a pattern of progressive and transitory ..
- Interaction of Estrogen and Tissue Plasminogen ActivatorShaohua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2010The demonstration that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is useful for acute management is changing the approach to ischemic stroke. However, after more than a decade, the use of tPA therapy remains limited...
- PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CHRONIC CEREBRAL VASOSPASMRobert MacDonald; Fiscal Year: 2000..Treatment of vasospasm, that includes calcium-channel antagonists, hemodynamic therapy and tissue plasminogen activator, accounts for some of the discrepancy between the number of patients with vasospasm seen ..
- LEUKOCYTE ADHESION RECEPTORS AND THROMBOSIS IN STROKEDavid Pinsky; Fiscal Year: 2001..the PAI-1 gene are relatively resistant to ischemic cerebral injury, in contrast to mice lacking the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)gene...
- STRUCTURE-FUNCTION STUDIES ON PLASMINOGEN AND PLASMINFrancis Castellino; Fiscal Year: 1990..enzymology, immunochemistry, spectroscopic properties and molecular biology of human plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, streptokinase and fibrin(ogen)...
- NMDA RECEPTOR FUNCTION BY SERINE PROTEASE RECEPTORSStephen Traynelis; Fiscal Year: 2003..serine protease-signaling systems, including precursors to the proteases, thrombin, plasmin, Factor Xa, tissue plasminogen activator (tPaA),urokinase, as well as the brain specific proteases and serpin protease inhibitors...
- Cardiovascular Effects of Scutellaria baicelensisChun Su Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2002..separate studies, we observed that quercetin, a plant flavonoid, inhibited endothelin-1 and stimulated tissue plasminogen activator in vascular endothelial cells...
- PEPTIDE MEDIATED ENHANCEMENT OF THROMBOLYSISDaniel Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 1999..PAI-1 may also play a major role in the clinical response to thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)...
- Stroke TherapyVINOD D LABHASETWAR; Fiscal Year: 2010..Intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the only FDA-approved therapy to re-establish cerebral blood flow...
- REGULATION OF BRAIN THROMBOSIS IN STROKE MODELSBerislav Zlokovic; Fiscal Year: 2003..APC was protective in this thromboembolic model in wild type mice and in hypercoagulable mice lacking tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-/-)...
- WOUND HEALING ANGIOGENESISFrank Isik; Fiscal Year: 2002..include the plasminogen activator system, which consists of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), balanced by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which limits plasmin generation and ..
- A Novel Ultrasound Phased Array and Sonication Method for Stroke TreatmentsKullervo Hynynen; Fiscal Year: 2010..of patients that will have recanalization of the occluded vessel when administrated together with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)...
- CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE MODEL--MECHANISMS AND TREATMENTSKenneth Wagner; Fiscal Year: 1999..The delayed edema can be markedly reduced, even prevented, by early (4h) lysis of the clot with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) followed by hematoma aspiration...